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  1. [Four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI of the IMSS].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents four stages in the history of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The first stage started at the end of the third decade of the twentieth century and ended in 1961, it corresponded to the conception, planning and construction of what was to be the Centro Médico del Distrito Federal (Centro Médico of the Distrito Federal) belonging to the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Ministry of Health and Assistance). The second stage began when the Center was acquired by the Institute, then was known like Centro Médico Nacional (Centro Médico Nacional ), being put into full operation in 1963, more than twenty-two years later, in 1985, an earthquake virtually ended it, immediately began its reconstruction, finishing the second stage. In 1989 began the third stage, different and new buildings complemented or replaced the structures damaged or destroyed by the earthquake which formed the now Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI (Centro Médico Nacional XXI Century). In 2004 the fourth stage opened when the four hospitals of the Center were categorized like Unidades Médicas de Alta Especialidad (High Specialized Medical Units).

  2. 8 de noviembre de 2006: Mercurio pasea sobre el disco solar (Micro eclipse anular de Sol o el segundo tránsito de Mercurio del siglo XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.

    On Wendsday November 8, 2006, the second transit of Mercury over the Sun of the 21st. Century, took place. In this work we present the principal characteristics of the phenomenon ocurrence, the visibility region and the local circumstances for some locations of Argentina and other countries of the world. Full TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Hypostatic ulcers in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Verp, Marion S; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Martin, Alice O

    1983-01-01

    Hypostatic leg ulcers, probably secondary to vascular insufficiency, were observed in two adult men with 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome. The association between leg ulcers and 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome deserves increased attention because knowledge of the association may alert clinicians to an otherwise unsuspected chromosome abnormality. PMID:6842542

  4. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  5. Two Boys with 47, XXY and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhar, S. L.; Manning-Courtney, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two children with autism and Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY) are presented. Both qualify for the diagnosis of autism based on DSM-IV with severely delayed and disordered language, difficulties with social interaction, and a restricted range of interests and activities. Both also have abnormal EEGs, and one patient has had what appear to be…

  6. Force Planning Considerations for Army XXI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Affecting Future Force Structures. No Tabula Rasa . Revolutionary change may be possible by 2010, but anticipated conditions argue against a radical...programs, and budgets do not allow planners to begin anew with some sort of force structure tabula rasa . Steven Komarow, "Shalikashvili Outlines Plans...author discusses Army XXI in a broad strategic context, examining anticipated security environments and the roles the U.S. Armed Forces, and in

  7. Force XXI and Sea Dragon - Issues for the Operational Commander.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-14

    that the U. S. Army is developing to fight and win the wars of the next century. The U. S. Marine Corps is developing the vision called Sea Dragon to...differences between Force XXI and Sea Dragon . Both exploit the Information Age’s technologies to accomplish the mission. Both predict smaller force

  8. El Material Suplementario En Los Diccionarios Bilingues Espanol-Ingles Mas Representativos De Los Siglos XX y XXI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer Dorantes, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This work is one of the first attempts to make a detailed and comparative analysis of the supplementary material of several bilingual English-Spanish dictionaries from the 20th and 21st centuries. It examines the historical development of prefaces and appendices in the most representative bilingual English-Spanish dictionaries that have…

  9. Social Behavior and Autism Traits in a Sex Chromosomal Disorder: Klinefelter (47XXY) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Although Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) has been associated with psychosocial difficulties, knowledge of the social behavioral phenotype is limited. We examined specific social abilities and autism traits in Klinefelter syndrome. Scores of 31 XXY men on the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior and the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire were compared to 24…

  10. Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) is in excess among men with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harris, Valerie M; Sharma, Rohan; Cavett, Joshua; Kurien, Biji T; Liu, Ke; Koelsch, Kristi A; Rasmussen, Astrid; Radfar, Lida; Lewis, David; Stone, Donald U; Kaufman, C Erick; Li, Shibo; Segal, Barbara; Wallace, Daniel J; Weisman, Michael H; Venuturupalli, Swamy; Kelly, Jennifer A; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Jonsson, Roland; Lu, Xianglan; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Huang, Andrew J W; Brennan, Michael T; Hughes, Pamela; Alevizos, Ilias; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Keystone, Edward C; Bykerk, Vivian P; Hirschfield, Gideon; Xie, Gang; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nordmark, Gunnel; Bucher, Sara Magnusson; Eriksson, Per; Omdal, Roald; Rhodus, Nelson L; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rohrer, Michael; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Witte, Torsten; Mariette, Xavier; Lessard, Christopher J; Harley, John B; Sivils, Kathy L; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-07-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) has a strong female bias. We evaluated an X chromosome dose effect by analyzing 47,XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome, 1 in 500 live male births) among subjects with pSS. 47,XXY was determined by examination of fluorescence intensity of single nucleotide polymorphisms from the X and Y chromosomes. Among 136 pSS men there were 4 with 47,XXY. This was significantly different from healthy controls (1 of 1254 had 47,XXY, p=0.0012 by Fisher's exact test) as well men with rheumatoid arthritis (0 of 363 with 47,XXY), but not different compared to men with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (4 of 136 versus 8 of 306, Fisher's exact test p=NS). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the number of X chromosomes is critical for the female bias of pSS, a property that may be shared with SLE but not RA.

  11. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ni XXI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ni XXI. The configurations used are 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 4), 2s2p(sup 5), 2p(sup 6), 2s(sup 2)2p(sup 3)3s, and 2s(sup 2)3p(sup 3)3d giving rise to 58 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 85, 170, 255, 340, and 425 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=6.9, corresponding to maximum abundance of Ni XXI. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14) per cubic centimeter. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates between the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted intensity ratios are compared with available observations.

  12. Constitution of semen samples from XYY and XXY males as analysed by in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Martini, E; Geraedts, J P; Liebaers, I; Land, J A; Capitanio, G L; Ramaekers, F C; Hopman, A H

    1996-08-01

    A brightfield microscopical in-situ hybridization (ISH) technique was applied to semen samples of two 47,XYY males, one 46,XY/47,XXY/XXY male with fertility problems, and two normal 46,XY men, who served as controls. The use of a standardized nuclear DNA decondensation method, together with double-target ISH and morphological staining, allowed an accurate study of the sex chromosomal content and morphology of spermatozoa. In the males carrying an extra sex chromosome, we detected X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa in a ratio which did not differ significantly from the 1:1 ratio found in normal males. Aneuploidy for the sex chromosomes was found in approximately 15% of the spermatozoa of both XYY males and in 3% of the XXY male. The most striking finding was the relatively low percentage of spermatozoa in these patients, with an average of 65% in the XYY males and 84% in the XXY male. The other cells represented immature germ cells (IGC), including spermatogonia and spermatocytes arrested at various stages of spermatogenesis. Apparently, in XYY or XXY men, these IGC are shed into the semen to an increased extent as compared to normal, fertile men. The sex chromosome constitution of these IGC was heterogeneous. However, the finding that the majority of spermatozoa in semen of 47,XYY and 47,XXY males carried a single sex chromosome strengthens the hypothesis that a 46,XY germ cell line must be present, apparently with a proliferative advantage over the 47,XYY or 47,XXY cells.

  13. Molecular studies of a patient with complete androgen insensitivity and a 47,XXY karyotype.

    PubMed

    Girardin, C M; Deal, C; Lemyre, E; Paquette, J; Lumbroso, R; Beitel, L K; Trifiro, M A; Van Vliet, G

    2009-09-01

    A phenotypic female with complete androgen insensitivity from a maternally inherited mutation in the androgen receptor had a 47,XXY karyotype. Partial maternal X isodisomy explained the expression of androgen insensitivity despite the presence of 2 X chromosomes.

  14. Variable Stars and Stellar Populations in Andromeda XXI. II. Another Merged Galaxy Satellite of M31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusano, Felice; Garofalo, Alessia; Clementini, Gisella; Cignoni, Michele; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Speziali, Roberto; Sani, Eleonora; Merighi, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    B and V time-series photometry of the M31 dwarf spheroidal satellite Andromeda XXI (And XXI) was obtained with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We have identified 50 variables in And XXI, of which 41 are RR Lyrae stars (37 fundamental-mode—RRab, and 4 first-overtone-RRc, pulsators) and 9 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). The average period of the RRab stars (< {P}{ab}> =0.64 days) and the period-amplitude diagram place And XXI in the class of Oosterhoff II—Oosterhoff-Intermediate objects. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars we derived the galaxy distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 24.40 ± 0.17 mag, which is smaller than previous literature estimates, although still consistent with them within 1σ. The galaxy color-magnitude diagram shows evidence for the presence of three different stellar generations in And XXI: (1) an old (˜12 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -1.7 dex) component traced by the RR Lyrae stars; (2) a slightly younger (10-6 Gyr) and more metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -1.5 dex) component populating the red horizontal branch, and (3) an intermediate age (˜1 Gyr) component with the same metallicity that produced the ACs. Finally, we provide hints that And XXI could be the result of a minor merging event between two dwarf galaxies. Based on data collected with the LBC at the LBT.

  15. Mental development in polysomy X Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY; 48,XXXY): effects of incomplete X inactivation.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, C

    2001-06-01

    The child with XXY or a variant form is a fertile ground for scientific investigation because of the homogeneity of the disorder and the increased prevalence of learning disorders associated with it. However, the research studies of boys with XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) have been plagued by a variety of factors from small sample size, methodological flaws, and ascertainment bias. In spite of these shortcomings, there remains some consistency to the neurobehavioral profile of this disorder. In general, the prenatal population of boys with XXY is less affected developmentally and is more academically successful than the boys identified through postnatal diagnosis. Boys with XXY often have decreased muscle tonus, delayed speech, and language skills with an increased incidence of reading differences and dyslexia. It does appear that social difficulties may be mediated by language processing problems and temperamental issues. The neurobehavioral and neurocognitive phenotype of boys with XXY places them at risk for school failure and secondary behavioral disturbances. Therefore, early evaluation and intervention is strongly recommended since the prognosis may be improved significantly with appropriate therapeutic intervention. The natural history of this disorder is not well defined from the neurodevelopmental, neuroimaging, and cytogenetic perspective. Further investigation into the effects and the relationships between parental origin and outcome may provide many answers regarding the variability of the disorder. Lastly, some promising theories have been postulated regarding the neurobiological etiology of this disorder, which requires more investigation if we are to understand the pathogenesis of this XXY and its effect on learning.

  16. Genetic, hormonal, and metabolomic influences on social behavior and sex preference of XXY mice

    PubMed Central

    Erkkila, Krista; Lue, YanHe; Jentsch, J. David; Schwarcz, Monica Dorin; Abuyounes, Deena; Hikim, Amiya Sinha; Wang, Christina; Lee, Paul W.-N.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    XXY men (Klinefelter syndrome) are testosterone deficient, socially isolated, exhibit impaired gender identity, and may experience more homosexual behaviors. Here, we characterize social behaviors in a validated XXY mouse model to understand mechanisms. Sociability and gender preference were assessed by three-chambered choice tasks before and after castration and after testosterone replacement. Metabolomic activities of brain and blood were quantified through fractional synthesis rates of palmitate and ribose (GC-MS). XXY mice exhibit greater sociability than XY littermates, particularly for male mice. The differences in sociability disappear after matching androgen exposure. Intact XXY, compared with XY, mice prefer male mice odors when the alternatives are ovariectomized female mice odors, but they prefer estrous over male mice odors, suggesting that preference for male mice may be due to social, not sexual, cues. Castration followed by testosterone treatment essentially remove these preferences. Fractional synthesis rates of palmitate are higher in the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus of XXY compared with XY mice but not with ribose in these brain regions or palmitate in blood. Androgen ablation in XY mice increases fractional synthesis rates of fatty acids in the brain to levels indistinguishable from those in XXY mice. We conclude that intact XXY mice exhibit increased sociability, differences in gender preference for mice and their odors are due to social rather than sexual cues and, these differences are mostly related to androgen deficiency rather than genetics. Specific metabolic changes in brain lipids, which are also regulated by androgens, are observed in brain regions that are involved in these behaviors. PMID:20570823

  17. [Fertility in patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY)].

    PubMed

    Kliesch, S; Zitzmann, M; Behre, H M

    2011-01-01

    In the past 10 years, our knowledge about fertility chances of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) has changed considerably, especially when regarding the possibility of IVF ICSI treatment (in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection) with single testicular spermatozoa. Thus, it is important to take this knowledge into consideration when counselling Klinefelter patients.Germ cell degeneration in the testicles of Klinefelter patients due to their additional X chromosome is an important phenomenon in this disease which is not yet fully understood. When entering puberty, the testicular volume of KS patients increases for a short time with rising testosterone and inhibin B levels at the same time. These decrease, however, and FSH increases during puberty. This seems to indicate a critical point in time when spermatogenetic function of the testicles could still be existent. Thus, in early puberty there could possibly be a time slot when spermatozoa could be detected in the ejaculate or-if not-at least in the testicular tissue. These could be extracted by testicular sperm extraction, cryopreserved and used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection therapy later on. In the literature, a total of 133 births of children from Klinefelter fathers have been reported. This early specific procedure could lead to a better acceptance of their diagnosis and also offer the option of not being incurably infertile.

  18. Social Deficits in Male Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: A Comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N = 102, M = 10.08 years), XYY (N = 40, M = 9.93 years), and XXYY (N = 32, M = 11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not…

  19. The Spectrum of the Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Adolescents 47,XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Nicole; Cordeiro, Lisa; Howell, Susan; Wilson, Rebecca; Janusz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral phenotype of 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) includes increased risks for developmental delays, language-based learning disabilities, executive dysfunction/ADHD, and social-emotional difficulties. However there is significant variability between individuals with 47,XXY, and many children and adolescents have minimal or no behavioral features while others have quite significant involvement. This paper describes behavioral features in a cohort of 57 children and adolescents with 47,XXY, including results on standardized measures of behavior (BASC-2), attention (Conner’s Rating Scales), and social skills (Social Responsiveness Scale). A subset was directly assessed for autism spectrum disorders using the ADOS and ADI-R. We discuss our results within the context of previous literature, including implications for genetic counseling, recommendations for care, and areas for future research. PMID:21217607

  20. Positive effects of early androgen therapy on the behavioral phenotype of boys with 47,XXY.

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Stapleton, Emily J; Lawson, Patrick; Mitchell, Francie; Sadeghin, Teresa; Powell, Sherida; Gropman, Andrea L

    2015-06-01

    47, XXY occurs in up to 1 in 650 male births and is associated with androgen deficiency, neurodevelopmental delays, and atypical social-behaviors. Previously, we showed that young boys with 47, XXY who received early hormonal therapy (EHT) had significantly improved neurodevelopment. The objective of this follow-up study was to examine the effects of EHT on social behavior in boys with 47, XXY. The study consisted of boys prenatally diagnosed with 47, XXY who were referred for evaluations. Twenty-nine boys received three injections of 25 mg testosterone enanthate and 57 controls did not receive EHT. Behavioral functioning was assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd Ed., and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18. The hypothesis that EHT may affect behavior was formulated prior to data collection. Questionnaire data was prospectively obtained and analyzed to test for significance between two groups. Significant differences were identified between group's scores over time in Social Communication (P=0.007), Social Cognition (P=0.006), and Total T-score (P=0.001) on the SRS-2; Initiation (P=0.05) on the BRIEF; and Externalizing Problems (P=0.024), Affective Problems (P=0.05), and Aggressive Behaviors (P=0.031) on the CBCL. This is the third study revealing positive effects of EHT on boys with XXY. There was a significant improvements associated with the 47, XXY genotype in boys who received EHT. Research is underway on the neurobiological mechanisms, and later developmental effects of EHT.

  1. Is it all the X: familial learning dysfunction and the impact of behavioral aspects of the phenotypic presentation of XXY?

    PubMed

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A; Stapleton, Emily; Sadeghin, Teresa; Gropman, Andrea L

    2013-02-15

    The behavioral phenotype of children with XXY has not been extensively studied until recently and this research has been confounded by insufficient study populations and ascertainment biases. The aim of the study was to expand the behavioral aspect of the XXY phenotype as well as investigate the role of existing familial learning disabilities (FLD) on behavioral problems. Behavioral phenotype of XXY includes social anxiety, ADHD, social communication, and atypical peer interactions. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS) were completed by the parents of 54 boys with XXY who had not received hormonal replacement prior to participation. Our findings suggest fewer behavioral deficits and lower severity in the general 47,XXY population than previously published and found significant differences between the groups with a positive FLD on the behavioral assessments. Findings demonstrate that boys with FLD exhibit an increased incidence and severity of behavioral problems. Our study expands on the findings of Samango-Sprouse et al. [Samango-Sprouse et al. (2012b) J Intellect Disabil Res] and the significant influence that FLD has on not only neurodevelopment, but also behavioral deficits. Our study suggests that part of the XXY phenotypic profile may be modulated by FLD. Further study is underway to examine the interaction between the many salient factors effecting behavioral and neurodevelopmental progression in XXY and variant forms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reduced size of the amygdala in individuals with 47,XXY and 47,XXX karyotypes.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Anil J; Brown, Wendy E; Bender, Bruce G; Linden, Mary G; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-01-08

    The excess of 47,XXX and 47,XXY karyotypes found in cytogenetic screening studies of individuals with schizophrenia has given support for an increased risk of psychiatric illness among men and women with sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). Mesial temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and hippocampus, are thought to be associated with abnormalities of mood and behavior in humans and in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This study focuses on variations in volumes of mesial temporal lobe structures in men and women with SCA. Utilizing an unselected birth cohort of subjects with SCA and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the neuroanatomical consequences of a supernumerary X chromosome on the morphology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Regional and total brain volumes were measured in 10 subjects with 47,XXY, 10 subjects with 47,XXX, and 20 euploid controls. Amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in men with 47,XXY, compared to control men, while the decrease in women with 47,XXX was not as pronounced. Hippocampus volumes were preserved in both groups, compared to same-gender controls. Longitudinal studies of SCA individuals have shown an increased incidence of mild psychopathology and behavioral dysfunction in men with 47,XXY and more overt psychiatric illness in women with 47,XXX, compared to control populations. The alteration in amygdala volumes in individuals with a supernumerary X chromosome may provide a neuroanatomic basis for these findings.

  3. Epigenomic and transcriptomic signatures of a Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) karyotype in the brain.

    PubMed

    Viana, Joana; Pidsley, Ruth; Troakes, Claire; Spiers, Helen; Wong, Chloe Cy; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Craig, Ian; Schalkwyk, Leonard; Mill, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex-chromosome aneuploidy in humans. Most affected individuals carry one extra X-chromosome (47,XXY karyotype) and the condition presents with a heterogeneous mix of reproductive, physical and psychiatric phenotypes. Although the mechanism(s) by which the supernumerary X-chromosome determines these features of KS are poorly understood, skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), gene-dosage dysregulation, and the parental origin of the extra X-chromosome have all been implicated, suggesting an important role for epigenetic processes. We assessed genomic, methylomic and transcriptomic variation in matched prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples identifying an individual with a 47,XXY karyotype who was comorbid for schizophrenia and had a notably reduced cerebellum mass compared with other individuals in the study (n = 49). We examined methylomic and transcriptomic differences in this individual relative to female and male samples with 46,XX or 46,XY karyotypes, respectively, and identified numerous locus-specific differences in DNA methylation and gene expression, with many differences being autosomal and tissue-specific. Furthermore, global DNA methylation, assessed via the interrogation of LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements, was significantly altered in the 47,XXY patient in a tissue-specific manner with extreme hypomethylation detected in the prefrontal cortex and extreme hypermethylation in the cerebellum. This study provides the first detailed molecular characterization of the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum from an individual with a 47,XXY karyotype, identifying widespread tissue-specific epigenomic and transcriptomic alterations in the brain.

  4. 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome: clinical characteristics and age-specific recommendations for medical management.

    PubMed

    Aksglaede, Lise; Link, Katarina; Giwercman, Aleksander; Jørgensen, Niels; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2013-02-15

    47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) is the most frequent sex chromosomal disorder and affects approximately one in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of cognitive, social, behavioral, and learning difficulties and in adulthood additionally primary testicular failure with small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, tall stature, and eunuchoid body proportions. The phenotype is variable ranging from "near-normal" to a significantly affected individual. In addition, newborns with Klinefelter syndrome generally present with a normal male phenotype and the only consistent clinical finding in KS is small testes, that are most often not identified until after puberty. Decreased awareness of this syndrome among health professionals and a general perception that all patients with 47,XXY exhibit the classic textbook phenotype results in a highly under-diagnosed condition with up to 75% of the patients left undetected. Typically, diagnosis is delayed with the majority of patients identified during fertility workup in adulthood, and only 10% of patients diagnosed prior to puberty. Early detection of this syndrome is recommended in order to offer treatment and intervention at the appropriate ages and stages of development for the purpose of preventing osteopenia/osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and other medical conditions related to hypogonadism and to the XXY as well as minimizing potential learning and psychosocial problems. The aim of this review is to present the clinical aspects of XXY and the age-specific recommendations for medical management. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neural systems for social cognition in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY): evidence from fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Swaab, Hanna; Baas, Daan; de Haan, Edward; Kahn, René S.; Aleman, André

    2012-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal condition (47, XXY) that may help us to unravel gene–brain behavior pathways to psychopathology. The phenotype includes social cognitive impairments and increased risk for autism traits. We used functional MRI to study neural mechanisms underlying social information processing. Eighteen nonclinical controls and thirteen men with XXY were scanned during judgments of faces with regard to trustworthiness and age. While judging faces as untrustworthy in comparison to trustworthy, men with XXY displayed less activation than controls in (i) the amygdala, which plays a key role in screening information for socio-emotional significance, (ii) the insula, which plays a role in subjective emotional experience, as well as (iii) the fusiform gyrus and (iv) the superior temporal sulcus, which are both involved in the perceptual processing of faces and which were also less involved during age judgments in men with XXY. This is the first study showing that KS can be associated with reduced involvement of the neural network subserving social cognition. Studying KS may increase our understanding of the genetic and hormonal basis of neural dysfunctions contributing to abnormalities in social cognition and behavior, which are considered core abnormalities in psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:21737434

  6. Neural systems for social cognition in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY): evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Baas, Daan; de Haan, Edward; Kahn, René S; Aleman, André

    2012-08-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal condition (47, XXY) that may help us to unravel gene-brain behavior pathways to psychopathology. The phenotype includes social cognitive impairments and increased risk for autism traits. We used functional MRI to study neural mechanisms underlying social information processing. Eighteen nonclinical controls and thirteen men with XXY were scanned during judgments of faces with regard to trustworthiness and age. While judging faces as untrustworthy in comparison to trustworthy, men with XXY displayed less activation than controls in (i) the amygdala, which plays a key role in screening information for socio-emotional significance, (ii) the insula, which plays a role in subjective emotional experience, as well as (iii) the fusiform gyrus and (iv) the superior temporal sulcus, which are both involved in the perceptual processing of faces and which were also less involved during age judgments in men with XXY. This is the first study showing that KS can be associated with reduced involvement of the neural network subserving social cognition. Studying KS may increase our understanding of the genetic and hormonal basis of neural dysfunctions contributing to abnormalities in social cognition and behavior, which are considered core abnormalities in psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

  7. Social Function in Multiple X and Y Chromosome Disorders: XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Graham, John M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) was initially described in the context of its endocrinologic and physical features; however, subsequent studies have revealed specific impairments in verbal skills and social functioning. Males with sex chromosomal aneuploidies are known to have variability in their developmental profile with the majority presenting…

  8. The Sex Chromosome Trisomy mouse model of XXY and XYY: metabolism and motor performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Klinefelter syndrome (KS), caused by XXY karyotype, is characterized by low testosterone, infertility, cognitive deficits, and increased prevalence of health problems including obesity and diabetes. It has been difficult to separate direct genetic effects from hormonal effects in human studies or in mouse models of KS because low testosterone levels are confounded with sex chromosome complement. Methods In this study, we present the Sex Chromosome Trisomy (SCT) mouse model that produces XXY, XYY, XY, and XX mice in the same litters, each genotype with either testes or ovaries. The independence of sex chromosome complement and gonadal type allows for improved recognition of sex chromosome effects that are not dependent on levels of gonadal hormones. All mice were gonadectomized and treated with testosterone for 3 weeks. Body weight, body composition, and motor function were measured. Results Before hormonal manipulation, XXY mice of both sexes had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass compared to XY mice. After gonadectomy and testosterone replacement, XXY mice (both sexes) still had significantly greater body weight and relative fat mass, but less relative lean mass compared to XY mice. Liver, gonadal fat pad, and inguinal fat pad weights were also higher in XXY mice, independent of gonadal sex. In several of these measures, XX mice also differed from XY mice, and gonadal males and females differed significantly on almost every metabolic measure. The sex chromosome effects (except for testis size) were also seen in gonadally female mice before and after ovariectomy and testosterone treatment, indicating that they do not reflect group differences in levels of testicular secretions. XYY mice were similar to XY mice on body weight and metabolic variables but performed worse on motor tasks compared to other groups. Conclusions We find that the new SCT mouse model for XXY and XYY recapitulates features found in humans with these aneuploidies

  9. Genetic and hormonal control of bone volume, architecture, and remodeling in XXY mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter Y; Kalak, Robert; Lue, Yanhe; Jia, Yue; Erkkila, Krista; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Dunstan, Colin R

    2010-10-01

    Klinefelter syndrome is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy in men (XXY karyotype, 1 in 600 live births) and results in testicular (infertility and androgen deficiency) and nontesticular (cognitive impairment and osteoporosis) deficits. The extent to which skeletal changes are due to testosterone deficiency or arise directly from gene overdosage cannot be determined easily in humans. To answer this, we generated XXY mice through a four-generation breeding scheme. Eight intact XXY and 9 XY littermate controls and 8 castrated XXY mice and 8 castrated XY littermate controls were euthanized at 1 year of age. Castration occurred 6 months prior to killing. A third group of 9 XXY and 11 XY littermates were castrated and simultaneously implanted with a 1-cm Silastic testosterone capsule 8 weeks prior to sacrifice. Tibias were harvested from all three groups and examined by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Blood testosterone concentration was assayed by radioimmunoassay. Compared with intact XY controls, intact androgen-deficient XXY mice had lower bone volume (6.8% +/- 1.2% versus 8.8% +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SD, p = .01) and thinner trabeculae (50 +/- 4 µm versus 57 +/- 5 µm, p = .007). Trabecular separation (270 +/- 20 µm versus 270 +/- 20 µm) or osteoclast number relative to bone surface (2.4 +/- 1.0/mm2 versus 2.7 +/- 1.5/mm2) did not differ significantly. Testosterone-replaced XXY mice continued to show lower bone volume (5.5% +/- 2.4% versus 8.1% +/- 3.5%, p = .026). They also exhibited greater trabecular separation (380 +/- 69 µm versus 324 +/- 62 µm, p = .040) but equivalent blood testosterone concentrations (6.3 +/- 1.8 ng/mL versus 8.2 +/- 4.2 ng/mL, p = .28) compared with testosterone-replaced XY littermates. In contrast, castration alone drastically decreased bone volume (p < .001), trabecular thickness (p = .05), and trabecular separation (p

  10. Discordant sex in monozygotic XXY/XX twins: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tachon, G; Lefort, G; Puechberty, J; Schneider, A; Jeandel, C; Boulot, P; Prodhomme, O; Meyer, P; Taviaux, S; Touitou, I; Pellestor, F; Geneviève, D; Gatinois, V

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of discordant phenotypic sex in monozygotic twins mosaic 47,XXY/46,XX: monozygotic heterokaryotypic twins. The twins presented with cognitive and comprehension delay, behavioural and language disorders, all symptoms frequently reported in Klinefelter syndrome. Molecular zygosity analysis with several markers confirmed that the twins are in effect monozygotic (MZ). Array comparative genomic hybridization found no evidence for the implication of copy number variation in the phenotypes. Ultrasound scans of the reproductive organs revealed no abnormalities. Endocrine tests showed a low testosterone level in Twin 1 (male phenotype) and a low gonadotrophin level in Twin 2 (female phenotype) which, combined with the results from ultrasound examination, provided useful information for potentially predicting the future fertility potential of the twins. Blood karyotypes revealed the presence of a normal 46,XX cell line and an aneuploïd 47,XXY cell line in both patients. Examination of the chromosome constitutions of various tissues such as blood, buccal smear and urinary sediment not surprisingly showed different proportions for the 46,XX and 47,XXY cell lines, which most likely explains the discordant phenotypic sex and mild Klinefelter features. The most plausible underlying biological mechanism is a post-zygotic loss of the Y chromosome in an initially 47,XXY zygote. This would result in an embryo with both 46,XX and 47,XXY cells lines which could subsequently divide into two monozygotic embryos through a twinning process. The two cell lines would then be distributed differently between tissues which could result in phenotypic discordances in the twins. These observations emphasize the importance of regular paediatric evaluations to determine the optimal timing for fertility preservation measures and to detect new Klinefelter features which could appear throughout childhood in the two subjects.

  11. Social function in multiple X and Y chromosome disorders: XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXY.

    PubMed

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Graham, John M

    2009-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) was initially described in the context of its endocrinologic and physical features; however, subsequent studies have revealed specific impairments in verbal skills and social functioning. Males with sex chromosomal aneuploidies are known to have variability in their developmental profile with the majority presenting with expressive language deficits. As a consequence of language delays, they have an increased likelihood of language-based learning disabilities and social-emotional problems that may persist through adulthood. Studies on males with 47,XXY have revealed unique behavioral and social profiles with possible vulnerability to autistic traits. The prevalence of males with more than one extra sex chromosome (e.g., 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY) and an additional Y (e.g., 47,XYY) is less common, but it is important to understand their social functioning as it provides insight into treatment implications.

  12. Social Function in Multiple X and Y Chromosome Disorders: XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXY

    PubMed Central

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Graham, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) was initially described in the context of its endocrinologic and physical features; however, subsequent studies have revealed specific impairments in verbal skills and social functioning. Males with sex chromosomal aneuploidies are known to have variability in their developmental profile with the majority presenting with expressive language deficits. As a consequence of language delays, they have an increased likelihood of language-based learning disabilities and social-emotional problems that may persist through adulthood. Studies on males with 47,XXY have revealed unique behavioral and social profiles with possible vulnerability to autistic traits. The prevalence of males with more than one extra sex chromosome (e.g., 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY) and an additional Y (e.g., 47,XYY) is less common, but it is important to understand their social functioning as it provides insight into treatment implications. PMID:20014367

  13. Double trisomy (48,XXY,+21) in monozygotic twins: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Poultsides, George; Peristeri, Vasiliki; Kouri, Georgia; Andreou, Alexandros; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of double aneuploidy in the same individual is a relatively rare phenomenon. We describe twin newborns with typical clinical features of Down's syndrome, of which one revealed 48,XXY,+21 GTG-band karyotype. The second newborn died 2 days after its birth, and was clinically diagnosed having Down syndrome. Due to the same clinical features of the twins, the common placenta and amniotic sac, we speculate that they were monozygotics and as a result the second newborn should also be a Klinefelter. The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of possible coincidence of double aneuploidy in newborn twins. A review of the literature showed that double trisomy (48,XXY,+21) in a twin newborn infant has never occurred.

  14. En Busqueda de la Escuela del Siglo XXI: Dos Experiencias de Autoaprendizaje (In Search of the 21st Century School: Two Self-Learning Experiences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto; And Others

    This book is a contribution to the dialogue that is maintained today around the problems of education. The book contains four parts: (1) "In Search of the 21st Century School. Can the Colombian New School (EN) Show Us the Way?"; (2) "Experimentation with Self-Learning Materials in Two Schools in Conchali (Chile)"; (3)…

  15. [Neuroblastoma: prognostic factors and survival. Experience in Hospital de Pediatria del Centro Medico Nacional del Siglo XXI and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Cerecedo-Díaz, Fernando; Rivera-Márquez, Hugo; Valdéz-Sánchez, Martha; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Delgado Huerta, Sandra; Vera-Hermosillo, Herlinda; Vázquez-Langle, José Raúl; Wanzke del Angel, Volkmar

    2003-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children according to the literature. In Mexico it is less frequent, fallen to 8th place. Our objective was to analyze our experience and compare it with the one reported in other countries. We included all patients admitted to our hospital during the previous five years and who had not received any treatment. Patients with stages I, II, and IV received cyclophosphamide and epirrubicin. Patients with stages were III and IV received the same chemotherapy alternating with cisplatinum., ifosfamide and etoposide during 12 months as well as massive doses of 131-MIBG and surgical ablation of the remaining tumor when possible. We included 30 patients, 25 with initial presentation in the abdomen. Five were in early stages and 20 (70%) were advanced with an overall survival of 100% and 27% at 5 years respectively. When analyzed by age, 40% were 12 months of age and 60% older, with survival of 100% and 27% in the same period, respectively. According to histology there was 91% survival for differentiated and 23% for undifferentiated tumors. The chemotherapeutic regimen reported is effective but not better than that reported by other authors, in which some benefits are seen with use of transplant and immunotherapy. The most important prognostic factors are still considered to be age, stage and histology.

  16. A case of Klinefelter syndrome, mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gritti, A; Salerno, F; Pisano, S; Formicola, F; Melis, D; Franzese, A

    2011-03-01

    We report the case of a 12.4-yr-old boy who presented Klinefelter syndrome (KS) mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with mental retardation and anorexia nervosa (AN). KS was undiagnosed before hospitalization in a psychiatric unit. The patient was referred to a child psychiatric unit for restrictive eating. The medical history showed long standing feeding difficulties and failure to thrive. The patient was pre-pubertal and other clinical characteristics were: microcephaly, short stature and dysmorphic traits. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a mosaicism, 46,XY[11] and 47,XXY[19] karyotype. The psychiatric assessment demonstrated the presence of AN and low mood. No specific pathophysiological links between the alterations of KS and the development of AN should be hypothesized on the basis of this case report. In pre-pubertal boys with mental disorders, the possibility of KS should be considered, independently of the presence of eating disorders. Nevertheless, the case shows that KS can be first detected during an assessment for eating disorders. Few cases of the association of KS with AN have been previously reported in literature. This is the first description of KS, mosaicism (46,XY/47,XXY), associated with AN and mental retardation. This case report illustrates the need, for clinicians who work with eating disorders, to investigate the possible association between AN and KS, a rare but intriguing one.

  17. Social Attention in 47,XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome): Visual Scanning of Facial Expressions Using Eyetracking.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    Boys and men with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY, Klinefelter syndrome) are at risk for problems in social functioning and have an increased vulnerability for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the search for underlying mechanisms driving this increased risk, this study focused on social attention, that is, spontaneous orientation toward facial expressions. Seventeen adults with 47,XXY and 20 non-clinical controls participated in this study. Social attention was measured using an eyetracking method that quantifies the visual scanning patterns of faces expressing different types of emotions (happy, fearful, angry, neutral) and their varying intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%). Overall, the group with Klinefelter syndrome fixated less on the eye region of faces when compared to controls (Cohen's d 1.4), and did not show the typical tendency, as was found in the control group, to first fixate on the eyes when presented with a face (Cohen's d 1.0). There was no significant effect of type or intensity of emotion. Shorter looking times toward eyes showed a borderline significant correlation with self-reports of poorer social functioning, with 29% explained variance. These findings suggest a reduced tendency to rapidly and automatically attend to the eyes of others in individuals with 47,XXY. This may have impact on more complex social-cognitive abilities that build upon this. In addition to studies of behaviorally defined disorders such as ASD, studying individuals with Klinefelter syndrome provide insight into mechanisms underlying various "at risk" pathways of social dysfunction and the factors that mediate this risk.

  18. Double Aneuploidy 48,XXY,+21 Associated with a Congenital Heart Defect in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Shu, X; Zou, C; Shen, Z

    2013-01-01

    A neonate with a double aneuploidy associated with congenital heart defect (CHD) suffered from cyanosis after birth. He had typical features of Down syndrome (DS) including hypertelorism, slightly lowset ears with protruding pinna. Doppler echocardiography indicated complex congenital heart disease with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, enlarged right ventricle, and mild tricuspid valve regurgitation. Further chromosomal analysis showed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+21: a double aneuploidy of DS and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Until now, only seven cases of double aneuploidy associated with CHD defect have been reported. PMID:24778570

  19. Communication strategy of transboundary air pollution findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI program project.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  20. THE 2014 MARCH 29 X-FLARE: SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XXI λ1354.1

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Peter R.; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) is the first solar instrument to observe ∼10 MK plasma at subarcsecond spatial resolution through imaging spectroscopy of the Fe XXI λ1354.1 forbidden line. IRIS observations of the X1 class flare that occurred on 2014 March 29 at 17:48 UT reveal Fe XXI emission from both the flare ribbons and the post-flare loop arcade. Fe XXI appears at all of the chromospheric ribbon sites, although typically with a delay of one raster (75 s) and sometimes offset by up to 1''. 100-200 km s{sup –1} blue-shifts are found at the brightest ribbons, suggesting hot plasma upflow into the corona. The Fe XXI ribbon emission is compact with a spatial extent of <2'', and can extend beyond the chromospheric ribbon locations. Examples are found of both decreasing and increasing blue-shift in the direction away from the ribbon locations, and blue-shifts were present for at least six minutes after the flare peak. The post-flare loop arcade, seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 Å filtergram images that are dominated by Fe XXI, exhibited bright loop-tops with an asymmetric intensity distribution. The sizes of the loop-tops are resolved by IRIS at ≥1'', and line widths in the loop-tops are not broader than in the loop-legs suggesting the loop-tops are not sites of enhanced turbulence. Line-of-sight speeds in the loop arcade are typically <10 km s{sup –1}, and mean non-thermal motions fall from 43 km s{sup –1} at the flare peak to 26 km s{sup –1} six minutes later. If the average velocity in the loop arcade is assumed to be at rest, then it implies a new reference wavelength for the Fe XXI line of 1354.106 ± 0.023 Å.

  1. Meiotic behaviour of the sex chromosomes in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY, mosaic 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY) assessed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Blanco, J; Egozcue, J; Vidal, F

    2001-05-01

    Meiotic studies using multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome painting were carried out in three patients with sex chromosome anomalies (47,XXY; 46,XY/47,XXY and 47,XYY). In the two patients with Klinefelter syndrome, although variable percentages of XXY cells (88.5 and 28.3%) could be found in the pre-meiotic stages, none of the abnormal cells entered meiosis, and all pachytenes were XY. However, the abnormal testicular environment of these patients probably resulted in meiotic I non-disjunction, and a certain proportion of post-reductional cells were XY (18.3 and 1.7%). The fact that none of the spermatozoa were XY also suggests the existence of an arrest at the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level. In the XYY patient, most (95.9%) premeiotic cells were XYY. The percentage of XYY pachytenes was 57.9%. The sex chromosomes were either in close proximity (XYY) or the X chromosome was separated from the two Ys (X + YY). A high proportion (42.1%) of post-reductional germ cells were XY. However, only 0.11% of spermatozoa were disomic for the sex chromosomes. In this case, the data suggest the existence of an arrest of the abnormal cells at the primary and the secondary spermatocyte or the spermatid level, giving rise to the continuous elimination of abnormal cells in the germ-cell line along spermatogenesis. The fact that the proportion of diploid spermatozoa was only increased in one of the three cases (XXY) is also suggestive of an arrest of the abnormal cell lines in these patients. The two apparently non-mosaic patients were, in fact, germ-cell mosaics. This suggests that the cytogenetic criteria used to define non-mosaic patients may be inadequate; thus, the risk of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in apparently non-mosaics may be lower than expected.

  2. Social deficits in male children and adolescents with sex chromosome aneuploidy: a comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N=102, M=10.08 years), XYY (N=40, M=9.93 years), and XXYY (N=32, M=11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not significantly different between XYY and XXYY. In all groups, there were significantly more with SRS scores in the severe range compared to the SRS normative sample. All groups scored lowest (better) on Social Motivation. Relationships between SRS scores and demographic and clinical variables were examined. Results describe the social skills in males with SCA, and suggest that an additional Y chromosome may contribute to increased risk of autistic behaviors.

  3. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY, XXX, XYY, and XXYY

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Nicole R.; Ayari, Natalie; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Boada, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attentional problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity have been described as behavioral features associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). In this study, the authors compare attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 167 participants aged 6 to 20 years with 4 types of SCA (XXY n = 56, XYY n = 33, XXX n = 25, and XXYY n = 53). They also evaluate factors associated with ADHD symptomatology (cognitive and adaptive scores, prenatal vs postnatal ascertainment) and describe the clinical response to psychopharmacologic medications in a subset of patients treated for ADHD. Methods Evaluation included medical and developmental history, cognitive and adaptive functioning assessment, and parent and teacher ADHD questionnaires containing DSM-IV criteria. Results In the total study group, 58% (96/167) met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD on parent-report questionnaires (36% in XXY, 52% in XXX, 76% in XYY, and 72% in XXYY). The Inattentive subtype was most common in XXY and XXX, whereas the XYY and XXYY groups were more likely to also have hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. There were no significant differences in Verbal, Performance, or Full Scale IQ between children with symptom scores in the ADHD range compared with those below the ADHD range. However, adaptive functioning scores were significantly lower in the group whose scores in the ADHD range were compared with those of the group who did not meet ADHD DSMIV criteria. Those with a prenatal diagnosis of XXY were less likely to meet criteria for ADHD compared with the postnatally diagnosed group. Psychopharmacologic treatment with stimulants was effective in 78.6% (66/84). Conclusions Children and adolescents with SCA are at increased risk for ADHD symptoms. Recommendations for ADHD evaluation and treatment in consideration of other aspects of the SCA medical and behavioral phenotype are provided. PMID:22333574

  4. Chaotic Extension Neural Network Theory-Based XXY Stage Collision Fault Detection Using a Single Accelerometer Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Wu, Shang-Yi; Lin, Huo-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The collision fault detection of a XXY stage is proposed for the first time in this paper. The stage characteristic signals are extracted and imported into the master and slave chaos error systems by signal filtering from the vibratory magnitude of the stage. The trajectory diagram is made from the chaos synchronization dynamic error signals E1 and E2. The distance between characteristic positive and negative centers of gravity, as well as the maximum and minimum distances of trajectory diagram, are captured as the characteristics of fault recognition by observing the variation in various signal trajectory diagrams. The matter-element model of normal status and collision status is built by an extension neural network. The correlation grade of various fault statuses of the XXY stage was calculated for diagnosis. The dSPACE is used for real-time analysis of stage fault status with an accelerometer sensor. Three stage fault statuses are detected in this study, including normal status, Y collision fault and X collision fault. It is shown that the scheme can have at least 75% diagnosis rate for collision faults of the XXY stage. As a result, the fault diagnosis system can be implemented using just one sensor, and consequently the hardware cost is significantly reduced. PMID:25405512

  5. Chaotic extension neural network theory-based XXY stage collision fault detection using a single accelerometer sensor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Tsung; Yau, Her-Terng; Wu, Shang-Yi; Lin, Huo-Cheng

    2014-11-14

    The collision fault detection of a XXY stage is proposed for the first time in this paper. The stage characteristic signals are extracted and imported into the master and slave chaos error systems by signal filtering from the vibratory magnitude of the stage. The trajectory diagram is made from the chaos synchronization dynamic error signals E1 and E2. The distance between characteristic positive and negative centers of gravity, as well as the maximum and minimum distances of trajectory diagram, are captured as the characteristics of fault recognition by observing the variation in various signal trajectory diagrams. The matter-element model of normal status and collision status is built by an extension neural network. The correlation grade of various fault statuses of the XXY stage was calculated for diagnosis. The dSPACE is used for real-time analysis of stage fault status with an accelerometer sensor. Three stage fault statuses are detected in this study, including normal status, Y collision fault and X collision fault. It is shown that the scheme can have at least 75% diagnosis rate for collision faults of the XXY stage. As a result, the fault diagnosis system can be implemented using just one sensor, and consequently the hardware cost is significantly reduced.

