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Sample records for signal strength based

  1. A signal strength priority based position estimation for mobile platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalgikar, Bhargav; Akopian, David; Chen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) products help to navigate while driving, hiking, boating, and flying. GPS uses a combination of orbiting satellites to determine position coordinates. This works great in most outdoor areas, but the satellite signals are not strong enough to penetrate inside most indoor environments. As a result, a new strain of indoor positioning technologies that make use of 802.11 wireless LANs (WLAN) is beginning to appear on the market. In WLAN positioning the system either monitors propagation delays between wireless access points and wireless device users to apply trilateration techniques or it maintains the database of location-specific signal fingerprints which is used to identify the most likely match of incoming signal data with those preliminary surveyed and saved in the database. In this paper we investigate the issue of deploying WLAN positioning software on mobile platforms with typically limited computational resources. We suggest a novel received signal strength rank order based location estimation system to reduce computational loads with a robust performance. The proposed system performance is compared to conventional approaches.

  2. Signal Strength-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Performance Assessment in the Space Service Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is participating in the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) (ICG)'s efforts towards demonstrating the benefits to the space user in the Space Service Volume (SSV) when a multi-GNSS solution space approach is utilized. The ICG Working Group: Enhancement of GNSS Performance, New Services and Capabilities has started a three phase analysis initiative as an outcome of recommendations at the ICG-10 meeting, in preparation for the ICG-11 meeting. The second phase of that increasing complexity and fidelity analysis initiative is based on augmenting the Phase 1 pure geometrical approach with signal strength-based limitations to determine if access is valid. The second phase of analysis has been completed, and the results are documented in this paper.

  3. Enhancement of Beaconless Location-Based Routing with Signal Strength Assistance for Ad-Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guowei; Itoh, Kenichi; Sato, Takuro

    Routing in Ad-hoc networks is unreliable due to the mobility of the nodes. Location-based routing protocols, unlike other protocols which rely on flooding, excel in network scalability. Furthermore, new location-based routing protocols, like, e. g. BLR [1], IGF [2], & CBF [3] have been proposed, with the feature of not requiring beacons in MAC-layer, which improve more in terms of scalability. Such beaconless routing protocols can work efficiently in dense network areas. However, these protocols' algorithms have no ability to avoid from routing into sparse areas. In this article, historical signal strength has been added as a factor into the BLR algorithm, which avoids routing into sparse area, and consequently improves the global routing efficiency.

  4. Assessment of Receiver Signal Strength Sensing for Location Estimation Based on Fisher Information.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, John; Nielsen, Christopher

    2016-09-24

    Currently there is almost ubiquitous availability of wireless signaling for data communications within commercial building complexes resulting in receiver signal strength (RSS) observables that are typically sufficient for generating viable location estimates of mobile wireless devices. However, while RSS observables are generally plentiful, achieving an accurate estimation of location is difficult due to several factors affecting the electromagnetic coupling between the mobile antenna and the building access points that are not modeled and hence contribute to the overall estimation uncertainty. Such uncertainty is typically mitigated with a moderate redundancy of RSS sensor observations in combination with other constraints imposed on the mobile trajectory. In this paper, the Fisher Information (FI) of a set of RSS sensor observations in the context of variables related to the mobile location is developed. This provides a practical method of determining the potential location accuracy for the given set of wireless signals available. Furthermore, the information value of individual RSS measurements can be quantified and the RSS observables weighted accordingly in estimation combining algorithms. The practical utility of using FI in this context was demonstrated experimentally with an extensive set of RSS measurements recorded in an office complex. The resulting deviation of the mobile location estimation based on application of weighted likelihood processing to the experimental RSS data was shown to agree closely with the Cramer Rao bound determined from the FI analysis.