  6. Executive dysfunction and the relation with behavioral problems in children with 47,XXY and 47,XXX.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, S; Swaab, H

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that having an extra X chromosome is associated with abnormal structure and function of brain areas in the frontal lobe, which is crucially involved in executive functioning. However, there is little of knowledge of the type and severity of executive dysfunction, and the impact on emotional and behavioral problems. The present study aims to provide in this. In total, 40 children (23 boys with 47,XXY and 17 girls with 47,XXX) with an extra X chromosome and 100 non-clinical controls (47 boys and 53 girls) participated in the study. The participants were 9-18 years old. Processing speed and executive functioning were assessed using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Testbattery (ANT) and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Problems in emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children with an extra X chromosome showed deficits in inhibition, mental flexibility, sustained attention and visual working memory. Parental report showed high levels of everyday manifestations of executive dysfunction. More severe inhibition difficulties were associated with higher levels of thought problems, aggression and rule breaking behavior. Boys and girls with an extra X chromosome could not be differentiated based on severity of executive dysfunction, however, girls had lower information processing speed than boys. These findings suggest that executive dysfunction may be part of the phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome, impacting the ability to function adequately in everyday life. Furthermore, children with impairments in inhibition may have more problems in regulating their thinking, emotions and behavior.

  7. Cyberwar XXI: quantifying the unquantifiable: adaptive AI for next-generation conflict simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Joseph; von Kleinsmid, Peter; Zalewski, Tony

    2004-08-01

    The era of the "Revolution in Military Affairs," "4th Generation Warfare" and "Asymmetric War" requires novel approaches to modeling warfare at the operational and strategic level of modern conflict. For example, "What if, in response to our planned actions, the adversary reacts in such-and-such a manner? What will our response be? What are the possible unintended consequences?" Next generation conflict simulation tools are required to help create and test novel courses of action (COA's) in support of real-world operations. Conflict simulations allow non-lethal and cost-effective exploration of the "what-if" of COA development. The challenge has been to develop an automated decision-support software tool which allows competing COA"s to be compared in simulated dynamic environments. Principal Investigator Joseph Miranda's research is based on modeling an integrated military, economic, social, infrastructure and information (PMESII) environment. The main effort was to develop an adaptive AI engine which models agents operating within an operational-strategic conflict environment. This was implemented in Cyberwar XXI - a simulation which models COA selection in a PMESII environment. Within this framework, agents simulate decision-making processes and provide predictive capability of the potential behavior of Command Entities. The 2003 Iraq is the first scenario ready for V&V testing.

  8. Advances in Intelligence Research: What Should be Expected in the XXI Century (Questions & Answers).

    PubMed

    Colom, Roberto

    2016-12-06

    Here I briefly delineate my view about the main question of this International Seminar, namely, what should we expecting from the XXI Century regarding the advancements in intelligence research. This view can be summarized as 'The Brain Connection' (TBC), meaning that neuroscience will be of paramount relevance for increasing our current knowledge related to the key question: why are some people smarter than others? We need answers to the issue of what happens in our brains when the genotype and the environment are integrated. The scientific community has devoted great research efforts, ranging from observable behavior to hidden genetics, but we are still far from having a clear general picture of what it means to be more or less intelligent. After the discussion held with the panel of experts participating in the seminar, it is concluded that advancements will be more solid and safe increasing the collaboration of scientists with shared research interests worldwide. Paralleling current sophisticated analyses of how the brain computes, nowadays science may embrace a network approach.

  9. Validation Study for Precipitation and Surface Temperature in Mexico and Their Estimation for the XXI Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Martinez, M. J.; Perez-Lopez, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Nowadays it is known that in order to estimate whatever climate change impact for a given region, it is necessary to work with the results of the ensemble of coupled GCM simulations, especially those that recently participated for the IPCC 4th Assessment Report. However, it is also a known fact that we will have better confidence on those model estimations for the future if we can observe that they are able to reproduce at least the main large scale features of the present-day climatology. A validation study is performed here for the results of that ensemble of models in Mexico in the case of surface temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-1990. We compare the model results with the Climate Research Unit databases for that period, and check whether the models are able or not to reproduce the main large-scale features of precipitation and surface temperature around Mexico. Based on the above results we analyze the XXI Century large time simulations of the ensemble of 23 models for the SRES-A1B and SRES- A2 scenarios and try to look for possible spatial and temporal variations in precipitation and surface temperature in the region. We are also currently working with another approach of making the ensemble of models, the Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) method of Giorgi and Mearns (2002), instead of just taking the simple model average. The REA method takes into account the ability of the model in reproducing present-day climate and the convergence of the simulated changes across models to make the ensemble. We will present preliminary results of the comparison between both the simple-average and the REA methods for Mexico.

  10. Simulation of temperature regime of the Moscow region in XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, Pavel; Kislov, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    In view of growing public attention to modern ecological and climatic problems, one of the most important problems of meteorology and climatology is to develop realistic scenarios of future climatic changes. The modern general circulation (GCM) and regional atmospheric (RM) models allow to reproduce meteorological fields with the spatial grid resolution about 50×50 and 5x5 km, respectively. Such model resolution is, unfortunately, not allow to enough adequately describing the climatic condition of the cities. Taking into account big differences of meteorological conditions in- and outside of the cities the prediction uncertainties provided by GCM and RM models for cities may be relatively large. Within the framework of this study the simple model allowing to reproduce climatic conditions of the city was developed. It was applied to predict temperature regime in Moscow region in Russia for the middle and the end of XXI century. It based on the data provided by GCM and RM models and allows to predict meteorological condition with spatial resolution about 0,5 km×0,5 km. In the study it was shown that the thermal regime of Moscow area as well as Moscow surrounding areas are well reproduced by developed model. The model allows to describe realistically a spatial heterogeneity of temperature in July both under modern and future climatic conditions. It was also shown, that the area of "warm islands" in Moscow is characterized by very high probability of extreme event occurrency. In July 2050 the probability of this occurrency of will be significantly higher than at present The same thing we can say about the climate of 2100. Thus, in the near future the climate of Moscow during the summer period will be hotter, and it will result in different environmental problems and increased energy demand.

  11. Extensive spectroscopic data for multiply ionized scandium: Sc III to Sc XXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacrier, G.; Artru, M.-C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Spectroscopic data for scandium is sparse, while an extensive set is needed to introduce this element into stellar opacity calculations and, more importantly, into stellar models dealing with radiative diffusion. Aims: Our goal is to provide extensive energy levels and radiative transitions data for nineteen ionization stages of scandium relevant to stellar interiors, namely from Sc iii to Sc xxi. Methods: We used the FAC code. This code provides ab initio theoretical values for energy levels in jj-coupling and oscillator strengths of all permitted transitions. Detailed correspondences are established with compiled data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, to locate as much as possible the observed levels and lines at their experimental values and to estimate the quality of our data. Comparison were also made with the spectroscopic data delivered by Kurucz. Results: The theoretical data retained in tables include 21 842 levels and more than two millions transtions. By comparison, the NIST compilation gives a total of 820 levels and 677 gf-values. The good agreement obtained when comparing the new data with those of the NIST compilation demonstrates their quality. This work on scandium shows that the FAC code is efficient in providing spectrocopic data that are unavailable from laboratory analyses but necessary for accurate simulations of stellar plasmas. Full Tables 4-6 and extensive line lists for each ion are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/538/A52

  12. Climate Change of Franz Josef Land in the XX-XXI Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilovtseva, Olga; Romanenko, Fedor

    2016-04-01

    The results of climatic observations on the most northern land of Eurasia - Franz Josef Land, that was discovered in 1874, are presented. The gaps in the observations of the observatory named after Ernst Krenkel (Hayes's Island) were supplemented by calculations using reanalysis ERA Interim. It was received the positive trend in surface air temperature during 1958-2013. It is mainly achieved by increasing of the air temperature in winter but the summer trend is not statistically significant. Data of observation and reanalysis are perfectly correlated in cold period when underlying surface is uniform (correlation coefficient of more than 0.95). In summer, the correlation coefficients between the calculated and the real data are significantly lower (up to 0.68). This fact may be a consequence of the small values of the mean air temperatures of summer months (for example, during the July they varied in the interval -1-+2 degrees C.). Furthermore, it may be caused by the difficulty of model reproduction of the real state of the underlying surface, where land, ice, snow and water are chaotically combined. The analysis of circulation types by B.L. Dzerdzeevsky has shown that in the mid-XX Century, the northern meridional and western zonal types of circulation were replaced by southern meridional one, which prevailed during the first decade of the XXI too. This causes a reduction of the ice cover period, which resulted in a strengthening of the beach erosion and of slope processes. But short-term flows of warm air from the south, causing a catastrophic melting of glaciers, were also repeatedly marked in the past. This work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 14-37-00038) and by the national park "Russian Arctic".

  13. 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) and 47,XYY: estimated rates of and indication for postnatal diagnosis with implications for prenatal counselling.

    PubMed

    Abramsky, L; Chapple, J

    1997-04-01

    Cytogenetic surveys of neonates have found that approximately one boy in 500 is born with an extra sex chromosome. Some of these boys are now being diagnosed when prenatal karyotyping is done for the detection of Down syndrome and other major aneuploidies. This study estimates what proportion of those not detected prenatally will be diagnosed postnatally and what the indications for karyotyping are likely to be. We ascertained all 47,XXY and 47,XYY males detected prenatally and postnatally (during the 4 years 1990-1993) in the three cytogenetic laboratories in the North Thames (West) region. The age at diagnosis and indication for karyotyping were noted for cases diagnosed postnatally. Less than 10 per cent of the estimated number of affected fetuses were detected prenatally. This study suggests that most males born with these chromosome patterns will go through life without being karyotyped, that the commonest indication for a 47,XYY male to be karyotyped will be developmental delay and/or behaviour problems, and that the commonest indication for a Klinefelter male to be karyotyped will be hypogonadism and/or infertility. It would appear that most undiagnosed 47,XXY and 47,XYY males do not look or behave in a manner which prompts testing for a chromosome abnormality.

  14. Social Attention, Affective Arousal and Empathy in Men with Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY): Evidence from Eyetracking and Skin Conductance

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barendse, Marjolein; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome) are at risk for problems in social functioning and have an increased vulnerability for autism traits. In the search for underlying mechanisms driving this increased risk, this study focused on social attention, affective arousal and empathy. Seventeen adults with XXY and 20 non-clinical controls participated in this study. Eyetracking was used to investigate social attention, as expressed in visual scanning patterns in response to the viewing of empathy evoking video clips. Skin conductance levels, reflecting affective arousal, were recorded continuously during the clips as well. Empathic skills, i.e. participants' understanding of own and others' emotions in response to the clips was also assessed. Results showed reduced empathic understanding, decreased visual fixation to the eye region, but increased affective arousal in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. We conclude that individuals with XXY tend to avoid the eye region. Considering the increased affective arousal, we speculate that this attentional deployment strategy may not be sufficient to successfully downregulate affective hyper-responsivity. As increased affective arousal was related to reduced empathic ability, we hypothesize that own affective responses to social cues play an important role in difficulties in understanding the feelings and intentions of others. This knowledge may help in the identification of risk factors for psychopathology and targets for treatment. PMID:24416272

  15. Structural and Functional Neuroimaging in Klinefelter (47,XXY) Syndrome: A Review of the Literature and Preliminary Results from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Kyle; Ross, Judith; Lai, Song; Reiss, Allan; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Klinefelter (47,XXY) syndrome (KS), the most common form of sex-chromosomal aneuploidy, is characterized by physical, endocrinologic, and reproductive abnormalities. Individuals with KS also exhibit a cognitive/behavioral phenotype characterized by language and language-based learning disabilities and executive and attentional dysfunction in the…

  16. An Extra X or Y Chromosome: Contrasting the Cognitive and Motor Phenotypes in Childhood in Boys with 47,XYY Syndrome or 47,XXY Klinefelter Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Judith L.; Zeger, Martha P. D.; Kushner, Harvey; Zinn, Andrew R.; Roeltgen, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to contrast the cognitive phenotypes in boys with 47,XYY (XYY) karyotype and boys with 47,XXY karyotype [Klinefelter syndrome, (KS)], who share an extra copy of the X-Y pseudoautosomal region but differ in their dosage of strictly sex-linked genes. Methods: Neuropsychological evaluation of general cognitive…

  17. Model estimations of the Arctic sea ice conditions in XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshtas, Alexander; Shutilin, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    results of prognostic estimations follow scenario A1B from ECHAM5/MPI-OM, HAD CM3 and CCSR/NIES/FRCGC models for period 2000 - 2100 the estimations of sea ice cover had been done. It is shown that despite the strong decrease of sea ice cover area and volume, especially with data from ECHAM5/MPI-OM and CCSR/NIES/FRCGC, numerical experiments with dynamic-thermodynamic model show that under all three scenarios multy-year ice will save in the Canadian Basin up to the end of XXI century.

  18. Programas de Educacion Inicial en America Latina y los Curriculos Nacionales en el siglo XXI. [Latin American Early Childhood Educational Programs and National Curriculum in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Maria Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Describes the history of early childhood education in Chile and recent educational reforms. Offers an overview of the Chilean Early Childhood Education program and discusses the new national curriculum and issues arising from its implementation. Describes methods taken to help implement the new curriculum nationwide and to assist teachers in…

  19. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  20. "An assessment of changes the Danube river flow along the Iron Gate gorge for XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    . The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients. On the basis of the assessment of climate units in the XXI century and with help of the established relationships, the water flow of Danube river and runoff depth were defined for this century. The results according to this model, show that the river flow of the Danube, in this part of its basin, will decrease over 50% with a great consequences to the dams Iron Gate I and II, their accumulations and ecosystems. Furthermore, if we take into account predictions made by IPCC which say that the south-east Europe will face temperature growth of 0.2 degrees in the next two decades for the range of SRES scenarios, makes the whole problem much more complicated and alarming. Results also show that precipitation's peak in the early summer months and in November, which gives more often a secondary maximum, is the typical feature of the observed climatology of the precipitation of the Danubian region. The minima of precipitation are also clustered in two periods of the year, namely February and the summer months. The latter minimum is a signature of the influence of the typical Mediterranean summer. As an output of all that, as has been mentioned above, this part of Europe will face with worse conditions (high temperatures, droughts) in a region already vulnerable to climate variability, than those of 2003 when Europe was hit by an incredible heat wave. Reductions of water availability, hydropower potential, summer tourism and general crop productivity are certainly appearances which are to be expected in this area. In turns of the results, one question has arisen: Should we adapt to the climate change, or should we mitigate it? Maybe, the answer is in mitigation while doing adaptation. According to the Danube river in this region, the works for fighting reservoir related bank erosion in order to preserve the dam and

  1. New trends in light and optics teaching; building bridges to the information society--the OPTICA XXI project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2002-05-01

    In our emerging Society of Information, Light and Optics have a crucial importance not only in Science and Technology but also in the widest range of aspects of our every day life. In this communication we will present a project presented to the EC program Socrates action Comenius 3. The project aims the establishment of a network, the OPTICA XXI network, involving eighteen educational institutions from seven European countries and a transnational consortium (CoLoS - Conceptual Learning Of Science). Our activities are focused on the development and promotion at European scale of new positive good practices on teaching optics and optics related technologies at basic and secondary schools by leading the students to an active volunteer and committed participation in the teaching/learning process through practice and experimentation, making intensive use of the new instruments and resources of the Information Society. Text and workbooks with electronic interactive versions will be produced in all languages of the countries involved. Educational hands on kits of experiments with different levels of difficulty, from basic optics to photonics and telecommunications, will be produced and commercialized. Interactive web sites and virtual simulation tools and labs will be established. Two international conferences will be held as well as a number of course for schoolteachers and contests and activities for school students.

  2. The study of the hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea during the XX-XXI centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaitskaya, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    The Caspian Sea - the unique largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth. Significant periodic sea level fluctuations are a typical feature of the sea. In the XIX-XX centuries a number of comprehensive studies of the Caspian Sea was carried out. The results are published in the papers, monographs and climatic atlases. But a number of fundamental questions about the features of the hydrological regime of the Caspian Sea is still open: 1. How does the water circulation change during the level variations? 2. What is the effect of heterogeneity of evaporation from the water surface on the formation of the flow field in the conditions of long-term level changes? 3. How does the water salinity regime change depending on the sea level position, water circulation, river flow and different climatic influences? 4. What is the effect of extreme events (multi-hazards) (ice, storms, destruction of the coasts) on coastal infrastructure? In 2016, the project aims to study hydrological regime extreme effects of the Caspian Sea was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Within this project all of the above problems will be solved. Geographic information system "Caspian Sea" for the storage and data processing, including a database of primary oceanographic information for the period of instrumental observations (1897-2013), cartographic database (1921-2011) and tools for multidimensional analysis of spatio-temporal information is the basis of the study. The scheme of interconnected hydrodynamic models (Caspian Sea MODel - Ocean Model - Wind wave model) was developed. The important factors are taken into account in the structure of the models: long-term and seasonal dynamics of the sea waves parameters, new long-term values of evaporation from the shallow waters areas of the Caspian Sea, water circulation. Schemes of general seasonal circulation of the Caspian Sea and the Northern Caspian at different positions of the sea level in XX-XXI centuries using

  3. Evolution in Intensity and Frequency of Extreme Events of Precipitation in Northeast Region and Brazilian Amazon in XXI Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, P. M.; Veiga, J. A.; Correia, F. S.; Brito, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was evaluate changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events of precipitation in Brazilian Amazon and Northeast Region, doubling CO2 concentration in agreement of IPCC A2 emissions scenarios (Nakicenovic et al., 2001). For this evaluation was used ETA model (Chou et al., 2011), forced with CCSM3 Global model data (Meehl, 2006) to run 4 experiments, only for January, February and March: 1980-1990, 2000-2010, 2040-2050 and 2090-2100. Using the first decade as reference (1980-1990), was evaluated changes occurred in following decades, with a methodology to classify extremes events adapted from Frich (2002) and Gao (2006). Higher was the class, more intense is the event. An increase of 25% was observed in total precipitation in Brazilian Amazon for the end of XXI century and 12% for extreme events type 1, 9% for events type 2 and 10% for type 3. By the other hand, a 17% decrease of precipitation in Brazilian Northeast was observed, and a pronounced decay of 24% and 15% in extreme events contribution type 1 and 2 to total amount of precipitation, respectively. The difference between total normal type events was positive in this three decades compared with reference decade 1980-1990, varying positively from 4 to 6 thousand events included in normality by decade, these events was decreased in your majority of Class 1 events, which presented a decay of at least 3.500 events by each decade. This suggests an intensification of extreme events, considering that the amount of precipitation by class increased, and the number of events by class decreased. To Northeast region, an increasing in 9% of contribution to events type 3 class was observed, as well as in the frequency of this type of events (about of 700 more events). Major decreasing in number of classes extreme events occur in 2000-2010, to classes 1 and 3, with 7,2 and 5,6%, and by the end of century in class 3, with 4,5%. For the three analyzed decades a total decrease of 8.400 events was

  4. The 3d9-3d84p Transitions in the Spectra of Highly-Ionized Elements Yttrium to Silver (Y XIII-Ag XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyart, Jean-François; Klapisch, Marcel; Schwob, Jean-Louis; Schweitzer, Naftaly

    1982-09-01

    Two hundred and ninety-five lines of the spectra of cobalt-like ions Y XII, Zr XIV, Nb XV, Mo XVI, Ru XVIII, Rh XIX, Pd XX and Ag XXI have been classified as 3d9-3d84p transitions. They involve 250 energy levels which are described by 21 parameters with a root-mean-square deviation of 290 cm-1. The scaling factors of radial integrals calculated by the Hartree-Fock method have been fitted as well as effective electrostatic parameters. The validity of the results is based on isoelectronic regularities and has been checked by extrapolations to the known spectra of Br IX and Sn XXIV. Predictions are given for Kr X, Rb XI, Sr XII, Cd XXII and In XXIII.

  5. " Using the impact model in order to predict the Danube river flow in the last quarter of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper has intercompared and verified Regional Climate Model (RCM) EBU-POM in its representation of the hydrological balance over the Danube river basin along Iron Gate gorge, for the time frame 1961-1990 and 2071-2100 according to the IPCC SRES scenario A1B. The Danube has been chosen as a case study because of its multiple relevance for socioeconomical, as well as environmental and climatic level. This part of the Danube river basin has a direct relevance to the Mediterranean region, since it provides a relevant input of freshwater to the sea, as well as being fuelled mostly by precipitations due to the water of Mediterranean origin. On the other, the Dinaric-Balkan mountain chains in the west and the Carpathian mountain bow in the north and east, present distinctive morphological and climatic regions and barriers. Having been aware of the climatic-hydrologic and hydrographic homogeneity of regions, the whole territory of Serbia is divided into 20 units basins. The part of Danube basin in its eastern part present one of them, and was subject of the research. For this balance unit, the main components of the balance equation of the water that included into the calculation are: precipitation P (mm), flow Q (m3/s), runoff depth h (mm), evaporation E (mm) and annual air temperature T (0C). The hydrological balance has been computed in two different, but in principle equivalent ways. The first approach, which has a more hydrological nuance, relies on establishing relationships between annual averages of the hydrological balance parameters (E, P, T) in order to get relevant coefficients. The second approach, which is more typically meteorological, relies on the calculation of the E for the time frame 2071-2100 by using the previous coefficients. On the basis of the assessment of climate parameters in the XXI century and with help of the established relationships, the water flow of Danube river and runoff depth were defined for this century. The outcomes are very

  6. Double aneuploidy (48,XXY,+21) of maternal origin in a child born to a 13-year-old mother: evaluation of the maternal folate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Machado, F B; Zampieri, B L; Alves da Silva, A F; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, H; Carvalho, V M; Medina-Acosta, E; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of non-mosaic double trisomy is exceptional in newborns. In this paper, a 48,XXY,+21 child, the parental origin of the extra chromosomes and the evaluation of the maternal folate metabolism are presented. The infant was born to a 13-year-old mother and presented with the typical clinical features of Down syndrome (DS). The origin of the additional chromosomes was maternal and most likely resulted from errors during the first meiotic division. Molecular analysis of 12 genetic polymorphisms involved in the folate metabolism revealed that the mother is heterozygous for the MTHFR C677T and TC2 A67G polymorphisms, and homozygous for the mutant MTRR A66G polymorphism. The maternal homocysteine concentration was 4.7 miromol/L, a value close to the one considered as a risk factor for DS in our previous study. Plasma methylmalonic acid and serum folate concentrations were 0.17 micromol/L and 18.4 ng/mL, respectively. It is possible that the presence of allelic variants for the folate metabolism and Hey concentration might have favored errors in chromosomal disjunction during gametogenesis in this young mother. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with non-mosaic Down-Klinefelter born to a teenage mother, resulting from a rare fertilization event combining an abnormal 25,XX,+21 oocyte and a 23,Y spermatozoon.

  7. Vulnerability for autism traits in boys and men with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY): the mediating role of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie; Bierman, Marit; Bruining, Hilgo; Swaab, Hanna

    2012-10-01

    The XXY chromosomal pattern (Klinefelter syndrome, KS) has been associated with specific effects on physical, neurobiological, endocrinological and psychological development. This study was focused on the described risk for autism in KS, and the cognitive mechanisms that mediate this risk. Our aim was to assess whether autistic features in KS result from impairments in executive functioning, more specifically difficulties in cognitive flexibility. In total, 71 boys and men with KS and 61 non-clinical controls participated in the study. Autistic features were assessed using the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). Mental flexibility was measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The level of autism traits was significantly increased in the KS group, the effect size for total AQ score was 1.6. The KS group also showed significantly more difficulties in cognitive flexibility, as indicated by and increased number of perseverative (but not non-perseverative) errors in the WCST. This effect was independent of intellectual functioning, age or testosterone supplements. Within the KS group, the number of perseverative errors was significantly (positively) correlated with total AQ score. Our findings suggest that KS can be associated with dysfunctions in mental flexibility, and that individuals with more mental flexibility problems also have more autism traits. This insight is relevant for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of severe problems in individuals with KS. Implications also extend beyond this specific syndrome. As executive dysfunctions in KS have also been linked to ADHD symptoms and thought disorder, this could be a shared mechanism contributing to overlap in symptoms and comorbidity between different psychiatric conditions.

  8. Proceedings of the Twenty-First NASA Propagation Experiments Meeting (NAPEX XXI) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Miniworkshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) meeting is convened each year to discuss studies supported by the NASA Propagation Program. Representatives from the satellite communications industry, academia and government who have an interest in space-ground radio wave propagation are invited to NAPEX meetings for discussions and exchange of information. The reports delivered at this meeting by program managers and investigators present recent activities and future plans. This forum provides an opportunity for peer discussion of work in progress, timely dissemination of propagation results, and close interaction with the satellite communications industry. NAPEX XXI took place in El Segundo, California on June 11-12, 1997 and consisted of three sessions. Session 1, entitled "ACTS Propagation Study Results & Outcome " covered the results of 20 station-years of Ka-band radio-wave propagation experiments. Session 11, 'Ka-band Propagation Studies and Models,' provided the latest developments in modeling, and analysis of experimental results about radio wave propagation phenomena for design of Ka-band satellite communications systems. Session 111, 'Propagation Research Topics,' covered a diverse range of propagation topics of interest to the space community, including overviews of handbooks and databases on radio wave propagation. The ACTS Propagation Studies miniworkshop was held on June 13, 1997 and consisted of a technical session in the morning and a plenary session in the afternoon. The morning session covered updates on the status of the ACTS Project & Propagation Program, engineering support for ACTS Propagation Terminals, and the Data Center. The plenary session made specific recommendations for the future direction of the program.

  9. Follow-up 20 years later of 34 Klinefelter males with karyotype 47,XXY and 16 hypogonadal males with karyotype 46,XY.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Pelsen, B

    1987-10-01

    A 20-year follow-up study of 50 hypogonadal males has been made. Of these 34 had Klinefelter's syndrome with the karyotype 47,XXY and 16 had the karyotype 46,XY. These males have been examined at mean ages of 27 and 37 and in the present study at a mean age of 47. At the first examination the following conditions were found in the Klinefelter males to a significantly higher degree than in the hypogonadal males with 46,XY: immaturity, below average school performance, few or no friends, previous mental illness, little energy and initiative, few or no spare time interests, occupation as an unskilled labourer. Psychological testing showed a full scale IQ of 103 in the Klinefelter males and 115 in the hypogonadal males. The follow-up studies have shown that in spite of these findings the Klinefelter males have managed far better than could have been expected at the time of the first investigation. The improvement in a number of conditions such as mental health, working capacity, social adjustment, relations with other people, and activity level was considerable between the ages of 27 and 37. The present examination shows a further improvement at the age of 47 with the only significant difference between the Klinefelter males and the hypogonadal males with 46,XY being a higher frequency of single Klinefelter males. The present examination also showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in occupation, working capacity, social adjustment, mental and physical disorders or criminality. The results of the examination at the mean age of 27 would probably have been considerably more favourable for the Klinefelter males if diagnosis had been made in childhood, and information, counselling, support and hormone treatment had been given from an early age. The fact that the great majority of the Klinefelter males have managed quite well in spite of this and that no remarkable differences were found between them and a control group is of great importance

  10. Performance evaluation of a non-hydrostatic regional climate model over the Mediterranean/Black Sea area and climate projections for the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercogliano, Paola; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Montesarchio, Myriam; Zollo, Alessandra Lucia

    2013-04-01

    . A simulation covering the period 1971-2000 and driven by ERA40 reanalysis has been performed, in order to assess the capability of the model to reproduce the present climate, with "perfect boundary conditions". A comparison, in terms of 2-metre temperature and precipitation, with EOBS dataset will be shown and discussed, in order to analyze the capabilities in simulating the main features of the observed climate over a wide area, at high spatial resolution. Then, a comparison between the results of COSMO-CLM driven by the global model CMCC-MED (whose atmospheric component is ECHAM5) and by ERA40 will be provided for a characterization of the errors induced by the global model. Finally, climate projections on the examined area for the XXI century, considering the RCP4.5 emission scenario for the future, will be provided. In this work a special emphasis will be issued to the analysis of the capability to reproduce not only the average climate trend but also extremes of the present and future climate, in terms of temperature, precipitation and wind.

  11. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias <= 40 AU. Esto se considera una fuerte evidencia en favor de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  12. Andaman-Sumatra island arc: II. The December 26, 2004 earthquake as one of the key episodes in seismogenic activation of the arc in the beginning of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the nature and parameters of the source for the earthquake that occurred in Sumatra on December 26, 2004 is suggested. Our study relies on a variety of data on the geological structure of the region, long-term seismicity, spatial distribution of the foreshocks and aftershocks, and focal mechanisms; and the pattern of shaking and tsunami, regularities in the occurrence of the earthquakes, and the genetic relationship between the seismic and geological parameters inherent in various types of seismogenic zones including island arcs. The source of the Sumatran earthquake is a steep reverse fault striking parallel to the island arc and dipping towards the ocean. The length of the fault is ˜450 km, and its probable bedding depth is ˜70-100 km. The magnitude of this seismic event corresponding to the length of its source is 8.9-9.0. The vertical displacement in the source probably reached 9-13 m. The fault is located near the inner boundary of the Aceh Depression between the epicenter of the earthquake and the northern tip of the depression. The strike-slip and strike-slip reverse the faults cutting the island arc form the northern and southern borders of the source. The location and source parameters in the suggested interpretation account quite well for the observed pattern of shaking and tsunami. The Aceh Depression and its environs probably also host other seismic sources in the form of large reverse faults. The Sumatran earthquake, which was the culmination of the seismogenic activation of the Andaman-Sumatra island arc in the beginning of XXI century, is a typical tsunamigenic island-arc earthquake. By its characteristics, this event is an analogue to the M W = 9 Kamchatka earthquake of November 4, 1952. The spatial distribution of the epicenters and the focal mechanisms of the aftershocks indicate that the repeated shocks during the Sumatran event were caused by the activation of a complex system of geological structures in various parts of

  13. Sobre os sistemas de referência celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.

    2003-02-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho, algumas discussões sobre os sistemas de referência utilizados em Astronomia. Claramente, não é possível esgotar todo este assunto num único texto, mas esperamos, contudo, que o presente material possa ser apreciado nos cursos de Introdução à Astronomia, que estão cada vez mais presentes nas atuais propostas curriculares das graduações de Física. As discussões pertinentes às "Bases de Referência Celeste", serão apresentadas em um outro trabalho.

  14. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  15. Assessing Situational Awareness in Task Force XXI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    information dominance over the enemy and that units equipped with greater situational awareness will fight more successfully than units without the added capability. In an effort to test this hypothesis the Army conducted an Advanced Warfighter Experiment (AWE) which began at Ft. Hood, TX and culminated in a focused rotation at the National Training Center, Ft. Irwin, CA. Although many initiatives in the area of information dominance were tested in the AWE, the centerpiece of the program was a test case unit designated as Task Force Twenty-One (TF

  16. Force XXI: Directions in Digitization - Symposium Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-21

    staff is a target for these efficiencies. A Task Force commander should be able to manage a greater number of units with the assistance of fewer...power systems as we are better able to pinpoint enemy targets and coordinate JAAT missions. There are still many questions about what changes may take...warfare is all about "sensor to shooter - getting steel on target ...[T]he TOC is not important, the information is what’s important...and you got to

  17. [Enteroviruses in the XX and XXI centuries].

    PubMed

    Seĭbil', V B; Malyshkina, L P

    2005-01-01

    The modern view of the role of enteroviruses in the eradication of poliomyelitis is presented. Enteroviruses were discovered in the XX century. In the 1950s they caused great epidemics of poliomyelitis and serous meningitis in many countries of the world. The introduction of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) into medical practice made it possible to eliminate the epidemics of poliomyelitis in a short time. Poliomyelitis morbidity was reduced to sporadic cases and in a number of regions disappeared. OPV produced non-specific influence also on the epidemics of serous meningitis, as well as on a case incidence. The eradication of poliomyelitis viruses and the cessation of immunization with OPV will not result in eradication of paralytic diseases. Paralytogenic viruses of 20 serotypes circulate in nature, and some of these viruses are capable of causing the outbreaks of severe paralytic diseases. The authors propose either to retain immunization with OVP as tour immunizations with monovaccine of type 2, or to create new live enterovirus vaccines on the basis of avirulent enterovirus strains.

  18. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  19. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  20. Educacion intercultural (Intercultural Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles primarily in Spanish and a couple in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas), as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 4, 2003) are: "Estrategias de Ensenanza para la Educacion Civica y Ciudadana en el Siglo XXI" (Teaching Strategies…

  1. [Research in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Márquez, Julia Rocío; González-Cabello, Héctor Jaime

    2015-01-01

    In the interest of encouraging the promotion of research done by physicians of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, in this supplement we publish articles written by residents of different specialties related to critical themes on pediatrics. These residents are guided by affiliated physicians from the Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI.

  2. Latin America in the 1980’s: The Strategic Environment and Inter-American Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-15

    national integration propounded by its Centro de Altos Estudios Militares. The Brazilian and Peruvian "models," variously adapted by other Latin...by the exercise of crude military power. 32 ENDNOTES 1. Hello Jaguaribe, "La America Latina ante al Siglo XXI," El Trimestre Economico , Vol. XLI

  3. Obtenga más información sobre la etiqueta Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Entérese más acerca del programa EPA Diseño para el medio ambiente, incluyendo información sobre su historia, proyectos anteriores y otros programas de la EPA que están relacionados con este programa.

  4. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  5. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  6. Religious Support in the Division XXI Heavy Brigade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    compassionate leadership to all of his soldiers in the brigade. Finally, he also gave me the gift of continued service in the Army when physical...17 Table 1. Task Organization for 1st Brigade Combat Team 4th Infantry Division for NTC 00-10 1-22 IN (M) 3-66 AR G/10 Cav (BDE Recon) 1-4 AVN ...the wounded during the battle. The religious support plan would enhance the ministry by allowing the unit ministry team to be at the right place, at

  7. Directions for advanced use of nuclear power in century XXI

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C E

    1999-05-01

    Nuclear power can provide a significant contribution to electricity generation and meet other needs of the world and the US during the next century provided that certain directions are taken to achieve its public acceptance. These directions include formulation of projections of population, energy consumption, and energy resources over a responsible period of time. These projections will allow assessment of cumulative effects on the environment and on fixed resources. Use of fossil energy resources in a century of growing demand for energy must be considered in the context of long-term environmental damage and resource depletion. Although some question the validity of these consequences, they can be mitigated by use of advanced fast reactor technology. It must be demonstrated that nuclear power technology is safe, resistant to material diversion for weapon use, and economical. An unbiased examination of all the issues related to energy use, especially of electricity, is an essential direction to take.

  8. [COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTICS IN PATIENTS WITH GENOTYPE 47,XXY KLINEFELTER SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Akbarova, G A

    2016-01-01

    We undertook biochemical, hormonal, cytological analysis and sequencing CAG repetitions of androgen receptor gene in order to elucidate the cause of clinical polymorphism of Klinefelter syndrome. Elevated levels of LH (19.8 ± 4.2 E/l), FSH (22.7 ± 6.1 U/l), total cholesterol (6.8 ± 2.6 mmol/l), triglycerides (3.3 ± 1.0 mmol/l), and glucose (9.9 ± 3.8 mmol/l) suggested disturbances of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Two thirds of the patients had Klinfelter syndrome associated with mental retardation and psychic disorders. Patients with cleft palate and mental retardation and with psycho-social disorders had 45 and 43 CA G repetitions respectively, those without associations 38-40 repetitions. Increased frequency of CAG repetitions was directly proportional to the level ofpsychic development, social adaptation and professional activity but inversely proportional to the development of masculine sexual traits.

  9. [Physiology in XXI century: natural science and medicine].

    PubMed

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-09-01

    Progress of physiology is closely connected with achievements of the adjacent sciences that developed particularly intensively at the end of the XX century. The key role in strategy of physiological investigations is played by study of the nature of regulation of individual processes providing activity of the organism as a whole. By the example of study of renal function there are discussed the issue of integration of its incretory and secretory functions, elucidation of the mechanism of activity of regulatory systems with taking into account the wide diversity of types and subtypes of receptors, interaction of numerous variants of cotransporters, pumps, water and ion channels, which eventually provides the amazing efficiency of the coordinated work of several organs and systems for stabilization of physical-chemical parameters of the internal environment. Development of physiology is of importance for progress of natural science and clinical medicine, as its achievements facilitate discovery of mechanisms of physiological functions, elucidation of defect of the locus underlying dysfunction.

  10. Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. This secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy caused by the large-scale time-evolving gravitational potential is probed from different perspectives. The CMB is cross-correlated with different large-scale structure (LSS) tracers: radio sources from the NVSS catalogue; galaxies from the optical SDSS and the infrared WISE surveys; and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. The joint cross-correlation of the CMB with the tracers yields a detection at 4σ where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and the NVSS radio catalogue. In fact, the ISW effect is detected from the Planck data only at ≈3σ (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum), which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the galaxy catalogues mentioned above. We study the ability of the ISW effect to place constraints on the dark-energy parameters; in particular, we show that ΩΛ is detected at more than 3σ. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, the Planck polarization data are used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locations of known superclusters and supervoids, which is in conflict with ΛCDM expectations. We find that the current Planck polarization data do not exclude that this signal could be caused by the ISW effect. In addition, the stacking of the Planck lensing map on the locations of superstructures exhibits a positive cross-correlation with these large-scale structures. Finally, we have improved our previous reconstruction of the ISW temperature fluctuations by combining the information encoded in all the previously mentioned LSS tracers. In particular, we construct a map of the ISW secondary anisotropies and the corresponding uncertainties map, obtained from simulations. We also explore the reconstruction of the ISW anisotropies caused by the large-scale structure traced by the 2MASS Photometric Redshift Survey (2MPZ) by directly inverting the density field into the gravitational potential field.

  11. [Clinical research XXI. From the clinical judgment to survival analysis].

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ruiz, Rodolfo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Marcela; Palacios, Lino; Talavera, Juan O

    2014-01-01

    Decision making in health care implies knowledge of the clinical course of the disease. Knowing the course allows us to estimate the likelihood of occurrence of a phenomenon at a given time or its duration. Within the statistical models that allow us to have a summary measure to estimate the time of occurrence of a phenomenon in a given population are the linear regression (the outcome variable is continuous and normally distributed -time to the occurrence of the event-), logistic regression (outcome variable is dichotomous, and it is evaluated at one single interval), and survival curves (outcome event is dichotomous, and it can be evaluated at multiple intervals). The first reference we have of this type of analysis is the work of the astronomer Edmond Halley, an English physicist and mathematician, famous for the calculation of the appearance of the comet orbit, recognized as the first periodic comet (1P/Halley's Comet). Halley also contributed in the area of health to estimate the mortality rate for a Polish population. The survival curve allows us to estimate the probability of an event occurring at different intervals. Also, it leds us to estimate the median survival time of any phenomenon of interest (although the used term is survival, the outcome does not need to be death, it may be the occurrence of any other event).

  12. Office of the 21st Century Workforce. XXI, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    XXI, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This document presents information on the U.S. Department of Labor's activities in the following topics areas: developing a skilled workforce; keeping workers safe; building workforce security; and connecting workers with jobs. The following items are included: (1) a discussion by the president and chief executive officer of Cisco Systems, Inc.,…

  13. PREFACE: XXI International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devdariani, Alexander Z.

    2012-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, ICSLS, was held in the historic main building of St Petersburg State University (St. Petersburg, Russia) on 3-9 June 2012. The event continued the tradition started in 1978 in Meudon Observatory in Paris. Representatives of line shape physics have since met every two years in different locations in Europe and North America. The most recent events were held in St John's, Newfoundland, Canada (2010), Valladolid, Spain (2008), and Auburn, AL (USA). Traditionally, the conferences consider experimental and theoretical issues of studying spectral line shapes, diagnostic utilization of spectral line profiles observed in absorption, emission or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms, molecules, and clusters in different environments, including neutral environments, laboratory low and fusion plasmas, astrophysical conditions, and planetary atmospheres. The Conference was attended by over 100 professionals from Europe, Asia, America, Africa and New Zealand. The conference program was put together in such a way so as to exclude any parallel sessions. Five afternoon sessions featured 19 invited talks and 20 oral contributions, and two evening sessions offered 61 poster presentations, including post-deadline posters. This setup allowed for a relaxed and unhurried discussion of results and facilitated productive networking. The invited talks were selected by recommendation of members of the International Scientific Committee. The Organizers would like to thank all the members of the International Scientific Committee for their proposals on the agenda and their valuable advice. When considering candidates for oral contributions, the organizers took into account the suggestions and preferences of potential conference participants. When selecting the theses of poster presentations, the organizers focused on the topics in line with the theme of the conference and studies with well-formulated results. It must be noted that this year's conference included a noticeably larger number of reports on astrophysical applications and physics of planetary atmospheres. Another significant trend was related to a new area of inquiry: low temperature spectra, near-surface processes, and control and management of new technological processes. There were more presentations on elementary processes during the formation of spectral lines. Most of the presented studies were included in the Conference Proceedings publication. For the first time ever the proceedings will be published as a volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, published by the Institute of Physics (UK), making it possible to access the materials of the conference online. All published studies underwent peer review. The organizers would like to thank all the reviewers who found time to review the submissions against a very tight deadline during the summer. Professor N G Skvortsov, Vice-Rector for Research of St Petersburg State University, opened the conference. His speech was followed by a brief welcome message from Professor A Devdariani of St Petersburg State University, Deputy Chair of the Organizing Committee. An informal welcome party was held before the opening session. The cultural program of the event included various sightseeing tours, and a hydrofoil boat ride to the fountain city of Peterhof, where the delegates toured the park and attended a conference dinner. Organizers would like to express their appreciation to St Petersburg musicians, P Laul and D Kouzov for an excellent classical music concert. The conference included a meeting of the International Scientific Committee the minutes of the event are included in this volume (article number 011004). Most importantly, the next meeting, 22nd ICSLS, has been scheduled for 2014 in The Center for Laser Applications, The University of Tennessee Space Institute, US. Professor Christian Parriger will coordinate the organization. Organizers of the St Petersburg Conference would like to wish him and his colleagues every success for the next conference in Tennessee. The St Petersburg Conference was supported by the grants from St Petersburg State University, the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and Dynasty, Dmitry Zimin's Foundation for Non-Profit Programs. The Organizing Committee would like to thank them for their support. A word of thanks also goes to staff of the Research Department of St Petersburg State University for assistance with administrative issues, and to Mr S Slyusarev for creating the Conference logo and website. I would like to thank personally Professor A Kouzov, and Dr V Alexeev for providing much support in the process of preparing and holding the event in 2012. Alexander Z Devdariani St Petersburg University Conference photograph Sponsors St Petersburg University St Petersburg University Dynasty Foundation Dynasty Foundation Russian Foundation for Basic Research Russian Foundation for Basic Research

  14. The Globalization and the Engineering Teaching for the XXI Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricardo, Chrobak

    This paper discusses current theories of learning and their application to engineering education, particularly in Latin American nations. The principal objective is to show methods by which insight can be gained into human learning, particularly in the engineering colleges. The development of more effective engineering teaching remains a necessary…

  15. [Health technology assessment agencies in the xxi century].

    PubMed

    Argimon, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The origins of the health technology assessment (HTA) agencies date back to the 70s in the United States; in the European context, the current Agency for Quality and Health Assessment of Catalonia was among the pioneers in 1991. Epidemiological, social, technological and economic changes of recent years have led to the incorporation, by the agencies, of new functions, activities and projects that can offer better services (information and knowledge) to the various players in the healthcare system (patients, professionals, providers, insurers and policy-makers) in order to increase healthcare quality and preserve the sustainability of the health system.

  16. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Veronica; Vaccarezza, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education. Doctors without anatomy are like moles.They work in the dark and the work of their hands are mounds. Friedrich TiedemannThe foundation of the study of the art of operating must be laid in the dissecting room. Robert Liston PMID:24367240

  17. [Gout - from pathogenesis to treatment - progress in the XXI century].

    PubMed

    Cal-Kocikowska, Justyna; Nawrocka, Marta; Bogdański, Paweł

    2015-06-01

    Gout has recently become the most common arthritis in developed countries. However studies indicate that treatment of gout is still insufficient. New discoveries including the role of inflammasome, inflammatory cytokines ( Il1β, IL-8,TNF-α), but also identification of the URAT -1 transporter or genetic mutation of SLC2A9 has given better understanding of the pathophysiology of gout and enable to use new therapies. New options in treatment significantly reduced the number of patients resistant to existing procedures, and created opportunities for a better individualization of the treatment. In this authors article in a practical way try to summary knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease and the current guidelines for the diagnosis, the treatment of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment.

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Flight School XXI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    experimentation. Kolb closely aligned his theory with those of Dewey, Lewin, and Piaget in order to emphasize the role experience plays in learning. However...Personality theories: Jean Piaget . Retrieved July 31, 2005 from: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html. Borenstein, M., Rothstein, H., & Cohen, J

  19. Speckle Interferometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory. XXI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Bredthauer, Greg; Ferguson, Eric W.; Finch, Charlie T.; Kilian, Christopher M.; Rafferty, Theodore J.; Ragan, Tai J.; Wieder, Gary D.

    2017-01-01

    The results of 2408 intensified CCD observations of double stars, made with the 26 inch refractor of the U.S. Naval Observatory, are presented. Each observation of a system represents a combination of over 2000 short-exposure images. These observations are averaged into 1602 mean relative positions and range in separation from 1.″94 to 107.″41, with a median separation of 11.″96. This is the twenty-first in this series of papers and covers the period from 2015 January 13 through 2015 December 19. Significant instrumentation changes are reported in this paper.

  20. Systems Engineering Force XXI: Experimental Analysis Integration and Systems Engineering Support to the Force XXI Design Effort.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    performing the activity. Finally, we compare the cost and value-added of the activities. 1 French economist Vilfredo Pareto studied the distribution of...34: $9.55 $130.20 7% Pareto Cost Analysis The important thing to examine is the relative costs of the three activities. This is often called a... Pareto Analysis1 because we are trying to identify the 20 percent of the activities that are causing 80% of our costs. In this case, 66% of the student’s

  1. Joint and Combined Military Force: A Possible Solution to African Economic Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Africa Forum, 5, 1988. Falloto, Enzo, and Fernando Henrique Cardoso, "Dependencis," Mexico Siglo , xxi , 1969. George, Bruce, and Mark Stenhouse, "NATO...of a nation naturally involve the process of combining inputs (natural resources, land, labor, capital goods) to produce outputs (food, consumer goods... capital equipment, public services).’$ Some parts of Africa have climates conducive to agriculture. However, 12 in other areas, desert and drought

  2. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific output on influenza in Mexico, 2000-2012].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pérez, José Juan; Muñoz-Valera, Luz; García-Gómez, Francisco; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la influenza H1N1 se convirtió en la primera pandemia del siglo XXI en 2009-2010. En México no hay estudios bibliométricos que hayan analizado este tema en relación con la generación del conocimiento mexicano. El objetivo es determinar el volumen e impacto de la producción científica mexicana publicada en revistas del Science Citation Index (SCI) sobre influenza en el periodo 2000-octubre de 2012. Métodos: se incluyeron todos los documentos vertidos en SCI cuyo tema de abordaje fuera influenza; para esto se emplearon los descriptores influenza o swine flu H1N1. El análisis incluyó autoría, patrón de colaboración internacional, revistas, tipo de documento, citaciones y dirección de correspondencia. Resultados: en 2000-2012 se publicaron 241 artículos relacionados con influenza. Los años con el número más alto de artículos publicados fueron 2009 (n = 53) y 2010 (n = 62). Las revistas con más publicaciones fueron Salud Pública de México (n = 16), PLOS ONE (n = 13), Archives of Medical Research (n = 13) y Vaccine (n = 10). El área más investigada fue enfermedades infecciosas (18.9 %), seguida de medicina interna (14 %) e inmunología (14 %), salud ocupacional (13 %) y medicina experimental (12.3 %). Conclusión: la producción científica sobre la influenza supone cerca del 1 % del total de la producción médico-científica con un decremento posterior a la pandemia de influenza en 2009.

  3. Conversation with Lara about the Earth and Land. (Spanish Title: Conversando con Lara sobre la Tierra y la Teirra.) Conversando com Lara sobre a Terra e a Terra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2010-12-01

    The present article is the analysis of a conversation between the author and Lara, a four-yearold- girl, enrolled in nursery school, while she makes a drawing of the Earth. It took place outside school environment and without any other person around to avoid interference during the interview. According to Ferreira & Silva (2004), a researcher can only comprehend a child's drawing, or form, by listening to him/her while he/she is creating it. Lara presented the traditional flat drawing, picturing the sky parallel to the ground, as reported by Nardi & Carvalho (1996). However, when asked to draw the World - term used by Butterworth et al. (2002), in order to avoid unnecessary confusion - she represented it by a circle, with herself on the surface. Her drawings led to the conclusion that such girl does not know yet the World in which she lives is the Earth, and probably because of that, within her age and consequent maturity, she accurately differentiates the concepts of land and Earth. El presente artículo analiza una entrevista libre, mientras una niña de 4 años y 4 meses, matriculada en el pregrado, dibuja la Tierra. Esta entrevista se realizó fuera del ambiente escolar y sin otra persona alrededor que pudiera interferir. De acuerdo con Ferreira Silva (2004), para quien investiga es posible conocer realmente lo que un niño o una niña pone en el papel a través de grafismos y/o dibujos si se lo escucha durante el proceso de creación de la escritura con imágenes. La niña, en este caso, representa la Tierra con el tradicional dibujo plano y el "cielo" paralelo al suelo, conforme analizaron Nardi & Carvalho (1996). Pero, cuando se Le solicita dibujar el "Mundo" - palabra empleada en un trabajo de Butterworth et al. (2002), con intención de no provocar "confusiones" innecesarias a sus sujetos de investigación- lo representa de forma circular, poniéndose sobre su superficie. Sus dibujos llevan a concluir que esta niña aún no tiene conocimiento que el mundo

  4. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  5. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  6. University Students' Conceptions about the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones de Estudiantes Universitários sobre Las Fases de la Luna.) Concepções de Estudantes Universitários sobre as Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fátima Oliveira Saraiva, Maria; da Silveira, Fernando Lang; Steffani, Maria Helena

    2011-07-01

    In this article we describe the development of a multiple choice test about lunar phases and analyze the results of its application to ten groups of Physics students at the UFRGS. During the improvement of the test, we noticed that the percentage of right answers about some concepts increased significantly when associated with the reformulation of the question, emphasizing the importance of being careful to avoid incorrect answers generated by unclear questions, and not by ignorance on the matter. We confirm the results of other studies that show that students have great difficulty to relate the Moon's phase with its position in the sky at given time. On the other hand, our results suggest that, in general, students of Physics understand the phenomenon of lunar phases better than the average of university students. En estese artículo se describe la elaboración de una prueba de opción múltiple sobre las fases de la Luna y se analizan los resultados de su aplicación en diez grupos de estudiantes de Física de UFRGS. Durante el mejoramiento de la prueba observamos que el porcentaje de aciertos creció considerablemente cuando considerada una nueva redacción de la pregunta, destacando el cuidado que se debe tomar a fin de evitar respuestas incorrectas generadas por preguntas poco claras y no a causa de la ignorancia de los estudiantes sobre el tema. Confirmamos los resultados de otros estudios que las mayores dificultades de los alumnos sobre el tema fases de la Luna están en relacionar la fase de la Luna con su posición en el cielo en determinado momento. Por otra parte, nuestros resultados sugieren que, en general, los estudiantes de la Física comprenden mejor el fenómeno de las fases lunares que el promedio de los estudiantes universitarios. Neste artigo descrevemos a elaboração de um teste de múltipla escolha sobre as fases da Lua e analisamos os resultados de sua aplicação em dez grupos de estudantes de Física da UFRGS. Durante o aprimoramento do

  7. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  8. Alfabetización astronómica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    A fines de 1991, en una revista de educación en ciencias, José L. Sérsic reflexionaba acerca de los problemas que enfrentaría la enseñanza de los conocimientos astronómicos en nuestro país, en los umbrales del Siglo XXI. Entonces postulaba como un objetivo mínimo, que los jóvenes deberían mostrar signos claros de que se hallan astronómicamente alfabetizados. Era el año en que se realizaba por primera vez una Asamblea General de I.A.U. en Buenos Aires, una oportunidad de singulares características para la comunidad astronómica local y, simultáneamente el comienzo de un cambio radical en la estructura del sistema educativo argentino. ?`Contempla ese cambio el objetivo que postulara Sérsic? ?`Estamos en condiciones de afirmar que estamos en camino de lograrlo? ?`Con qué parámetros?. Presentamos aquí un panorama general sobre algunas de las acciones realizadas en función de alcanzar esa alfabetización científica, analizando exclusivamente la actividad de enseñanza hasta el nivel universitario, sin detenernos en el mismo, ya que lo consideramos una instancia superior e independiente de aquella alfabetización. Tampoco nos referiremos a la tarea de difusión, divulgación o popularización de la Astronomía, ya que su condición de asistemática y subjetiva no es evaluable en términos de la formación integral de un individuo.

  9. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  10. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    PubMed

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  11. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  12. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-Morales, A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martínez-Rodríguez, F.; Arévila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-01

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162±37 g and 169±34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  13. Determination of left ventricular mass through SPECT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zarate-Morales, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Martinez-Rodriguez, F.; Arevila-Ceballos, N.

    1998-08-28

    An edge detection algorithm has been applied to estimate left ventricular (LV) mass from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) thallium-201 images. The algorithm was validated using SPECT images of a phantom. The algorithm was applied to 20 patient studies from the Hospital de Cardiologia, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI. Left ventricular masses derived from the stress and redistribution studies were highly correlated (r=0.96). The average LV masses obtained were 162{+-}37 g and 169{+-}34 g in the redistribution and stress studies, respectively.

  14. [Clinical course and prognosis of patients with urolithiasis in a pediatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Ubillo-Sánchez, José Manuel; Bonilla-Rojas, Jesús; Peña, Luis Alberto; Zurita-Cruz, Jessie Nallely; Cárdenas-Navarrete, Rocío; Serret-Montoya, Juana; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Angel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la litiasis renal se considera poco frecuente en pediatría. La información disponible no es suficiente para determinar con certeza su pronóstico. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los signos, síntomas, complicaciones y recurrencia que presentaron los pacientes pediátricos con urolitiasis. MÉTODOS: se identificaron los expedientes de pacientes pediátricos con urolitiasis atendidos en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, en el periodo de 2003 a 2009.

  15. Evaluation of volume change in rectum and bladder during application of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, J. A.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    All prostate cancer patients from Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI receive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). This therapy uses image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) with the Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). This study compares the planned dose in the reference CT image against the delivered dose recalculate in the CBCT image. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomic changes and related dosimetric effect based on weekly CBCT directly for patients with prostate cancer undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment. The collected data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA.

  16. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. [Challenges and commitments of the general physician in the XXI century].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Jouanen, Efraín

    2004-01-01

    It is urgent that the general practitioner recapture a broad vision of the patient to achieve a better quality of medical care that encompasses prevention and treatment aspects of today's demand. Worldwide accomplishing these goals implies complete renovation of basic principles of preventive medicine, as well as those related with chronic conditions and individual lifestyle modification. Furthermore, it becomes essential to incorporate current knowledge in this plan of action for a better applied and more human restoration of health. The Academia Nacional de Medicina de México takes an additional oath to assure challenges through PRONADAMEG.

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXI. Stellar spin rates of O-type spectroscopic binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Mink, S. E.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; de Koter, A.; Langer, N.; Tramper, F.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Vink, J. S.; Dufton, P. L.; Taylor, W. D.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are, however, found in multiple systems. Aims: By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary subpopulations with one another and with that of presumed-single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the spin rates of massive stars. Methods: We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (νesini) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The νesini values are derived from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of a set of spectral lines, using a FWHM vs. νesini calibration that we derive based on previous line analysis methods applied to single O-type stars in the VFTS sample. Results: The overall νesini distribution of the primary stars resembles that of single O-type stars in the VFTS, featuring a low-velocity peak (at νesini< 200 kms-1) and a shoulder at intermediate velocities (200 < νesini< 300 kms-1). The distributions of binaries and single stars, however, differ in two ways. First, the main peak at νesini ~ 100kms-1 is broader and slightly shifted towards higher spin rates in the binary distribution than that of the presumed-single stars. This shift is mostly due to short-period binaries (Porb~< 10 d). Second, the νesini distribution of primaries lacks a significant population of stars spinning faster than 300 kms-1, while such a population is clearly present in the single-star sample. The νesini distribution of binaries with amplitudes of radial velocity variation in the range of 20 to 200 kms-1 (mostly binaries with Porb ~ 10-1000 d and/or with q< 0.5) is similar to that of single O stars below νesini~< 170kms-1. Conclusions: Our results are compatible with the assumption that binary components formed with the same spin distribution as single stars, and that this distribution contains few or no fast-spinning stars. The higher average spin rate of stars in short-period binaries may either be explained by spin-up through tides in such tight binary systems, or by spin-down of a fraction of the presumed-single stars and long-period binaries through magnetic braking (or by a combination of both mechanisms). Most primaries and secondaries of SB2 systems with Porb~< 10 d appear to have similar rotational velocities. This is in agreement with tidal locking in close binaries where the components have similar radii. The lack of very rapidly spinning stars among binary systems supports the idea that most stars with νesini~> 300kms-1 in the single-star sample are actually spun-up post-binary interaction products. Finally, the overall similarities (low-velocity peak and intermediate-velocity shoulder) of the spin distribution of binary and single stars argue for a massive star formation process in which the initial spin is set independently of whether stars are formed as single stars or as components of a binary system. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under program ID 182.D-0222.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. XXY: The Hidden Disability and a Prototype for an Infantile Presentation of Developmental Dyspraxia (IDD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Rogol, Alan

    2002-01-01

    There is an increased incidence of language-learning disabilities with dyslexia by school age. As infants and toddlers, these children have neuromotor and speech dysfunction within their first year. This article postulates that the language and motor dysfunction is caused by infantile presentation of developmental dyspraxia rather than a…

  20. Comments on "Sexology and Social Work in a Case of Klinefelter (47,XXY) Syndrome."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Benjamin

    1994-01-01

    This very brief comment on Herzog and Money (1993) concerning Klinefelter syndrome claims that the use of an antiandrogen with an individual whose endocrine status is already compromised by low levels of testosterone is inappropriate. (DB)

  1. [Quality, Innovation and Technological Development in Enteral Nutrition in the XXI Century].

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-05-07

    This work synthesis the quality evolution as well as innovation and technological advances that have been proven in healthcare area and specifically in enteral nutrition field. Clarifying the most relevant landmarks and the best representative characteristics of these advances.

  2. Some seasonal characteristics in atmospheric methane concentration in the beginning of the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna; Ginzburg, Alexander; Fedorova, Evgeniya

    2010-05-01

    Global average value of atmospheric methane concentrations have been increasing during the XX century, but this growth nearly stopped with the beginning of the 2000th. Such "stable" situation is the proper time for studying the seasonal cycle and extreme changes of air methane concentration. One of the most interesting periods for such investigations is autumn and winter 2006/07 [1] when a number of weather abnormalities (warm air temperature up to above 0°C, almost permanent cloudiness and absence of snow cover, and so on) in Moscow region created very specific conditions for air methane existence. Temporal variations in air methane concentration within the Moscow city have been studied using the data of observations at 12 stations of Moscow municipal environmental monitoring agency "Mosecomonitoring" in 2004-2008 [2]. It was found that near-surface air concentration of methane was much higher this time than few years before and after. The values of cold season methane concentrations in Moscow region have been compared with similar data measured in the North of Kola Peninsula (at WMO GAW station "Teriberka"), in the Sankt Petersburg region (the two stations of Roshydromet), in Finland and Hungary (the stations of NOAA GMD Carbon Cycle Sampling Network). Winter maxima (more or less) of methane concentrations were revealed almost each year at all these stations, but not everywhere they were simultaneous and as high as those had been found in Moscow. The reasons of winter 2006/07 high methane concentrations in Moscow and other regions of Northern Eurasia may be special weather conditions which could cause both decrease of air methane sinks and increase of methane emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Perhaps, the late growth of global atmospheric methane concentration after 2007 [3] was partly produced by those seasonal anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere. References: 1. E. Fedorova, A. Ginzburg, A. Vinogradova. Seasonal variations of atmospheric methane and hot winter 2006-2007 // Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 2007, Vol. 9, SRef-ID: 1607-7962/gra/EDU2007-A-06049. 2. A.A. Vinogradova, E.I. Fedorova, I.B. Belikov, et al. Temporal variations in carbon dioxide and methane concentrations under urban conditions // Izv., Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 599-611. 3. Rigby M., Prinn R.G., Fraser P.J., et al. Renewed growth of atmospheric methane // Geophys. Res. Lett., 2008, Vol. 35. doi: 10,1029/2008GL036037

  3. Characteristics and Outcome of Streptococcus pneumoniae Endocarditis in the XXI Century

    PubMed Central

    de Egea, Viviana; Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; de Alarcón, Arístides; Lepe, José Antonio; Miró, José M.; Gálvez-Acebal, Juan; García-Pavía, Pablo; Navas, Enrique; Goenaga, Miguel Angel; Fariñas, María Carmen; Vázquez, Elisa García; Marín, Mercedes; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is an infrequent cause of severe infectious endocarditis (IE). The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and outcome of a series of cases of S. pneumoniae IE diagnosed in Spain and in a series of cases published since 2000 in the medical literature. We prospectively collected all cases of IE diagnosed in a multicenter cohort of patients from 27 Spanish hospitals (n = 2539). We also performed a systematic review of the literature since 2000 and retrieved all cases with complete clinical data using a pre-established protocol. Predictors of mortality were identified using a logistic regression model. We collected 111 cases of pneumococcal IE: 24 patients from the Spanish cohort and 87 cases from the literature review. Median age was 51 years, and 23 patients (20.7%) were under 15 years. Men accounted for 64% of patients, and infection was community-acquired in 96.4% of cases. The most important underlying conditions were liver disease (27.9%) and immunosuppression (10.8%). A predisposing heart condition was present in only 18 patients (16.2%). Pneumococcal IE affected a native valve in 93.7% of patients. Left-sided endocarditis predominated (aortic valve 53.2% and mitral valve 40.5%). The microbiological diagnosis was obtained from blood cultures in 84.7% of cases. In the Spanish cohort, nonsusceptibility to penicillin was detected in 4.2%. The most common clinical manifestations included fever (71.2%), a new heart murmur (55%), pneumonia (45.9%), meningitis (40.5%), and Austrian syndrome (26.1%). Cardiac surgery was performed in 47.7% of patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.7%. The multivariate analysis revealed the independent risk factors for mortality to be meningitis (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4–12.9; P < 0.01). Valve surgery was protective (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04–0.4; P < 0.01). Streptococcus pneumoniae IE is a community-acquired disease that mainly affects native aortic valves. Half of the cases in the present study had concomitant pneumonia, and a considerable number developed meningitis. Mortality was high, mainly in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Surgery was protective. PMID:26426629

  4. Preliminary Findings: Design of Experiments University XXI (FY05) Research and Support for the US Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Taguchi methods . OTC primarily uses Taguchi and OFAT type methods in its testing methods and designs. A fundamental concept of DOE is determining which...allows for the interaction of variables. Whereas identifying interaction is a pronounced strength of DOE, most other methods— including the Taguchi ... method and one factor at a time (OFAT)—cannot calculate variable interactions. Variable interactions are statistically attributed as a main effect of

  5. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XXI. The Cyclic Regeneration of Carbon Dioxide Acceptor

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bassham, J. A.; Benson, A. A.; Kay, Lorel D.; Harris, Anne Z.; Wilson, A. T.; Calvin, M.

    1953-10-01

    Photosynthesizing plants have been exposed to C{sup 14}O{sub 2} for short periods of time (0.4 to 15 sec.) and the products of carbon dioxide reduction analyzed by paper chromatography and radio autography. Methods have been developed for the degradation of ribulose and sedoheptulose. These sugars, obtained as their phosphate esters from the above C{sup 14}O{sub 2} exposures and from other experiments, have been degraded and their distribution of radiocarbon determined. The distribution of radiocarbon in these sugars, and other data, indicate that sedoheptulose phosphate and ribulose diphosphates are formed during photosynthesis from triose and hexose phosphates, the latter being synthesized, in turn, by the reduction of 3-phosphoglyceric acid.

  6. [Morphologic and dermatoglyphic aspects of Klinefelter 47,XXY syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pétremand-Hyvärinen, R

    1978-11-01

    The author described 20 personal cases of Klinefelter's syndrome, from among those referred to the Institute of Medical Genetics for cytogenetic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In the first instance, in relation to the morphological aspects, the author carried out a historic and aetiological review of the syndrome, estimated its incidence and described the clinical and endocrinological symptomatology, also the testicular histology. She then outlined the differential diagnosis and the treatment envisaged for these cases. After giving a clinical description and details of the anthropobiometric measurements of these 20 patients, the author analysed the morphograms established on the Decourt-Doumic graphs. According to this schema, and in relation to the normal, patients suffering from Klinefelter's syndrome can be distinguished by four different constitutional types. All these four varieties can, together with testicular atrophy, evoke this chromosomal aberration. Only a karyotype and/or a sexual chromatin test could confirm the presence of a Klinefelter's syndrome. Secondly, a dermatoglyphic analysis of 9 patients available for this examination is given. After discussing the history, embryogenesis and heredity of finger prints, the author compared her results with those previously obtained in other studies. In conformity with these, she observed a decrease of TRC, of the a-b count and of the a-t-d angle. In addition, these patients present an increase in the number of accessory triradii a' and d', as well as an absence or an abortive state of triradius c, an absence of thenar configurations and an increase in those of the interdigital space II. Whilst many dermatoglyphic characters in the Klinefelter's syndrome differ but little from the normal, some of them appear, however, to be specific. Consequently, dermatoglyphic examination, especially in the case of a difficult differential diagnosis, can be a great help to the clinician and the geneticist.

  7. Active Component Support to Reserve Component Training, Changes to Training Support XXI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    provide support to reserve units in the Pacific Command area of responsibility. Training Support Mobilization Compliance MACA Hybrid Alternative eSB...mobilization, compliance, and Military Assistance to Civil Authorities ( MACA ).”16 The plan establishes and explains the command relationship between the CONUSA...CA TSBn TSB TSD CSS TSBn CONUSA OCAR USARC RPA Execution RSC Integrated Active Reserve l OMA l RPA RPA request MACA XXXX XXXX $ RPA Guidance

  8. [Coral reefs in the face of ecological threats of XXI century].

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, K S

    2015-01-01

    To date, more than a quarter of tropical coral reefs of the World Ocean are believed to be totally de- stroyed. Given the present rates of reefs degradation, this value may be doubled in the nearest 30 years. For the essential part of coastal community, the destruction of coral ecosystems implies the loss of the major food sources, natural protection from storms, and significant (if not the only) revenue from exploi- tation of reefs especially in tourism industry. Finally, the disappearance of low-laying coral islands may threat the local communities by deprivation of living space. Global negative effects include temperature anomalies of sea surface waters and an increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration leading to ocean acidification. Local negative effects are related to in- crease of sedimentation and eutrophication, cyclone and storm passes, coral diseases, chemical pollution, mechanical destruction of corals by humans, anthropogenic depletion of functional groups of fish and invertebrates. An entire set of responses of coral ecosystems to stressful factors on the levels of both separate taxa and ecosystem is discussed. An analysis of published data suggests that with high probability the tropical coral communities will come to collapse stage by the middle of the current century at more than 50% of the area of their biogeographic range, especially in the regions of dense human population. At the most optimistic scenario, complex effect of reviewed negative factors will result in coral ecosystems main- taining in some areas. However, after global transformations, these ecosystems will be dominated by the most resistant taxa, mainly massive and encrusting forms of long-lived species with low growth rates and high competitive ability. Among such taxa, Poritidae demonstrates the highest adaptive capability. At the most pessimistic scenario, scleractinian communities will be replaced by alternative communities of macroalgae and non-calcareous anthozoans.

  9. Women's role in the Engineering career: situation in the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María González-Tirados, Rosa

    2010-05-01

    There is no doubt that women education and attendance to university have facilitated their access to almost all the working sectors. At the same time, it has point out a break point between the traditional scenario and the actual reality, how achievements have been obtained thanks to day by day fight, little steps and advances give impulse to women to a full participation in the working area, diversifying her role in different fields and occupying in work market different roles that recently were exclusive for men. For example: army, truck drivers, miners and airplane pilots among others. However, not everything are lights in this reflection with an optimistic touch, there are shadows too, opposition, obstacles, impediments and difficulties in the society or in women herself that have to be avoided when they incorporate in different labour markets. The difficulties that women have been overcome and the gender inequality that still can be found, even in occidental societies, are something that concerns to all of us. We believe that it is necessary centuries to overcome certain aspects that, in some way, are impregnated in the society, life style, rules of conduct, culture, or simply learned by the people that are really difficult not only to elude them as to avoid them. Throughout this work some examples will be shown that corroborate this comment. This subject is wide, complex and difficult. For this reason, we will put a limit on it and we will focus on the Spanish society as a part of the western advanced societies. With regard to the working area, we will delimited this study to the engineering careers showing some allusive numbers, actual university studies in this field and related them to earlier decades. In this way, a comparative analysis on the evolution of this scenario can be established. There are many papers and manuscripts that talk about different aspects in female success, such as women in sport, highly gifted and women, etc. For this reason we are going to centre our work on engineering at different places: corporations, institutions, etc where women play a role in the work market. Although it is not easy "gender roles" change if the internal structure and perception of the society, people's descriptive believes or the respective societies that support it don't do it, it has a certain relation with the stereotypes and prejudices. The origin of the preconceived opinion against women holding certain roles that traditionally were for males are found in the inconsistency perception among the characteristics requires for that role and the well assimilated believes about how are women. In this work, we will show some data related with women performance in different studies and different work markets in which there is an evident quantitative difference between men and women.

  10. Chelation in metal intoxication XXI: chelation in lead intoxication during vitamin B complex deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The vitamin B-complex deficiency increases the vulnerability to neuro- and systemic toxicity of Pb in young rats. Thus, the nutritional status of vitamins like that of protein or minerals seems to influence the etiology of Pb toxicity and may be expected to affect the response toward Pb chelators. 2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene-diamine triacetic acid (HEDTA) have been found to be effective antidotes to Pb intoxication. In the present study, these selective metal chelating agents were compared for their ability to reduce the body burden of Pb and restore the altered biochemical parameters in young developing Pb intoxicated rats maintained on normal or vitamin B-complex deficient diet. The investigation was aimed to suggest suitable prophylaxis of Pb poisoning prevalent among children who may also be suffering from vitamin deficiency in developing and poor countries.

  11. Demography of peoples of the Russian North in the beginning of XXI century.

    PubMed

    Bogoyavlenskiy, Dmitriy

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of natural decline in population of all Russia, in particular, the Russians, the demographic situation of peoples of the North is at times considered as "moderately optimistic". In this case the growth of their number serves according to last population census, as a decisive factor. Contrary to the above, many researchers in different regions and among different peoples of the North speak about economic decline and growth of unemployment, an impoverishment of indigenous northerners, their high morbidity and death rate and estimate the demographic situation as "catastrophic". The criterion thus becomes the social crisis in northern settlements. Estimating the demographic situation it is necessary to lean on demographic criteria as such. But the dynamics of the number of the North's peoples, i.e. the sole result of the population census reflecting "well-being", is not such a pure demographic criterion. It was, as we have shown, investigating the data of four population censuses of the USSR (1959,1970,1979,1989), determined in many respects not only, and not at all so much by their demographic movement (i.e. birth rate and death rate), but rather by ethnic (assimilation) processes, and sometimes simply by discrepancies in the census work. While in 1959-89 peoples of the North used to be assimilated by other peoples, in 1989-2002 a reverse tendency became pronounced among some of these peoples. Over a quarter of an inter-census growth was due to ethnic assimilation among six peoples (the Khants, Mansis, Itelmens, Selkups, Kets and Saami). The comparison of inter-census living out among peoples of the North demonstrates that the death rate among them is considerably higher, than the very high death rate of the entire population of Russia. The actual demographic parameters provide evidence for obviously unfavorable tendencies. There was a sharp decrease in birth rate (the overall ratio has decreased from 30% during the 5-year period before the 1989 census up to 18% in 1999-2002). Death rate has grown. Though the overall ratio is lower, than for the whole population of Russia, it is explained by the young age structure of peoples of the North (only 6 % are older than 60, and 18 %--are older than 45; in Russia--18% and 37% accordingly). The average life expectancy (a more adequate yardstick to measure mortality) among peoples of the North is more than 10 years less than the average Russian one. It is less, than among other indigenous peoples of the North (in Scandinavia, Alaska, Canada and Greenland). The share of deaths due to external reasons (accidents, poisonings, suicides and homicides) is enormous; among peoples of the Tyumen North it makes 37% of all the deaths, and in Russia as a whole it is 14% (though the Russian figure itself is far too high by international standards). It is exactly the death rate that determines the nature of the demographic situation. No ultrahigh birth rate in the modern world can serve as an indicator of "well-being" (otherwise the demographically safe region would be Africa south of Sahara). Therefore, certainly we have to define the demographic condition of peoples of the North as a crisis. And further decrease in birth rate with such a high death rate can surely lead to their factual depopulation. Numerical smallness makes them most vulnerable in this respect, while in fact the prospect of vanishing worries much more numerous peoples just as well.

  12. Geophysical variables and behavior: XXI. Geomagnetic variation as possible enhancement stimuli for UFO reports preceding earthtremors.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A

    1985-02-01

    The contribution of geomagnetic variation to the occurrence of UFORs (reports of UFOs) within the New Madrid States during the 6-mo. increments before increases in the numbers of IV-V or less intensity earthquakes within the central USA was determined. Although statistically significant zero-order correlations existed between measures of earthquakes, UFORs and geomagnetic variability, the association between the latter two deteriorated markedly when their shared variance with earthquakes was held constant. These outcomes are compatible with the hypothesis that geomagnetic variability (or phenomena associated with it) may enhance UFORs but only if tectonic stress and strain are increasing within the region.

  13. Chemical evolution. XXI - The amino acids released on hydrolysis of HCN oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Wos, J. D.; Nooner, D. W.; Oro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Major amino acids released by hydrolysis of acidic and basic HCN oligomers are identified by chromatography as Gly, Asp, and diaminosuccinic acid. Smaller amounts of Ala, Ile and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid are also detected. The amino acids released did not change appreciably when the hydrolysis medium was changed from neutral to acidic or basic. The presence of both meso and d, l-diaminosuccinic acids was established by paper chromatography and on an amino acid analyzer.

  14. Follow-Up Study of 1991 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1991 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois. Surveys were mailed to all 28…

  15. Modeling Sound as a Non-Lethal Weapon in the COMBAT(XXI) Simulation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Acoustic Device (LRAD) is the sonic weapon of choice on today’s battlefield. The LRAD can be used for behavior modification when lethal means of... behavior modification are not desired. Input factors and responses were chosen based upon the physiology of the human ear and the capabilities of the LRAD...with incapacitation and not with behavior modification . Notice that the blue force patrol is wiped out totally when LRAD was not used. There are 4

  16. Deep-space radiation exposure analysis for solar cycle XXI (1975-1986)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Ionizing radiation exposures and associated dosimetric quantities are evaluated for the 11-year solar cycle ending in 1986. Solar flare fluences for the 55 largest flares occurring during the cycle are superimposed on the Galactic cosmic ray flux. Published summaries of flare data from the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP)-7 and IMP-8 satellites are used that include flares whose integrated fluences are greater than 10 to the 7th protons/sq cm for energies in excess of 10 MeV. A standard cosmic ray environment model for ion flux values at solar minimum and maximum is invoked with an assumed sinusoidal variation between the lower and upper limits. The radiation shielding analysis is carried out for equivalent water-shield thicknesses between 2 and 15 g/sq cm. Results are expressed in terms of cumulative incurred dose equivalents for deep-space missions lasting between 3 months and 3 years. It was found that medium-to-large flare contributions are of greatest importance for the shorter term missions, while the Galactic component dominates for the longer duration missions.

  17. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, Part XXI: introduction to contract negotiations.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2015-04-01

    Those physicians who have excellent job prospects, and preferably have more than one offer, may wish to try to negotiate better terms for their employment contract than was initially offered. However, any negotiation must be done in a friendly, polite, and professional manner. This article gives many tips regarding contract negotiations. However, the employment contract should be discussed with the job seeker's family and attorney before signing it.

  18. Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXI - Absolute energy distribution of stars in the ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.; Code, A. D.; Fairchild, E. T.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute energy distribution in the ultraviolet is given for the stars alpha Vir, eta UMa, and alpha Leo. The calibration is based on absolute heterochromatic photometry between 2920 and 1370 A carried out with an Aerobee sounding rocket. The fundamental radiation standard is the synchrotron radiation from 240-MeV electrons in a certain synchrotron storage ring. On the basis of the sounding-rocket calibration, the preliminary OAO-2 spectrometer calibration has been revised; the fluxes for the three program stars are tabulated in energy per second per square centimeter per unit wavelength interval.

  19. Modern French and Russian Media Education in XXI Century (2000-2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The author of this article thinks that the basic difficulties of wider introduction of media education in the Russian and French universities & schools first of all are connected with patent defect purposefully prepared of media educators; with the certain inertness of many educational establishments; with traditional approaches of the…

  20. Great Expectations: Brigadier General Haywood S. Hansell, Jr.and the XXI Bomber Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    formation flying.46 Hansell led the first mission, but his aircraft became one of four to abort and never reached the target. Shortly thereafter, he...Seventeen aircraft aborted for fuel problems and six could not release their munitions for mechanical failures, but 88 aircraft placed bombs on...was the only wing available to Hansell in the fall of 1944 and maximizing its utilization became imperative.87 The number of aborts and losses began

  1. Sexology and Social Work in a Case of Klinefelter (47,XXY) Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Daniel; Money, John

    1993-01-01

    A man with mental retardation, in detention for five years because of sex offenses with preadolescent boys, was not only diagnosed as having Klinefelter syndrome when a social worker read suspected the possibility and arranged for a chromosome test. The importance of a complete medical work-up is emphasized in such cases. (JDD)

  2. The Measurement of Intelligence in the XXI Century using Video Games.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, M A; Román, F J; De La Fuente, J; Privado, J; Colom, R

    2016-12-05

    This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played "Professor Layton and the curious village"® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.

  3. [Infective endocarditis in the XXI century: epidemiological, therapeutic, and prognosis changes].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Almirante, Benito

    2012-08-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon and severe disease. Nowadays, in developed countries, IE patients are older, usually have a degenerative heart valve disease, and up to 30% acquire this infection within the health care system. In consequence, staphylococci species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms. Antimicrobial treatment for IE has significantly changed over the last decades. In IE episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, cloxacillin-resistance makes antimicrobial election more difficult. Other microorganisms, such as enterococci and some species of streptococci, show high rates of resistance to antimicrobial agents established in guidelines. Despite improvements in the diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of IE, this disease continues to be associated with high rates of in-hospital mortality. At present, due to epidemiological changes, antimicrobial prophylaxis can avoid few cases of IE. Prevention of nosocomial bacteremia, an early diagnosis of IE, prompt identification of IE patients at a higher risk of mortality, and a multidisciplinary approach of this disease could be valid strategies in order to improve the outcome of these patients.

  4. Survey of Weekend and Evening Student and Faculty Needs. Volume XXI, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to determine the needs and perceptions of students and faculty involved in evening and weekend classes at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) in Palatine, Illinois, surveys were sent to 400 students randomly chosen from 100 course sections taught at WRHC in fall of 1991, and to 767 faculty teaching evening or weekend classes during…

  5. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science—XXI: Donald Burnett

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2013-09-01

    In this interview, Donald Burnett (Fig. 1) describes how he applied to the University of Chicago, with considerable support from his father, where he took classes from Harold Urey and was inspired by Ed Anders to pursue a career in nuclear chemistry and, later, cosmochemistry. As a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley, Don learned to use charged-particle tracks as a detector for radioactive nuclei, a technique that he applied to a wide variety of problems over the next 20 years, including the neutron profile probe that was deployed on the Moon. After a one-year postdoc with William Fowler at the California Institute of Technology, he became involved with Jerry Wasserburg, who ultimately obtained a faculty position for him in the Geology Division. Since then, Don has worked on a number of fundamental problems in cosmochemistry, chronology of the solar system, the initial Pu/U abundance, fractionation of U and Pu in igneous processes, and elemental abundances. This last interest led him to advocate, propose, and lead the Genesis space mission to collect and return samples of the solar wind. The crash of the return capsule caused alarm, but some aspects of the mission were unaffected and others have been successfully handled, so that several major new results have been published: the lack of an SEP component in lunar samples, the Ne and Ar composition of the solar wind, and, most importantly, the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition of the Sun. Don received the Leonard Medal in 2012.

  6. Wetlands and methane emission in the XXI century: RCM-based projection for Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaleva, A.

    2012-04-01

    Russia has largest resources of wetlands in the world. Marshes and forested swamps occupy up to 20% of country's territory. The role of wetlands in the natural processes and human society is multifunctional: from providing wildlife habitat and biodiversity to determining water filtration and runoff control. Wetland is an important agent in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. Their exchanges with the atmosphere affects to the regional and global climates thus represent an essential component of environment. In this study the changes in the spatial distributions of wetlands and methane emission are evaluated using the output from MGO GCM/RCM future climate projection. The calculations were performed for the late 20th century (1981-2000) and mid 21st century (2041-2060) under IPCC A2 GHG/aerosols emission scenario. Several characteristics including moisture coefficient and water table have been analysed in order to describe wetland distribution across Eurasia. It has been found that there is a considerable uncertainty in distributions of the analysed characteristics that complicates wetland identification. The water table depth has been adopted to approximate observed distribution of wetlands. As projected by the regional climate model for the mid 21st century the wetland area will expand, notably in May and September and shrink in summer. Evaluated are methane emissions for the late 20th century over wetlands and its possible changes by the mid 21st century. According to RCM projection the methane emission will likely increase in the forthcoming 50 years due to climate warming by approximately 30%. Modeling deficiencies in the wetland distributions and methane emission calculations are discussed. An attention in the analysis is also given to the expected changes in the methane emission potential due to taliks and lakes.

  7. [Reflexions about the curricula at the faculty of medicine in the XXI century].

    PubMed

    Viesca Treviño, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review the main medical programs from the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) faculty of medicine in the first seventy-five years of twentieth century. We have selected those instances that are representative of special moments in the development of Mexican medical knowledge, and also corresponding to the need to prepare medical students in view of social demands. The first programs are those of Ignacio Chavez in 1934, concerned mainly with the introduction into the curricula of medical specialties such as cardiology or neurology. After those, the 1956 and 1960 programs are mentioned and briefly analyzed; both were founded on the concern to develop a clinical reasoning in the student. Finally, the 1974 Integral General Medicine Program directed its interest to social and environmental themes.

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXI, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--COMPLETE POWER TRAIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MOSULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER TRAIN SYSTEM USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE EXAMINING THE POWER FLOW, UNIT OIL FLOW, AND OIL PRESSURE IN THE CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM TRAINING FILM "UNDERSTANDING THE…

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    De Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; López Úbeda, Marta; Rueda Caballero, Carmen; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Ferrández Longás, Ángel

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: saber diagnosticar y tratar la obesidad se ha convertido en el mayor reto del siglo XXI, debido al aumento de su prevalencia.Objetivos: determinar los valores de normalidad de perímetro abdominal (PA) e índice de masa corporal (IMC) según edad y sexo en población española sana.Métodos: estudio longitudinal observacional realizado entre 1980 y 2014. Se incluyeron 165 niños y 169 niñas recién nacidas, recogiendo datos de forma anual hasta los 18 años (74 varones y 92 mujeres), y posteriormente a los 28 años (42 varones y 45 mujeres). Se realizó medición de peso, longitud/talla y perímetro abdominal. Se calcularon los percentiles (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97) de IMC y PA según edad y sexo.Resultados: se presentan datos evolutivos de IMC y PA durante la infancia, destacando cómo aumentan los valores entre los 18 y 28 años de los percentiles superiores al p50, sobre todo en mujeres. Existe una correlación positiva en relación al PA entre el valor obtenido a los 3 años con el valor de los 18 años y de los 28 años tanto en varones (r = 0,722 y r = 0,605, p = 0,000, respectivamente) como en mujeres(r = 0,922, r = 0,857, p = 0,000, respectivamente). Y entre los 18 y 28 años (r = 0,731, p = 0,000 para varones y r = 0,961, p = 0,000 para mujeres).Conclusión: se presentan valores de normalidad de PA e IMC según edad y sexo, que podrán utilizarse como herramienta de referencia para identificar a personas con riesgo de desarrollar enfermedades cardiovasculares o diabetes.