  5. Assessment of Receiver Signal Strength Sensing for Location Estimation Based on Fisher Information

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, John; Nielsen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Currently there is almost ubiquitous availability of wireless signaling for data communications within commercial building complexes resulting in receiver signal strength (RSS) observables that are typically sufficient for generating viable location estimates of mobile wireless devices. However, while RSS observables are generally plentiful, achieving an accurate estimation of location is difficult due to several factors affecting the electromagnetic coupling between the mobile antenna and the building access points that are not modeled and hence contribute to the overall estimation uncertainty. Such uncertainty is typically mitigated with a moderate redundancy of RSS sensor observations in combination with other constraints imposed on the mobile trajectory. In this paper, the Fisher Information (FI) of a set of RSS sensor observations in the context of variables related to the mobile location is developed. This provides a practical method of determining the potential location accuracy for the given set of wireless signals available. Furthermore, the information value of individual RSS measurements can be quantified and the RSS observables weighted accordingly in estimation combining algorithms. The practical utility of using FI in this context was demonstrated experimentally with an extensive set of RSS measurements recorded in an office complex. The resulting deviation of the mobile location estimation based on application of weighted likelihood processing to the experimental RSS data was shown to agree closely with the Cramer Rao bound determined from the FI analysis. PMID:27669262

  6. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process. PMID:28590456

  7. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  8. Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization

    PubMed Central

    Tarrío, Paula; Bernardos, Ana M.; Casar, José R.

    2011-01-01

    The practical deployment of wireless positioning systems requires minimizing the calibration procedures while improving the location estimation accuracy. Received Signal Strength localization techniques using propagation channel models are the simplest alternative, but they are usually designed under the assumption that the radio propagation model is to be perfectly characterized a priori. In practice, this assumption does not hold and the localization results are affected by the inaccuracies of the theoretical, roughly calibrated or just imperfect channel models used to compute location. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted multilateration techniques to gain robustness with respect to these inaccuracies, reducing the dependency of having an optimal channel model. In particular, we propose two weighted least squares techniques based on the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning algorithms that specifically consider the accuracies of the different measurements to obtain a better estimation of the position. These techniques are compared to the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning techniques through both numerical simulations and an exhaustive set of real experiments on different types of wireless networks (a wireless sensor network, a WiFi network and a Bluetooth network). The algorithms not only produce better localization results with a very limited overhead in terms of computational cost but also achieve a greater robustness to inaccuracies in channel modeling. PMID:22164092

  9. Weighted least squares techniques for improved received signal strength based localization.

    PubMed

    Tarrío, Paula; Bernardos, Ana M; Casar, José R

    2011-01-01

    The practical deployment of wireless positioning systems requires minimizing the calibration procedures while improving the location estimation accuracy. Received Signal Strength localization techniques using propagation channel models are the simplest alternative, but they are usually designed under the assumption that the radio propagation model is to be perfectly characterized a priori. In practice, this assumption does not hold and the localization results are affected by the inaccuracies of the theoretical, roughly calibrated or just imperfect channel models used to compute location. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted multilateration techniques to gain robustness with respect to these inaccuracies, reducing the dependency of having an optimal channel model. In particular, we propose two weighted least squares techniques based on the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning algorithms that specifically consider the accuracies of the different measurements to obtain a better estimation of the position. These techniques are compared to the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning techniques through both numerical simulations and an exhaustive set of real experiments on different types of wireless networks (a wireless sensor network, a WiFi network and a Bluetooth network). The algorithms not only produce better localization results with a very limited overhead in terms of computational cost but also achieve a greater robustness to inaccuracies in channel modeling.

  10. Distributed, signal strength-based indoor localization algorithm for use in healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Wyffels, Jeroen; De Brabanter, Jos; Crombez, Pieter; Verhoeve, Piet; Nauwelaers, Bart; De Strycker, Lieven

    2014-11-01

    In current healthcare environments, a trend toward mobile and personalized interactions between people and nurse call systems is strongly noticeable. Therefore, it should be possible to locate patients at all times and in all places throughout the care facility. This paper aims at describing a method by which a mobile node can locate itself indoors, based on signal strength measurements and a minimal amount of yes/no decisions. The algorithm has been developed specifically for use in a healthcare environment. With extensive testing and statistical support, we prove that our algorithm can be used in a healthcare setting with an envisioned level of localization accuracy up to room revel (or region level in a corridor), while avoiding heavy investments since the hardware of an existing nurse call network can be reused. The approach opted for leads to very high scalability, since thousands of mobile nodes can locate themselves. Network timing issues and localization update delays are avoided, which ensures that a patient can receive the needed care in a time and resources efficient way.