  10. Un analisis de la influencia de las fricciones de los campos no militares sobre las fricciones del campo militar presentes en la operacion de rescate de rehenes Chavin de Huantar (An Analysis of the Influence that Friction in Non-Military Fields of Action Had Upon Military Friction in the Hostage Rescue Operation Chavin de Huantar)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    necesidad inmediata de eliminar la incertidumbre de lo que ocurría al interior de la residencia, por lo que el empleo de micrófonos era vital, a fin...en rarísimas ocasiones se pronuncia sobre hechos políticos y que esta solicitud directa significó una tremenda presión internacional sobre un

  11. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  12. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  13. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  14. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  15. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  16. [Pulmonary thromboembolism: Recent experience of 4 years at a cardiology hospital].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Rosas-Peralta, Martin; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Moreno-Ruiz, Luis Antonio; Arenas-Fonseca, Jorge Guillermo; Arzola-Covarrubias, Víctor Manuel; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efrén; Arizmendi-Uribe, Efraín

    2017-01-01

    It comprised a series of cases over a period of 4 years, held at the Hospital of Cardiology of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS. From 2008 to 2011, admitted to Emergency 184 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, of which 41 were removed; of the 143 remaining cases, only 127 patients was diagnosed with PE. The other 16 patients had other diagnoses. In 86% of patients showed electrocardiographic pattern S1Q3T3 and 39% had RBBB, in 17 (13.3%) patients there was hemodynamic instability, and in 94.4% showed enlargement of the right chambers by echocardiography, 55.9% showed paradoxical septal motion, PASP was 66.2+22.8 mm Hg and in 43.3% the Mc Connell sign was positive. A total of 48 patients (37.7%) received thrombolysis, the remaining patients received conventional medical treatment with anticoagulation. Overall mortality was 14%.

  17. [Aeroallergens, skin tests and allergic diseases in 1091 patients].

    PubMed

    Enríquez Palomec, O; Hernández Chávez, L; Sarrazola Sanjuan, D M; Segura Méndez, N H; Hernández Colín, D D; Martínez-Cairo, S

    1997-01-01

    To know the frequency of positively of several skin tests, data cards from patients, of the Allergy and Clinic Immunology Service of the Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI (Mexico City), between January, 1989 and March, 1995, were reviewed. Aqueous extracts manufactures by our laboratory were applied, in a dilution of 1:1000 weight-volume. 1091 from 5,651 skin tests patients were positive. Asthma and rhinitis were diagnosed in 492, allergic rhinitis in 289, allergic asthma in 111, and other diagnosis in 199 cases. The most frequent inhalable aeroallergens were house dust and perennial Dermatophagoides p and f1 with predominance in the rainy season, followed by pollens from Fraxinus a. Quercus a and Capriola, with predominance in the rainy season. The most frequent fungi were Candida and Fusarium, with predominance in the dry season.

  18. Prevalence of DRESS syndrome.

    PubMed

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Blancas, Lizbeth; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Gaspar-López, Arturo; O'Farrill-Romanillos, Patricia; Amaya-Mejía, Adela; Galindo-Pacheco, Lucy; Campos-Romero, Freya; Aguilar-Hinojosa, Nadia; Suárez, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (Drug rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is an idiosyncratic reaction (type B), characterized by peripheral eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, such as fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, atypical lymphocytes and elevation of liver enzymes at least twice its normal level or increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT) >100 U/L. Its incidence is of 1/1,000 to 10,000 exposures and its mortality is of 10%-20%. Treatment is based on steroids and on the suspension of the suspect drug. This paper reports the cases of six patients with DRESS syndrome attended at Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, from September 2012 to September 2013, which accounted for 12.5% of patients attended with adverse reactions to drugs.

  19. Down-Klinefelter syndrome (48,XXY,+21) in a child with congenital heart disease: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zheng; Zou, Chao Chun; Shang, Shi Qiang; Jiang, Ke Wen

    2012-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is extremely rarely reported in 48, XYY, +21 karyotype. Herein, we reported one case of 48,XYY,+21 karyotype with CHD and reviewed the available literature. The phenotypic characteristics of the 4-month-old child showed the presence of features typical of mongoloid slant. X-ray detection showed the form of heart was corpulent and the bilateral mediastinum was broad. Doppler echocardiogram detection showed atrial septal and ventricular septal defects with patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension and mild tricuspid regurgitation. Including this case, 63 cases of 48, XYY, +21 chromosome pattern have been reported. However, only 9 cases have CHD.

  20. Characteristics and Outcome of Streptococcus pneumoniae Endocarditis in the XXI Century: A Systematic Review of 111 Cases (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    de Egea, Viviana; Muñoz, Patricia; Valerio, Maricela; de Alarcón, Arístides; Lepe, José Antonio; Miró, José M; Gálvez-Acebal, Juan; García-Pavía, Pablo; Navas, Enrique; Goenaga, Miguel Angel; Fariñas, María Carmen; Vázquez, Elisa García; Marín, Mercedes; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an infrequent cause of severe infectious endocarditis (IE). The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and outcome of a series of cases of S. pneumoniae IE diagnosed in Spain and in a series of cases published since 2000 in the medical literature. We prospectively collected all cases of IE diagnosed in a multicenter cohort of patients from 27 Spanish hospitals (n = 2539). We also performed a systematic review of the literature since 2000 and retrieved all cases with complete clinical data using a pre-established protocol. Predictors of mortality were identified using a logistic regression model. We collected 111 cases of pneumococcal IE: 24 patients from the Spanish cohort and 87 cases from the literature review. Median age was 51 years, and 23 patients (20.7%) were under 15 years. Men accounted for 64% of patients, and infection was community-acquired in 96.4% of cases. The most important underlying conditions were liver disease (27.9%) and immunosuppression (10.8%). A predisposing heart condition was present in only 18 patients (16.2%). Pneumococcal IE affected a native valve in 93.7% of patients. Left-sided endocarditis predominated (aortic valve 53.2% and mitral valve 40.5%). The microbiological diagnosis was obtained from blood cultures in 84.7% of cases. In the Spanish cohort, nonsusceptibility to penicillin was detected in 4.2%. The most common clinical manifestations included fever (71.2%), a new heart murmur (55%), pneumonia (45.9%), meningitis (40.5%), and Austrian syndrome (26.1%). Cardiac surgery was performed in 47.7% of patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.7%. The multivariate analysis revealed the independent risk factors for mortality to be meningitis (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-12.9; P < 0.01). Valve surgery was protective (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.04-0.4; P < 0.01). Streptococcus pneumoniae IE is a community-acquired disease that mainly affects native aortic valves. Half of the cases in the present study had concomitant pneumonia, and a considerable number developed meningitis. Mortality was high, mainly in patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Surgery was protective.

  1. COMMUNICATION STRATEGY OF TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION FINDINGS IN A U.S.-MEXICO BORDER XXI PROGRAM PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 1996 to 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a U.S.-Mexico Border X...

  2. Neurocognitive Outcomes of Individuals with a Sex Chromosome Trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method: A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results: We identified 35…

  3. Forest- and agroclimatic potential in the Altai-Sayan ecoregion under climate change during the XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenova, E. I.; Tchebakova, N.; Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Altai Sayan ecoregion (ASE), central Asia, is located in Russia, Mongolia, China and Kazakhstan, within the window 80-102° E and 42-57° N, north of the territory of Tibet. The ASE is a territory with a great variety of landscapes observed at a short distance: from nival and tundra landscapes at highlands, to taiga (dark-needled and light-needled) and subtaiga at middle elevations, to steppes at lower elevations. This southern part of Siberia is known as having a high agroclimatic potential due to favorable climatic and soil resources. Crops of food, forage, and biofuels primarily reside in steppe and forest-steppe zones and are resistant to frequent droughts and the cold climate. Regional studies over the Altai-Sayan ecoregion have already registered a change in climate at the end of the 20th century: January temperatures increased 1-2°C and July temperatures increased 0.7-1.5°C over the last 50 years in the northern portion of ASE; in the southern, more continental portion of ASE, both January and July temperature increased two times greater, 2-4°C and 1.4-3.2°C,0 respectively. Our goal was to model how mountain vegetation in ASE may be altered in a changing climate through the century to the year 2080 and if the agroclimatic potential in the lowlands of ASE may benefit from climate change. We used our montane bioclimatic vegetation model (MontBioCliM) to predict the future vegetation distribution, coupling MontBioCliM with the HadCM3 A2 and B1 climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050, and 2080. MontBioCliM is an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5C; negative degree days below 0°C; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). Our model runs indicated that by 2080, forest habitats would decrease from 52% to 48% according to the moderate scenario B1 and from 52% to 38% according the harsh A2 scenario. In a warmer climate, grasslands better adapted to hot and dry climates would replace forest which may not be regenerate because of an increased potential for severe and large fires. At the expense of forests, more potential agricultural lands were modeled to appear in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats in foothills and lowlands in ASE. These lands might become suitable for growing traditional crops and introducing new crops. Bioclimatic models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to the above climate change scenarios. Crops were predicted to extend in size and to 2-fold increase. However, due to shortage of water in the future dry climate crops would necessitate irrigation. A new agroclimatic potential of the Altai-Sayan ecoregion was predicted to evolve as climate changes.

  4. Investigation of fluvial landforms in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, using cartographic materials from the XIX-XXI Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robu, Delia; Niga, Bogdan; Perşoiu, Ioana

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the north-eastern Pannonian Basin, and covers approximately 3700 km2. Using cartographic materials for the last 155 years, we analyzed and defined river network and relict fluvial morphologies created by the rivers Tur, Someş, Homorod and Crasna. Database extraction from each set of historical maps was performed by field verification and validation, associated to GIS techniques. Relict fluvial morphologies on the Someş alluvial cone comprise a wide variety of channel typologies and sizes, drainage directions and their consequent typology, which indicates a complex fluvial evolution. The dominant category of relict fluvial morphology is represented by the meander loop. Following the quantitative analysis on the successive sets of maps we identified and delimited meander loops and meandering paths formed prior to the reference year 1860. Generally, the post-1860 relict fluvial morphologies are secondary morphologies, as the keynote is given by those formed previous to the reference moment 1860. An analysis of the share of the relict fluvial morphologies on the three sets of reference cartographic materials (the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, Google Earth and orthophotoplans) highlights that most relict fluvial morphologies were identified on the second Austro-Hungarian topographic survey, followed by those identified in Google Earth and orthophotoplans. The map of fluvial morphologies constructed in this study enables a discussion on drainage directions, based on the observation that a series of abandoned meander loops and segments follow clear directions. We applied several quantitative indices in assessing the relict fluvial morphology (radius of curvature, paleochannel width). Consequently, we identified underfit stream sectors with meander loops larger than the modern ones Someş meanders (on the Racta River), uncharacteristic features such as braided riverbed reaches, a high frequency of meander scrolls present on the right bank of Crasna at its entrance in the plain, or the occurrence of wetlands in an area affected by subsidence (the Ecedeea Plain). Despite the ample human intervention in our study area through sewers, dams, meander cuts, the river network evolution trend remained the same between 1860 and 2005, with evolution and formation of meanders, although the change rate has diminished. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This paper has been financially supported within the project entitled "SOCERT. Knowledge society, dynamism through research", contract number POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132406. This project is co-financed by European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013. Investing in people!"

  5. [The challenge for healthcare systems in the XXI century: how to incorporate the focus of social determinants in healthcare?].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2015-10-20

    During the 20th century, a series of reflections on the role of biomedicine and social factors in the concept of health and disease processes served as a necessary prelude to the conceptual and empirical development of what later became known as the social determinants of health. In relation to this perspective, the question arises: What is the role of modern health systems from the perspective of the social determinants of health? This article presents an alternative view of the role of health systems from the focus of the social determinants of health, raising its importance and influence on the structural level, while addressing its implications as an intermediary determinant of health inequalities.

  6. Studies on phenolic steriods in human subjects. XXI. renal metabolism, conjugation and excretion of four androgens: a comparison with estriol.

    PubMed

    Kirdani, R; Barua, N R; Sandberg, A A

    1977-06-01

    The present study was conducted in order to ascertain whether the human kidney can conjugate androgens to an extent similar to that of estriol (E3). Differently labeled androgens (testosterone, DHT and androstenedione) were injected simultaneously into a peripheral vein and the renal artery. The excretion of the radioactivity in the early urine collections served as an index of the ability of the kidney to conjugate and/or metabolize the various steroids administered. It was shown that the human kidney can conjugate testosterone to some extent as the 17-glucuronide of DHT, but to a much lesser degree that E3. Androstenedione was not conjugated by the kidney and the excretion DHT was paradoxically lower following its renal artery administration than following its peripheral injection. We interpret the latter to indicate that some kidney cells may contain receptors with very high affinity for DHT, thus leading to the lower excretion observed. The administration of androstenediol (into the renal artery) and E3 (peripherally) indicated that the diol was not conjugated as readily as E3. The results point to the ability of the kidney to conjugate testosterone to some extent; however, in no case was it able to conjugate an androgen with the same facility as it does E3.

  7. Interdisciplinary Study for Knowledge and Dating of the San Francesco Convent in Stampace, Cagliari - Italy Xiii-Xxi Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannattasio, C.; Grillo, S. M.; Vacca, G.

    2013-07-01

    The Franciscan monastery, situated in the historic center of Cagliari (Sardinia), was founded in the thirteenth century, and transformed during the later centuries, up to the present day. The complexity of the case and the lack of objective data about its history has led us to carry out an interdisciplinary inquiry, in order to achieve a better knowledge of the building, preliminary for the drafting of a restoration project that respects all the signs that the time left. Starting from a deep examination of the indirect sources, turned out to be incomplete, the investigation continued with the execution of a survey with laser scanner and with the characterization of materials and related diseases of degradation. For the laser scanner survey we used a Faro Focus 3D, versatile and lightweight instrument that allows to perform scans with high speed point acquisition and high accuracy. For data elaboration we used the JRC 3D Reconstructor Software by the Gexcel srl. The characterization of the materials was performed on a reasoned sampling of natural and artificial materials, referring to masonry, interstitial mortars and plasters, carried out at strategic points, representative of the various phases of the construction. The samples were studied through mineralogical-petrographic methods with instrumental techniques for the analysis of component materials (OM, X-Ray diffraction). The data obtained, crossed with the results of the reconstruction of historical maps, of the examination of masonry techniques and of the analysis of pattern elements (arches, vaults, decorative elements), have facilitated stratigraphic analysis and helped to advance chronological reasoned hypothesis referring to the building. Besides, an interdisciplinary approach for the study of cultural heritage is very important to define a proper restoration and conservation intervention.

  8. A Method For The Longitudinal Study Of Behavioral Development In Infants And Children: The Early Development Of XXY Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes preliminary results from a behavioral study of 13 male infants who were ascertained to have an XX Y sex chromosome complement at birth and who are being followed longitudinally through early ontogenesis. (CM)

  9. Armaments for the Army of the Future (Army XXI Through Army After Next). An International Symposium & Exhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Product defined , calibre selected Phase 2 - CTWS Full Development Company Qualifica~tion Phase 3 - Integration Qualification First Platform...BLII’St 01𔄀l’l\\’dt � Shots 111111 (ŕ񓟰 j *RW12e 1450 meters -1 leh-flit ol, burst 7,111 Fan- marca 10nix� -l:Ia2IIICI11 IM ICtratio 11

  10. The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association

    PubMed Central

    Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication. PMID:22891057

  11. The VMC Survey - XXI. New star cluster candidates discovered from infrared photometry in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Rubele, Stefano; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We report the first search for new star clusters performed using the VISTA near-infrared YJKs Magellanic Clouds survey (VMC) data sets. We chose a pilot field of ˜0.4 deg2 located in the South-west of the Small Magelllanic Cloud bar, where the star field is among the densest and highest reddened region in the galaxy. In order to devise an appropriate automatic procedure we made use of dimensions and stellar densities observed in the VMC data sets of the known clusters in this area. We executed different kernel density estimations over a sample of more than 358 000 stars with magnitudes measured in the three YJKs filters. We analysed the new cluster candidates whose colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), cleaned from field star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate reddenings and ages of the genuine systems. As a result 38 objects (≈ a 55 per cent increase in the known star clusters located in the surveyed field) of 0.15-0.40 arcmin (2.6-7.0 pc) in radius resulted to have near-infrared CMD features which resemble those of star clusters of young to moderate intermediate age (log(t yr-1) ˜7.5-9.0). Most of the new star cluster candidates are hardly recognizable in optical images without the help of a sound star field decontaminated CMD analysis. For highly reddened star cluster candidates (E(B - V) ≥ 0.6 mag) the VMC data sets were necessary in order to recognize them.

  12. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  13. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the... by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained... or drinkable liquids and all preparations or mixtures capable of human consumption and any...

  14. Life sciences and space research XXI(1); Proceedings of the Topical Meeting, Graz, Austria, June 25-July 7, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P. (Editor); Horneck, G. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Space research in biology is presented with emphasis on flight experiment results and radiation risks. Topics discussed include microorganisms and biomolecules in the space-environment experiment ES 029 on Spacelab-1, the preliminary characterization of persisting circadian rhythms during space flight; plant growth, development, and embryogenesis during the Salyut-7 flight, and the influence of space-flight factors on viability and mutability of plants. Consideration is also given to radiation-risk estimation and its application to human beings in space, the radiation situation in space and its modification by the geomagnetic field and shielding, the quantitative interpretation of cellular heavy-ion action, and the effects of heavy-ion radiation on the brain vascular system and embryonic development.

  15. The evaluation of research papers in the XXI century. The Open Peer Discussion system of the World Economics Association.

    PubMed

    Ietto-Gillies, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a brief discussion of the traditional peer review (TPR) system of research evaluation, its role, and the criticisms levelled at it. An analysis of specific problems in economics leads to a full discussion of the Open Peer Review (OPR) system developed by the World Economics Association (WEA) and the principles behind it. The system is open in the following two respects: (a) disclosure of names of authors and reviewers; and (b) inclusivity of potential reviewers in terms of paradigmatic approaches, country, and community. The paper then discusses the applicability of the same system to other disciplines. In doing so, it stressed the aims of various evaluation systems and the possible pitfalls of rating systems. It also speculates on the future of journal publication.

  16. General trends in the change in solar activity indices in the period from the late XX to early XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of observations of the indices of the sunspot numbers (SSN from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)), the radio-emission flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm ( F 10.7), and the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) in cycles 22-24. We have found that the ratio of the observed values SSNobs to the calculated ones SSNsyn (from the regression relations between SSN and F 10.7) decreases after 1990 by 20-25%, rather than by 35%, as was supposed earlier. The characteristics of the most widely used SSN index, such as the decrease in sunspot numbers and magnetic field strength in small and medium spots, do not change in complete correspondence to the expected scenario of the solar activity development predicted from the flux F 10.7 in cycles 23 and 24; they also cannot be fully explained by an additional minimum of the secular cycle. We also showed that the observed SSN changes lead to an increase of the Total Solar Irradiance in activity cycles 23-24 as compared to that in cycle 22.

  17. Distinción Empírica Entre Engagement y Trabajolismo en Enfermeras Hospitalarias de Japón: Efecto Sobre la Calidad del Sueño y el Desempeño Laboral

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar la distinción entre engagement y trabajolismo, estudiando su relación con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Método Un total de 447 enfermeras de 3 hospitales de Japón fueron entrevistadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado que incluía la escala Utrecht (UWES, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale), la Escala de Adicción al Trabajo Holandesa (DUWAS, Dutch Workaholism Scale), preguntas sobre la calidad del sueño (7 ítems) con respecto a (1) dificultad para conciliar el sueño, (2) dificultad para mantener el sueño, (3) despertar temprano por la mañana, (4) dormirse o tomar siestas durante el día, (5) somnolencia diurna excesiva en el trabajo, (6) dificultad para despertarse por la mañana, y (7) despertar cansado en la mañana, y el Cuestionario sobre Salud y Desempeño (CSD) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados Los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales demostraron que el engagement se relaciona positivamente con la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento laboral, mientras que el trabajolismo tiene una relación negativa con la calidad del sueño y el desempeño laboral. Conclusión Los resultados indican que el engagement y el trabajolismo son conceptualmente diferentes. El primero tiene una connotación positiva, mientras que el segundo se asocia de manera negativa al bienestar (buena calidad del sueño y buen rendimiento en el trabajo). PMID:26752805

  18. Estudio de la estructura logica utilizada en la ensenanza y el aprendizaje de los conceptos sobre el comportamiento de gases en el curso introductorio de quimica a nivel universitario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Diaz, Agnes

    El estudio que se presenta es de caracter cualitativo, un estudio multicasos donde se estudia la estructura logica utilizada por cuatro (4) profesores universitarios que ensenan el curso introductorio de quimica, en la planificacion, presentacion y evaluacion del tema sobre el comportamiento de los gases. Se utilizaron varias fuentes de informacion como: cuestionarios de profesores y estudiantes, entrevistas, grabaciones videomagnetofonicas, materiales didacticos y una prueba conceptual, entre otros. La informacion recopilada fue analizada de acuerdo al orden logico del contenido presentado, el estilo de ensenanza del profesor, las tecnicas y estrategias utilizadas para el desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, el ambiente fisico en el salon de clase y los instrumentos de evaluacion y avaluo. El estudio demuestra que lo que los profesores piensan y planifican para hacer sus presentaciones no necesariamente es lo que ocurre en el salon de clases. El desarrollo de destrezas de pensamiento, que constituye una prioridad de los profesores, no se elaboran efectivamente. El uso de las estrategias de resolucion de problemas numericos predomino. La participacion del estudiante en el salon de clases fue limitada y no se logro demostrar el desarrollo de las destrezas de pensamiento deseadas. Aunque los profesores tienen su propio estilo de ensenanza, el orden logico del contenido presentado en clase fue el mismo o siguio muy de cerca el orden establecido por el libro de texto. Los profesores utilizaron preferentemente la tiza y la pizarra para sus presentaciones y la dinamica en el salon de clases fue esencialmente tradicional. Los profesores hicieron su presentacion y los estudiantes copiaron pasivamente la informacion. Las evaluaciones de los estudiantes fueron esencialmente, pruebas escritas de seleccion multiple de acuerdo con el estilo en que se les enseno. El avaluo fue casi inexistente. La prueba conceptual administrada revela un aprendizaje pobre en los conceptos mas

  19. High School Student's Alternative Conceptions About the Phenomenon of the Formation of the Moon Phases. (Spanish Title: Concepciones Alternativas de Alumnos de Educación Media Sobre el Fenómeno de Formación de las Fases de La Luna.) Concepções Alternativas de Alunos do Ensino Médio Sobre o Fenômeno de Formação das Fases da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Langhi, Rodolfo; Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa Maria

    2008-07-01

    Forty students, at ages between 14 and 18 years old, from three schools in Bauru city, were questioned about their alternative conceptions concerning the phenomenon of formation of the Moon Phases. It was observed that some of the pupils confound the phenomenon of the formation of the Moon Phases with the phenomenon of the formation of the lunar eclipses, others are unaware of the reason of the phenomenon, they present incoherent alternative conceptions of the reality or incomplete conceptions. The results found here are aimed at the teachers of Elementary Education and can be used as a subsidy for future development of new pedagogical methods. Cuarenta estudiantes, con edad entre 14 y 18 años, pertenecientes a tres escuelas de la ciudad de Bauru, fueron cuestionados sobre sus concepciones alternativas acerca del fenómeno de la formación de las fases de la Luna. Fue observado que algunos alumnos confunden el fenómeno de formación de las fases de la Luna con el fenómeno de formación de los eclipses lunares, otros desconocen el motivo delfenómeno, presentan concepciones alternativas incoherentes con la realidad o bien presentan concepciones incompletas. Los resultados aquí encontrados son destinados a los profesores de la Enseñanza Básica y podrán ser usados como ayuda para el futuro desarrollo de nuevos métodos pedagógicos. Quarenta estudantes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos, pertencentes a três escolas da cidade de Bauru, foram questionados sobre suas concepções alternativas acerca do fenômeno de formação das fases da Lua. Foi observado que alguns dos alunos confundem o fenômeno da formação das fases da Lua com o fenômeno da formação dos eclipses lunares, outros desconhecem o motivo do fenômeno, apresentam concepções alternativas incoerentes com a realidade ou então concepções incompletas. Os resultados aqui encontrados são destinados aos professores do Ensino Básico e poderão ser usados como subsídio parafuturo desenvolvimento de

  20. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group.

  1. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  2. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  3. Investigaciones sobre cascadas electromagnéticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, M.; Pellizza, L.; Romero, G. E.

    Results from the latest generations of telescopes have revealed a rich sky at high and very high energies with more than a thousand sources at GeV energies and more than a hundred sources at TeV energies. The sources are galactic and extra-galactic natural particle accelerators where emission processes operate efficiently at the gamma-ray domain. The development of pair-photon cascades within the source or along the line of sight may modify the originally emitted spectrum. This effect should be included in our interpretation of the observations in order to progress in the understanding of the physical origin of the emission. Through numerical simulations; we follow the three-dimensional trajectories of such cascades. I here report on the status of our investigations; with focus on the propagation through the background photon fields. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. Reflecting on Character (Reflexionando Sobre el Caracter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candelaria, Cordelia

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the "Proyecto Resolana" article in the July/August 1980 issue of this journal, the article notes the heterogeneity of Hispanic Americans, the three main effects of the European conquest on people of the Western Hemisphere, and attempts to further define the character of Hispanic Americans. (SB)

  5. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  6. Reflecting on Language. (Reflexionando Sobre el Idioma.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazas, Jose Garcia

    1980-01-01

    Covering a 500-year span, this article traces the changes in and evolution of the Spanish language from its earliest written accounts in the eleventh century to the Spanish that was brought by the Conquistadores to the New World. (DS)

  7. Nota sobre "Neblina" (Notes on "Neblina")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyne, Jacques

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the Royal Spanish Academy change the definition of "neblina" in the next edition of the "Dictionary of the Spanish Language" to "niebla ligera" or "light fog," and cites literary usage in support. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  8. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Gas Natural

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El gas natural abastece cerca de 150.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y aproximadamente 22 millones de vehiculos en todo el mundo. Los vehiculos de gas natural (NGV, por sus siglas en ingles) son una buena opcion para las flotas de vehiculos de alto kilometraje, tales como autobuses, taxis, vehiculos de recoleccion de basura, los cuales son alimentados centralmente u operan dentro de un area limitada o a lo largo de una ruta con estaciones de servicio de gas natural. Las ventajas del gas natural como combustible alternativo incluyen su disponibilidad interna, la red de distribucion establecida, un costo relativamente bajo, y los beneficios de las emisiones.

  9. Sobre | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  10. Raouf Ibrahim, Liquid Sloshing Dynamics: Theory and Applications , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005) ISBN 0-521-83885-1 pp. xxi+948, £160, US$275, hbk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohayon, Roger

    2008-08-01

    The appearance of this book is an event. Written by Professor Raouf Ibrahim, an internationally recognized expert in nonlinear vibrations and random responses of liquid-free surface and more generally liquid sloshing dynamics, this book is particularly welcome as it appears as a monumental monograph on various phenomena occurring in sloshing problems, mostly based on analytical results and discussions resulting from various particular tank geometries. As a consequence, this book will be a useful complement to computational mechanics studies of free surface sloshing effects-linear and nonlinear, periodic and random-in earthquake engineering, civil engineering (storage tanks), aerospace engineering (such as liquid propelled launchers), nuclear engineering, naval and offshore engineering, etc.

  11. Impacts of climate change on ground level gas-phase pollutants and aerosols in the Iberian Peninsula for the late XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan José; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2012-08-01

    Climate change alone influences future air pollution levels through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. Hence, the goal of this study is to determine at what extent concentrations of air pollutants respond to changes over the Iberian Peninsula under a climate change scenario. The methodology includes the use of the regional modeling system MM5 (regional climate model version)-CHIMERE for two nested domains covering Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Two time slices driven by ECHO-G global circulation model covering from 1991 to 2010 and 2071 to 2100 under the SRES A2 scenario have been compared. Climate change influences the concentrations of both gas-phase pollutants and aerosols through changes in temperature, precipitation, mixing height, transport, humidity, and oxidant levels. The trends of variation of ozone (changes up to 5 ppb, +10% increase during summertime) and aerosols over southwestern Europe are influenced by the higher mean temperature modeled for the future climate (up to +5.4 K), since it favors the formation of secondary gas-phase products. It also enhances sulphates (+2 μg m-3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (+2.5 μg m-3 under SRES A2 scenario) and contributes to the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, remaining in the gas phase. Further, the 17% percent decrease of precipitation modeled for 2071-2100 has a strong effect in the frequency of the washout and therefore in the levels of natural aerosols: the concentrations of aerosols decrease with increasing precipitation as wet deposition provides the main aerosol sink.

  12. The effect of early life stress on the cognitive phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY/47,XXX).

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barneveld, Petra; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Giltay, Jacques; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-28

    Studies on gene-environment interactions suggest that some individuals may be more susceptible to life adversities than others due to their genetic profile. This study assesses whether or not children with an extra X chromosome are more vulnerable to the negative impact of early life stress on cognitive functioning than typically-developing children. A total of 50 children with an extra X chromosome and 103 non-clinical controls aged 9 to 18 years participated in the study. Cognitive functioning in domains of language, social cognition and executive functioning were assessed. Early life stress was measured with the Questionnaire of Life Events. High levels of early life stress were found to be associated with compromised executive functioning in the areas of mental flexibility and inhibitory control, irrespective of group membership. In contrast, the children with an extra X chromosome were found to be disproportionally vulnerable to deficits in social cognition on top of executive dysfunction, as compared to typically-developing children. Within the extra X group the number of negative life events is significantly correlated with more problems in inhibition, mental flexibility and social cognition. It is concluded that children with an extra X chromosome are vulnerable to adverse life events, with social cognition being particularly impacted in addition to the negative effects on executive functioning. The findings that developmental outcome is codependent on early environmental factors in genetically vulnerable children also underscores opportunities for training and support to positively influence the course of development.

  13. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse XXI. Effect of para-substituents on benzene ring of methamphetamine on drug incorporation into rat hair.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Y; Hanajiri, R

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the effect of para-substituents on the benzene ring of methamphetamine on drug incorporation into hair from blood, the plasma AUCs and hair concentrations of 7 methamphetamines [methamphetamine(MA), p-hydroxymethamphetamine(OHMA), p-bromomethamphetamine (BMA), p-aminomethamphetamine (AMA), p-nitromethamphetamine (NMA), p-methoxymethamphetamine (MOMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] plus propylhexedrine(PHX) in DA rats was determined after intraperitoneal injection at 5 mg/kg, with single dose for the plasma AUC and 10 doses for the hair concentration. Drug incorporation rates into hair (ICRs) were calculated by dividing each hair concentration by each plasma AUC. Comparing the highest value (NMA) to the lowest one (OHMA), the ICR of NMA was 31.7 times larger than that of OHMA. Using the ICR of MA which has no substitute on the benzene ring as a base point, nitro, bromo, methylenedioxy, methoxy and amino groups raised the drug incorporation into rat hair in this order. On the other hand, hydroxy substitution showed a negative effect on the ICR. In comparison between the ICRs of MA and PHX, it was found that the benzene ring shows higher affinity to melanin and less lipophilicity than the cyclohexyl ring. Our results showed that there is a relatively strong effect of the functional groups on drug incorporation into hair. The combination of melanin affinity and lipophilicity are clearly correlated with their ICR.

  14. Extreme Geophysical and Weather Related Disasters in the First Decade of the XXI Century - How do the Patterns of these Two Groups of Perils Differ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeppe, P.; Faust, E.; Bove, M.

    2011-12-01

    The first decade of the 21st century saw natural disasters with an unprecedent level of losses, such as the costliest natural disaster ever, the earthquake and tsunami disaster of March 2011 in Japan (US 210bn in direct economic losses), or Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (US 125bn in direct economic losses). In the first half year of 2011, a fierce tornado season occurred in the US with record-breaking thunderstorm-related losses (US$ 24bn in direct economic losses). Analysing drivers of increasing losses, the most prominent one is increasing and more than ever spatially concentrated destroyable wealth in course of urban sprawl, where loss amplifying factors such as increasingly interwoven streams of goods and services across regions or knock-on catastrophes contribute to recently observed very large losses. Looking at longer time series of annually aggregated numbers and losses of geophysical and weather-related disasters, we find regional indications for the hypothesis that besides socioeconomic changes in wealth and development patterns also natural variability and climate change are already involved in the specific time series patterns of the weather-related proportion. This has to be seen against the background of scientific studies demonstrating an interrelation of anthropogenic climate change and weather extremes.

  15. Significance and prospects of the energo-technological usage of HTGR for nuclear power development in the beginning of the XXI century

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, A.Kh.; Putilov, A.V.; Bogoyavlensky, R.G.; Glebov, V.P.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the economic efficiency of atomic stations (HTGR plants). The realization of the complex (energy radiation-technological) using of nuclear fuel leads to the economically effective mastering of nuclear energy sources instead of organic ones for supplying inductry and municipal economy. It is necessary to include in the power engineering development programme, under the circumstances of fulfillment of requirements of safety and reliability, research and development by the end of the century of the pattern of complex unit on the base of the HTGR with spherical fuel elements and (by 2010-15), mastering the energy-technological plants in high-energy branches of industry and municipal economy. Solving the mentioned problems will make a perceptible contribution into scientific progress, will allow to fulfill the conversion of war industry, attract highly qualified specialists to solving the tasks of national economy.

  16. Thermochemistry of organic, elementorganic and inorganic species. Part XXI: Enthalpies of formation for bi- and triradicals of main group elements’ halogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Dmitry; Takhistov, Viatcheslav; Slayden, Suzanne; Liebman, Joel

    2008-03-01

    General trends in thermochemistry of bi- and triradicals as the fragments of halogenated molecules of main group elements :EX (:EHX; :EX 2) and triradicals ·:EX, respectively, where X-halogens F-I were found for the first time. The enthalpy of formation for methylene CH 2 was drastically changed in present work with adopted values 79 ( 3B 1) and 88 ( 1A 1) compared with currently used values ˜93 and ˜102 kcal mol -1, respectively. This happened mainly because of the drastic change in the enthalpy of formation for ketene CH 2dbnd C dbnd O molecule from currently used value -11.4 to -24 kcal mol -1 [A.V. Golovin, D.A. Ponomarev, V.V. Takhistov, This Journal 524 (2000) 259] which was the source of experimental determination of ΔHf0 :CH 2. Other experimental data are provided for support of the lower values of the ΔHf0 for :CH 2. It was established that halogens F-I stabilize all biradicals :EX (E = B-Tl, N-Bi) and :EHX (:EX 2) (E = C-Pb) compared with the free radicals of these elements. This was interpreted by essentially smaller thermodynamic stability of bi- compared with mono (free)radicals the former extracting larger stabilization at H → X replacement from the same halogen compared with more stable free radicals. The expected increase in stabilization of biradicals is observed when coming down the periodic table while due to lower stability of biradicals all halogens reveal similar (contrary to free radicals) stabilization effects. Finding unknown values and correcting some literature data on the enthalpies of formation for mono-, bi- and triradicals we could estimate their thermodynamic stabilities. It was established that only about 40 molecules, radicals and biradicals from more than 800 hydrides and halogenides possess higherΔHf0 values compared with their fragments with elements in lower valent states with H 2 (rarely HX) as a partner. This might be treated only in the sense that the parent species are less stable than the system [fragment + H 2 (or HX)] rather than as the support of the higher thermodynamic stability of an element in its lower valent state. The thermodynamic stability of such state may be found only by the comparison of the consecutive bond dissociation energies (BDEs) in parent molecules like PbH 3X → ·PbH 2X (BDE 1) → :PbHX (BDE 2) → ·:PbX (BDE 3) and only if BDE 2 < 0 one can declare the larger thermodynamic stability of element in lower valent state. But this does not happen with any species studied in this work. This means that thermodynamic stability quite definitely decreases in the row molecule > free radical > biradical > triradical > :E: (C-Pb) contrary to the current opinion of larger thermodynamic stability of lower valent states for, say, thallium or lead. The detailed analysis of many computational results related to thermochemistry of halogenated main group elements is performed with quite definite result that neither ab initio, DFT, semi-empirical methods (or their combination) can be trusted either in support of known or prediction of unknown values of the enthalpies of formation while the empirical approach, elaborated in this work, solves the problem of calculation of the enthalpies of formation and search of general trends in structure/enthalpy of formation for halogenated main group elements.

  17. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Amazônia XXI. Descriptions of Elephantotus gen. n. and E. tracuateuensis sp. n. (Diachlorini) from the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Gorayeb, Inocêncio de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Elephantotus, a new genus of Tabanidae from the Amazon coast, Brazil, is described based on a new species E. tracuateuensis. Five females were collected in Pará State, and a male in Maranhão State. Arguments are presented for separating the new genus from Dasybasis, as well as the possibility of its occurrence being related to the nesting sites of coastal birds. The new species is characterized by its large size (x = 2.15 cm, n = 5 females), glabrous eyes, reddish-brown tegument, light brown frontal callus not touching the edges of the eyes, extending up to the vertex that has traces of ocelli, basal plate of the antennal flagellum with obtuse angle, without a tooth or spine, wings hyaline, with brown basal cells, without appendix in the fork of vein R4+5, and genital furca wide with extended flaps.

  18. Planck intermediate results. XXI. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust at 353 GHz with interstellar polarization in the visible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alina, D.; Aniano, G.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Beichman, C.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fanciullo, L.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Magalhães, A. M.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Poidevin, F.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zonca, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Planck survey provides unprecedented full-sky coverage of the submillimetre polarized emission from Galactic dust. In addition to the information on the direction of the Galactic magnetic field, this also brings new constraints on the properties of dust. The dust grains that emit the radiation seen by Planck in the submillimetre also extinguish and polarize starlight in the visible. Comparison of the polarization of the emission and of the interstellar polarization on selected lines of sight probed by stars provides unique new diagnostics of the emission and light scattering properties of dust, and therefore of the important dust model parameters, composition, size, and shape. Using ancillary catalogues of interstellar polarization and extinction of starlight, we obtain the degree of polarization, pV, and the optical depth in the V band to the star, τV. Toward these stars we measure the submillimetre polarized intensity, PS, and total intensity, IS, in the Planck 353 GHz channel. We compare the column density measure in the visible, E(B - V), with that inferred from the Planck product map of the submillimetre dust optical depth and compare the polarization direction (position angle) in the visible with that in the submillimetre. For those lines of sight through the diffuse interstellar medium with comparable values of the estimated column density and polarization directions close to orthogonal, we correlate properties in the submillimetre and visible to find two ratios, RS /V = (PS/IS) / (pV/τV) and RP/p = PS/pV, the latter focusing directly on the polarization properties of the aligned grain population alone.We find RS /V = 4.2, with statistical and systematic uncertainties 0.2 and 0.3, respectively, and RP/p = 5.4 MJy sr-1, with uncertainties 0.2 and 0.3 MJy sr-1, respectively. Our estimate of RS /V is compatible with predictions based on a range of polarizing dust models that have been developed for the diffuse interstellar medium. This estimate provides new empirical validation of many of the common underlying assumptions of the models, but is not yet very discriminating among them. However, our estimate of RP/p is not compatible with predictions, which are too low by a factor of about 2.5. This more discriminating diagnostic, RP/p, indicates that changes to the optical properties in the models of the aligned grain population are required. These new diagnostics, together with the spectral dependence in the submillimetre from Planck,will be important for constraining and understanding the full complexity of the grain models, and for interpreting the Planck thermal dust polarization and refinement of the separation of this contamination of the cosmic microwave background. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. [The economic crisis at the beginning of the XXI century and mortality in Spain. Trend and impact on social inequalities. SESPAS Report 2014].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Córdoba-Doña, Juan Antonio; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Juárez, Sol; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the current economic crisis on mortality trends in Spain and its effect on social inequalities in mortality in Andalusia. We used data from vital statistics and the Population Register for 1999 to 2011, as provided by the Spanish Institute of Statistics, to estimate general and sex- and age-specific mortality rates. The Longitudinal Database of the Andalusian Population (2001 census cohort) was used to estimate general mortality rates and ratios by educational level. The annual percentages of change and trends were calculated using Joinpoint regressions. No significant change in the mortality trend was observed in Spain from 2008 onward. A downward trend after 1999 was confirmed for all causes and both sexes, with the exception of nervous system-related diseases. The reduction in mortality due to traffic accidents accelerated after 2003, while the negative trend in suicide was unchanged throughout the period studied. In Andalusia, social inequalities in mortality have increased among men since the beginning of the crisis, mainly due to a more intense reduction in mortality among persons with a higher educational level. Among women, no changes were observed in the pattern of inequality.

  20. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Amazônia XXI. Descriptions of Elephantotus gen. n. and E. tracuateuensis sp. n. (Diachlorini) from the Brazilian coast

    PubMed Central

    Gorayeb, Inocêncio de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elephantotus, a new genus of Tabanidae from the Amazon coast, Brazil, is described based on a new species E. tracuateuensis. Five females were collected in Pará State, and a male in Maranhão State. Arguments are presented for separating the new genus from Dasybasis, as well as the possibility of its occurrence being related to the nesting sites of coastal birds. The new species is characterized by its large size (x = 2.15 cm, n = 5 females), glabrous eyes, reddish-brown tegument, light brown frontal callus not touching the edges of the eyes, extending up to the vertex that has traces of ocelli, basal plate of the antennal flagellum with obtuse angle, without a tooth or spine, wings hyaline, with brown basal cells, without appendix in the fork of vein R4+5, and genital furca wide with extended flaps. PMID:24715787

  1. The `PAMIR XXI' Project of a Complex Setup for the PCR Study in a Wide Energy Range 1014 - 1018 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexander; Muminov, Khikmat; Galkin, Vladimir; Puchkov, Vitaly

    2013-06-01

    A new comprehensive EAS experiment for multi-component study of the energy spectrum behavior and composition of the PCR in a wide energy range 1014 - 1018 eV is launched at the Pamirs this year. The experimental setup of ~ 1 km2 in area combines conventional EAS array technique with those of X-Ray emulsion chamber, Cherenkov detector array and Cherenkov atmospheric imaging telescopes (IACT). The goals of the experiment and the experimental techniques are discussed.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXI. Baseline therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapies in children before national drug policy change.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Youmba, Jean-Christian; Abodo, Raphael Therese Okalla; Soula, Georges

    2006-09-01

    The availability of epidemiologic data on drug-resistant malaria based on a standardized clinical and parasitological protocol is a prerequisite for a rational therapeutic strategy to control malaria. As part of the surveillance program on the therapeutic efficacy of the first-line (chloroquine and amodiaquine) and second-line (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) drugs for the management of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections, non-randomized studies were conducted in symptomatic children aged less than 10 years according to the World Health Organization protocol (14-day follow-up period) at 12 sentinel sites in Cameroon between 1999 and 2004. Of 1,407 children enrolled in the studies, 460, 444, and 503 were treated with chloroquine, amodiaquine, or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, respectively. Chloroquine treatment resulted in high failure rates (proportion of early and late failures, 48.6%). Amodiaquine was effective at all study sites (proportion of failures, 7.3%). Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine therapy was less effective than amodiaquine (P < 0.05), with failures observed in 9.9% of patients. Chloroquine is no longer a viable option and has been withdrawn from the official drug outlets in Cameroon. Amodiaquine and, to a lesser extent, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapies are still effective in Cameroon, but further development of resistance to these drugs should be delayed by the novel strategy using artemisinin-based combination therapy. Our findings indicate that amodiaquine is the most rational partner for artesunate. Studies on the efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine combination are currently being undertaken at several sites in the country.

  3. 76 FR 42154 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of M.B.A. Holdings, Inc., Medicor Ltd., MidgardXXI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ..., Inc., MidNet, Inc., Nettel Holdings, Inc., and Nexicon, Inc., File No. 500-1 July 14, 2011. It appears... concerning the securities of MidNet, Inc., because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  4. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXI. PARALLAX RESULTS FROM THE CTIOPI 0.9 m PROGRAM: 20 NEW MEMBERS OF THE 25 PARSEC WHITE DWARF SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Subasavage, John P.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P.; Ianna, Philip A.; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A. E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: pai@virginia.edu E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.cl

    2009-06-15

    We present accurate trigonometric parallaxes for 20 new members of the 25 pc white dwarf (WD) sample as part of the Discovery and Evalution of Nearby Stellar Embers (DENSE) project.{sup 7} http://www.DenseProject.com Previously, there were a total of 112 WD systems with trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc and of these, 99 have trigonometric parallaxes known to better than 10%. Thus, the 20 new members presented in this work represent a 20% increase in the number of WDs accurately known to be within 25 pc. In addition, we present updated parallaxes for seven known WDs within 10 pc that have been observed as part of the Astrometric Search for Planets Encircling Nearby Stars initiative to monitor nearby southern red dwarfs and WDs for astrometric perturbations from unseen companions. Including a few WD companions and WDs beyond 25 pc, we present a total of 33 trigonometric parallaxes. We perform atmospheric modeling for WDs to determine physical parameters (i.e., T {sub eff}, log g, mass, and WD age). Finally, a new ZZ Ceti pulsating WD was identified and revised constraints are placed on two mixed H/He atmosphere cool WDs that display continuum absorption in the near-infrared.

  5. Proceedings of the XXI International Workshop High Energy Physics and Quantum Field Theory (QFTHEP 2013). 23 30 June, 2013. Saint Petersburg Area, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Workshop continues a series of workshops started by the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in 1985 and conceived with the purpose of presenting topics of current interest and providing a stimulating environment for scientific discussion on new developments in theoretical and experimental high energy physics and physical programs for future colliders. Traditionally the list of workshop attendees includes a great number of active young scientists and students from Russia and other countries. This year the Workshop is organized jointly by the SINP MSU and the SPbSU and it will take place in the holiday hotel "Baltiets" situated in a picturesque place of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in the suburb of the second largest Russian city Saint Petersburg. Scientific program, the main topics to be covered are: * Higgs searches and other experimental results from the LHC and the Tevatron; impact of the Higgs-like boson observed * Physics prospects at Linear Colliders and super B-factories * Extensions of the Standard Model and their phenomenological consequences at the LHC and Linear Colliders * Higher order corrections and resummations for collider phenomenology * Automatic calculations and Monte Carlo simulations in high energy physics * LHC/LC and astroparticle/cosmology connections * Modern nuclear physics and relativistic nucleous-nucleous collisions * Detectors for future experiments in high energy physics The Workshop will include plenary and two parallel afternoon sessions. The plenary sessions will consist of invited lectures. The afternoon sessions will include original talks. Further details are given at http://qfthep.sinp.msu.ru

  6. Assessment of atmospheric acidified pollutants trends observed by EANET in North-East Asia in the first decade of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2015-04-01

    Owing to rapid development and subsequent enormous increase in energy consumption/fossil fuel use, anthropogenic emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides in China and other Asian countries surpass those in North America and Europe since mid-1990s. Consequently, regional air pollution has become an issue for the most of developing countries in North-East Asia. Since 1998, the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) provides constant monitoring of the air quality and precipitation (including gaseous and particulate phase chemistry) in 13 countries of the region. The measurements are conducted at 45 rural and remote stations using both filter pack sampling techniques and automatic monitoring equipment. In this study we present a comprehensive trend analysis of the long-term (last 15 years) air pollution monitoring data from selected EANET monitoring sites. Using several statistical approaches, we estimate the quality of the data and perform distribution tests, single out special events (detect outliers) and calculate an ensemble of trends (monthly, seasonal, long-term and quartile) and their statistical significance for a suite of observed compounds. Based on this analysis, we further estimate the statistics and overall significance of the observed temporal dynamics for each pollutant. Ultimately we derive more than 20 trend estimates for a total of up to 12 gas-phase and particulate compounds for each station. Our calculations ascertain that about half of the trends (either negative or positive) observed at the EANET stations in Russia, Korea and Japan are significant. Whilst an increase in SO2, HCl, Cl-, NO3 (except for the stations in Russia) concentrations is distinct, small or insignificant trends are reckoned for HNO3-. A marked decrease in K+ content is seen at all regarded stations. We commonly find station-wise correlation for the trends of the remaining compounds, and for several species we conclude a general spatial pattern, viz. an eastward increase in trend magnitudes in the north-south direction. We further identify special cases of statistically significant seasonal trends for the series that otherwise do not exhibit apparent long-term dynamics, i.e. show an insignificant overall trend. A case in point is the NH3 observational record at Mondy station (Russia), for which the spring-summer negative trends are comparable to the winter positive trends, and both significant. Finally, we discuss and compare these first results with an evaluation of changes in acid deposition over region from 2000 provided by WMO PC-SAG in its global wet deposition assessment (Vet et al., 2014). References: Vet, R., Artz, R. S., Carou, S., Shaw, M., Ro, C. U., Aas, W., Baker, A., Bowersox, V. C., Dentener, F., Galy Lacaux, C., Hou, A., Pienaar, J. J., Gillett, R., Forti, M. C., Gromov, S., Hara, H., Khodzher, T., Mahowald, N. M., Nickovic, S., Rao, P. S. P., and Reid, N. W.: A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus. Atmos. Environ., 93, 3-100, 2014.

  7. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXI. A GAS-GIANT PLANET IN A ONE YEAR ORBIT AND THE HABITABILITY OF GAS-GIANT SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. Paul; Jones, Hugh R. A.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Carter, Brad D.

    2011-05-01

    We have detected the Doppler signature of a gas-giant exoplanet orbiting the star HD 38283, in an eccentric orbit with a period of almost exactly one year (P = 363.2 {+-} 1.6 d, m sin i = 0.34 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Jup}, e = 0.41 {+-} 0.16). The detection of a planet with period very close to one year critically relied on year-round observation of this circumpolar star. Discovering a planet in a 1 AU orbit around a G dwarf star has prompted us to look more closely at the question of the habitability of the satellites of such planets. Regular satellites orbit all the giant planets in our solar system, suggesting that their formation is a natural by-product of the planet formation process. There is no reason for exomoon formation not to be similarly likely in exoplanetary systems. Moreover, our current understanding of that formation process does not preclude satellite formation in systems where gas giants undergo migration from their formation locations into the terrestrial planet habitable zone. Indeed, regular satellite formation and Type II migration are both linked to the clearing of a gap in the protoplanetary disk by a planet, and so may be inextricably linked. Migration would also multiply the chances of capturing both irregular satellites and Trojan companions sufficiently massive to be habitable. The habitability of such exomoons and exo-Trojans will critically depend on their mass, whether or not they host a magnetosphere, and (for the exomoon case) their orbital radius around the host exoplanet.

  8. A Concept for the Evolution of Full-Dimensional Operations for the Strategic Army of the Early Twenty-First Century. Force XXI Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-17

    doctrine embodies our ideas, and Ideas drive change. Sir Basil Lddell Hart’s dictum-that the real challenge is not to put a new Idea into the military...7 TRADOC Pam 525-5 1 August 1994 REFERENCES Alexander, COL (Ret) John B. "Antimateriel Technology." Military Review, Vol LXIX, No. 10, (1989), p 42...34 Carlisle Barracks, PA: The Army War College, 21 February 1992. Cohen, Eliot A., and John Gooch. Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War

  9. Time-resolved measurements of nonthermal X-ray emission of Ti XXI lines in electron-cyclotron-heated tokamak plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P.; Lieber, A. J.; Pradham, A. K.; Xu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of heliumlike titanium spectra with 20 ms temporal resolution during high-power injection of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of up to 250 ms pulse length into the Doublet III tokamak is reported. The prominent lines in the spectra and the observed dielectronic satellite lines from the autoionizing lithiumlike ionization states are given. The intensity of the resonance line 1s2 1S0 - 1s 2p 1P1 is found to be extremely sensitive to the ECH power. Time-resolved line ratios are also presented. It is concluded that a significant departure from a Maxwellian distribution of electrons exists in the present ECH plasmas.

  10. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXI, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING REAR END SUSPENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND REAR AXLE SUSPENSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) AIR INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEM, (2) VALVE MECHANISM, (3) TROUBLESHOOTING THE AIR SYSTEM, (4) PURPOSE OF VEHICLE SUSPENSION, (5) TANDEM…

  11. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    Research developed with 95 students of the 6th year of elementary education in a public school of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It was a continuous work from February to December 2013, which led the students to participate in activities of observation of the environment, specifically the sky, analyzing the changes occurred. We focused on the study of variations in temperature, rainfall, day length, variations in the size of the shadows and changes in the aspect of the Moon. Our focus of analysis targeted the discussion of the knowledge that these students had about the topics indicated and as they entered the stage during the implementation of the proposal. The results showed a limited perception that students have of their environment, however, lately expanded due to the undertaken activities, especially in relation to the Moon. Working with systematic measure procedures reveals the careful handling of data so that they become understandable to students, and working with the shadows points towards the students first understand how shadows are formed, and then apply this knowledge to Astronomy. Finally, we conclude that the lived process consisted of an initial step of a work that should be encouraged for the subsequent years of training of these students. Proyecto de investigación desarrollado con 95 alumnos del sexto año de primaria en una escuela pública de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Fue un trabajo continuo, de febrero a diciembre de 2013, que llevó a los estudiantes a participar en actividades de observación de su entorno, entre ellas, el cielo, analizando los cambios ocurridos. Nos centramos en el estudio de las variaciones en la temperatura, las precipitaciones, la duración del día, las variaciones en el tamaño de las sombras y los cambios en los aspectos de la Luna. Nuestro foco de análisis se centró en discutir el conocimiento que estos estudiantes tenían sobre los temas indicados al inicio y término de la propuesta. Los resultados mostraron una

  12. A Proposed Activity for a Meaningful Learning about the Moon Phases. (Breton Title: Uma Proposta de Atividade Para a Aprendizagem Significativa sobre as Fases da Lua.) Una Actividad Propuesta Para EL Aprendizaje Significativo Acerca de Las Fases de la Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Bruno Andrade; Langhi, Rodolfo

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents one of the concepts of Astronomy and its consequent failure in teaching this topic in high school, even when the official documents point out the necessity of Astronomy teaching at this school level. Among the spontaneous conceptions in Astronomy that high school students carry with them, even after the end of the school, we emphasized in this research the Moon phases. The development of different strategies in relation to traditional methods, aimed to teaching-learning process on this topic was considered in this study. These strategies were devised based on the reference frame of the Meaningful Learning, as elaborated by Ausubel. The proposals presented here include the active participation of students in experimental activities and other didactic activities, for their continuous evaluation during the process. These activities finished with a Comics elaboration about the Moon phases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a proposal for differentiated teaching activity about Moon phases supported by the theoretical principles of Meaningful Learning at Physics classes. Este texto foca um dos conteúdos de Astronomia e a consequente falha no ensino deste tema no ensino médio, apesar de os documentos oficiais apresentarem a necessidade de se trabalhar a Astronomia neste nível de ensino. Dentre as concepções alternativas em Astronomia que os alunos do ensino médio carregam consigo, mesmo após o término dos estudos, destacamos, nesta pesquisa, o fenômeno das fases da Lua. O desenvolvimento de estratégias diferenciadas em relação ao ensino tradicional, visando o processo de ensino-aprendizagem sobre este tema, foi contemplado neste trabalho como um dos resultados obtidos sob a luz dos referenciais da aprendizagem significativa, fundamentados em Ausubel. Segundo a proposta aqui apresentada, a participação ativa dos alunos na execução de uma atividade experimental e outras atividades didáticas, que visam sua cont

  13. [What do adults die in Mexico? Impact on the economic and social development of the nation. The global burden of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Arizmendi-Uribe, Efraín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases have been established as a clear threat, not only to human health but also to the development and economic growth. Claiming 63% of all deaths, these diseases are currently the main murderer worldwide. The increase in the prevalence and importance of noncommunicable diseases specifically of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity is the result of a complex interplay between health, economic growth and development, which is strongly associated with universal trends such as the aging of the world population, rapid unplanned urbanization, and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles.Cardiovascular disease refers to a group of diseases involving the heart, blood vessels, or the consequences of poor blood supply due to a vascular source ill. About 82% of the burden of mortality is caused by ischemic heart disease or coronary heart disease (IHD), Stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic), hypertensive heart disease or congestive heart failure (CHF). The Hospital de Cardiología of the Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, serves the call to improve through innovation and technological development this area of health the "tele cardiology" (regulatory center of myocardial code), with clear objectives in the short, medium and long term.

  14. [The role of alexithymia as a psychosomatic factor in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Marcela; López-García, Sonia; Pedroza-Escobar, David; Escamilla-Tilch, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la alexitimia consiste en la carencia de representaciones mentales de las emociones que conduce a una capacidad limitada para comprender y regular estas, y que puede contribuir en el desarrollo o mantenimiento de una enfermedad psicosomática. El objetivo de este estudio fue demostrar que la alexitimia es una característica que se presenta más frecuentemente en pacientes con psoriasis y que la coexistencia de alexitimia-psoriasis se asocia, como rasgo, a niveles altos de ansiedad. Métodos: la escala de alexitimia de Toronto-20 (TAS- 20) y el inventario de ansiedad estado-rasgo (IDARE) se aplicaron a 16 pacientes con psoriasis de la consulta externa de Dermatología del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI y se compararon con 25 individuos control. Resultados: de los pacientes con psoriasis, 25 % presentaron alexitimia, mientras que en el grupo control fue un 8 % (p = 0.002). Se observó correlación entre las puntuaciones de la TSA-20 y del IDARE-rasgo (r = 0.6957, p < 0.0001). Conclusiones: la alexitimia se presenta con mayor frecuencia en individuos con psoriasis que en la población en general y los niveles de ansiedad como rasgo en individuos con psoriasis son similares, independientemente de la presencia de alexitimia.

  15. [Music as an adjuvant treatment for anxiety in pediatric oncologic patients].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Herrera-Zaragoza, Octavio René; Jaramillo-Villanueva, Leonel; Anaya-Segura, Armando

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la música ha sido utilizada como adyuvante en el manejo de la ansiedad y se basa en principios científicos. Tono, ritmo, armonía y tiempo son factores determinantes para su efectividad. El estrés importante en los pacientes pediátricos, en ocasiones puede retrasar el tratamiento. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si la musicoterapia es eficaz para disminuir el nivel de ansiedad de los pacientes con cáncer que reciben quimioterapia ambulatoria. MÉTODOS: se realizó un ensayo clínico, cuasiexperimental, tipo antes y después. Se incluyeron pacientes de ocho a 16 años de edad que acudieron a quimioterapia intravenosa ambulatoria en el Hospital de Pediatría, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. En la primera sesión recibieron su tratamiento de forma habitual y en la segunda, la maniobra con musicoterapia. Se aplicó una escala visual análoga para determinar el nivel de ansiedad al inicio y al finalizar el procedimiento en ambas fases (sin y con intervención).

  16. [Thrombolysis in left mechanical prosthetic heart valve obstruction by thrombus. Following and results].

    PubMed

    Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Arriaga-Nava, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la obstrucción de la válvula mecánica cardiaca izquierda por trombo es una complicación grave. Los factores relacionados con la mortalidad son clase funcional, tipo de prótesis valvular y urgencia de la cirugía. La trombólisis representa una opción terapéutica a la cirugía cardiaca. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el papel de la trombólisis en el manejo de la válvula mecánica cardiaca izquierda obstruida por trombo. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron 22 casos consecutivos sometidos a trombólisis en el Hospital de Cardiología del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, bajo dos diferentes circunstancias: con edema agudo pulmonar y estado de choque en clase funcional IV y con clases funcionales I y II. Se realizó monitoreo clínico, ecocardiográfico y fluoroscopia.

  17. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar.

  18. Experiencias sobre el impacto del Programa de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial en el ámbito de la salud mental y la investigación conductual

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Liliana Mondragón

    2012-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es presentar el impacto y la integración que los conocimientos adquiridos en el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la Investigación Biomédica y Psicosocial de la Universidad de Chile han tenido en mi experiencia profesional, en el ámbito de la investigación psicosocial en un Instituto de Salud de México. Para este objetivo, expondré tres áreas en las cuales se ha podido evidenciar tal impacto: trabajo en los comités de ética, desarrollo de programas de académicos en bioética e investigación y publicación sobre ética y bioética. El motivo que me llevó a incursionar en el Programa fue que su enseñanza vincula la investigación psicosocial con la ética y la bioética, lo cual me permitió dirigir este tipo de reflexión hacia problemas como violencia, suicidio, adicciones, depresión y salud mental, y a nuevos campos como los estudios comunitarios, con poblaciones en riesgo o vulnerables, en los cuales las diversas implicaciones son difíciles de indagar. PMID:22754085

  19. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  20. Mixed-Methods Study that Examines Nine Science Teachers' Perceptions of Slooh Robotic Telescope for Teaching Astronomy. (Breton Title: Métodos Mistos de Estudo que Examinam a Percepção de Nove Professores de Ciências sobre o Telescópio Robótico Slooh Para Ensino de Astronomia.) Métodos Mixtos de Estudio que Examinan la Percepcion de Nueve Profesores de Ciencias sobre EL Telescopio Robótico Slooh Para la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershun, Daniel C.; Slater, Timothy F.; Berryhill, Katie J.

    2014-07-01

    Although previous studies show that robotic telescopes have the potential to enhance student learning, there is comparatively little research that focuses on teacher perceptions of this technology. This study investigates: "what is the academic merit of using SLOOH robotic telescopes to teach astronomy as perceived by science teachers?" Our sample consists of nine science teachers of students aged 13-18 years. Pre- and post-tests, interviews, and surveys were collected during two weeks of a summer online course about robotic telescopes. While pre and post-tests do not reveal a statistically significant gain in astronomy content knowledge, analysis of qualitative data reveals five themes which describe the most important aspects of using SLOOH according to participants: "Images," "Interface," "Classroom Application," "Instructor Impact," and "Logistical Issues." Analysis of these themes suggests that SLOOH can provide an interactive and social learning environment with capabilities to incorporate crossdisciplinary themes. Embora estudos anteriores mostram que os telescópios robóticos têm o potencial de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos, há relativamente pouca investigação focada nas percepções de professores a respeito desta tecnologia. Este estudo investiga: "qual é o mérito acadêmico da utilização de telescópios robóticos Slooh para ensinar astronomia, tal como percebido pelos professores de ciências?" Nossa amostra é composta por nove professores de ciências de estudantes com idades entre 13-18 anos pré e pós-testes, entrevistas, e levantamentos foram coletados durante duas semanas de um curso on-line de verão sobre telescópios robóticos. Enquanto os testes pré e pós não revelaram um ganho estatisticamente significativo no conhecimento do conteúdo astronomia, a análise de dados qualitativos revela cinco temas que descrevem os aspectos mais importantes da utilização Slooh de acordo aos participantes: "Imagens", "Interface", "Aplica

  1. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  2. Gobierno Federal Contina Investigacin Cientfica Sobre Erupciones en Flint

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Flint, MICH. (24 de marzo, 2016) - Los expertos federales, del estado y del condado de salud y agua entienden que los residentes de Flint están preocupados por la calidad general de su agua-tanto como para beber y para bañarse. En este momento, el an

  3. Epilepsy. Fact Sheet = Epilepsia. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of epilepsy. It notes that epilepsy is classified as "other health impaired" under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that children with epilepsy or seizure disorders…

  4. [Parenting Information: Teenagers. Informacion Para los Padres: Sobre los Jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These four booklets are devoted specifically to the concerns of parents and their teenage children and are part of a series of 22 booklets designed specifically to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. "Parents--Learn about Your Teenager" (booklet #6) explains the changes which occur during the teen years and the…

  5. Pensamientos Sobre (Thoughts on) Teaching English as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulibarri, Mari-Luci

    This document presents ideas on various topics in teaching English as a second language. Some of the problems of English orthography and semantics are illustrated. The role of contrastive analysis is mentioned with Spanish-English illustrations. A list of second-language-acquisition principles and techniques is provided, and suggestions for…

  6. Primeros resultados sobre el estudio de oscilaciones no radiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    En el Observatorio de La Plata se ha comenzado a elaborar un código de pulsaciones el cual resuelve el problema de las oscilaciones no radiales en el caso adiabático. Dicho código está basado en la técnica de diferencias finitas ampliamente usado en cálculos de estructura y evolución estelar. En este trabajo se presentan los primeros resultados encontrados aplicando el código mencionado al caso de una polítropa de índice n=3. Se presentan los valores de las autofrecuencias y las autofunciones para diferentes modos de pulsación de dicha configuración politrópica. En un futuro próximo, se aplicará este programa al estudio de las pulsaciones no radiales de estrellas enanas blancas.

  7. Sobre prestamos y clasificaciones linguisticas (Regarding Borrowing and Linguistic Classification).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the traditionally accepted etymologies of several lexical borrowings in the indigenous languages of the Americas within the framework of comparative linguistics and linguistic classification. The first section presents a general discussion of the problem of tracing lexical borrowings in this context. The section features a…

  8. Um Olhar sobre "Beleza Americana" (A Look at "American Beauty").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoto, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the film "American Beauty" in light of a reading of Karl Marx. Finds that the film shows the circularity which marks bourgeois society, even though the rhythm of industry and renovation of the society masks it. States that Marx praises the industry, invention, and innovation of the bourgeoisie. (BT)

  9. Reflexiones Sobre Investigacion Educacional (Reflections on Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Educational research can serve to improve education in both developed and developing countries. It can be oriented toward increasing knowledge about the educational reality, generating theories, or confirming immediate educational political decisions. Educational research should be an interdisciplinary undertaking; this variety helps to unify…

  10. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  11. Posible influencia de exoplanetas sobre la actividad estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M.; Saffe, C.; Buccino, A. P.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Mauas, P.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to analize the possible difference in the levels of activity showed by stars with and without planets. Several authors have suggested that stars with planets, in particular those with hot-Jupiter-like planets, have activity levels greater than those showed for stars of the same spectral class, but without planets. In this contribution we present the analysis of chromospheric activity indexes for 353 objects. To do so, we used high-resolution spectra () of F-, G-, and K-type stars taken with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher spectrograph, installed at the 3.6 m ESO telescope. We do no find a significant difference in the activity indexes of stars with and without planets.

  12. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This journal, which provides abstracts of its articles mostly in Spanish and a few in English, contains studies (estudios) and notes (notas) about educational issues, as well as relevant book reviews (recensiones). Studies in this issue (No. 3, 2002) are: "Unprotected Time of Early Adolescence and Intergenerational Relations: A New…

  13. Spina Bifida. Fact Sheet = Espina Bifida. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet offers definitions of the three types of spina bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, and myelomeningocele), outlines their incidence, describes characteristics of individuals with spina bifida, and reviews educational implications. The fact sheet discusses the need for many children with myelomeningocele to learn to manage…

  14. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Primeros frutos (Initiative about Effectiveness: First Fruits).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin is a follow-up to No. 15 (PS 030 558), which examined some Effectiveness Initiative (EI) projects. This issue presents some beginning efforts to reflect on what has been learned through EI and to draw conclusions. The articles cover the results of EI projects from such angles as their relations with…

  15. Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002 (Studies on Education, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estudios sobre Educacion, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal deals with the study of education. Articles in this second issue are: "La Vertebracion Academica de la Formacion Inicial del Profesorado" (The Academic Backbone of the Initial Formation of Teachers) (Jose M. Esteve); "Deficiencia Visual en el Nino" (Visual Deficiency in the Young Child) (Feli Peralta;…

  16. Los ojos de la NASA sobre la Tierra

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA cuenta con más de una decena de satélites que estudian la Tierra. Conoce la información que recaban los satélites, junto con Gilberto Colón, asistente especial del subdirector del Centro de...

  17. Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY).

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Anand, Payal; Will, Elizabeth; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Giedd, Jay N; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Fidler, Deborah J; Edgin, Jamie O

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are thought to be impaired in Down syndrome (DS) and sex chromosome trisomy (Klinefelter and Trisomy X syndromes; +1X). However, the syndromic specificity and developmental trajectories associated with EF difficulties in these groups are poorly understood. The current investigation (a) compared everyday EF difficulties in youth with DS, +1X, and typical development (TD); and (b) examined relations between age and EF difficulties in these two groups and a TD control group cross-sectionally. Study 1 investigated the syndromic specificity of EF profiles on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in DS (n = 30), +1X (n = 30), and a TD group (n = 30), ages 5-18 years. Study 2 examined age effects on EF in the same cross-sectional sample of participants included in Study 1. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2's findings for DS by examining age-EF relations in a large independent sample of youth with DS (n = 85) and TD (n = 43), ages 4-24 years. Study 1 found evidence for both unique and shared EF impairments for the DS and +1X groups. Most notably, youth with +1X had relatively uniform EF impairments on the BRIEF scales, while the DS group showed an uneven BRIEF profile with relative strengths and weaknesses. Studies 2 and 3 provided support for fairly similar age-EF relations in the DS and TD groups. In contrast, for the +1X group, findings were mixed; 6 BRIEF scales showed similar age-EF relations to the TD group and 2 showed greater EF difficulties at older ages for +1X. These findings will be discussed within the context of efforts to identify syndrome specific cognitive-behavioral profiles for youth with different genetic syndromes in order to inform basic science investigations into the etiology of EF difficulties in these groups and to develop treatment approaches that are tailored to the needs of these groups.

  18. Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Anand, Payal; Will, Elizabeth; Adeyemi, Elizabeth I.; Clasen, Liv S.; Blumenthal, Jonathan D.; Giedd, Jay N.; Daunhauer, Lisa A.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Edgin, Jamie O.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are thought to be impaired in Down syndrome (DS) and sex chromosome trisomy (Klinefelter and Trisomy X syndromes; +1X). However, the syndromic specificity and developmental trajectories associated with EF difficulties in these groups are poorly understood. The current investigation (a) compared everyday EF difficulties in youth with DS, +1X, and typical development (TD); and (b) examined relations between age and EF difficulties in these two groups and a TD control group cross-sectionally. Study 1 investigated the syndromic specificity of EF profiles on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in DS (n = 30), +1X (n = 30), and a TD group (n = 30), ages 5–18 years. Study 2 examined age effects on EF in the same cross-sectional sample of participants included in Study 1. Study 3 sought to replicate Study 2's findings for DS by examining age-EF relations in a large independent sample of youth with DS (n = 85) and TD (n = 43), ages 4–24 years. Study 1 found evidence for both unique and shared EF impairments for the DS and +1X groups. Most notably, youth with +1X had relatively uniform EF impairments on the BRIEF scales, while the DS group showed an uneven BRIEF profile with relative strengths and weaknesses. Studies 2 and 3 provided support for fairly similar age-EF relations in the DS and TD groups. In contrast, for the +1X group, findings were mixed; 6 BRIEF scales showed similar age-EF relations to the TD group and 2 showed greater EF difficulties at older ages for +1X. These findings will be discussed within the context of efforts to identify syndrome specific cognitive-behavioral profiles for youth with different genetic syndromes in order to inform basic science investigations into the etiology of EF difficulties in these groups and to develop treatment approaches that are tailored to the needs of these groups. PMID:26539087

  19. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below-Blue Force Tracking (FBCB2-BFT). A Case Study in the Accelerated Acquisition of a Digital Command and Control System during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Command CIB Controlled Image Base COA Course of Action COTS Commercial off the Shelf CP Command Post CPX Command Post Exercise CTIS Combat Terrain...Command Brigade and Below FCS Future Combat System FRP Full Rate Production FY Fiscal Year G3 Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training...Graphic User Interface HTI Horizontal Technology Insertion IMETS Integrated Meteorological System IMTF Information Management Task Force IOT &E

  20. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXI. CoRoT-19b: a low density planet orbiting an old inactive F9V-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Díaz, R. F.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Mazeh, T.; Rouan, D.; Gibson, N.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Almenara, J. M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Bruntt, H.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Cavarroc, C.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Dreizler, S.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guillot, T.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Jehin, E.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Moutou, C.; Nortmann, L.; Ollivier, M.; Ofir, A.; Pasternacki, Th.; Pätzold, M.; Parviainen, H.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Observations of transiting extrasolar planets are of key importance to our understanding of planets because their mass, radius, and mass density can be determined. These measurements indicate that planets of similar mass can have very different radii. For low-density planets, it is generally assumed that they are inflated owing to their proximity to the host-star. To determine the causes of this inflation, it is necessary to obtain a statistically significant sample of planets with precisely measured masses and radii. Aims: The CoRoT space mission allows us to achieve a very high photometric accuracy. By combining CoRoT data with high-precision radial velocity measurements, we derive precise planetary radii and masses. We report the discovery of CoRoT-19b, a gas-giant planet transiting an old, inactive F9V-type star with a period of four days. Methods: After excluding alternative physical configurations mimicking a planetary transit signal, we determine the radius and mass of the planet by combining CoRoT photometry with high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the echelle spectrographs SOPHIE, HARPS, FIES, and SANDIFORD. To improve the precision of its ephemeris and the epoch, we observed additional transits with the TRAPPIST and Euler telescopes. Using HARPS spectra obtained during the transit, we then determine the projected angle between the spin of the star and the orbit of the planet. Results: We find that the host star of CoRoT-19b is an inactive F9V-type star close to the end of its main-sequence life. The host star has a mass M∗ = 1.21 ± 0.05 M⊙ and radius R∗ = 1.65 ± 0.04 R⊙. The planet has a mass of MP = 1.11 ± 0.06 MJup and radius of RP = 1.29 ± 0.03 RJup. The resulting bulk density is only ρ = 0.71 ± 0.06 g cm-3, which is much lower than that for Jupiter. Conclusions: The exoplanet CoRoT-19b is an example of a giant planet of almost the same mass as Jupiter but a ≈30% larger radius. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Program), Germany and Spain. Partly based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile in program 184.C-0639, and partly based on observations conducted at McDonald Observatory.

  1. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XXI; A Summary of Methods for Conducting Salmonid Fry Mark-Recapture Studies for Estimating Survival in Tributaries, Technical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Skalski, John

    2007-02-01

    Productivity and early fry survival can have a major influence on the dynamics of fish stocks. To investigate the early life history of fish, numerous methods have been developed or adapted to these much smaller fish. Some of the marking techniques provide individual identification; many others, only class identification. Some of the tagging techniques require destructive sampling to identify a mark; other methods permit benign examination and rerelease of captured fish. Sixteen alternative release-recapture designs for conducting fry survival investigations were examined. Eleven approaches were found capable of estimating survival parameters; five were not. Of those methods capable of estimating fry survival, five required unique marks, four required batch-specific marks, and two approaches required remarking and rereleasing captured fry. No approach based on a simple batch mark was capable of statistically estimating survival.

  2. Life sciences and space research XXIII(2): Planetary biology and origins of life; Proceedings of the Topical Meeting and Workshops XX, XXI and XXIII of the 27th COSPAR Plenary Meeting, Espoo, Finland, July 18-29, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, A. W. (Editor); Dose, K. (Editor); Raup, D. M. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor); Devincenzi, D. L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This volume includes chapters on exobiology in space, chemical and early biochemical evolution, life without oxygen, potential for chemical evolution in the early environment of Mars, planetary protection issues and sample return missions, and the modulation of biological evolution by astrophysical phenomena. Papers are presented on the results of spaceflight missions, the action of some factors of space medium on the abiogenic synthesis of nucleotides, early peptidic enzymes, microbiology and biochemistry of the methanogenic archaeobacteria, and present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations. Consideration is also given to the development of the Alba Patera volcano on Mars, biological nitrogen fixation under primordial Martian partial pressures of dinitrogen, the planetary protection issues in advance of human exploration of Mars, and the difficulty with astronomical explanations of periodic mass extinctions.

  3. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (XXI. Activation of Caffeic Acid 3-O-Methyltransferase and Caffeoyl Coenzyme A 3-O-Methyltransferase Genes Does Not Contribute to Changes in Metabolite Accumulation in Elicitor-Treated Cell-Suspension Cultures).

    PubMed Central

    Ni, W.; Sewalt, VJH.; Korth, K. L.; Blount, J. W.; Ballance, G. M.; Dixon, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Transcription of genes encoding L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), enzymes involved in the synthesis of lignin and wall-esterified phenolic compounds, was strongly activated in elicitor-treated cell-suspension cultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). However, consequent changes in the extractable activities of COMT and CCOMT were small to nonexistent compared with a 15- to 16-fold increase in PAL activity. Only low levels of COMT and CCOMT transcripts were reflected in the total and polysomal RNA fractions compared with PAL transcripts. Elicited cell cultures did not accumulate lignin or the products of COMT and CCOMT in the soluble and wall-esterified phenolic fractions. In one alfalfa cell line in which elicitation resulted in very high PAL activity and increased deposition of methoxyl groups in the insoluble wall fraction, there was still no change in COMT and CCOMT activities. Overall, these results indicate that the initial gene transcription events in elicited cells may be less selective than the subsequent metabolic changes, highlighting the importance of posttranscriptional events in the control of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. PMID:12226420

  4. [Clinical features of patients with influenza-like illness who went to a third level center in the winter of 2013-2014].

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Sánchez, Alejandra; Ramírez-Rentería, Claudia; Huerta-Montiel, Fernando; Martínez-Jerónimo, Angélica; Herrera-Landero, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, José Luis; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Elia; Palmas-Pineda, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés) registró, entre octubre de 2013 y abril de 2014, el pico más alto de casos relacionados con la influenza AH1N1. No todos los casos sospechosos de influenza resultan positivos, pero todos les generan costos a las instituciones. Nuestro objetivo fue describir las características de la población que acude con sospecha de influenza al Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI durante una nueva epidemia. Métodos: estudio transversal de casos admitidos al servicio de Urgencias del hospital mencionado por sospecha de influenza de acuerdo con las guías de práctica clínica. Con base en estas se analizaron los factores asociados a la severidad de la infección. Resultados: se registraron 109 pacientes con promedio de 44 años edad; el 78 % de ellos tenía menos de 60 años; el 62 % fueron mujeres; 75 % tenía por lo menos un factor de riesgo como obesidad (26 %) o hipertensión (27 %). Solo 65 pacientes tuvieron prueba confirmatoria, 33.8 % fueron diagnóstico positivo y 21 % de ellos fallecieron. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de casos confirmados de influenza es baja. Los factores asociados a mortalidad en los casos confirmados son la presencia de hipertensión, de leucocitosis y la presentación clínica de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda grave (IRAG).

  5. Cytogenetic findings in 303 Mexican patients with de novo acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arana-Trejo, R M; Gómez-Morales, E; Rubio-Borja, M E; Kassack-Ipiña, J J; Cervantes-Peredo, A; Guerrero-Rivera, S; González-Llaven, J; Gutiérrez-Romero, M; Pizzuto-Chávez, J; Kofman-Alfaro, S

    1997-01-01

    In this report we show the chromosomal changes seen in a group of 303 Mexican patients with de novo Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia (AML). Two hundred forty-two patients were diagnosed and treated at two hospitals affiliated with the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). These are the Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI and Centro Medico La Raza Hospitals; the remaining 61 patients were diagnosed and treated at the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM). Clonal abnormalities were detected in 75.6% of the patients; this result agrees with what has been reported in other large series of AML studies. The incidence of changes per hospital was similar in patients from the IMSS hospitals (72-75%), while an increase was seen in patients from the HGM (85.2%). The chromosomal changes seen in this study in order of frequency were: t(15;17)[18.8%], t(9;22)[9.2%], miscellaneous chromosomal changes (mainly rearrangements of chromosomes 1,2,3,12y17)[8.2%], abnormalities of 16q22 [7.3%], t(8;21)[6.3%], -7/del(7q)[5.6%], t(6;9)[5.3%], and abnormalities of 11q23 [4.6%]. We reported an increase in the incidence of certain types of chromosomal changes seen in cases of AML, in comparison with reports from other countries. These differences could be due to methodological variations, although ethnic, socioeconomic and nutritional differences must not be disregarded. We support this finding when comparing distribution of changes in the population of patients seen in the IMSS hospitals with those from the HGM; the main difference lies in the socioeconomic level.

  6. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    PubMed

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: los catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) son de gran utilidad en la práctica médica actual; sin embargo, no están exentos de riesgos, lo que incrementa la morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en los recién nacidos (RN). El objetivo fue registrar la frecuencia de complicaciones de los CVC y su duración en RN en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) de tercer nivel. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, prolectivo en la UCIN del Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Se registraron variables demográficas, perinatales y del CVC. Resultados: se incluyeron 123 RN a quienes se les colocaron 152 CVC. La técnica más usada para la inserción del CVC fue la punción (percutánea o subclavia) en 56.6 % (n = 86). En 48.7 % (n = 74) de los CVC se presentó alguna complicación. Las más frecuentes fueron colonización en 32.4 % (n = 24) y bacteriemia relacionada con CVC en 27 % (n = 20). La probabilidad de duración de los CVC libres de complicaciones fue de 93.4 % a los 10 días y de 91.4 % a los 17 días. Los catéteres venosos no centrales tuvieron menor probabilidad de duración. Conclusión: la mayoría de las complicaciones de los CVC se presentaron en las primeras dos semanas de haber sido instalados. Las complicaciones infecciosas fueron las más frecuentes.

  7. [Parenteral nutrition in pediatric patients: indications and complications in third level].

    PubMed

    Ríos-González, Roxana; Anaya-Florez, María Salomé; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Jorge Isaac; Morán-Villota, Segundo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la nutrición parenteral (NP) es una mezcla que cubre las necesidades nutricionales cuando no es posible lograr esta tarea por la vía enteral en el paciente; sin embargo, no está exenta de complicaciones. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la indicación y la frecuencia de complicaciones de la NP en pacientes pediátricos atendidos en un centro de tercer nivel. Métodos: se incluyeron niños que recibieron NP en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se registraron las características demográficas, antropométricas, la causa de la indicación de la NP, su tiempo de administración y las complicaciones asociadas a este tipo de nutrición. Resultados: se incluyeron 69 pacientes pediátricos: 33 recién nacidos (RN) y 18 lactantes entre uno y 11 meses de edad; nueve preescolares entre uno y cinco años, y nueve niños mayores de cinco años. Las enfermedades del tracto digestivo tratadas quirúrgicamente constituyeron el 71 % de las indicaciones para el inicio de NP. Se presentaron complicaciones en el 87 % de los pacientes y 76.7% tuvieron más de una complicación. Las complicaciones metabólicas representaron 98 %, las mecánicas 1 % y las infecciosas 1 %. Conclusión: la NP en este centro de tercer nivel se indicó principalmente a pacientes sometidos a cirugía del tracto digestivo.

  8. JBASE: Joint Bayesian Analysis of Subphenotypes and Epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Colak, Recep; Kim, TaeHyung; Kazan, Hilal; Oh, Yoomi; Cruz, Miguel; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Peralta, Jesus; Escobedo, Jorge; Parra, Esteban J.; Kim, Philip M.; Goldenberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Rapid advances in genotyping and genome-wide association studies have enabled the discovery of many new genotype–phenotype associations at the resolution of individual markers. However, these associations explain only a small proportion of theoretically estimated heritability of most diseases. In this work, we propose an integrative mixture model called JBASE: joint Bayesian analysis of subphenotypes and epistasis. JBASE explores two major reasons of missing heritability: interactions between genetic variants, a phenomenon known as epistasis and phenotypic heterogeneity, addressed via subphenotyping. Results: Our extensive simulations in a wide range of scenarios repeatedly demonstrate that JBASE can identify true underlying subphenotypes, including their associated variants and their interactions, with high precision. In the presence of phenotypic heterogeneity, JBASE has higher Power and lower Type 1 Error than five state-of-the-art approaches. We applied our method to a sample of individuals from Mexico with Type 2 diabetes and discovered two novel epistatic modules, including two loci each, that define two subphenotypes characterized by differences in body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. We successfully replicated these subphenotypes and epistatic modules in an independent dataset from Mexico genotyped with a different platform. Availability and implementation: JBASE is implemented in C++, supported on Linux and is available at http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼goldenberg/JBASE/jbase.tar.gz. The genotype data underlying this study are available upon approval by the ethics review board of the Medical Centre Siglo XXI. Please contact Dr Miguel Cruz at mcruzl@yahoo.com for assistance with the application. Contact: anna.goldenberg@utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26411870

  9. [Orofacial clinical manifestations in adult patients with variable common immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Chávez-García, Aurora Alejandra; Moreno-Alba, Miguel Ángel; Elizalde-Monroy, Martín; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Romero-Flores, Jovita; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; López-Pérez, Patricia; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la inmunodeficiencia común variable es la inmunodeficienci primaria más común en adultos. Su prevalencia se estima en 1 por cada 25,000 a 75,000 recién nacidos vivos; existen variaciones por grupos étnicos, se estima en 50 a 70% en pacientes de raza caucásica. Las lesiones de la cavidad oral raramente se describen en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable, en niños con esta enfermedad existen informes de lesiones principalmente de origen infeccioso. Objetivo: describir las lesiones orofaciales (cavidad oral, macizo facial y cuello) en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio transversal, prospectivo, efectuado en todos los adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable adscritos a la Clínica de inmunodeficiencias primarias, del Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, que fueron examinados por un cirujano maxilofacial; se realizó el reporte de hallazgos en lista de cotejo y, posteriormente, el análisis descriptivo de las lesiones. Resultados: se incluyeron 26 pacientes, 16 mujeres y 10 hombres, con edad promedio de 38.6 años. En 18 de 26 pacientes estudiados se observaron lesiones orales, con siete lesiones diferentes y predominio en el sexo femenino 2:1. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron: hiperplasia de glándulas salivales menores (19/26), petequias (12/26) y úlceras herpetiformes (7/26). En la cara y el cuello se observaron cuatro lesiones distintas, las adenopatías < 2 cm (4/26) fueron las más comunes. Conclusiones: las alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas con la inmunodeficiencia común variable favorecen la aparición de lesiones de origen infeccioso y probablemente autoinmunitario que afectan la cavidad oral, la cara y el cuello.