  11. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl.

  12. PRIMAL: Page Rank-Based Indoor Mapping and Localization Using Gene-Sequenced Unlabeled WLAN Received Signal Strength

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mu; Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Kunjie; Tian, Zengshan; Wang, Yanmeng; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Due to the wide deployment of wireless local area networks (WLAN), received signal strength (RSS)-based indoor WLAN localization has attracted considerable attention in both academia and industry. In this paper, we propose a novel page rank-based indoor mapping and localization (PRIMAL) by using the gene-sequenced unlabeled WLAN RSS for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Specifically, first of all, based on the observation of the motion patterns of the people in the target environment, we use the Allen logic to construct the mobility graph to characterize the connectivity among different areas of interest. Second, the concept of gene sequencing is utilized to assemble the sporadically-collected RSS sequences into a signal graph based on the transition relations among different RSS sequences. Third, we apply the graph drawing approach to exhibit both the mobility graph and signal graph in a more readable manner. Finally, the page rank (PR) algorithm is proposed to construct the mapping from the signal graph into the mobility graph. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory localization accuracy and meanwhile avoids the intensive time and labor cost involved in the conventional location fingerprinting-based indoor WLAN localization. PMID:26404274

  13. Achievable Strength-Based Signal Detection in Quantity-Constrained PAM OOK Concentration-Encoded Molecular Communication.

    PubMed

    Mahfuz, Mohammad Upal

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the expressions of achievable strength-based detection probabilities of concentration-encoded molecular communication (CEMC) system have been derived based on finite pulsewidth (FP) pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation scheme and strength threshold. An FP-PAM system is characterized by its duty cycle α that indicates the fraction of the entire symbol duration the transmitter remains on and transmits the signal. Results show that the detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system significantly depends on the statistical distribution parameters of diffusion-based propagation noise and intersymbol interference (ISI). Analytical detection performance of an FP-PAM OOK CEMC system under ISI scenario has been explained and compared based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) for impulse (i.e., spike)-modulated (IM) and FP-PAM CEMC schemes. It is shown that the effects of diffusion noise and ISI on ROC can be explained separately based on their communication range-dependent statistics. With full duty cycle, an FP-PAM scheme provides significantly worse performance than an IM scheme. The paper also analyzes the performance of the system when duty cycle, transmission data rate, and quantity of molecules vary.

  14. Indoor location awareness based on received signal strength ratio and time division multiplexing using light-emitting diode light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soo-Yong; Lee, Seong Ro; Park, Chang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an indoor location awareness method for an autonomous robot vehicle using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The location is estimated by measuring received signal strength ratio (RSSR), which is the relative ratio of optical powers detected between each LED and optical receiver. In this method, multiple LED lamps on the indoor ceiling are used, which can radiate light only during the individual time slot assigned to each of them. Using the RSSRs, circle or straight line equations are obtained and the crossing point among those equations determines the location of the object. In the experiment, four LED lamps are identified by time-division multiplexing with room dimensions of 1.0×1.0×1.3 m3, and the results show that the mean of the location error is 3.24 cm in the entire floor area.

  15. An Improved Compressive Sensing and Received Signal Strength-Based Target Localization Algorithm with Unknown Target Population for Wireless Local Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Yu, Kegen; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Liang

    2017-05-30

    In this paper a two-phase compressive sensing (CS) and received signal strength (RSS)-based target localization approach is proposed to improve position accuracy by dealing with the unknown target population and the effect of grid dimensions on position error. In the coarse localization phase, by formulating target localization as a sparse signal recovery problem, grids with recovery vector components greater than a threshold are chosen as the candidate target grids. In the fine localization phase, by partitioning each candidate grid, the target position in a grid is iteratively refined by using the minimum residual error rule and the least-squares technique. When all the candidate target grids are iteratively partitioned and the measurement matrix is updated, the recovery vector is re-estimated. Threshold-based detection is employed again to determine the target grids and hence the target population. As a consequence, both the target population and the position estimation accuracy can be significantly improved. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves the best accuracy among all the algorithms compared.