  10. [Association of stress hyperglycemia and in-hospital complications].

    PubMed

    Galindo-García, Gerardo; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Almeida-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la hiperglucemia de estrés es la elevación de la glucosa sérica que se encuentra a la admisión hospitalaria de un paciente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto de la hiperglucemia de estrés al ingreso en el desenlace de pacientes no críticos hospitalizados en un servicio de Medicina Interna. Métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectivo y analítico realizado en pacientes de Medicina Interna del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, de septiembre de 2011 a febrero de 2012. Resultados: se incluyeron 89 pacientes con niveles séricos de glucosa < 110 mg/dL (grupo A) y 90 pacientes con niveles de glucosa > 110 mg/dL (grupo B). La diabetes mellitus fue más frecuente en el grupo B (p < 0.001). La hemoglobina glucosilada mayor a 6.5 % se encontró en el 36.4 % de los pacientes del grupo B y en el 8.7 % del grupo A, (p < 0.001). Los pacientes del grupo B tuvieron mayor puntuación en el APACHE II (p = 0.02) y tendencia a mayor frecuencia de complicaciones. Conclusiones: la hiperglucemia de estrés se asocia a una mayor puntuación de APACHE II, y tiende a una mayor frecuencia de enfermedad crítica, sepsis, infección de vías urinarias, neumonía y uso de aminas vasopresoras. Los predictores independientes de muerte fueron la presencia de hipertensión arterial y el score APACHE II.

  11. [Experience in the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus closure at a mexican hospital].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, Horacio; Castro-Contreras, Uriel; Cerrud-Sánchez, Carmen Emma; López-Gallegos, Diana; Yáñez-Gutiérrez, Lucelli

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la persistencia del conducto arterioso (PCA) representa una de las enfermedades con mayor prevalencia en los hospitales que atienden cardiopatías congénitas (CC). En la actualidad en pacientes mayores de un año de edad el cierre percutáneo es la terapéutica estándar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la frecuencia, características y tratamiento de PCA en el servicio de Cardiopatías Congénitas en el Hospital de Cardiología del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: en el servicio de Cardiopatías Congénitas del Hospital de Cardiología del CMN SXXI se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 2010 a 2015 de los enfermos que fueron tratados con cierre percutáneo y cirugía de PCA. Se dividieron en las siguientes edades: lactantes, preescolares, escolares, adolescentes y adultos. Se registraron las frecuencias absolutas. Resultados: se seleccionaron 187 pacientes, de los cuales los preescolares y escolares representaron el 60% del total de la muestra. El cierre percutáneo por cateterismo intervencionsta se realizó en 90%; se registró un 2% de complicaciones. Conclusiones: en esta clínica de cardiopatías congénitas, la PCA es tratada por cateterismo intervencionista en la mayoría de las etapas del ser humano, lo que ha registrado mínimas complicaciones.

  12. [Deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Preliminary outcomes].

    PubMed

    Pérez-de la Torre, Ramiro Antonio; Calderón-Vallejo, Alejandra; Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Gallardo-Ceja, David; Carrera-Pineda, Raúl; Guinto-Balanzar, Gerardo; Magallón-Barajas, Eduardo; Corlay-Noriega, Irma; Cuevas-García, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la enfermedad de Parkinson puede justificar un procedimiento quirúrgico que consiste en la estimulación cerebral profunda. Se presentan resultados a mediano y largo plazo de una cohorte de 60 pacientes del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: los pacientes fueron operados con una metodología estereotáctica convencional a través del protocolo FrameLink (Medtronics Inc.). La técnica consistió en la evaluación preoperatoria de los pacientes, la colocación de marco estereotáctico, la realización de estudios de imagen, la planeación preoperatoria, el microrregistro, la macroestimulación y la colocación de implantes, que estuvo conformada por electrodos y generador en dos fases. La escala unificada para la evaluación de la enfermedad de Parkinson (UPDRS) preoperatoria, a tres, 12, y 36 meses fue utilizada como medida estándar. Se analizaron los resultados y las complicaciones como variables de interés. Resultados: se operaron 60 pacientes (41 hombres y 19 mujeres), con edad promedio de 56.5 años (rango de 39-70). Se obtuvieron de buenos a excelentes resultados en la mayoría de los pacientes con UPDRS promedio en periodo preoperatorio, a 3, 12 y 36 meses de 79.57, 66.85, 65.29 y 58.75, respectivamente (p < 0.0001). Las complicaciones se presentaron en forma mínima (en nueve pacientes: 15 %) y fueron manejadas de forma conservadora. Conclusiones: hubo una mejoría progresiva en el UPDRS durante los 36 meses de seguimiento.

  13. [Risk factors and rejection frequency in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty].

    PubMed

    Gittins-Nuñez, Luis Othón; Díaz Del Castillo-Martín, Ernesto; Huerta-Albañil, Irma; Ríos-Prado, Rita; Soto-Dávila, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el trasplante de córnea representa uno de los procedimientos quirúrgicos que con mayor frecuencia se realizan en todo el mundo y de los que tienen un mejor pronóstico. Dentro de sus principales indicaciones se encuentran: el queratocono, la queratopatía bullosa, el rechazo corneal previo, la distrofia corneal y la infección. Los factores de riesgo conocidos para rechazo del trasplante son: edad del receptor, presencia de vasos en la córnea receptora, presión intraocular y retrasplante. El objetivo de este artículo es determinar los factores de riesgo y la frecuencia de rechazo corneal en pacientes sometidos a queratoplastia penetrante. Métodos: el diseño del estudio fue descriptivo, observacional, transversal, retrospectivo y analítico. Se estudiaron los pacientes operados de queratoplastia penetrante en la consulta externa de córnea, con seguimiento mínimo de 6 meses. Se llevó a cabo una revisión de expedientes clínicos de pacientes operados de queratoplastia penetrante en Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del IMSS. Resultados: del total de los pacientes trasplantados 35.3 % presentaron rechazo del trasplante corneal. La neovascularización corneal previa al trasplante de la corona receptora estuvo presente en 21.3 %. Conclusiones: en nuestro estudio encontramos resultados similares a los reportados en la literatura, siendo los factores de riesgo más importantes para presentar rechazo: el uso de trépanos mayores a 7.50 mm, paciente con antecedentes de neovascularización corneal previa, queratopatía y queratitis herpética.

  14. [Rethinking the surgical approach to intestinal obstruction surgery in neonates. Experience of a third-level hospital].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Piedra Buena-Muñoz, Esmeralda; Partida-Justo, Irving; Campos-Lozada, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la elección de una incisión para laparotomía depende del área que necesite ser expuesta, la urgencia del procedimiento y las preferencias del cirujano. En el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del IMSS, tradicionalmente se realiza abordaje por línea media en estos pacientes. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si el abordaje por línea media es seguro para el manejo de neonatos sometidos a laparotomía por oclusión intestinal. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que incluyó a todos los neonatos sometidos a laparotomía por oclusión intestinal mediante abordaje por línea media, en un período comprendido entre enero 2010 a enero 2012. Resultados: se estudiaron 34 pacientes. El 88.2 % de los procedimientos fueron de urgencia. Se encontraron complicaciones en 44 % de los pacientes, de las cuales la más frecuentes fueron: infección y dehiscencia de herida. Dentro de las complicaciones respiratorias, el 32.4 % presentó atelectasia y el 14.7 %, neumonía. Tuvieron hernia postincisional al año el 14.7 %. Ninguna de las variables del paciente o la cirugía fueron estadísticamente significativas para el desarrollo de complicaciones. Se presentaron más complicaciones en los procedimientos de urgencia, en pacientes menores a 2000 gramos y con tiempos quirúrgicos mayores a 120 minutos. Conclusiones: la frecuencia de complicaciones inmediatas y mediatas posteriores al evento quirúrgico son mayores a las reportadas en la literatura con abordaje transverso. La frecuencia de hernia postincisional al año es similar a lo reportado con éste último abordaje.

  15. [Prognostic factors associated with postoperative morbidity in children with isolated ventricular septal defect].

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, Claudia Olimpia; Rodríguez-Hernández, Lydia; Estrada-Loza, María Jesús; Herrera-Márquez, Julia Rocío; Gómez-Salvador, Maricela; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la comunicación interventricular aislada (CIV) es una de las cardiopatías congénitas más frecuentes a nivel mundial. Se desconoce cuáles son los factores pronósticos asociados a la morbilidad postoperatoria de los pacientes con CIV aislada en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo del 1 de enero de 2009 al 31 de diciembre de 2013. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y comparaciones entre los grupos mediante chi cuadrada, U de Mann Whitney y regresión lineal. Se calcularon riesgos relativos (RR) e intervalos de confianza al 95 % (IC 95%). Resultados: se incluyeron 64 pacientes a quienes se les realizó cierre de comunicación interventricular aislada. El 12.5 % (n = 8) tenían antecedente de cerclaje pulmonar y 22 (34.3 %) pacientes tenían síndrome de Down. Las CIV perimembranosas y la subaórtica se presentaron en 70 % de los casos. Los factores asociados a una mayor morbilidad y estancia prolongada en terapia intensiva fueron: lactato al final de la circulación extracorpórea (CEC) mayor a 3mmol/L (p = 0.02) y el síndrome de Down (p = 0.02) quienes presentaron una mayor frecuencia de complicaciones postoperatorias (p = 0.02). Conclusiones: se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa: cuanto mayor era la clase funcional preoperatoria, mayor era su estancia intrahospitalaria, con mayor número de días en terapia intensiva y mayor tiempo de ventilación mecánica asistida.

  16. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  17. Air Cushion Craft Development. First Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    xix NOTATION ............ ............................... .... xxi ABSTRACT ............ ............................... .i... 1 ...ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION ........... ...................... 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............. ........................... 2 CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION...481 REFERENCES ............ .............................. ... 491 vi LIST OF FIGURES Page 1 - Air Cushion Graft

  18. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  19. Training and Doctrine Command 1st Quarter FY96 Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Partial contents include: Doctrine; Training; Leader Development; Organizations; Materiel; Soldier; Battle Labs; Force XXI Joint Venture ; TRADOC Analysis Center; Louisiana Maneuvers; TRADOC Reinvention Center; Cadet Command.

  20. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 5321Group XXI. Function: Respiration. Muscles of respiration: Thoracic muscle group Severe or Moderately...; respiration; deglutition. Muscles of the front of the neck: (Lateral, supra-, and infrahyoid group.)...

  1. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 5321Group XXI. Function: Respiration. Muscles of respiration: Thoracic muscle group Severe or Moderately...; respiration; deglutition. Muscles of the front of the neck: (Lateral, supra-, and infrahyoid group.)...

  2. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 5321Group XXI. Function: Respiration. Muscles of respiration: Thoracic muscle group Severe or Moderately...; respiration; deglutition. Muscles of the front of the neck: (Lateral, supra-, and infrahyoid group.)...

  3. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  4. [Is the prefrontal cortex the center of the universe?].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, A; Ensenat, A

    2015-10-16

    Introduccion. Actualmente, cuando reflexionamos sobre cual es la estructura mas relevante del encefalo humano invariablemente pensamos en las regiones anteriores de la corteza cerebral, concretamente en la corteza prefrontal. Si bien este ha sido el dogma predominante a lo largo de mas de 150 años, investigadores de reconocido prestigio han cuestionado abiertamente tal supuesto. Desarrollo. A caballo entre los siglos XIX y XX, diversos investigadores consideraron que las regiones corticales posteriores son la sede neuroanatomica de las mas altas facultades intelectuales. Entre todos ellos destaco, por la elaboracion de sus propuestas e impacto en la comunidad cientifica, el neuroanatomista aleman Paul Emil Flechsig (1847-1929). Wilder Graves Penfield (1891-1976) fue otro detractor del dogma que considera la corteza prefrontal el sustrato anatomico de los procesos mentales mas complejos y sublimes del ser humano. A mediados del siglo XX, Penfield mantuvo la hipotesis de la existencia de lo que denomino el sistema de integracion centrencefalico, responsable del nivel mas elevado de integracion del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones. Las concepciones corticocentricas otorgan el preciado cetro de 'estructura mas importante del encefalo' a la corteza prefrontal. Sin embargo, no han faltado propuestas alternativas que, con mayor o menor exito, han intentado arrebatarselo en favor de otras estructuras encefalicas.

  5. 78 FR 49400 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Revisions to Utah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... and Point Sources, Part G, Fluoride,'' and to disapprove R307-110-29, ``Section XXI, Diesel Inspection..., Control Measures for Area and Point Sources, Part G, Fluoride'' b. R307-110-29, ``Section XXI, Diesel... Measures for Area and Point Sources, Part G, Fluoride,'' and we are proposing to disapprove...

  6. A Course in Baluchi. Volume Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Muhammad Abd-al-Rahman; Mengal, Aqil Khan

    Volume Two contains Units XXI through XXX of the Baluchi course. Unit XXI introduces the Arabic script as adapted for Baluchi. Special conventions, abbreviations, numerals, and punctuation symbols are discussed next, and several sections are devoted to the orthography of certain substantive and verbal affies. A series of reading drills which…

  7. 78 FR 61749 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... and is consistent with other exclusions of this supplement. I-XXI Nuclear weapons strategic X delivery... multiple autonomous unmanned systems. I-XXI Nuclear power generating X equipment or propulsion equipment (e.g., nuclear reactors), specifically designed for military use and components therefore,...

  8. White matter microstructure in a genetically defined group at increased risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; van Rijn, Sophie; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is associated with physical, behavioral, and cognitive consequences. Deviations in brain structure and function have been reported, but structural characteristics of white matter have barely been assessed. This exploratory diffusion tensor imaging study assessed white matter microstructure in boys with 47,XXY compared with non-clinical, male controls. Additionally, both similarities and differences between 47,XXY and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been reported in cognition, behavior and neural architecture. To further investigate these brain-behavior pathways, white matter microstructure in boys with 47,XXY was compared to that of boys with ASD. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (Dr), axial diffusivity (Da), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in 47,XXY (n = 9), ASD (n = 18), and controls (n = 14), using tract-based spatial statistics. Compared with controls, boys with 47,XXY have reduced FA, coupled with reduced Da, in the corpus callosum. Boys with 47,XXY also have reduced Dr. in the left anterior corona radiata and sagittal striatum compared with controls. Compared with boys with ASD, boys with 47,XXY show reduced Da in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Although this study is preliminary considering the small sample size, reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum may be a contributing factor in the cognitive and behavioral problems associated with 47,XXY. In addition, the differences in white matter microstructure between 47,XXY and ASD may be important for our understanding of the mechanisms that are fundamental to behavioral outcome in social dysfunction, and may be targeted through intervention.

  9. Neural systems for social cognition: gray matter volume abnormalities in boys at high genetic risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; Swaab, Hanna; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Rijn, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) is associated with several physical, cognitive, and behavioral consequences. In terms of social development, there is an increased risk of autism symptomatology. However, it remains unclear how social deficits are related to abnormal brain development and to what degree underlying mechanisms of social dysfunction in 47, XXY are similar to, or different from, those in idiopathic autism (ASD). This study was aimed at investigating the neural architecture of brain structures related to social information processing in boys with 47, XXY, also in comparison with boys with idiopathic ASD. MRI scans of 16 boys with 47, XXY, 16 with ASD, and 16 nonclinical, male controls were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A region of interest mask containing the superior temporal cortex, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, and medial frontal cortex was used. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) was used to assess degree of autism spectrum symptoms. The 47, XXY group could not be distinguished from the ASD group on mean SRS scores, and their scores were significantly higher than in controls. VBM showed that boys with 47, XXY have significant gray matter volume reductions in the left and right insula, and the left OFC, compared with controls and boys with ASD. Additionally, boys with 47, XXY had significantly less gray matter in the right superior temporal gyrus than controls. These results imply social challenges associated with 47, XXY may be rooted in neural anatomy, and autism symptoms in boys with 47, XXY and boys with ASD might have, at least partially, different underlying etiologies.

  10. [Factors related with weight loss in a cohort of obese patients after gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Serna López, Ángela María; Mustiola Calleja, Karina Gregoria; López Gómez, Lina Marcela; Donado Gómez, Jorge; Toro Escobar, Juan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es catalogada como la epidemia del siglo XXI. El tratamiento médico multidisciplinario no ha sido suficiente y las técnicas quirúrgicas son empleadas con mayor frecuencia. El bypass gástrico es considerado el gold standard de la cirugía bariátrica, sin embargo, algunos pacientes reportan bajas tasas de pérdida de peso, lo que hace pensar en otros factores condicionantes. Objetivo: Establecer los factores asociados con la pérdida de peso, en una cohorte de pacientes obesos sometidos a bypass gástrico. Métodos: Estudio analítico retrospectivo. La variable respuesta fue la pérdida de peso, expresada en porcentaje del exceso de índice de masa corporal perdido (PEIMCP). Se realizó un modelo de regresión lineal de efectos mixtos y un modelo de riesgos proporcionales de COX. Resultados: Se estudiaron 166 pacientes entre 19 y 69 años, la mayoría mujeres (74,7%). Los hombres presentaron un índice de masa corporal (IMC) inicial promedio de 46,9 ± 6,8 kg/m(2) y las mujeres de 46,3 ± 7,7 kg/m(2). El análisis multivariado mostró que por cada 10,0 kg/m(2) de mas al momento de la cirugía, disminuyó el PEIMCP en un 9,8% y un inadecuado consumo calórico diario disminuyó en un 4,0% el PEIMCP. Por cada 10,0 kg/m(2) de IMC inicial, hubo una disminución del 57,8% en la probabilidad de lograr una pérdida de peso del 50%. Conclusiones: Los pacientes con menor exceso de peso según su índice IMC responden mejor a la cirugía bariátrica en términos del PEIMCP.

  11. [Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in adults with common variable immunodeficiency at Specialty Hospital Dr. Bernardo Sepulveda].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Negrete, Elda Victoria; Mayoral-Zavala, Arturo; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen Alicia; Díaz de León-Salazar, Oscar Edmundo; Hernández-Mondragón, Oscar; Gómez-Jiménez, Luz María; Moreno-Alcántar, R; González-Virla, Baldomero

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la incidencia de la inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV) es de 1 por cada 15,000 a 117,000 casos, sin predominio de género. La incidencia de manifestaciones gastrointestinales en estos pacientes es de 20 a 60% y pueden ser la primera y única manifestación clínica de IDCV. En México existe escasa información en relación con el tipo y frecuencia de alteraciones gastrointestinales que padecen los pacientes adultos con IDCV. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones gastrointestinales en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal en el que participaron pacientes con inmunodeficiencia común variable de la Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias del Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. A todos los pacientes se les aplicó un cuestionario de síntomas gastrointestinales y se les realizaron estudios de laboratorio, gabinete, endoscopia y prueba de aliento para determinar sobrepoblación bacteriana. Resultados: evaluamos 17 pacientes, 8 hombres y 9 mujeres, con edad promedio de 36 años y diagnóstico definitivo de inmunodeficiencia común variable de acuerdo con criterios internacionales. El 59% refirió dolor abdominal, 53% distensión abdominal y 17.6% estreñimiento. El 47% tenía diarrea crónica, en dos de ellos (11.8%) acompañada de pujo rectal. Las enfermedades gastrointestinales de esta población fueron: 18% diarrea crónica, enfermedad celiaca y sobrepoblación bacteriana, 24% trastorno funcional digestivo, 12% estreñimiento, 6% dispepsia. Sólo un paciente (6%) no tenía síntomas gastrointestinales. Conclusión: la prevalencia de las enfermedades gastrointestinales en pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable fue de 94%, sin predominio de género. Debido a la frecuencia de manifestaciones gastrointestinales, es importante realizar protocolos de estudio al respecto

  12. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de la polinosis se ha duplicado en las últimas dos décadas. Diversos estudios sugieren que incluso 50% de los adultos residentes del Distrito Federal pueden tener datos de alergia respiratoria y que los pólenes de árboles, pastos y malezas constituyen una causa frecuente. Conocer la prevalencia de sus familias y cruces antigénicos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas en adultos con alergia respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal en el periodo de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2013. Material y método: estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo efectuado con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI de la Ciudad de México, de 2007 a 2013, con diagnóstico de rinitis, asma y conjuntivitis alérgica. Analizamos los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas para pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas de los pacientes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 672 pacientes, 70% hombres, la edad promedio fue de 34 ± 16 años. En relación con su ocupación 31% eran estudiantes, 48% trabajadores y 21% amas de casa. El 53% tenía rinitis alérgica, 47% asma y 40.5% tenía ambos padecimientos. Se encontró prevalencia de sensibilización a malezas de 56%, a árboles de 33% y a gramíneas de 11%. Conclusiones: la sensibilización a malezas constituye en México la primera causa de polinosis respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal, el polen del amaranto fue el más prevalente en esta zona. La sensibilización a los árboles es la segunda causa de polinosis, con predominio de las familias Betulaceae, Fagaceae y Oleacea. La sensibilización a gramíneas constituye la tercera causa de polinosis respiratoria. Las más frecuentes son la

  13. [Malignancies in adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: los pacientes con inmunodeficiencia común variable tienen riesgo elevado de padecer enfermedades neoplásicas, con incidencia de 11 a 13%, especialmente durante la quinta y sexta décadas de la vida. Los linfomas de tipo celular B son los más frecuentes, además del linfoma no Hodgkin y tumores epiteliales (carcinomas de estómago, mama, vejiga y cuello uterino). Objetivo: conocer el tipo de enfermedades neoplásicas en una cohorte de pacientes adultos con inmunodeficiencia común variable. Material y método: estudio observacional, transversal y descriptivo, en el que se revisaron los expedientes con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia común variable de la Clínica de Inmunodeficiencias Primarias del servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI del IMSS. Resultados: se incluyeron 23 pacientes con diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencia común variable; de éstos, 13 (56%) eran mujeres, el promedio de edad fue de 36.7 años. Se encontraron neoplasias en cuatro pacientes de este grupo (dos mujeres y dos hombres), la prevalencia de cáncer fue de 17.3%. Los tipos de cáncer reportados fueron: linfoma Hodgkin de células B (1/23), carcinoma neuroendocrino de la cabeza del páncreas (1/23), leucemia mieloide crónica (1/23) y cáncer papilar de tiroides (1/23). En dos de los pacientes, el diagnóstico de cáncer fue previo al diagnóstico de la inmunodeficiencia primaria. El promedio de edad al momento del diagnóstico de cáncer fue de 27 años (límites: 19-34 años). Conclusión: la frecuencia de cáncer en nuestra población fue similar a lo reportado en la bibliografía. Sin embargo, los tipos de cáncer fueron distintos a lo publicado. Consideramos que es necesario realizar un protocolo de escrutinio en estos pacientes para diagnosticar de manera oportuna cualquier tipo de neoplasia, debido al mayor riesgo que tienen estos pacientes.

  14. ¿Origen dinámico del polvo sobre la superficie de Iapetus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    We implement the three-dimensional Circular Restricted Three Body Prob- lem for low energy particles entering the Saturn­Iapetus system from the recently discovered dust ring. The distribution of impacts with the surface of Iapetus so obtained shows features resembling that of the dark regions observed in this satellite. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  16. Consideraciones sobre la Ansiedad en la Primera Infancia (Considerations Concerning Anxiety in Early Infancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elsa

    The results of an experience obtained while working with children in the early stages of infancy are presented. They are basically observations taken of a child's reaction to sudden changes, particularly separation from its mother. Anxiety was observed in these infants in diverse circumstances; in some cases it was at a normal level and in others…

  17. Cultural Diversity Awareness Inventory = Inventario Sobre el Reconocimiento de Diversas Culturas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gertrude B.

    This booklet features a checklist designed to help persons who are involved in providing direct services to culturally diverse, young special needs children to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward these children. The booklet also contains suggestions and lists of print, film, and filmstrip resources for developing a school program…

  18. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  19. Mental Retardation. Fact Sheet = El Retraso Mental. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on mental retardation is written in both English and Spanish. It begins with a vignette of a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation. Mental retardation is briefly explained as are some causes of mental retardation. It notes that a diagnosis of mental retardation looks at two things: first, the ability of a person's brain to learn,…

  20. Sobre Algumas Tecnicas de Perturbacao Utilizadas no Problema Ressonante 3/1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthazar, J. M.; Sagnier, J. L.; Ferraz Mello, S.; Koiller, J.; Yokoyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    ABSTRACT. This work concerns with the study of a particular 3/1 resonant problem for which we have determined formal solutions according to the model belonging to the domain of the Restricted Elliptic Problem of Three Bodies. Key & : ASTEROIDS

  1. Iniciativa sobre Efectividad: Un entorno para el aprendizaje (Initiative about Effectiveness: An Environment for Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno Garcia, Teresa, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This Spanish- and Portuguese-language bulletin presents articles focusing on the Effectiveness Initiative (EI), a project of the Bernard van Leer Foundation for making a qualitative analysis of those elements of the programs of Early Childhood Development (ECD) that benefit the participants and their communities and cultures. The first article…

  2. Modelo analítico del efecto de PRS sobre satélites GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza, A.; Brunini, C.; Usandivaras, J. C.

    El sistema GPS (Global Position System) es, hoy en día, la herramienta de navegación y posicionamiento más potente y lo será sin duda en la próxima década. Gran parte de su valiosa utilidad se debe a la alta precisión que permite lograr y ésta, a su vez, depende, entre otras causas, de la precisión con que se conocen las órbitas de los satélites. La presión de radiación solar (PRS) fija el límite de la precisión con que pueden calcularse en la actualidad las efemérides satelitarias. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una mejor resolución de este fenómeno. El modelo analítico aquí presentado, se basa en el análisis del comportamiento de los residuos de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados en el que se utiliza el modelo de PRS propuesto por Beutler. El mismo consiste en un modelo determinista del fenómeno con dos parámetros libres. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto que, aún después de aplicar dichos parámetros, prevalecen en los residuos efectos semidiurnos en las componentes radial,tangencial y normal. Estos resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de un trabajo desarrollado por el Instituto de Berne (Beutler et al., 1994), en el que se utilizaron como pseudo-observaciones las órbitas precisas del IGS (CODE). El intervalo de integración escogido por este centro fueron las semanas 680 y 681. En resumen se tienen arcos de 14 días para todos los satélites, donde las efemérides precisas de los mismos para los 14 días fueron utilizados como pseudo-observaciones. El modelo de fuerza que empleó dicho centro fue básicamente el tradicional en lo que respecta al modelo de las fuerzas gravitacionales, y para la PRS utilizo el modelo standard de Beutler. Los parámetros de este modelo junto con las 6 condiciones iniciales (posición y velocidad) fueron ajustados por el método general de mínimos cuadrados. Los residuos en la componente radial, tangencial y normal, para los satélites con un buen comportamiento, presentan una componente semidiurna. El modelo analítico planteado en este trabajo, predice el comportamiento de los residuos que se observan en las publicaciones más recientes. Esto abre el camino para plantear una estimación distinta de las incógnitas del problema, basado en el método de colocación por mínimos cuadrados. Ello requiere modelar estadísticamente la señal debida a las componentes de la PRS que no son tomadas en cuenta en el modelo determinista.

  3. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  4. Simposio interamericano sobre administracion de la educacion (Inter-American Symposium on Educational Administration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cespedes, Francisco S., Ed.

    The presidents and foreign ministers in Latin America recognize the importance of applying technology to school administration as the first step in any educational reform. In October 1968, the Organization of American States (OAS) [Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (OEA)], sponsored a symposium in Brasilia, Brazil, in cooperation with the…

  5. Curso Introductorio sobre el Sistema DIALOG (Introductory Course on the DIALOG System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ketty

    As an introduction to the use of the DIALOG online retrieval service, this guide presents material that was developed during a fellowship at Carlos III University, School of Library Science and Documentation, Madrid (Spain) and that is based on a course on the same subject taught in English at Texas Women's University. Although the use of DIALOG…

  6. SOBR: A High-Performance Shared Output Buffered Router for Networks-on-Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yancang; Xie, Lunguo

    This paper presents a single-cycle shared output buffered router for Networks-on-Chip. In output ports, each input port always has an output virtual-channel (VC) which can be exchanged by VC swapper. Its critical path is only 24 logic gates, and it reduces 9.4% area overhead compared with the classical router.

  7. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  8. Guia para los padres sobre educacion preescolar (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This handbook, entirely in Spanish, was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the information is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose…

  9. Recopilacion Bibliografica Sobre Investigacion y Cambio Cultural (Bibliographic Compilation about Cultural Investigation and Exchange).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Latinoamericano de Educacion de Adultos, Santiago (Chile).

    The bibliography forms part of a project to define guidelines for a method of cultural investigation in the education of adults. A brief introduction is followed by a list of libraries and the plan for the listing of entries in the bibliography. Entries are arranged alphabetically by author under the following general headings: background on the…

  10. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  11. Nueva investigacion sobre kindergarten de dia completo (Recent Research on All-Day Kindergarten). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Patricia

    Noting that much of the early research on the effects of all-day kindergarten had serious problems with internal and external validity due to inadequate methodological standards, this Spanish-language digest reviews research conducted in the 1990s. The digest discusses the academic, social, and behavioral effects of all-day kindergarten, as well…

  12. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  13. Recursos de Trabajo: Informacion sobre Carreras (Occupational Resources: Career Information). CHOICE (Challenging Options in Career Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam and Northern Westchester Counties Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Yorktown Heights, NY.

    Part of a two-level career education curriculum initially developed for migrant children, the book is the first of three secondary level texts designed to provide high school students with self-awareness, job and role information, and decision-making/goal attaining information related to career education. The text provides job and role information…

  14. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  15. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  16. Profesionalismo: Un estudio fenomenologico sobre experiencias de universitarios en programas de salud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Ortiz, Wilma J.

    Some studies suggest that, upon admission, medicine programs students display eagerness for community service, aspirations to be useful, and to contribute to society's well-being. Those same studies reflect that qualities of idealism, moral nature, and internal motivation, suffer a subsequent diminishing. The researchers inferred that the main reason for this process of change in the mood and disposition of these future physicians lies in the modeling they receive from medical professionals throughout clinical learning activities, by way of behavior and relationships exhibited during daily interaction with peers, patients and the students themselves. This phenomenological study used a cross-sectional sample to explore the experiences of future health workers as they went through didactic and clinical phases of their training curriculum. The study employed semi-structured interviews and reflective journals to explore those experiences and to discover the meanings ascribed by the participants. The analysis revealed that the students defined "professionalism" in terms of scientific knowledge, commitment, respect for human dignity, comradeship, courtesy, empathy, integrity, altruism, motivation. They also described their feelings as they went through the didactic and clinical experiences, and recognized as very important the extracurricular activities of community service, describing them as useful opportunities which contributed to understand their work in terms of a mission dedicated to the achievement of the social benefit. From their individual perspectives, the clinical environment could, in general, be described as congruent with those characteristics of professionalism. During the study we had the opportunity to share, in a little deeper way, the environment... the world... of this small group of young students as we went on trying to decipher their feelings and thoughts. At the end, we realized the richness of their sensibilities, we perceived the intensity of their moral and ethical convictions, we were able to understand their concerns, worries, struggles and efforts. This life event had profound and significant repercussions in our personal and professional life. As a result, and from now on, we will no longer look at our young scholars and apprentices without imagining a noble spirit, with goals which at times could seem unattainable... without completely visualizing or conceiving real hope for a better country.

  17. Perspectiva sobre una Personalidad Senera: Carmen Fischer Ramirez (Perspective on a Singular Personality: Carmen Fischer Ramirez).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quezeda, Dina Alarcon

    1992-01-01

    Traces the career of Carmen Fischer Ramirez, focusing on her work in improving early childhood education in Chile. Reviews her university career, work with the World Organization for Early Childhood Education, and major publications. (AC)

  18. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  19. Bibliografia sobre el "bilinguismo" del Paraguay (A Bibliography on Bilingualism in Paraguay)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melia, Bartomeu

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography of ninety-five entries ranging in publication date from 1847 to 1947 brings together information from areas of history, literature, sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, folk-lore and language planning, the central criterion being the relationship of these areas specifically to the bilingual…

  20. Speech and Language Disorders. Fact Sheet = Trastornos del Habla y Lenguaje. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on speech and language disorders is presented in English and Spanish. It provides information on the definition of speech and language disorders and possible causes; the incidence (about one in ten people); and characteristics of delayed communication, speech disorders, and language disorders. It notes educational implications,…

  1. Reflexiones Sobre la Capacitacion de Docentes (Reflections on In-Service Teacher Training).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Victor M.

    Everyone concerned with educational systems performance agrees that the improvement of teaching qualities is a high priority in any educational effort. Teachers are assigned the role of change agents and are presented with new challenges, e.g., to make education global and permanent, flexible enough to serve in any environment (in or out of the…

  2. Homework Tips for Parents = Consejos para los padres sobre la tarea escola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Homework has been a part of students' lives since the beginning of formal school in the United States; the push for increased homework has increased, fueled by rising academic standards. Noting that parents involved can have either a positive or a negative influence on the value of homework, this booklet, in both English and Spanish, offers…

  3. Sobre la ensenanza de la literatura hispanoamericana (The Teaching of Hispanoamerican Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Keith

    There are three main problems in teaching Latin American literature: (1) It is difficult to maintain a regional overview, while, at the same time, including a sense of the literary history of Latin America; (2) It is necessary to teach literature so that the material seems worthwhile in its own right and not only as a complement to other…

  4. Sobre las soluciones acotadas del problema instantáneo de dos cuerpos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altavista, C.

    La demostración se basa en el hecho de que las integrales del problema de los N-cuerpos admiten componentes en el campo complejo según las raíces n-ésimas de la unidad. Definida la matriz unitaria correspondiente, la fórmula de Cayley permite transformar la matriz unitaria en una matriz hermitiana. Utilizando como parámetros los cosenos direccionales de un sistema de coordenadas orbitales referidos a un sistema de referencia fijo, puede construirse, utilizando el operador hermitiano antes definido, una forma cuadrática cuyas raíces mínima y máxima definen las cotas respectivas de los movimientos de los mencionados cosenos direccionales.

  5. Las lenguas amerinda y la conformacion de la lengua nacional en Mexico en el siglo XIX (The Amerindian Languages and the Creation of a National Mexican Language in the Nineteenth Century).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cifuentes, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Presents the first diagnosis of multilingualism in Mexico. The study examines the role scientific societies played in delineating the basis of language policy with the objective of constructing a national identity that embraced the Hispanic and Amerindian traditions as equally relevant. (31 references) (Author/CK)

  6. El teatro espanol del Siglo de Oro en Rusia durante la primera mitad del XIX (The Spanish Golden Age Theater in Russia During the Early Part of the Nineteenth Century)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jack

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the popularity of Spanish Golden Age drama presented in printed form and stage productions in Russia during the reigns of Alexander I (1801-1825) and Nicholas I (1825-1855). Attributes the apparent widespread interest in Hispanic culture to common ideals shared during the Napoleonic wars. (DS)

  7. 26 CFR 54.9801-4 - Rules relating to creditable coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 1928 of the Social Security Act (the program for distribution of pediatric vaccines). (v) Title 10... (22 U.S.C. 2504(e)). (xi) Title XXI of the Social Security Act (State Children's Health...

  8. 78 FR 31555 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... State Children's Health Insurance Programs, Title XXI of the Social Security Act, established by the... mitigate adverse selection and provide stability for health insurance issuers in the individual and...

  9. Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy from Evan Leigh's Modern Cotton Spinning (Vol 1), Manchester, 1873 (PL XXI); illustration of turbine and belt system. - Harmony Manufacturing Company, Mill Number 3, 100 North Mohawk Street, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  10. 40 CFR 49.123 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to bake hardboard following an oil treatment process. Uncombined water means droplets of water... by Gas Chromatography and Flame Photometric Detection, IBR approved for § 49.130(e)(4). (xxi)...

  11. Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): Other FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... XXY males, including: Using images and visual clues Teaching them new words Encouraging conversation Using examples in ... A.F., & Jacobs, P.A.; UK Clinical Cytogenetics Group. (2005). Cancer incidence and mortality in men with ...

  12. 33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLATE XXI, PAGE 113. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  13. Astronautics: Past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    The article deals with the beginning and evolution of astronautics in XX-XXI centuries. The great attention is paid to the contribution of private companies to the further expansion of the mankind space activities in the past few decades.

  14. Highlights of the XXI annual meeting of the Brazilian Society of Protozoology, the XXXII annual meeting on Basic Research in Chagas' disease & an international symposium on vesicle trafficking in parasitic Protozoa – 7 to 9 November 2005, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Schenkman, Sergio; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the 2005 Annual meeting held in Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was convened and organized by the Brazilian Society of Protozoology . This is an annual event and details of these meetings can be found on the Society's website. Within the space available it has been impossible to cover all the important and fascinating contributions and what is presented are our personal views of the meetings scientific highlights and new developments. The contents undoubtedly reflect each author's scientific interests and expertise. Fuller details of the round tables, seminars and posters can be consulted on line at . PMID:16916462

  15. Kamili Flammarion s tochki zreniya XXI veka. Velikij prosvetitel' filosof-romantik, astronom-nablyudatel' i istorik nauki (k 160-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya, 1842-1925) %t Camille Flammarion from the point of view of the 21st century (to the 160th anniversary from the birthday, 1842-1925)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeeva, A. I.

    The paper is dedicated to the outstanding French astronomer and the popular writer of science Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) whose 160th birthday anniversary was celebrated in 2002. The path in life of Flammarion, his astronomical works, his works as a popular writer and a publisher are considered in detail. The out-of-date appreciation of his role in astronomy is critically rejected and a new appreciation of his versatile activity as a great enlightener and researcher is given.

  16. [Why do we call the brain 'brain'?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Molina, A; Ensenat, A

    2017-01-16

    Introduccion. Todos los dias, millones de profesionales utilizan un sinfin de palabras tecnicas para referirse a las distintas estructuras que se hallan dentro del craneo, pero pocos sabrian explicar su procedencia. En este trabajo se indaga sobre el origen etimologico de algunos de estos terminos neuroanatomicos. Desarrollo. Se realiza un recorrido etimologico por el sistema nervioso central; recorrido que no pretende ser una revision exhaustiva y pormenorizada de los terminos actualmente en uso, sino familiarizar al lector con el pasado linguistico de palabras como cerebro, hipocampo, talamo, claustro, fornix, cuerpo calloso o sistema limbico. Todas ellas provienen del griego o del latin, durante siglos las lenguas francas de la ciencia. Tambien se analiza la evolucion de la palabra meninges, originalmente de procedencia grecolatina, si bien los usos actuales derivan del arabe. Conclusiones. Los terminos neuroanatomicos que se utilizan hoy en dia no proceden de palabras que asocien una determinada estructura encefalica con su funcion, sino de palabras que reflejan la similitud formal o conceptual entre una estructura y una entidad familiar o cotidiana (por ejemplo, un objeto o una parte del cuerpo humano). En otros casos, estas palabras indican la ubicacion espacial de la estructura neuroanatomica respecto a un tercero, o bien son terminos derivados de personajes de la mitologia grecolatina.

  17. [Epilepsy in films. A new century and… the same old perspective?].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una patologia neurologica ampliamente representada en el cine. En las publicaciones sobre el tema, se concluye que la imagen de la enfermedad aparece cargada de sensacionalismo e impregnada de estereotipos como la locura o la posesion. Desarrollo. Se realiza un analisis descriptivo de las crisis que aparecen en 155 peliculas y se comprueba si las producciones realizadas en el nuevo siglo han conseguido modificar las impresiones previas. En nuestra serie, el porcentaje de crisis que no constituyen epilepsia (pseudocrisis y crisis sintomaticas provocadas) alcanza el 37%. El analisis por grupos de edad del tipo de crisis y su etiologia muestra resultados similares a los reales; sin embargo, debe tenerse en cuenta que la distribucion etaria de la muestra no coincide con la de la poblacion real. Conclusiones. La epilepsia no consigue desprenderse del componente espiritual que tradicionalmente la acompaña, y las crisis suelen utilizarse como simple apoyo visual, sin excesivo celo en su correcta representacion y sin demasiado interes argumental en la enfermedad que las provoca. No obstante, en la ultima decada parecen normalizarse algunos estigmas, como la locura, la violencia descontrolada o el victimismo, que se asociaban a esta enfermedad.

  18. Epidemiology of double aneuploidies involving chromosome 21 and the sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Natalia V; Mutton, David E

    2005-04-01

    The chance of two chromosome abnormalities occurring in one conceptus is very small. However, some authors have suggested that double aneuplodies (DAs) might be more common than the product of their individual frequencies. The nonrandomness of such DA events was considered to be evidence that nondisjunction (NDJ) may be genetically determined. Data collected from the National Down syndrome Cytogenetic Register (NDSCR) in England and Wales and from the literature indicate that the frequencies of all nonmosaic DAs, except for 48,XXY,+21, are lower than expected, probably because of strong intrauterine selection against such pregnancies. Collectively, we identified 52 cases of nonmosaic 48,XXY,+21; 28 cases of 48,XYY,+21; and 14 cases of 48,XXX,+21 in liveborns and 13 cases of 48,XXY,+21; four cases of 48,XYY,+21; and two cases of 48,XXX,+21 after prenatal diagnoses. Among these cases, analysis of the published unbiased cytogenetic surveys of liveborn DS revealed 24 cases of 48,XXY,+21; nine cases of 48,XYY,+21; and seven cases of 48,XXX,+21. These figures are different from the expected proportion of 1:1:1 (P < 0.001), with carriers of XXY overrepresented in the group of carriers of DA. Mechanisms put forth to account for the higher occurrence of 48,XXY,+21 may include greater accessibility of disomic ovum to Y-carrying sperm, and promotion of NDJ in ovum by Y-bearing sperm. 48,XXY,+21 DA was found to be age-dependent, as the proportion of mothers over age 35 (x = 33.0) was increased over the general population. This is in contrast to the apparently age-independent 48,XYY,+21 DA, with a mean maternal age of 24.7 (P < 0.001). Paternal ages were also remarkably different between the groups, with a mean age of 37.9 in 48,XXY,+21 cases and a mean age of 27.9 in 48,XYY,+21 cases (P < 0.01). Maternal age-related factors, rather than genetic predisposition, may play a more important role in the etiology of the most common DA, 48,XXY,+21.

  19. Pregnancy complicated by triploidy: a comparison of the three karyotypes.

    PubMed

    McWeeney, Dennis T; Munné, Santiago; Miller, Richard C; Cekleniak, Natalie A; Contag, Stephen A; Wax, Joseph R; Polzin, William J; Watson, William J

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated triploid pregnancy to determine whether there are clinically important differences between the three karyotypes: 69,XXX, 69,XXY, and 69,XYY. Prospectively maintained cytogenetic databases at five tertiary care centers were retrospectively reviewed over a 10-year period to identify all triploid pregnancies. Targeted ultrasounds were reviewed to identify fetal and placental findings. Sonographic findings were compared by karyotype. There was a total of 549 triploid gestations; preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) detected 413 triploid embryos, and the cytogenetic databases provided 136 clinical pregnancies with triploidy. In triploid embryos with PGD, the frequency of the 69,XYY karyotype was 8.7% (36/413), compared with 0.74% (1/136) during the first trimester of clinical pregnancies (p = 0.002). In clinical pregnancies, 60% (36/60) of 69,XXY fetuses survived the first trimester of development compared with 69% (52/75) of 69,XXX fetuses (p = NS). No clinically important differences were observed between 69,XXX and 69,XXY karyotypes in terms of type, number, or severity of fetal or placental anomalies. Gestations with a 69,XYY karyotype are found less frequently compared with gestations with a 69,XXX or 69,XXY karyotype. The decline in fetal survival of the 69,XYY triploid karyotype needs further investigation. There are significant abnormalities detected during prenatal sonography in most all clinically recognized cases of triploidy. Sonography cannot reliably distinguish between the 69,XXY and 69,XXX karyotypes.

  20. Factors associated with adaptation to Klinefelter syndrome: The experience of adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Turriff, Amy; Levy, Howard P.; Biesecker, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of living with Klinefelter syndrome (XXY) as an adolescent or an adult and to examine the factors that contribute to adaptation. Methods Individuals (n = 310) aged 14–75 years with self-reported XXY were recruited from online support networks to complete a self-administered survey. Perceived consequences, perceived severity, perceived stigma, and coping were measured and evaluated as correlates of adaptation. Results The use of problem-focused coping strategies was positively correlated with adaptation (p < 0.01) and age was negatively correlated with adaptation (p < 0.05). Conclusion The majority of participants reported significant negative consequences of XXY, including infertility, psychological co-morbidities and differences in appearance. How participants coped with their negative appraisals was the greatest predictor of adaptation. Practice implications Interventions designed to help individuals reframe negative appraisals, to increase perceived manageability of the challenges of living with XXY, and to facilitate effective coping may improve adaptation among individuals with XXY. PMID:25239793

  1. Efecto de la dieta artificial MP sobre la emergencia y relacion de sexos de Phymastichus coffea (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae) mantenido sobre su hueped, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Scloytidae)a traves de generaciones contin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phymastichus coffea La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is an endoparasitoid that attacks the adult coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The MP diet developed by Portilla and Streett is the only reported diet that allows cultures of P. coffea to develop and repr...

  2. Sobre as inclinações carnais: inflexões do pensamento cristão sobre os desejos e as sensações prazerosas do baixo corporali

    PubMed Central

    RIOS, LUÍS FELIPE; PARKER, RICHARD; TERTO, VERIANO

    2011-01-01

    On carnal inclinations: from early Christianity to the present This study develops a historical review of the meanings of the “flesh” in the West, focusing on its significance in the context of Christianity. Our hope is that a study along these lines can help to illuminate current understandings of questions related to sexuality both within and outside of the religious contexts found in contemporary Brazil. Such questions are of special interest for those who are concerned with both old and new problems found in the field that has come to be known as sexual and reproductive rights, with implications for the field of Public Health. PMID:21980215

  3. Análise sobre o Conhecimento de um Grupo de Alunos do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de São Paulo sobre Termos e Fenômenos Astronômicos do Cotidiano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. F.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    Embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio (PCN-EM) e as orientações complementares a esses Parâmetros (PCN+) apontem a importância de uma abordagem significativa de conceitos relacionados à astronomia nas aulas de Física, muitos estudantes terminam o Ensino Médio (EM) sem compreender a razão de certos acontecimentos de origem celeste, ainda que estes façam parte de seu cotidiano. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar os conhecimentos básicos em astronomia dos alunos de EM da escola estadual Batista Renzi, bem como investigar os meios através dos quais estes conhecimentos foram adquiridos. Para tanto foi elaborado um questionário de múltipla escolha aplicado a 310 alunos distribuídos entre as três séries do EM dos períodos matutino e noturno. Dessa forma, observou-se que apenas 34,5% relacionaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra, 21,3% indicaram a influência gravitacional da Lua e do Sol como responsáveis pelo fenômeno das marés, 24,5% indicaram corretamente quais são os objetos celestes mais próximos da Terra, 36,1% identificaram ano-luz como uma medida de distância e 34,2% reconheceram uma estrela cadente como meteoro. Em contrapartida, 67,1% compreendiam a sucessão entre dia e noite, 73,9% identificaram o Sol como estrela e 52,3% relacionaram o Big Bang à origem do Universo. Além disso, foram comparadas as respostas de alunos de diferentes séries e períodos, observando-se, dentre outras coisas, que os estudantes do terceiro ano apresentam um percentual de acertos semelhante ao dos alunos do primeiro, caracterizando que a abordagem de tópicos relacionados à astronomia no EM não tem contribuído para uma maior compreensão dos fenômenos e conceitos.

  4. "O Que Diriam Sobre Os Portugueses?????" [What Would You Say about Portuguese People?]: Intercultural Curiosity in Multilingual Chat-Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Sa, Maria Helena; de Carlo, Maddalena; Melo-Pfeifer, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we intend to discuss questioning as a sign of Intercultural Communicative Competence in plurilingual environments, stressing the relationship between questioning and the process of developing discovery skills in Romance chat-rooms. Focusing specifically on episodes beginning with intercultural questioning, we will analyse: (1)…

  5. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    Electric arc welding processes represent one of the most used techniques on manufacturing processes of mechanical components in modern industry. The electric arc welding processes have been adapted to current needs, becoming a flexible and versatile way to manufacture. Numerical results in the welding process are validated experimentally. The main numerical methods most commonly used today are three: finite difference method, finite element method and finite volume method. The most widely used numerical method for the modeling of welded joints is the finite element method because it is well adapted to the geometric and boundary conditions in addition to the fact that there is a variety of commercial programs which use the finite element method as a calculation basis. The content of this thesis shows an experimental study of a welded joint conducted by means of the MIG welding process of aluminum alloy 6063-T5. The numerical process is validated experimentally by applying the method of finite element through the calculation program ANSYS. The experimental results in this paper are the cooling curves, the critical cooling time t4/3, the weld bead geometry, the microhardness obtained in the welded joint, and the metal heat affected zone base, process dilution, critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the curve TTP. The numerical results obtained in this thesis are: the thermal cycle curves, which represent both the heating to maximum temperature and subsequent cooling. The critical cooling time t4/3 and thermal efficiency of the process are calculated and the bead geometry obtained experimentally is represented. The heat affected zone is obtained by differentiating the zones that are found at different temperatures, the critical areas intersected between the cooling curves and the TTP curve. In order to conclude this doctoral thesis, an optimization has been conducted by means of the Taguchi method for welding parameters in order to obtain an improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Para finalizar el trabajo de investigacion se ha realizado una optimizacion, con la aplicacion del metodo de Taguchi, de los parametros de soldeo con el objetivo de obtener una mejora sustancial en las propiedades mecanicas de las uniones metalicas de aluminio.

  6. Investigación del USGS sobre el ecosistema de arrecifes de coral en el Atlántico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Zawada, David G.; Richey, Julie N.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Toth, Lauren T.; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.

    2015-10-23

    Los arrecifes de coral son estructuras sólidas, biomineralizadas que protegen comunidades costeras actuando como barreras protectoras de peligros tales como los huracanes y los tsunamis. Estos proveen arena a las playas a través de procesos naturales de erosión, fomentan la industria del turismo, las actividades recreacionales y proveen hábitats pesqueros esenciales. La conti-nua degradación mundial de ecosistemas de arrecifes de coral está bien documentada. Existe la necesidad de enfoque y organización de la ciencia para entender los procesos complejos físicos y biológicos e interacciones que están afectando el estado de los arrecifes coralinos y su capacidad para responder a un entorno cambiante.

  7. Personal Safety for Children: A Guide for Parents = Una guia para los padres sobre la seguridad personal de los ninos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Noting that parents and teachers have the responsibility of safeguarding children and teaching them the skills they need to be safe, this pamphlet, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to help parents talk to their children about how to protect themselves against abduction and exploitation. The pamphlet is organized into six sections.…

  8. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma. Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra. Ma. Elena

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio. La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos. Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos. PMID:20830214

  9. Mobile Library Guidelines. IFLA Professional Report No. 28 [and] Lineamientos sobre Bibliotecas Moviles. Informes Professionales de IFLA: 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestell, Robert

    This publication provides the latest information available on the equipment and operation of mobile libraries operating out of road vehicles. The guide provides details on the establishment of mobile library services, financing, vehicles, furniture and equipment, staffing, collections, service base, and publicity. Some generalizations with regard…

  10. Validacion de un Inventario Sobre La Percepcion de Los Padres de Superdotados Respecto a Los Servicios Educativos Disponibles Para Estos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina Munoz, Arlette Zamarie

    2013-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, there isn't a survey that collects the parent's perception of the available services for gifted children. Considering this, in this investigation an instrument was created and scientifically validated to collect the parents' perception of the educational services available. The instrument was validated using internal and external…

  11. El Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo para los Grupos Especiales. Monografias sobre el Conocimiento Ocupacional y del Yo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Kenneth B.

    This Spanish translation of ED 132 428 includes the three papers representing Office of Education attempts to face the need for improving delivery of career education to special portions of the population. New additions are brief sections on basic definitions and additional considerations of the significance of work. The first paper, on career…

  12. The ABCs of Special Education: A Handbook for Parents = El ABS Sobre Educacion Especial: Un Folleto para los Padres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Preston E., Jr.; Hinton, Valeska S.

    This bilingual handbook is intended to help parents understand their rights under P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. The following topics are addressed: the Act's legislative history, identification of special education, explanation of P.L. 94-142, parents' rights to know, student records, student testing, students'…

  13. [Sobre la (No) Responsabilidad de la Tecnociencia en los Problemas Ambientales y la Búsqueda de Política].

    PubMed

    Martínez Barrera, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I propose to reflect upon modern configuration of technique, i.e., technoscience, and our responsibility towards environmental management. I show that the technological products of our world imply a certain attitude of aggression towards nature, contrasting with the attitude of protection from her, which was peculiar of the pre-technological world. Finally I suggest recovering the classical notion of politics as a possible alternative for controlling techno-scientific imperatives.

  14. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  15. Una Guia de Consejos Practicos Sobre la Lectura para los Padres (A Guide to Reading Tips for Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The No Child Left Behind program changes the federal role in education by asking America's schools to describe their success in terms of what each student accomplishes. The information in this reading guide, presented in Spanish, was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist parents, caregivers, and teachers in understanding…

  16. DISYUNTIVAS EN LAS CONCEPCIONES SOBRE AUTONOMÍA Y BENEFICENCIA QUE AFECTAN LA TERAPÉUTICA DEL INTENTO SUICIDA.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, Liliana; Monroy, Zuraya; Ito, Ma Emily; Medina-Mora, Dra Ma Elena

    2010-06-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es conocer las disyuntivas entre los principios de beneficencia y autonomía, que se presentan en la relación médico-paciente, durante la terapéutica del intento de suicidio.La investigación se realizó en dos hospitales psiquiátricos de la Ciudad de México. La muestra incluyó a tres sujetos con intento de suicidio, mayores de 18 años, que eran atendidos en consulta externa a causa de una lesión autoinfligida en el último año, y a tres psiquiatras que trataban a estos pacientes. La información se obtuvo previo consentimiento informado en entrevistas individuales. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de discurso argumentado para encontrar los significados que los participantes otorgaron a los principios bioéticos y las posibles disyuntivas entre éstos.Las discordancias entre la beneficencia y la autonomía estuvieron relacionadas con el beneficio del tratamiento, el respeto por los valores y las creencias de los pacientes, entre otros. Este trabajo presenta consideraciones éticas relevantes en el escenario clínico, al ofrecer al psiquiatra un análisis bioético que le permita actuar de acuerdo con la beneficencia y respetando la autonomía del paciente frente a casos de intento de suicidio y, de esta forma procurar una mejor atención para ellos.

  17. Liv and Lucky in Liverland. . . Color Us Healthy! A Workbook about Your Liver = Un Cuaderno de trabajo sobre tu higado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    This workbook/coloring book, on the liver and good health is designed for primary school students. The 21 line drawings illustrate different aspects of liver function, maintaining a healthy liver, and preventing liver disease. Each page is captioned in both English and Spanish. (ND)

  18. Impacto de la emisión de axiones sobre las propiedades evolutivas y pulsacionales de enanas blancas DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    White dwarfs are found to be good laboratories for studying the properties of fundamental particles such as the hypothetical axions. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, abandoning these stars without interact again, becoming an important energy sink. This would have a detectable effect on the evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarfs. This effect was already studied for DA white dwarfs (white dwarfs with a surface rich in hydrogen), but not for DB white dwarfs (hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs). We studied the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of DB white dwarfs and on the pulsational properties of DBV white dwarfs (pulsating DBs) with the aim of determining the potential of these stars to study the physics of axions. Moreover, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the DBV white dwarf PG 1351489 corresponding to the dominant period to derive a new limit on axion mass.

  19. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  20. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  1. Increasing severity of damage caused by floods in the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960-2014), climate change or vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Alfredo; Gil, Salvador; Lopez, Francisco; Barriendos, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    relationships between severity and the increase of population and buildings mentioned above. Bibliography: AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología) (2015). Proyecciones Climáticas para el siglo XXI en España. www.aemet.es/es/serviciosclimaticos/cambio_climat Bouwer L.M. (2011). Have disaster losses increased due to anthropogenic climate change? Bull Am Meteorol Soc, 92. Gaja F. (2008). El 'tsunami urbanizador' en el litoral mediterráneo. El ciclo de hiperproducción inmobiliaria 1996-2006. Scripta Nova, 12. Gil S., Pérez A. & Barriendos M. (2014). Increasing vulnerability to flooding in the southern spanish mediterranean coast (1960-2013). In: Hydrological extreme events in historic and prehistoric times. Bonn (Germany). IPCC. (2014) Synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri & L.A. Meyer, eds. Geneva, Switzerland. Pérez-Morales, A., Gil-Guirado, S., & Olcina-Cantos, J. (2015). Housing bubbles and the increase of flood exposure. Failures in flood risk management on the Spanish south-eastern coast (1975-2013). Journal of Flood Risk Management. WMO, CRED and UCL (2014). Atlas of mortality and economic losses from weather, climate and water extremes 1970-2012. Geneva, Switzerland.

  2. Adolescent Klinefelter syndrome: is there an advantage to testis tissue harvesting or not?

    PubMed Central

    Oates, Robert

    2016-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether an adolescent with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome will be better off having testicular sperm extraction (TESE) performed in an effort to ‘preserve fertility’ for the future or, alternatively, should be advised to simply wait until adulthood when he and his partner are ready to begin a family. This report will provide data suggesting that there is no obvious ‘preservation’ benefit and that recommending TESE to the 47,XXY boy and his parents may not be as helpful as it might appear and may be overly aggressive. PMID:27441089

  3. Feasibility Study for a Structurally Efficient, Multi-Modal Shelter Concept Utilizing Advanced Technology Production Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-01

    II I~ x p:1 ns ion P roc cuurc Longitudin:-11 Section, Container Mod·c Configuration r Ex p :m s i on Pro c c d u r e Longitudinal Section...No . I II. I I I. IV. v. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X . XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV . XVI. XVII . XVIII . XIX. XX. XXI. XXII . XXI II. XXIV...mat e rial s and examples from these categories . Glass Fibers Glass Mi c r os pheres As bestos Carbon Graphite Ce llulose Cotton Jute Rayo n

  4. 76 FR 27059 - Solicitation of Written Comments on the Draft Report and Draft Recommendations of the Vaccine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Vaccine Safety Working Group for Consideration by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee on the Federal Vaccine Safety System AGENCY: National Vaccine Program Office, Office of the Assistant Secretary for... National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) was established in 1987 to comply with Title XXI of the...

  5. Developing Headquarters Guidance for Army Installation Sustainability Plans in 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Materials Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Natural...compost recycle program, inert material management, deconstruction management, special waste man- agement, and electronics waste recycling program...with the structure, organization, and presentation of material within this report. xxi List of Acronyms ACSIM Assistant Chief of Staff for

  6. Effects of sex chromosome aneuploidy on male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Burns-Cusato, M; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Riggan, A; Shetty, S; Arnold, A P; Rissman, E F

    2008-08-01

    Incidence of sex chromosome aneuploidy in men is as high as 1:500. The predominant conditions are an additional Y chromosome (47,XYY) or an additional X chromosome (47,XXY). Behavioral studies using animal models of these conditions are rare. To assess the role of sex chromosome aneuploidy on sexual behavior, we used mice with a spontaneous mutation on the Y chromosome in which the testis-determining gene Sry is deleted (referred to as Y(-)) and insertion of a Sry transgene on an autosome. Dams were aneuploid (XXY(-)) and the sires had an inserted Sry transgene (XYSry). Litters contained six male genotypes, XY, XYY(-), XXSry, XXY(-)Sry, XYSry and XYY(-)Sry. In order to eliminate possible differences in levels of testosterone, all of the subjects were castrated and received testosterone implants prior to tests for male sex behavior. Mice with an additional copy of the Y(-) chromosome (XYY(-)) had shorter latencies to intromit and achieve ejaculations than XY males. In a comparison of the four genotypes bearing the Sry transgene, males with two copies of the X chromosome (XXSry and XXY(-)Sry) had longer latencies to mount and thrust than males with only one copy of the X chromosome (XYSry and XYY(-)Sry) and decreased frequencies of mounts and intromissions as compared with XYSry males. The results implicate novel roles for sex chromosome genes in sexual behaviors.

  7. Cognitive Predictors of Tank Commander Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    karyotype 47, XXY, 47, XYY , or normal controls. In W. Schmidt & J. Neilsen, Human behavior and genetics . Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press...applications. New York: AMACOM. McGee, M.G. (1979). Human spatial abilities: Psychometric studies and environmental, genetic , hormonal, and

  8. Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Issues in Klinefelter Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geschwind, Daniel H.; Dykens, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is a relatively common (1/500 to 1/1,000) genetic syndrome caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to an XXY karyotype. In most cases, the physical and neurobehavioral characteristics of KS are relatively mild, and KS is not usually associated with moderate or severe mental retardation. However, KS is often…

  9. 50 CFR 270.3 - Submission of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participants needed for sustained operations that cannot receive assessment refunds; (xxi) A provision... expenditures pending collection of assessments. (2) Proposed charter. A proposed charter must contain, at a..., a sector consisting of receivers, and, if subject to assessment, a sector consisting of...

  10. Media Education around the World: Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    UNESCO defines media education as the priority field of the cultural educational development in the XXI century. The article presents the development of media education since the beginning of it up to our days. The sections of the article are the main periods for the development of the media education. In each section more countries are mentioned.…

  11. Philosophical and Pedagogical Principles of Transnational Higher Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshchenko, Maria; Avshenyuk, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical and pedagogical principles of transnational higher education development in the second half of the XX--at the beginning of the XXI century are revealed based on the authentic scientific research sources and reflections of prominent scientists. Review of scientific works, devoted to the problems of education transnationalization,…

  12. 75 FR 56946 - Medicaid Program; Review and Approval Process for Section 1115 Demonstrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Medical Assistance Programs of the Social Security Act. Title XXI--State Children's Health Insurance... time that process has come under criticism. In recent years, the Congress, the Government... at least two of the following public forums: The Medical Care Advisory Committee that operates...

  13. Enabling Engineer Officers as Terrain Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    support to engagement area development . Engineer, July, 40-45. CTC Newsletter 96-12. 1996. See US Army Center for Army Lessons Learned. 1996b. CTC...123 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. METL Development Process...Training Center DTSS Digital Topographic Support System ECCC Engineer Captains Career Course FBCB2 Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below FM

  14. ASSESSING TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCES IN THE LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP) was a U.S.-Mexico Border XXI Program project to assess transboundary air pollution in and near Brownsville, Texas. The study used a three-site air monitoring network very close to the border to capture the d...

  15. An interesting prenatal diagnosis: double aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cetin; Eris, Serenat; Yalcin, Yakup; Sen Selim, Halime

    2013-01-01

    Double aneuploidy, the existence of two chromosomal abnormalities in the same individual, is a rare condition. Early diagnosis of this condition is important to offer termination of pregnancy in genetic counselling. Cytogenetic analysis with amniocentesis and ultrasound examination is valuable for diagnosis of double aneuploidy. In this report we present a case with the karyotype of 48XXY+21 diagnosed prenatally.

  16. 77 FR 8034 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda and Fiscal Year 2011 Regulatory Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XXI Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 29 / Monday, February 13, 2012 / Unified Agenda#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Ch. X Semiannual Regulatory Agenda and Fiscal Year 2011...

  17. The Nanchang communication about the potential for the implementation of conservation practices for climate change mitigation and adaptation to achieve food security in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several recent peer reviewed manuscripts have reported on the great challenges humanity is confronting during the XXI century, including a changing climate, depletion of water resources from groundwater and/or snow caps sources that are needed for agricultural production, deforestation, desertificat...

  18. Theory and Practice of Competency-Based Approach in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makulova, Aimzhan Tulegenovna; Alimzhanova, Gaukhar Mukhtashevna; Bekturganova, Zhanar Mustafaevna; Umirzakova, Zaure Asetovna; Makulova, Laura Tulegenovna; Karymbayeva, Kulzinat Meirambaevna

    2015-01-01

    Economic changes not only in the country, but also in the global labor market explain the increasing requirements to young specialists. There are new requirements to the model and quality of the graduate, new approaches to their competitiveness and efficiency. XXI century universities must graduate prepared specialists, who are able to adapt to…

  19. 75 FR 81555 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...; Allegheny County's Adoption of Control Techniques Guidelines for Large Appliance and Metal Furniture; Flat... Regulations, Article XXI, Air Pollution Control, and meets the requirement to adopt Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for sources covered by EPA's Control Techniques Guidelines (CTG) standards...

  20. 45 CFR 95.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... XXI (the Children's Health Insurance Program) of the Social Security Act. FFP means Federal financial... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic Data Processing... preparation of source media containing data or basic elements of information and the use of such source...

  1. 45 CFR 95.605 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... XXI (the Children's Health Insurance Program) of the Social Security Act. FFP means Federal financial... ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic Data Processing... preparation of source media containing data or basic elements of information and the use of such source...

  2. 40 CFR 51.853 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Reserve System or any Federal Reserve Bank to effect monetary or exchange rate policy. (xviii... similar in scope and operation to activities currently being conducted. (iii) Rulemaking and policy... deeding to eligible applicants. (xxi) Actions by the Department of the Treasury to effect fiscal...

  3. Fire-settng behavior associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eytan, Ariel; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Thorens, Gabriel; Eugster, Nicole; Graf, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    This is a report on a male patient with a previous history of psychotic disorder who was arrested for arson. During the following hospitalization in a psychiatric unit, a genetic syndrome, namely Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), was diagnosed. The association between firesetting behavior and Klinefelter syndrome is reviewed, and the underlying explanatory hypothesis is discussed.

  4. 42 CFR 457.700 - Basis, scope, and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Strategic Planning, Reporting, and Evaluation § 457.700 Basis, scope, and applicability. (a) Statutory basis... strategic planning, reports, and program budgets; and (2) Section 2108 of the Act, which sets forth... strategic planning, monitoring, reporting and evaluation under title XXI. (c) Applicability....

  5. 39 CFR 233.7 - Forfeiture authority and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... forfeiture. (xxi) The term victim means a person who has incurred a pecuniary loss as a direct result of the... perpetrator of the criminal offense for any loss by assignment, subrogation, inheritance, or otherwise from... report, and shall rule on the merits of the petition. No hearing shall be held. (viii) Petitions...

  6. NRA: First Multiwavelength, Multiple Layer Doppler Imaging of an Active Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    In this final report, grantee reports on data obtained from 26 orbits of continuous observing time with the Hubble Space Telescope's Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph in order to produce a comprehensive 2-D image of the RSCVn V824 Ara at MgII, CIV and for the first time ever, the coronal diagnostic line of FeXXI 1356A.

  7. Modeling Cognitive and Tactical Aspects in Hunter - Killer Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    81 xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ATGM Anti-Tank Guided...Number of Engagements Conducted in Mission O Decision to pass over the target at the end of a classification ( )|YP F A Probability of a...Firing Policy xx THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xxi GLOSSARY Anti-Tank Guided Missile ( ATGM ): A PGM

  8. 76 FR 9233 - Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); Allotment Methodology and States' Fiscal Years 2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), as amended by the Children's Health Insurance Program.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. The Children's Health Insurance Program Title XXI of the Social... Commonwealths and Territories to initiate and expand health insurance coverage to uninsured, low-income...

  9. 77 FR 71420 - Federal Financial Participation in State Assistance Expenditures; Federal Matching Shares for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... for Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program, and Aid to Needy Aged, Blind, or Disabled... state medical assistance (Medicaid) and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expenditures... percent. The eFMAP rates are used in the Children's Health Insurance Program under Title XXI, and in...

  10. 75 FR 32182 - Medicaid Program: Proposed Implementation of Section 614 of the Children's Health Insurance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... 614 of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA), Public Law 111-3... under the Children's Health Insurance Program under title XXI of the Social Security Act. In other... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. 75 FR 69082 - Federal Financial Participation in State Assistance Expenditures; Federal Matching Shares for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... for Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program, and Aid to Needy Aged, Blind, or Disabled... (Medicaid) and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expenditures, Temporary Assistance for Needy...FMAP rates are used in the Children's Health Insurance Program under Title XXI, and in the...

  12. 77 FR 71115 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Allegheny County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to... Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) Rules and Regulations, Article XXI, Air Pollution Control to... Control Act. EPA is approving these revisions in accordance with the requirements of the Clean Air...

  13. Scaling GDL for Multi-cores to Process Planck HFI Beams Monte Carlo on HPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, A.; Schellens, M.; Duvert, G.; Park, J.; Arabas, S.; Erard, S.; Roudier, G.; Hivon, E.; Mottet, S.; Laurent, B.; Pinter, M.; Kasradze, N.; Ayad, M.

    2014-05-01

    After reviewing the majors progress done in GDL -now in 0.9.4- on performance and plotting capabilities since ADASS XXI paper (Coulais et al. 2012), we detail how a large code for Planck HFI beams Monte Carlo was successfully transposed from IDL to GDL on HPC.

  14. Influence Altitude and Length of Stay in the Mountains of Physical Performance Tourists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imangulova, Tatiyana; Makogonov, Aleksandr; Zakiryanov, Bauyrzhan; Makogonova, Tatiyana

    2016-01-01

    Development of adaptation, maintenance of normal human life in extreme environmental conditions is an urgent and a priority for all of humanity, for the recognition of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development "well-being" half of humanity in the XXI century will be directly related to the quality of development and the development of…

  15. 42 CFR 457.204 - Withholding of payment for failure to comply with Federal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... correction, and an opportunity for a hearing, the Administrator finds— (1) That the plan is in substantial... substantial noncompliance with either the State plan or the requirements of title XXI of the Act. (Hearings... hearing.) (b) Noncompliance of the plan. A question of noncompliance of a State plan may arise from...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 742 - Self-Classification Report for Encryption Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Key storage (xix) Link encryption (xx) Local area networking (LAN) (xxi) Metropolitan area networking (MAN) (xxii) Modem (xxiii) Network convergence or infrastructure n.e.s. (xxiv) Network forensics (xxv...) Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) (xlii) Wide area networking (WAN) (xliii) Wireless local...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 742 - Self-Classification Report for Encryption Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Key storage (xix) Link encryption (xx) Local area networking (LAN) (xxi) Metropolitan area networking...) Network intelligence (xxvi) Network or systems management (OAM/OAM&P) (xxvii) Network security monitoring...) Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) (xlii) Wide area networking (WAN) (xliii) Wireless local...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 742 - Self-Classification Report for Encryption Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Key storage (xix) Link encryption (xx) Local area networking (LAN) (xxi) Metropolitan area networking...) Network intelligence (xxvi) Network or systems management (OAM/OAM&P) (xxvii) Network security monitoring...) Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) (xlii) Wide area networking (WAN) (xliii) Wireless local...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 8 to Part 742 - Self-Classification Report for Encryption Items

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Key storage (xix) Link encryption (xx) Local area networking (LAN) (xxi) Metropolitan area networking...) Network intelligence (xxvi) Network or systems management (OAM/OAM&P) (xxvii) Network security monitoring...) Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) (xlii) Wide area networking (WAN) (xliii) Wireless local...

  20. Roles and Scaffolding in Teletandem Interactions: A Study of the Relations between the Sociocultural and the Language Learning Dimensions in a French-Chinese Teletandem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappellini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present students' interactions in a teletandem--that is, tandem through desktop videoconference [Telles, J., ed. 2009. "Teletandem. Um contexto virtual, autônomo, colaborativo para aprendizagem das linguas estrangeiras no século XXI". Campinas, SP: Pontes Editores]--telecollaborative project between third-year…

  1. 3 CFR 13647 - Executive Order 13647 of June 26, 2013. Establishing the White House Council on Native American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Business Administration; (xxi) the Council of Economic Advisers; (xxii) the Office of National Drug Control... provide funding and administrative support for the Council to the extent permitted by law and within... institutions including tribal colleges and universities, health-care providers, trade associations,...

  2. Managing Transitions: Examining the Institutional Army’s Transformation Following the Vietnam War and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    for Battlefield Management Systems now identified as “Digitization” Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade and below (FBCB2) and led Vetronics -applying...to Development of AirLand Battle (ALB) .................................................................. 31 Part III: Case Study 2: From OIF to RAF...particular wars, campaigns, battles , generals and armies. Yet historians have largely neglected the course of events leading to given wars

  3. "Advances in Coupled Air Quality, Farm Management and Biogeochemistry to address bidirectional ammonia flux"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cropland farm management modeling system for regional air quality and field-scale applications of bi-directional ammonia exchange was presented at ITM XXI. The goal of this research is to improve estimates of nitrogen deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and ambien...

  4. 48 CFR 204.7003 - Basic PII number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...—manual—Q (xviii) Request for proposal—R (xix) Sales contract—S (xx) Request for quotation—automated (assign U when numbering capacity of T is exhausted during a fiscal year)—T (xxi) See T—U (xxii) See P—V....7003 Basic PII number. (a) Elements of a number. The number consists of 13 alpha-numeric...

  5. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  6. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  7. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  8. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  9. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  10. A Journey with Klinefelter Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cover, Virginia Isaacs

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience having a son with Klinefelter Syndrome. Klinefelter Syndrome, also known as 47,XXY, is estimated to occur in 1 out of 600 males, making it the most common chromosomal disorder. Babies with Klinefelter Syndrome rarely have any physical differences that are detectable, which is the reason that so few…

  11. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following boundary description is the point at which the Missouri River joins the Mississippi River north of...); (xxi) Then northeastward along the Cape Girardeau County boundary until it meets the Mississippi River south of Cape Girardeau, Missouri; (xxii) Then northward along the Mississippi River to the...

  12. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following boundary description is the point at which the Missouri River joins the Mississippi River north of...); (xxi) Then northeastward along the Cape Girardeau County boundary until it meets the Mississippi River south of Cape Girardeau, Missouri; (xxii) Then northward along the Mississippi River to the...

  13. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following boundary description is the point at which the Missouri River joins the Mississippi River north of...); (xxi) Then northeastward along the Cape Girardeau County boundary until it meets the Mississippi River south of Cape Girardeau, Missouri; (xxii) Then northward along the Mississippi River to the...

  14. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following boundary description is the point at which the Missouri River joins the Mississippi River north of...); (xxi) Then northeastward along the Cape Girardeau County boundary until it meets the Mississippi River south of Cape Girardeau, Missouri; (xxii) Then northward along the Mississippi River to the...

  15. 3 CFR 101.4 - National Security Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National Security Council. 101.4 Section 101.4... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.4 National Security Council. Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI....

  16. 3 CFR 101.4 - National Security Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National Security Council. 101.4 Section 101.4... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.4 National Security Council. Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI....

  17. 3 CFR 101.4 - National Security Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National Security Council. 101.4 Section 101.4... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.4 National Security Council. Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI....

  18. 3 CFR 101.4 - National Security Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National Security Council. 101.4 Section 101.4... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.4 National Security Council. Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI....

  19. 3 CFR 101.4 - National Security Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National Security Council. 101.4 Section 101.4... PROCEDURES ACT § 101.4 National Security Council. Freedom of Information regulations for the National Security Council appear at 32 CFR Ch. XXI....

  20. 42 CFR 457.720 - State plan requirement: State assurance regarding data collection, records, and reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... data collection, records, and reports. 457.720 Section 457.720 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... State plan requirement: State assurance regarding data collection, records, and reports. A State plan... plans under Title XXI of the Act. This includes collection of data and reporting as required under §...

  1. X-inactivation patterns in Aicardi syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aicardi syndrome (AIC) is a severe sporadic neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by a classic triad of agenesis of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms. Because nearly all affected individuals are female and the few known males with AIC have a 47,XXY karyotype, it i...

  2. Mexico’s National Security Challenges and the Military Endeavor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    War, 75. 37 Ibid., 228. 38 Ibid., 75. 39 Peter M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline ( Santa Fe , NM: Doubleday, 1990), 58. 40 Clausewitz, On War, 227. 41...College, August 2011), 4. 19 Circulo Militar, “XXI Conferencia de los Ejercitos Americanos, ” Revista Militar Argentina, (October-December 1995

  3. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  4. 78 FR 30333 - Proposed Extension of Information Collection Requests Submitted for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... health plan under title XXI of the SSA, in the form of premium assistance for the purchase of coverage... employee resides for premium assistance under Medicaid and CHIP for health coverage of the employee or the... a matter of public record. Dated: May 9, 2013. Joseph S. Piacentini, Director, Office of Policy...

  5. Muslim Culture: Center of Gravity for Global War on Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    The Middle East for Dummies , p. 59. xx Lewis, The Crisis of Islam, p. XX. xxi Pipes, Militant Islam Reaches America, p. 4. xxii Ibid., p. 28...Declaration of the War Against The Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places.” NWC 6023, 1996. Davis, Craig S. The Middle East for Dummies . Hoboken

  6. 42 CFR 457.70 - Program options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) A separate child health program; (2) A Medicaid expansion program; or (3) A combination program. (b... State's chosen program option. (c) Medicaid expansion program requirements. A State plan under title XXI... obtain health benefits coverage through both a separate child health program and a Medicaid...

  7. Prospective studies on children with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, S.G.; Paul, N.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Growth and Development from Early to Midadolescence of Children with X and Y Chromosome Aneuploidy: The Toronto Study; Sex Chromomal Aneuploidy: Perspective and Longitudinal Studies; Psychologic Study of XYY and XXY Men; and Cellular and Molecular Studies in Human Chromosomal Diseases.

  8. 75 FR 54586 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... interstate commerce in fresh and processed food that is organically produced. The National Organic Program... Service Title: National Organic Program. OMB Control Number: 0581-0191. Summary of Collection: The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990, Title XXI of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act...

  9. 78 FR 70012 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...: National Organic Program. OMB Control Number: 0581-0191. Summary of Collection: The Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990, Title XXI of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 (Farm... commerce in fresh and processed food that is organically produced. The National Organic Program...

  10. An Assessment of Team Development at the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Organizational Warmth . . . . 77 Discussion . . . . . . . . ...... . 78 Organizational’Communication . . . . . . 79 Discussion . . ................. 80...Longitudinal Change for Hierarchical Groups: Organizational Warmth (F3) . . . . . . 79 XXI Longitudinal Change for Hierarchical Groups: Organizational...Intercorrelationsi Climate Factor Three Organizational Warmth . . . . . . . . . 116 C-4 Item Intercorrelations: Climate Factor Four Organizational

  11. Combat Service Support (CSS) Enabler Functional Assessment (CEFA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    34FXXI, Leveraging logistics Technology toward FXX", co-authored by LTG Wilson and Mr. Robert Capote , Army Logistician, Jul-Aug 95. 1-7 CEFA focues only...Wireless STAMIS." 14 Army Logistician article entitled "FORCE XXI- Leveraging Logistics Technology Toward FXXI", LTG Wilson and Mr. Capote , Jul-Aug

  12. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s-1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (˜11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  13. Novel methylation specific real-time PCR test for the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Akanksha; Mielnik, Anna; Schlegel, Peter N; Paduch, Darius A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design a molecular assay for the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome (KS), based on the detection of supernumerary X-chromosomes (X-chs). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of twenty-six 47,XXY males; two 46,XY/47,XXY males; twenty-two 46,XY males; and 15 females; and deaminated. Methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) was performed using primers for unmethylated and methylated copies of the X-ch inactive-specific transcript (XIST-U and XIST-M) gene. X-ch disomy was determined on the basis of XIST methylation status. Degree of mosaicism in the 46,XY/47,XXY males was compared with karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) results. Data analysis was performed using the Roche® LightCycler software V. 3.5.3., including determination of crossing points (CPs) by fit-point analysis and melting curve analysis. X-ch disomy was detected in all female controls and KS patients; male controls expressed XIST-M only. CPs ranged from 29.5 to 32.5 (standard deviation (s.d.) 0.8) for XIST-U and from 29 to 31 (s.d. 0.6) for XIST-M. Limit of detection of mosaicism was 1%. Based on XIST-U/XIST-M ratios for the two 47,XXY/46,XY patients, the calculated degree of mosaicism (1.8% and 17.8%) was comparable to FISH results (2.3% and 15%, respectively). Turnaround time from DNA deamination to final data analysis was under 9 h. We conclude that MS-qPCR is a sensitive, specific and rapid test for the detection of X-ch disomy, with applicability for the screening and diagnosis of KS, even in the setting of low grade 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. PMID:24923458

  14. Steppin' On Up: A Post-Secondary Guide for Migrant Students = Tomando Accion: Una Guia para los Estudiantes Migrantes Sobre Que Hacer Despues de la Escuela Secundaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Stream Migrant Education Program Coordination Center, Portland, OR.

    This bilingual guide (English and Spanish) provides information for migrant students on postsecondary education. The guide includes information on: (1) career planning, involving self-exploration, occupational exploration, and strategies for reaching career objectives; (2) planning for postsecondary education during high school, including a…

  15. Tips for Parents on Keeping Children Drug Free = Consejos para Los Padres Sobre Como Mantener a Los Hijos Libres de La Droga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of Intergovernmental and Interagency Affairs.

    Research shows that recent trends in youth drug use have stabilized; however, the rates of use remain at high levels. It has been shown that the earlier drug use is initiated, the more likely a person is to develop drug problems later in life. Youth substance abuse may lead to many other problems that affect not only the child, but also the…

  16. Feedback Cheerleader, Mean-Spirited Feedback Estudio Critico Discursivo De Ideologias Sobre El Feedback Escrito En Un Departamento Universitario De Espanol En Estados Unidos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Mujica, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate ideologies that monitor and control styles of written feedback as well as discursive resources used in the expression of those ideologies. Using socio-cognitive analysis, a development of critical discourse studies, I have analyzed 44 sessions of chat on the Internet, 78 journal notes, 31 emails and 12…

  17. Informe sobre el avance del proyecto de determinaciones de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, H.; Levato, H.

    Se ha finalizado con la determinación de V sen i para todas las estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag y al norte de -30 grados de declinación. Esta muestra involucra casi 1000 estrellas. Las observaciones fueron realizadas desde KPNO. Mientras tanto, se ha completado desde CASLEO la observación de 350 estrellas B más brillantes que 6.5 mag. al sur de -30 grados. Además de la determinación de la rotación axial se determinan, en los casos posibles, los anchos equivalentes de las líneas 4471 Ådel He I y 4481 Ådel Mg II.

  18. The Dyslexia Handbook: Procedures Concerning Dyslexia and Related Disorders = Manual sobre la dislexia: Procedimientos relacionados con la dislexia y otros desordenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This handbook, available in English and Spanish, contains the Texas State Board of Education's approved procedures concerning dyslexia and related disorders and information regarding the state's dyslexia statutes and their relation to the federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters…

  19. Conversacion sobre "Tres tristes tigres". Una entrevista de Rita Guibert (A Conversation about "Three Sad Tigers". An Interview with Rita Guibert)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera Infante, Guillermo

    1971-01-01

    Interview took place in London, England, on October 5, 1970 between Cuban writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante and journalist Rita Guibert. Special issue dedicated to contemporary Spanish American literature. (DS)

  20. Tax and Record Keeping Information for Family Child Care = Informacion Sobre los Impuestos y la Documentacion para el Cuidado Infantil en el Hogar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellert, Sandra

    This pamphlet from the Children's Foundation, in both English- and Spanish-language versions, provides advice to child care providers on record-keeping methods. The pamphlet also gives definitions and guidance on business expenses (100% deductible, shared personal and business, and depreciated capital expenses), time-space formula, self-employment…

  1. Investigación observacional sobre el papel de las estrellas binarias en la ecología de cúmulos estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Levato, H.; Grosso, M.

    We present preliminary results of a long-term project devoted to the observational study of the binary star population in open clusters and its connection with the dynamical and evolutionary properties of the clusters. We report the discovery of 17 double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 30 radial velocity variables and about 30 suspected variables. In the 17 clusters of our sample the binary frequency ranges between 20 and 40 %, and reaches typically 60 % if all suspected binaries are included. We study the spatial distribution of the binary stars with respect to the cluster center and we discuss the statistical correlation of the mass-ratio distribution with the cluster age.

  2. Lo Que los Padres y los Maestros Deberian Saber sobre la...Aceleraction (What Parents and Teachers Should Know about Academic Acceleration).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Alex

    Designed for Spanish-speaking educators and parents, this pamphlet discusses academic acceleration for gifted children. Major types of academic acceleration and their benefits are described. These include: (1) early admission to kindergarten that saves parents of gifted children the expenses of a year of preschool, allows children to be…

  3. Producción masiva automatizada de la broca del café Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleóptera: Scolytidae) y de sus parasitoides sobre dietas artificiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews the current state of knowledge concerning the mass rearing system of the coffee berry borer, cbb, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and its African parasitoids: the ectoparasitoids Cephalonomia stephanoderis (Betrem) and Prorops nasuta ((Waterston) (Hymenop...