  16. Functional MRI of Auditory Responses in the Zebra Finch Forebrain Reveals a Hierarchical Organisation Based on Signal Strength but Not Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Boumans, Tiny; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; Poirier, Colline; Theunissen, Frederic E.; Vandersmissen, Liesbeth; Pintjens, Wouter; Verhoye, Marleen; Bolhuis, Johan J.; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Background Male songbirds learn their songs from an adult tutor when they are young. A network of brain nuclei known as the ‘song system’ is the likely neural substrate for sensorimotor learning and production of song, but the neural networks involved in processing the auditory feedback signals necessary for song learning and maintenance remain unknown. Determining which regions show preferential responsiveness to the bird's own song (BOS) is of great importance because neurons sensitive to self-generated vocalisations could mediate this auditory feedback process. Neurons in the song nuclei and in a secondary auditory area, the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM), show selective responses to the BOS. The aim of the present study is to investigate the emergence of BOS selectivity within the network of primary auditory sub-regions in the avian pallium. Methods and Findings Using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI, we investigated neural responsiveness to natural and manipulated self-generated vocalisations and compared the selectivity for BOS and conspecific song in different sub-regions of the thalamo-recipient area Field L. Zebra finch males were exposed to conspecific song, BOS and to synthetic variations on BOS that differed in spectro-temporal and/or modulation phase structure. We found significant differences in the strength of BOLD responses between regions L2a, L2b and CMM, but no inter-stimuli differences within regions. In particular, we have shown that the overall signal strength to song and synthetic variations thereof was different within two sub-regions of Field L2: zone L2a was significantly more activated compared to the adjacent sub-region L2b. Conclusions Based on our results we suggest that unlike nuclei in the song system, sub-regions in the primary auditory pallium do not show selectivity for the BOS, but appear to show different levels of activity with exposure to any sound according to their place in the auditory processing stream. PMID

  17. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  18. Indoor positioning algorithm combined with angular vibration compensation and the trust region technique based on received signal strength-visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Haoxu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Rangzhong

    2017-05-01

    Indoor positioning using visible light communication has become a topic of intensive research in recent years. Because the normal of the receiver always deviates from that of the transmitter in application, the positioning systems which require that the normal of the receiver be aligned with that of the transmitter have large positioning errors. Some algorithms take the angular vibrations into account; nevertheless, these positioning algorithms cannot meet the requirement of high accuracy or low complexity. A visible light positioning algorithm combined with angular vibration compensation is proposed. The angle information from the accelerometer or other angle acquisition devices is used to calculate the angle of incidence even when the receiver is not horizontal. Meanwhile, a received signal strength technique with high accuracy is employed to determine the location. Moreover, an eight-light-emitting-diode (LED) system model is provided to improve the accuracy. The simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve a low positioning error with low complexity, and the eight-LED system exhibits improved performance. Furthermore, trust region-based positioning is proposed to determine three-dimensional locations and achieves high accuracy in both the horizontal and the vertical components.

  19. The Strength-Based Counseling Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a strength-based model for counseling at-risk youth. The author presents the assumptions, basic concepts, and values of the strength perspective in counseling and offers strength categories as a conceptual model for viewing clients' behavior. Propositions leading toward a theory of strength-based counseling and stages of this…

  20. The Strength-Based Counseling Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a strength-based model for counseling at-risk youth. The author presents the assumptions, basic concepts, and values of the strength perspective in counseling and offers strength categories as a conceptual model for viewing clients' behavior. Propositions leading toward a theory of strength-based counseling and stages of this…

  1. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Mun, Hong-Seok; Islam, Md. Manirul; Yoe, Hyun; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, and Escherichia coli (EC) infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction) at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05). Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05). The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2), and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1) and SE group (day 4) during different experimental periods (p<0.05). The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05). The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5) compared to the control (p<0.05), whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05). Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05). During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z-axis movement

  2. Monitoring Activity for Recognition of Illness in Experimentally Infected Weaned Piglets Using Received Signal Strength Indication ZigBee-based Wireless Acceleration Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sonia Tabasum; Mun, Hong-Seok; Islam, Md Manirul; Yoe, Hyun; Yang, Chul-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, we proposed and implemented a disease forecasting system using a received signal strength indication ZigBee-based wireless network with a 3-axis acceleration sensor to detect illness at an early stage by monitoring movement of experimentally infected weaned piglets. Twenty seven piglets were divided into control, Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, and Escherichia coli (EC) infection group, and their movements were monitored for five days using wireless sensor nodes on their backs. Data generated showed the 3-axis movement of piglets (X-axis: left and right direction, Y-axis: anteroposterior direction, and Z-axis: up and down direction) at five different time periods. Piglets in both infected groups had lower weight gain and feed intake, as well as higher feed conversion ratios than the control group (p<0.05). Infection with SE and EC resulted in reduced body temperature of the piglets at day 2, 4, and 5 (p<0.05). The early morning X-axis movement did not differ between groups; however, the Y-axis movement was higher in the EC group (day 1 and 2), and the Z-axis movement was higher in the EC (day 1) and SE group (day 4) during different experimental periods (p<0.05). The morning X and Y-axis movement did not differ between treatment groups. However, the Z-axis movement was higher in both infected groups at day 1 and lower at day 4 compared to the control (p<0.05). The midday X-axis movement was significantly lower in both infected groups (day 4 and 5) compared to the control (p<0.05), whereas the Y-axis movement did not differ. The Z-axis movement was highest in the SE group at day 1 and 2 and lower at day 4 and 5 (p<0.05). Evening X-axis movement was highest in the control group throughout the experimental period. During day 1 and 2, the Z-axis movement was higher in both of the infected groups; whereas it was lower in the SE group during day 3 and 4 (p<0.05). During day 1 and 2, the night X-axis movement was lower and the Z-axis movement

  3. Evenness indices measure the signal strength of biweight site chronologies

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters

    1990-01-01

    The signal strength of a biweight site chronology is properly viewed as an outcome of analysis rather than as a property of the forest-climate system. It can be estimated by the evenness of the empirical weights that are assigned to individual trees. The approach is demonstrated for a 45-year biweight chronology obtained from 40 jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees...

  4. Strength properties of fly ash based controlled low strength materials.

    PubMed

    Türkel, S

    2007-08-25

    Controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a flowable mixture that can be used as a backfill material in place of compacted soils. Flowable fill requires no tamping or compaction to achieve its strength and typically has a load carrying capacity much higher than compacted soils, but it can still be excavated easily. The selection of CLSM type should be based on technical and economical considerations for specific applications. In this study, a mixture of high volume fly ash (FA), crushed limestone powder (filler) and a low percentage of pozzolana cement have been tried in different compositions. The amount of pozzolana cement was kept constant for all mixes as, 5% of fly ash weight. The amount of mixing water was chosen in order to provide optimum pumpability by determining the spreading ratio of CLSM mixtures using flow table method. The shear strength of the material is a measure of the materials ability to support imposed stresses on the material. The shear strength properties of CLSM mixtures have been investigated by a series of laboratory tests. The direct shear test procedure was applied for determining the strength parameters Phi (angle of shearing resistance) and C(h) (cohesion intercept) of the material. The test results indicated that CLSM mixtures have superior shear strength properties compared to compacted soils. Shear strength, cohesion intercept and angle of shearing resistance values of CLSM mixtures exceeded conventional soil materials' similar properties at 7 days. These parameters proved that CLSM mixtures are suitable materials for backfill applications.