  4. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios (A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents). Revised Edition. Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

    The handbook, an update of the 1986 handbook, is designed for Spanish-speaking parents of California public school students, and answers commonly-asked questions about the state public education system and its services, particularly those of interest to this population. Information is presented in both Spanish-and English-language sections, in a…

  5. Sobre la convertibilidad de ciertos adjectivos en adverbios en el idioma espanol (Concerning the Convertibility of Some Spanish Adjectives into Adverbs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1971-01-01

    This paper considers Spanish adjectives and the possibility of converting some adjectives into adverbs, keeping the same general significance of a sentence. The conversion of an adjective into an adverb under these circumstances can be accomplished through a transformation which can be applied to a particular logical-semantic structure. The author…

  6. Manual sobre la Educacion en California para Padres de Idiomas Minoritarios = A Handbook on California Education for Language Minority Parents--Spanish/English Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This bilingual handbook, presented in both Spanish and English, is designed to assist parents of language minority students who are residing in California. The book is part of the technical assistance effort of the State Department of Education to clarify the operations of the California schools to language minority parents so they can better…

  7. Simposio sobre Educacion de Ninas: Evidencias, Temas, Acciones. Actas de sesiones. (Symposium on Girls Education: Evidence, Issues, Actions. Proceedings). (Washington, DC, May 17-18, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This symposium highlighted core issues of controversy in girls' education and developed implications for policy and practice. Its evidence-based discussion forum encouraged dialogue, debate, and increased interaction and developed partnerships among academic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, multilateral development agencies, and other…

  8. Ahorre Energía: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energía en el hogar (Spanish Brochure), Energy Savers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    La versión en castellano de la guía del Departamento de Energía de los Estados Unidos que ayuda a consumidores a ahorrar energía y dinero en el hogar y en las carreteras. The Spanish-language version of U.S. Department of Energy's consumer guide to saving energy and money at home and on the road.

  9. How To Talk to Your Teens and Children about AIDS = Como hablar con sus adolescentes y sus ninos sobre el SIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National PTA, Chicago, IL.

    Two brochures, one in English and one in Spanish, provide parents with basic information that will enable them to educate their children about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents address 11 questions: (1) What is AIDS? (2) How do you get AIDS? (3) How is AIDS not spread? (4) Who can get AIDS? (5) How can you tell if someone has…

  10. Otra perspectiva sobre lo que los ninos deben estar aprendiendo (Another Look at What Young Children Should Be Learning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This Spanish-language ERIC Digest addresses the question of what young children should be learning that will best serve their development and learning in the long term. Two major dimensions of development--normative and dynamic--are explored, and four categories of learning goals are discussed: (1) knowledge; (2) skills; (3) dispositions; and (4)…

  11. Catalysts for Change: Three Case Studies of Quality Education Worldwide = Catalizadores del Cambio: Tres Casos de Estudio sobre la Educacion de Calidad en el Mundo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puriefoy, Wendy D.

    2007-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of democracy and is absolutely fundamental to a democratic, civil and prosperous society. Beyond the boundaries of the United States, other countries are working to provide quality education to their children through civil society institutions. In particular, there are three extraordinary organizations in Peru,…

  12. Nuevos resultados sobre la cinemática global y nuclear de NGC 253: movimientos no circulares y emisión en Br γ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camperi, J. A.; Gunthardt, G. I.; Díaz, R. J.; Agüuero, M. P.; Gimeno, G.; Pessev, P.

    Continuing with previous research (Camperi et al., BAAA, 54, 377, 2011), new heliocentric radial velocity distributions are presented for the nearby galaxy NGC 253, obtained from the ionized hydrogen recombination line Hα. These distributions have been derived from long-slit spectroscopy for various position angles. It is also shown the heliocentric radial velocity distribution corresponding to part of the infrared data (ionized hydrogen recombination line Brγ) observed with the Phoenix spectrograph of the Gemini South Observatory. Sequential mapping with the long slit using this instrument will enable to study in detail the kinematics of the galaxy's core, which is strongly obscured by dust. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  13. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  14. Guia para la Ensenanza Combinada de Ingles y Ciencia. Para Padres/sobre Padres. (A Guide to Teaching English and Science Together. For Parents/about Parents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    In the past, students who knew only a little English (called limited English proficient, or LEP), were usually taught only low-level science and mathematics. Now, new science and mathematics teaching methods can help LEP students get a good education in both fields. This guide will help parents know if their children are learning as much as…

  15. Parenting Information for Parents: Books 1-3 (Informacion Para Los Padres Sobre La Crianza De Los Hijos: Libros 1-3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Steve

    These 3 booklets provide ideas, guidelines, and activities for establishing effective parenting and are part of a series of 22 booklets specifically designed to help parents understand their children and help them to learn. The first booklet (booklet #20) discusses preparation for parenthood, infant and toddler developmental stages, the importance…

  16. Politica Nacional sobre Discapacidad: Un Informe del Progreso, Diciembre 2000-Diciembre 2001 (National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2000-December 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This report (written in Spanish) of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes the nation's progress in advancing public policies to increase the inclusion, empowerment, and independence of people with disabilities in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The report covers December 2000 through December 2001. It reviews…

  17. Teorí­as de primer y segundo orden sobre el potencial de ciertas figuras de equilibrio de cuerpos celestes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbau, Manuel Forner

    2010-11-01

    Uno de los problemas que aborda la Mecánica Celeste es la determinación de las figuras de equilibrio de los cuerpos celestes. Para investigar su solución mediante métodos directos, se precisa evaluar el potencial generado por su autogravitación, el generado por su fuerza centrí­fuga y el generado por la fuerza de atracción entre los cuerpos. Los métodos clásicos de Finlay y Kopal que afrontan estos problemas, para determinar el potencial autogravitatorio en las configuraciones de equilibrio, emplean desarrollos en serie de los potenciales interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio. Estos métodos incurren en el error de suponer la convergencia en capas donde resulta cuestionable dicha convergencia para estos desarrollos en serie. En este trabajo se han elaborado unos algoritmos que contemplan toda la casuí&stica y que permiten una manipulación efic iente del producto de polinomios de Legendre, del producto de funciones asociada s de Legendre y del producto de armónicos esféricos como combinacióon lineal de ellos mismos, respectivamente. Se han obtenido, para primer y segundo orden en las amplitudes, los desarrollos correctos para los potencial es interior y exterior del potencial autogravitatorio para configuraciones de equilibrio aisladas, y , en primer orden de amplitudes, los mismos potenciales para los sistemas binarios próximos. Se ha elaborado un método analítico, en primer orden respecto de las amplitudes, para la determinación del potencial de marea en sistemas binarios próximos en el cual se manifiesta la forma de la componente secundaria del sistema

  18. Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess the Reading Beliefs of Undergraduate Students: The "Cuestionario de Creencias Sobre la Lectura"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordán, Eva; Solé, Isabel; Beltran, Francesc S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a new questionnaire for exploring the reading beliefs of undergraduate students, because the only currently available instrument has conceptual and methodological limitations. The paper describes the process of developing the instrument and presents a range of psychometric data obtained from a sample of 558…

  19. Conservación de material histórico sobre papel en el Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguzzi, N.; Tonini, A.; Andreoli, G.; Goldes, G.; Paolantonio, S.; Cequeira, F.; Landi, L.; Alba, J.

    At the recently created Astronomical Museum ``Pte. Sarmiento - Dr. Benjamin Gould", the task of preventive conservation of historic documents has been faced. These materials include: 1) letters exchanged between national authorities and the directors of the Observatory, during the first decades (1870-1880-1890); b) original observation logs from these very first times, containing astrometrical and photometrical data; c) a variety of ancient books and papers; d) administrative documents. The state of conservation of this patrimony was varied: since well-conserved books and letters, to highly degraded logs. The observation logs written by B. Gould and the astronomers who followed him had been stocked in a safe with a permanent humidity of about 70 %, without any ventilation and exposed to the attack of insects of the family ``dermestidae." These conditions could not be worse for the conservation of paper. In order to stop the proccess of degradation and create a healthy environment for written-paper conservation, a team was formed with personnel belonging to the Cultural Area of the Municipality. The tasks being performed on the observation logs are: 1) an initial, mechanical cleaning, performed once the material is extracted from the contaminated safe: by these means, adult insects and pupas are removed 2) a stage of about two weeks of duration, in which the logs are mantained in a vacuum chamber, in orden to completely eliminate the adult, pupa and egg stage insects by anoxia 3) the final mechanical cleaning 4) storage in a clean location. In order to perform these tasks, we work in collaboration with the Environmental Observatory of the City, and the group of Material-Science Research of Fa.M.A.F. Regarding the letters, a mechanical cleaning was performed. After that, the letters were digitized by means of a scanner, inventoried, put inside acid-free polipropylene envelops and filed for conservation, protected from intense light and external sources of contamination. Copies of these letters will be included as exhibits.

  20. Consideraciones sobre la investigacion hermeneutica en la educacion en lenguas y culturas extranjeras (Aspects of Applying a Hermeneutic Approach to Foreign Language and Culture Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee

    Drawing on writings by recent post-modernist thinkers and semioticians, this paper focuses on a combination of hermeneutic and semiotic viewpoints and applies them to defining the nature of interpretation in an educational setting (e.g., text interpretation), the interpreter, and the essence of the act of comprehension and interpretation. The main…

  1. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  2. Sobre la posible existencia de un bulbo o núcleo de población II en la Nube Mayor de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Dutra, D. M.; Bica, E.; Piatti, A. E.

    Based on recent results obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a census of genuine globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and we examine their spatial distribution. Spectroscopic observations carried out at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) allow us to add two new clusters (NGC 1928 and NGC 1939) to the list of genuine LMC globular clusters. We present evidence that old clusters projected on the LMC bar region may constitute a population II core, probably reminiscent of an ancient bulge, which together with a central disc could have evolved into the observed LMC bar by SMC and/or Galaxy interactions. A detailed discussion was given in MNRAS 305, 373 (1999).

  3. Guia para Madres y Padres de Familia sobre Educacion Pre-Escolar a Temprana Edad (A Parents' Guide to Early Childhood Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna

    This booklet for parents explains what children learn in preschools that employ the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood and the ways in which learning can be reinforced at home. The first sections of the booklet explain the goals and philosophy of experience-based preschools. Goals include teaching children to love reading and school and to be…

  4. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones fueron transformados numericamente para poder obtener el coeficiente de correlacion de Spearman-Brown para el instrumento (0.661, p < 0.01). El analisis de las contestaciones de los estudiantes refleja percepciones diversas y, en algunos casos, contradictorias con respecto al contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico.

  5. La influencia del medio interestelar sobre la evolución del remanente de supernova (RSN) G53.6-2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacani, E. B.; Dubner, G.; Cappa, C.; Testori, J. C.

    G53.6-2.2 is a supernova remnant with an unusual morphology: in the radio band the overall shape can be described as two shells that overlap on the NW side of the remnant. The X-ray emission fills the source and peaks in the region where the radio rings overlap; while in the optical range the emission consists of filaments that correlate with portions of radio rings that overlap in the NW. The aim of the present project is to investigate the neutral hydrogen distribution around the remnant in search for signatures that allow to disclose the role of the surrounding gas in conditioning the observed morphology.

  6. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  7. Kathy Finds Out about the Introduction of Solids. Mother-to-Mother Support = Josefa Descubre Conocimientos sobre la Introduccion de Solidos. Apoyo Madre a Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Rebecca; Stone-Jimenez, Maryanne; Allen de Smith, Paulina; Smith, Natalia

    These magazine-sized booklets, one in English, one in Spanish, are in cartoon format and are designed to be used by people with limited literacy in English or Spanish. This booklet explains that exclusive breastfeeding means giving no water, liquids, or food; breast milk contains sufficient water to satisfy the baby's thirst; at about 6 months,…

  8. Perspectivas sobre las escuelas charter: Una resena para padres de familia (Perspectives on Charter Schools: A Review for Parents). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    Recently, charter schools have gained popularity with parents, students, and others as alternatives to public schools, but what are charter schools and what effects are they having? This Spanish-language Digest defines charter schools and clarifies some of the administrative and legal details surrounding such schools. The Digest also lays out some…

  9. Estudio Sobre Portadores Cronicos de Salmonellas en Manipuladores de Alimentos de la Ciudad de Iquitos (Study of Chronic Salmonella Carriers in Food Handlers in the City of Iquitos)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    manipuladores de alimentos en estudio. 779 (77.90%) fueron del sexo femcnino y 221 (22.10%) del sexo masculino. siendo el mayor porcentaje mujeres (234 - 30.04...papel de ios portadlores cr6- Woos en 460 mujeres dadas de alt. del hospital de Chile, encontrandose 34 porta- dores o sea 7.4 % excediindose las...4 sujetos 3.6 % portadores cr6nicos de Salmoncilas. 1S0 En Argentina 1974, se inves:,16 la frecuencia de Saiimoncilas en 146 manipulado- res de

  10. Borrowing Basics. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Prestamos. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module, an introduction to credit, is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to decide when and how to use…

  11. Check It Out. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Conceptos Basicos sobre Cuentas Corientes. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Educacion para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on how to choose and keep a checking account is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to open and keep a…

  12. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  13. Sobre la naturaleza de cinco candidatos a cúmulos abiertos ubicados próximos a la dirección del centro galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.

    CCD BVI Johnson-Cousins observations obtained for 1759 stars in 4'×4' regions around the unstudied southern stellar aggregates Ruprecht 103, 124, 129, 146 and 166 are presented. The objects are described as open clusters in the catalogues of star clusters and associations of Alter et al. (1970) and LyngÅ (1987), as well as, in the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas (Lauberts 1982). Our analysis shows that none of these objects are genuine open clusters, except perhaps Ruprecht 166, since no clear main sequences (MSs) or other meaningful features can be seen in the extracted (V,B-V) and (V,V-I) colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The star sequences seen in the distinct CMDs, specially for Ruprecht 124 and 129, are apparently formed by the superimposition of MS field stars affected by varying amounts of interstellar absorption and/or placed at different distances from the Sun. The CMDs of Ruprecht 166 present a pronounced variation in the luminosity function along the apparent MS, a fact from which we can infer the notion of these stars had a different origin. Star counts carried out within and outside the cluster candidate fields not only support the results that the objects do not present a significant number density contrast with respect to the Galactic disk, but also show that they do not appear to be candidate late stages of star cluster dynamical evolution. Several other stellar aggregates included in open cluster catalogues have previously been disproved as genuine physical systems (see, e.g., Carraro & Patat 1995, MNRAS, 276, 563; Carraro 2000, A&A, 357, 145; Piatti & Clariá 2001, A&A, 370, 931). Thus, the present work implies the potential likelihood of other wrongly classified open clusters.

  14. Pick and Choose: A Videotape Series on Nutrition for Migrant Families (Coja y Escoja: Peliculas para Television Sobre la Nutricion para las Familias Migratorias).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    One of the major problems faced by migrant workers throughout the United States is a lack of awareness of the relationship between proper diet and an individual's general health and well being. To help solve this problem was the major objective of the series "Pick and Choose." The three 15-minute programs in the series present…

  15. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs Newsletter, July 1991-December 1992 = Boletin de Grupo Internacional de Trabajo sobre Asuntos Indigenas, Septiembre 1991-Diciembre 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IWGIA Newsletter, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This document contains seven consecutive English-language issues of the IWGIA Newsletter, from July 1991 through December 1992, followed by the seven corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide educators with a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  16. Guerrilla Violence in Colombia: Examining Causes and Consequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    12 C. THE APOGEE OF POPULISM (1946-1948) ......................... 15 D. "LA VIOLENCIA " (1948-1953...17 million at the end of 1931.4 The country along with most of 4 P caut, Daniel, Orden y Violencia : Colombia 1930-1954, Siglo veintiuno Editores, 1987...should no longer be a source of support for the masses.7 P0caut, Daniel, Orden y Violencia : Colombia 1930-1954, Siglo veintiuno Editores, 1987, p. 353. 14

  17. The expansion velocities of laser-produced plasmas determined from extreme ultraviolet spectral line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Behring, W. E.; Cohen, L.

    1977-01-01

    The expansion of laser-produced plasma is determined from the shapes of spectral lines of highly ionized iron emitted in the extreme ultraviolet. The plasmas were produced by focusing the pulse from a Nd:glass laser onto solid planar targets, and spectra were recorded with a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrograph. From the Doppler broadening of lines of Fe XX and Fe XXI, expansion velocities of about 830 km/s were determined. The relative time-averaged ion abundances of Fe XVIII, Fe XIX, Fe XX, and Fe XXI are estimated for three different spectra. The abundances do not differ by more than a factor of 4 for any of the spectra.

  18. Klinefelter syndrome and acute basophilic leukaemia--case report.

    PubMed

    Ljubić, Nives; Lang, Nada; Skelin, Ika Kardum; Lasan, Ruzica; Dominis, Mara; Perković, Leila; Zupanić-Krmek, Dubraka; Grgurević-Batinica, Anita

    2010-06-01

    Patients with 47, XXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) appear to have increased risk of developing cancer, especially male breast cancer, germ cell tumours and non Hodgkin lymphomas, but rarely acute myeloid leukaemia. We report a patient with acute basophilic leukaemia with 47, XXY karyotype in both the tumour and constitutional cells. Acute basophilic leukaemia is very rare disease comprising less than 1% of all acute myeloid leukaemias. Morphological characteristic of leukaemic blast cells is moderately basophilic cytoplasm containing a variable number of coarse basophilic granules. The most characteristic cytochemical reaction is metachromatic positivity with toluidine blue. Blast are myeloperoxidase negative. Also leukemic blasts express myeloid and monocyte markers. There is no consistent chromosomal abnormality identified in this leukaemia. This is the first reported case of acute basophilic leukaemia in patient with Klinefelter syndrome. In this article the medical history of the patient is given and the possible connection between Klinefelter syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia is discussed.

  19. Association between venous leg ulcers and sex chromosome anomalies in men.

    PubMed

    Gattringer, Cornelia; Scheurecker, Christine; Höpfl, Reinhard; Müller, Hansgeorg

    2010-11-01

    We report here two cases of men, aged 46 and 23 years, with refractory chronic venous leg ulcers in association with sex chromosome aberrations: one with a 47,XXY/48,XXXY karyotype (Klinefelter syndrome) and the other with a 47,XYY karyotype (Jacob syndrome). In both patients, the occurrence of leg ulcers was the reason for seeking medical care; their medical history was other-wise unremarkable. Chromosomal analyses were performed due to the unusually young age for development of venous leg ulcers. The pathophysiology behind the occurrence of venous leg ulcers in patients with numerical aberrations of the sex chromosomes is incompletely understood. Involvement of elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in the pathogenesis of venous leg ulcers has been reported in patients with Klinefelter syndrome. Notably, our patient with 47,XXY/48,XXXY presented with androgen deficiency but normal plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity.

  20. New model for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new type of models for nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E. They are heavily based on the fact nucleon GPDs require to use two forms of double distribution (DD) representations. The outcome of the new treatment is that the usual DD+D-term construction should be amended by an extra term, {xi} E{sub +}{sup 1} (x,{xi}) which has the DD structure {alpha}/{beta} e({beta},{alpha}, with e({beta},{alpha}) being the DD that generates GPD E(x,{xi}). We found that this function, unlike the D-term, has support in the whole -1 <= x <= 1 region. Furthermore, it does not vanish at the border points |x|={xi}.

  1. Analysis of ultraviolet and X-ray observations of three homologous solar flares from SMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Pallavicini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    Three homologous flares observed in the UV lines of Fe XXI and O V and in X-rays from the SMM were studied. It was found that: (1) the homology of the flares was most noticeable in Fe XXI and soft X-ray emissions; (2) the three flares shared many of the same loop footprints which were located in O V bright kernals associated with hard X-ray bursts; and (3) in spite of the strong spatial homology, the temporal evolution in UV and X-ray emissions varied from flare to flare. A comparison between the UV observations and photospheric magnetograms revealed that the basic flare configuration was a complex loop system consisting of many loops or bundles of loops.

  2. Prenatally detected double trisomy: Klinefelter and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cortés, M; Raga, F; Cuesta, A; Claramunt, R; Bonilla-Musoles, F

    2006-11-01

    Double trisomies are a rare occurrence. We report the first case of a Down and Klinefelter's syndrome (48,XXY,+21) in a fetus that was prenatally diagnosed during the 15th week of pregnancy. Even though the nasal bone was present, and the color-Doppler study of the ductus venosus and the nuchal thickness were normal, the maternal serum test results indicated an increased risk of Down syndrome and consequentially a genetic amniocentesis was performed. A 48,XXY,+21 karyotype was observed and the patient decided to terminate the pregnancy. In this case, we did not find the typical ultrasound (US) signs that would have led us to the chromosomopathy; furthermore, we emphasize the advantages of using biochemical screening which, in our case, were crucial in arriving at the correct diagnosis.

  3. A new approach to the automatic identification of organism evolution using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kasperski, Andrzej; Kasperska, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Automatic identification of organism evolution still remains a challenging task, which is especially exiting, when the evolution of human is considered. The main aim of this work is to present a new idea to allow organism evolution analysis using neural networks. Here we show that it is possible to identify evolution of any organisms in a fully automatic way using the designed EvolutionXXI program, which contains implemented neural network. The neural network has been taught using cytochrome b sequences of selected organisms. Then, analyses have been carried out for the various exemplary organisms in order to demonstrate capabilities of the EvolutionXXI program. It is shown that the presented idea allows supporting existing hypotheses, concerning evolutionary relationships between selected organisms, among others, Sirenia and elephants, hippopotami and whales, scorpions and spiders, dolphins and whales. Moreover, primate (including human), tree shrew and yeast evolution has been reconstructed.

  4. Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe{sup 20+} to Fe{sup 23+}

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Scofield, J; Brown, G; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M

    2004-08-25

    Electron impact excitation cross sections have been measured for iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of FeXXI to FeXXIV at the EBIT-II electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6-element array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture and a summary of calculated energy dependent radiative recombination cross sections for electron capture into the ground state fine structure levels of Fe{sup 16+} to Fe{sup 23+} ions is given. The measurement results for 17 lines and their comparison with model calculations are presented. While agreement of the model calculations with experiment is good for most measured lines, significant discrepancies were found for a few lines, including the strongest line in Fe XXI.

  5. [Andrological characteristics in males with X-chromosomal pathology].

    PubMed

    Iunda, I F; Dyshlovoĭ, V D; Imshinetskaia, L P; Koblianskaia, G N; Ryzhkova, L N

    1979-01-01

    The authors examined 32 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome: 21 with chromatine-positive (the 1st group), 11 with chromatine-negative (the 2nd group). In contrast to the patients of the 2nd group an altered karyotype was revealed in patients of the 1st group (47/XXY, 46XY/47XXY, 48XXXY/49XXXXY). Hormonal examination revelaed hypoandrogenia with a relative hyperestrogenuria in the majority of the patients of the 1st and 2nd groups. However, patients of the 2nd group displayed a greater preservation of the reserve testicular function. Further clinical, endocrinological and cytogenetic studies of the Klinefelter's syndrome is necessary for its differential diagnosis and correction.

  6. Education in Mexico: Historical Evolution and Ethnographic Perspectives. Essay Review of "Un siglo de educacion en Mexico," edited by Pablo Latapi Sarre; "We Are All Equal: Student Culture and Identity at a Mexican Secondary School, 1988-1998," by Bradley A. U. Levinson; and "Learning as Cultural Practice: How Children Learn in a Mexican Mazahua Community. A Study on Culture and Learning," by Mariette de Haan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pescador, Octavio Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three books that (1) provide a systemic overview of schooling in Mexico in the 20th century, (2) present a critical ethnography of Mexican student culture and identity formation, and (3) incorporate analyses of indigenous cultural practices into cognitive theory. Reflects on the future of Mexican education in view of political corruption…

  7. Defense Attache Saigon: RVNAF Final Assessment, 1 January thru 25 April FY 75,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-15

    UNCLASSIFIED L . .. .. .. . . .. . .- :.. ., ,, . UNCLASSIFIED FY Fiscal Year .1G General (Staff): 1-Administration; 2-Intelligence; 3-Operations; 4 -Logistics...Duty TET Vietnamese Lunar New Year xxi UNCLASSIFIED*"I1 UNCLASSIFIED 4 ! TF Territorial Force(s) TF-76 Task Force 76 (United States Navy) TFARS...understrength RF units (including personnel from the deactivated PF platoons). c. The subsector program, conceived by the GVN one year ago , was totally abandoned

  8. United States Army Armor Center and Fort Knox. 1996 Annual Command History,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-11

    development that embraced the importance of heavy, mobile forces dominating the battlefield through use of advanced technologies. Secretary of Defense Les...during the Gulf War. In particular, Force XXI embraced the value of large-scale maneuver warfare in which mobile heavy forces possessing high...command authority over the related funding. In the context of Army digitization, TRADOC now had the power to push the development of new techonologies

  9. Near Space: Should Air Force Space Command Take Control of Its Shore? (Maxwell Paper, Number 38)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Author Lt Col Kurt Hall, USAF, is an action officer with Force Application, Joint Functional Capabilities Board, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operational...performed this function . Having launched new ISR systems such as high-altitude-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (HAE UAV) during Operations Enduring...TACSAT) radios, Iridium phones, Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below information system, blue- force tracking, International Maritime Satellite data

  10. Regional Alignment: Phase Zero Logistics Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    operations in OIF affected doctrinal language and organizational change in the shift from a regional aligned structure. 17John Sloan Brown, Kevlar ...26John Sloan Brown, Kevlar Legions: The Transformations of the United States Army 1989-2005 (Washington, DC: Center of Military History, 2011), 139...it remains the preeminent information age Army. To do this Force XXI incorporates a holistic approach to change. The innovative approach that we

  11. Fires, A Joint Professional Bulletin for US Field & Air Defense Artillerymen. July-August 07

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Doctrine• Tactics• Techniques• MTT/DET• ITP• POI• CAD Mgmt• Unit TSP • LP• SOW• IMI• ASAT• ACCP• VTT for CR • XXI DL Plan• Reach Back • Mechanisms LLI• SOW...Mission Training Plan = Mobile Training Team Legend: MTTP NET OMS OTRS PME POI SOW SRS STRAC STRAP STP TADSS TD TDA TD2 TSP TSR TTSP...process and display ACMs from the airspace control order ( ACO ). • Link to joint airspace manage- ment processes at the battlefield coordination

  12. Army Communicator. Voice of the Signal Regiment. Volume 31 Number 4, Fall 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    smaller communications pipe).” JNN-N is a converged tactical communications network providing voice, data, and video capability to connect the...Protocol voice, video and data communications capabilities via satellite. With JNN-N, Soldiers who could only communicate one-on-one in the past, can now...satellite image of the ground. Force XXI Battle Com- mand, Brigade and Below – Blue Force Tracking uses satellite technol- ogy, while the balance of

  13. Engineering and Design: Standard Penetration Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Penetration TestDe Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name...jsfi I I US* of drlXXi~ mucl -r*ueusiog In I Decrm8e8 hcrea8ea Zither Increases Increases Increeses Decrea8es lncreeaes Increases Increeaes Zither &creases DecrU8e* nem8*s hcruses Xnt-ses tieee Utber k~ee Enclosure 2

  14. Flight School in the Virtual Environment: Capabilities and Risks of Executing a Simulations-Based Flight Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Social Sciences, 2007), 3; Nau, Krondak, and Lewis, "Flight School XXI (FSXXI) Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA)," chap. 1, 4-5. RL 3 is the...Skill Adaptability, Constructivism , and Fidelity," (Advanced Distributed Learning, 2010), 3. 25 The FAA and Army Aviation subscribe to several...foundational theories work together to explain learning in aviation—behavioral learning theory, cognitive learning theory, constructivism , experiential

  15. Army Science and Technology Master Plan, Fiscal Year 1997 - Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    Operational Issues AfterArmy S&T "* Warfighting int Vision Experiments 2010 • Balanced Army• Program " Future xxi • Strong User Operational Involvement Battle...while accommodating enormous will develop comparable capabilities, we change with balance and continuity. Today’s must... invest in the next generation of...BHAW) TD (06-10). The BHAW TD will ogy Demonstration (02-05). This TD demon- eand demonstrate, through simulation strates balanced integration of

  16. Planetary protection: Elements for cost minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, Andre

    2006-10-01

    In line with the UN Outer Space Treaty (article IX of the Outer Space Treaty—London/Washington January 27, 1967) [United Nations Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (the “Outer Space Treaty”) referenced 610 UNTS 205—resolution 2222(XXI) of December 1966 [1

  17. Coatings and Biodegradable and Bioabsorbable Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    preparation conditions and the level of interaction of polymer matrix and clay . In intercalated structures, a few polymer chains are inserted between...that the type of preparation method, the nature of the surfactant or organic modifier, and the content of organo - clay affect the morphological...Influence of the Morphology and Polymer/ Clay Interactions " J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys. 2005, 43, 205-214. "xxI Gorrasi, G.; Tortora, M

  18. Global Strategic Mobility: A Decade After Desert Storm. Are We More Capable?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Drach , The Strategic Mobility Shortfall: Underrepresented, Underfunded, and Unresolved. Monograph for the School of Advanced Military Studies (Fort...Strategic Mobility Posture for the XXI Century, Strategic Research Project (Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 15 April 1996), 8. 11 Drach , 15...1996), 11. 14 Dillie, 4. 15 Ibid., 7. 16 Willie, 13. 17 Drach , 19. 18 Ibid., 18. 19 Dillie, 9. 16 20 Drach , 21-22. 21 John A. Tirpak, “Airlift Moves

  19. Computer-Based Procedure Systems: Technical Basis and Human Factors Review Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    controlling the plant. Historically, plant procedures have been paper-based and were not considered part of the HSI. Following the accident at Three Mile...Manuals Interfacing systems loss-of-coolant accident Knowledge-based system Loss-of-coolant accident Light water reactor xxi NUREG/CR-6634...have been paper-based and were not considered part of the HSI. Following the accident at the Three Mile Island NPP, the nuclear power industry

  20. A Retrospective Inquiry into the Operation of Service Custom under the American Military General Articles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-23

    is assigned him, and that he shall remain the full limited term, unless by order or permission of him before whom the watch is made, on pain of...misconduct customarily recognized as injurious to discipline. 1 Black Book of the Admiralty -xxi (Twiss ed. 1871). The use of the singular form of...decision to retain the British customs and discipline, with which most of the potential officers were familiar from their service in the French and Indian

  1. A Question of Balance: Political Context and Military Aspects of the China-Taiwan Dispute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    scholars working on issues relating to the Taiwan Strait situation, C hinese military modernization, and U.S. military force planning and strategy in... Markets or Information Networks .. . . .. .. III . . . .. IX . .. Xl . .. . XIII . .. . XXI .. XXIII . .. .. . I . .. .. . 3 . .. .. . 5...by employing a "four rings" strategy : xviii A Question of Ba lance • "Thinning the herd " of approaching ships using what amounts to unordered

  2. An Upgradeable Agent-Based Model to Explore Non-Linearity and Intangibles in Peacekeeping Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    variable name) SFOR Stabilisation Force sI ShockInfluence (variable name) Simkit No acronym (Software package for DES) SIRA ...represent the base of each side and the ellipses are the objectives. As the reader can observe , the group of peacekeepers are at their objective, xxi...cease-fire in Georgia is supported by Bundeswehr medical personnel and observers . Since December 1996, Germany has sent more soldiers on the various

  3. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program (1983). Technical Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Monkey Analogs for Evaluation of CD Agents : Dr. L. W. Buckalew .’. Pitch and Alcohol xxi -. . Report Number Title Research Associate * 14 Combined Blast...FINAL REPORT AIRCREW-RELEVANT MAN-MONKEY ANALOGS FOR EVALUATION OF CD AGENTS : PITCH AND ALCOHOL Prepared by: L. W. Buckalew Academic Rank: Associate...EVALUATION OF CD AGENTS : PITCH AND ALCOHOL by L. W. Buckalew ABSTRACT With the growing possibility of military personnel encountering chemical

  4. 32 CFR 623.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American National Red Cross for instruction and practice. (vi) 10 U.S.C. 2543—Loan of equipment to US... emergency preparation; emergency supplies of drinking water. (xxi) 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq. (Pub. L. 92-500)—Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (xxii) 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (Pub. L. 93-288)—Disaster Relief...

  5. Unified Research on Network-Based Hard/Soft Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    08/28/2012 08/28/2012 08/31/2011 10/11/2011 10/11/2011 Received Paper Amir Shirkhodaie, Vinayak Elagovan, Aaron Rababaah. Acoustic Semantic Labeling...Symposium, Conference: Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition XXI. 23-APR-12, . : , Amjad Alkilani, Amir Shirkhodaie. A Survey on Acoustic ...USA. : , Amjad Alkilani, Amir Shirkhodaie. Acoustic events semantic detection, classification, and annotation for persistent surveillance applications

  6. 48 CFR 204.7003 - Basic PII number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exhausted during a fiscal year)—T (xxi) See T—U (xxii) See P—V (xxiii) See M—W (xxiv) Reserved for departmental use—X (xxv) Imprest fund—Y (xxvi) Reserved for departmental use—Z (4) Position 10 through 13... provisions for orders or calls—C (iv) Indefinite delivery contracts—D (v) Reserved—E (vi) Contracting...

  7. 48 CFR 204.7003 - Basic PII number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (assign U when numbering capacity of T is exhausted during a fiscal year)—T (xxi) See T—U (xxii) See P—V... orders or calls.—C (iv) Indefinite delivery contracts—D (v) Reserved—E (vi) Calls against blanket... (assign V when numbering capacity of P is exhausted during a fiscal year)—P (xvii) Request for...

  8. Area Handbook Series: Mongolia: a Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    official language ), 90 percent; minor languages include Turkic, Chinese , Russian, and Kazakh. xxi Religion: Predominantly Yellow Sect of Tibetan...Western observers, most Mongolians tradi- tionally have tended to view the Soviet Union as a model of modern society, and the Russian language has been the...and the eastern areas of the country. Khalkha Mongol is the standard language ; it is taught in the schools and is used for all official business . The

  9. Training Effectiveness Study of Simulator Usage and Its Impact on Live Fire Armor Gunnery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MODELING, VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS AND SIMULATION (MOVES...Combined Arms Live-Fire Exercise CITV Commander’s Independent Thermal Viewer COAX Coaxial Machinegun CPC Crew Practice Course FBCB2 Force XXI...gun is partially simulated. Manual fire cannot be accomplished. The charging handle can be used to apply immediate action for simulated stoppages

  10. The Influence of Modern Adolescents' Vision of Life on Their Perception of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torshilova, Elena M.; Polosukhina, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    During The aim of the multi-year study, conducted by the authors of present article, is to reveal the characteristics of social-cultural portrait of 9-16-year-old children, who grow up in the XXI century, along with the influence of modern children's vision of life on their perception of art. In order to solve the problem, the authors used the…

  11. Is the Stryker Brigade Combat Team Still Relevant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    strategic vision called Force XXI. This vision sought to produce an “agile, sustainable force capable of meeting any challenge that emerged in an as-yet...13 Shinseki and White, 26. 14 Ibid., 2. 15 Department of the Army, “Army Vision – Force 2025 White Paper” (Washington DC: White Paper...77 TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-1, The U.S. Army Operating Concept: Win in a Complex World, 2020 -2040 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office

  12. Dermatoglyphics of fingers and palm in Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Ghosh, S K; Pal, A K

    2010-09-01

    Dermatoglyphics is important in anthropology and medical genetics, chiefly because of their diagnostic usefulness. We studied the ridges of finger tips and palm in six Klinefelter's syndrome patients (47,XXY) in the present work. Then the results were compared with equal number of controls. Statistical analysis was done using EPI- info, version- 6.04 d software. We found statistically significant increased in whorls and decreased in loops in klinefelter's syndrome patients as compared to the controls.

  13. Preformulation and Formulation Investigational New Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Hydrogenated Castor Oil; waxy material with a melting point of 85-88 0 C PVP K30 conforms to USP XXI requirements for Povidone ; K30 is a water soluble...with various grades of hydroxypropylmethyl- cellulose (Methocel® K4M, K15M or KlOOM), hydrogenated castor oil (Castorwax4D), polyvinylpyrrolidonn (PVP... Povidone @, Plasdoneg or KollidonO) and other excipients. Extended release over 6-12 hours was desired from such formulations. Release characteristics

  14. Enhancing Entity Level Knowledge Representation and Environmental Sensing in COMBATXXI Using Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    1.3 MOTIVATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.4 OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.5 THESIS...General Medical Sciences of the United States National Institutes of Health . xxi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xxii 1.1 BACKGROUND The United...modeling, dynamic planning methods, and ontology based reasoning. 1.3 MOTIVATION The ability of a unit to effectively perform its mission is dependent on

  15. SNP-based non-invasive prenatal testing detects sex chromosome aneuploidies with high accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Banjevic, Milena; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Hall, Megan P.; Westemeyer, Margaret; Saucier, Jennifer; Demko, Zachary; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a single nucleotide polymorphism- and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy. Methods Fifteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex PCR assay that targeted 19,488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies. Results Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4 weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%. Conclusion This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cfDNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies, and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies. PMID:23712453

  16. [Fertility in Klinefelter syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Hervé; Brosse, Aurélie; Plotton, Ingrid

    2014-02-01

    In Klinefelter syndrome with non-mosaic 47,XXY caryotype, a biological paternity can be obtained by TEsticular Sperm Extraction and Intra-Cytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI). TESE is positive in about 50 % of the cases in published series of non-mosaic 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome. Age is the main prognosis factor for TESE. Among patients seeking children, the percentage of positive TESE is higher in younger men. Sperm cells are extracted from focal spermatogenesis. They differenciate from spermatogonia which have corrected their chromosome complement (46,XY). The risk of aneuploidy is similar in Klinefelter syndrome and in non-obstructive azoospermia with normal caryotype. Among more than 100 born children reported in the literature, all have a normal caryotype. Only one foetus, within a triple pregnancy, had a 47,XXY caryotype. Whether the percentage of positive TESE is better for adolescent than for adult Klinefelter patients should be addressed by performing a TESE in adolescent (from 15 years old) similarly to adult Klinefelter patients. TESE will be followed by cryopreservation of extracted sperms. They will be used latter for ICSI when the patient will seek children. This early TESE can be performed before the beginning of the androgenic treatment, avoiding the potential deleterious feedback effect of exogenous testosterone on the gonadotropin secretion and on the focal spermatogenesis. Any androgenic treatment should be interrupted at least six months before the TESE to avoid the feedback lowering effect on gonadotropin secretion.

  17. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION: CASE STUDIES OF THE M1.1 FLARE ON 2014 SEPTEMBER 6 AND X1.6 FLARE ON 2014 SEPTEMBER 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Chen, Bin; McKillop, Sean; Young, Peter R.; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    With observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, we track the complete evolution of ∼11 MK evaporation flows in an M1.1 flare on 2014 September 6 and an X1.6 flare on 2014 September 10. These hot flows, as indicated by the blueshifted Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line, evolve smoothly with a velocity decreasing exponentially from ∼200 km s{sup −1} to almost stationary within a few minutes. We find a good correlation between the flow velocity and energy deposition rate as represented by the hard X-ray flux observed with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, or time derivative of the soft X-ray flux observed with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites and the HINODE X-ray Telescope, which is in general agreement with models of nonthermal electron heating. The maximum blueshift of Fe xxi appears approximately at the same time as or slightly after the impulsive enhancement of the ultraviolet continuum and the Mg ii 2798.8 Å line emission, demonstrating that the evaporation flow is closely related to heating of the lower chromosphere. Finally, while the hot Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line is entirely blueshifted with no obvious rest component, cool chromospheric and transition region lines like Si iv 1402.77 Å are often not entirely redshifted but just reveal an obvious red wing enhancement at the ribbons, suggesting that the speed of chromospheric condensation might be larger than previously thought.

  18. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF ELECTRON-DRIVEN EVAPORATION IN TWO SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-11-01

    We have explored the relationship between hard X-ray (HXR) emissions and Doppler velocities caused by the chromospheric evaporation in two X1.6 class solar flares on 2014 September 10 and October 22, respectively. Both events display double ribbons and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph slit is fixed on one of their ribbons from the flare onset. The explosive evaporations are detected in these two flares. The coronal line of Fe xxi 1354.09 Å shows blueshifts, but the chromospheric line of C i 1354.29 Å shows redshifts during the impulsive phase. The chromospheric evaporation tends to appear at the front of the flare ribbon. Both Fe xxi and C i display their Doppler velocities with an “increase-peak-decrease” pattern that is well related to the “rising-maximum-decay” phase of HXR emissions. Such anti-correlation between HXR emissions and Fe xxi Doppler shifts and correlation with C i Doppler shifts indicate the electron-driven evaporation in these two flares.

  19. IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-20

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfvén speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of a greatly redshifted (∼125 km s{sup –1} along the line of sight) Fe XXI 1354.08 Å emission line with a ∼100 km s{sup –1} nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe XXI feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-ray source observed by RHESSI. We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory also reveal the eruption and reconnection processes. Fast downward-propagating blobs along these loops are also found from cool emission lines (e.g., Si IV, O IV, C II, Mg II) and images of AIA and IRIS. Furthermore, the entire Fe XXI line is blueshifted by ∼260 km s{sup –1} at the loop footpoints, where the cool lines mentioned above all exhibit obvious redshift, a result that is consistent with the scenario of chromospheric evaporation induced by downward-propagating nonthermal electrons from the reconnection site.

  20. Temporal Evolution of Chromospheric Evaporation: Case Studies of the M1.1 Flare on 2014 September 6 and X1.6 Flare on 2014 September 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hui; Young, Peter R.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Chen, Bin; Liu, Wei; McKillop, Sean

    2015-10-01

    With observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, we track the complete evolution of ˜11 MK evaporation flows in an M1.1 flare on 2014 September 6 and an X1.6 flare on 2014 September 10. These hot flows, as indicated by the blueshifted Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line, evolve smoothly with a velocity decreasing exponentially from ˜200 km s-1 to almost stationary within a few minutes. We find a good correlation between the flow velocity and energy deposition rate as represented by the hard X-ray flux observed with the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, or time derivative of the soft X-ray flux observed with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites and the HINODE X-ray Telescope, which is in general agreement with models of nonthermal electron heating. The maximum blueshift of Fe xxi appears approximately at the same time as or slightly after the impulsive enhancement of the ultraviolet continuum and the Mg ii 2798.8 Å line emission, demonstrating that the evaporation flow is closely related to heating of the lower chromosphere. Finally, while the hot Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line is entirely blueshifted with no obvious rest component, cool chromospheric and transition region lines like Si iv 1402.77 Å are often not entirely redshifted but just reveal an obvious red wing enhancement at the ribbons, suggesting that the speed of chromospheric condensation might be larger than previously thought.