  5. Measuring Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation from Varying Signal Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bette; Gaul, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the process of measuring radiofrequency and microwave radiation from various signal strengths. The topics include: 1) Limits and Guidelines; 2) Typical Variable Standard (IEEE) Frequency Dependent; 3) FCC Standard 47 CFR 1.1310; 4) Compliance Follows Unity Rule; 5) Multiple Sources Contribute; 6) Types of RF Signals; 7) Interfering Radiations; 8) Different Frequencies Different Powers; 9) Power Summing - Peak Power; 10) Contribution from Various Single Sources; 11) Total Power from Multiple Sources; 12) Are You Out of Compliance?; and 13) In Compliance.

  6. Vehicle Motions as Inferred from Radio-signal- Strength Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkington, W. C.

    1958-01-01

    Considerable data on various parameters of a satellite and its launching vehicle can be obtained from the received-signal-strength records at the various satellite receiver stations. The doppler shifts of the satellite can be used to determine the orbital characteristics quite accurately. (Ref. 1 discusses the rapid determination of these parameters.) Information concerning the velocity increment and direction of each stage can be obtained if doppler data are received by several stations during the high-speed staging. The variations in signal strength during launch can be used to find the spin rate of the satellite before, during, and after staging, and to find variations in attitude, including precession, during launch. With spin and precession frequencies available, any changes in the ratios of moments of inertia can be determined. In this paper the launchings of the Explorer satellites will be used as a basis for the generalized conclusions concerning utilization of radio-signal-strength records. The discussion includes a description of the Explorer launching system.

  7. BMP signaling and microtubule organization regulate synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Robin W.; Peled, Einat; Guerrero, Giovanna; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of synaptic transmission between a neuron and multiple postsynaptic partners can vary considerably. We have studied synaptic heterogeneity using the glutamatergic Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), which contains multiple synaptic connections of varying strength between a motor axon and muscle fiber. In larval NMJs, there is a gradient of synaptic transmission from weak proximal to strong distal boutons. We imaged synaptic transmission with the postsynaptically targeted fluorescent calcium sensor SynapCam, to investigate the molecular pathways that determine synaptic strength and set up this gradient. We discovered that mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway disrupt production of strong distal boutons. We find that strong connections contain unbundled microtubules in the boutons, suggesting a role for microtubule organization in transmission strength. The spastin mutation, which disorganizes microtubules, disrupted the transmission gradient, supporting this interpretation. We propose that the BMP pathway, shown previously to function in the homeostatic regulation of synaptic growth, also boosts synaptic transmission in a spatially selective manner that depends on the microtubule system. PMID:25681521

  8. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  9. Notch signal strength controls cell fate in the haemogenic endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Norton, Leonor; Ferrando, Eva; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Liu, Zenhy; Guiu, Jordi; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Lee, Sung-Uk; Yan, Minhong; Guidos, Cynthia J.; López-Bigas, Nuria; Maeda, Takahiro; Espinosa, Lluis; Kopan, Raphael; Bigas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of the arterial and haemogenic endothelium fates concurrently occur in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region prior to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation. The arterial programme depends on Dll4 and the haemogenic endothelium/HSC on Jag1-mediated Notch1 signalling. How Notch1 distinguishes and executes these different programmes in response to particular ligands is poorly understood. By using two Notch1 activation trap mouse models with different sensitivity, here we show that arterial endothelial cells and HSCs originate from distinct precursors, characterized by different Notch1 signal strengths. Microarray analysis on AGM subpopulations demonstrates that the Jag1 ligand stimulates low Notch strength, inhibits the endothelial programme and is permissive for HSC specification. In the absence of Jag1, endothelial cells experience high Dll4-induced Notch activity and select the endothelial programme, thus precluding HSC formation. Interference with the Dll4 signal by ligand-specific blocking antibodies is sufficient to inhibit the endothelial programme and favour specification of the haematopoietic lineage. PMID:26465397

  10. Dishonest signals of strength in male slender crayfish (Cherax dispar) during agonistic encounters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robbie S; Angilletta, Michael J; James, Rob S; Navas, Carlos; Seebacher, Frank

    2007-08-01

    Many animals resolve disputes without combat by displaying signals of potential strength during threatening displays. Presumably, competitors use each other's displays to assess their relative strengths, and current theory predicts that these signals of strength should generally be honest. We tested this prediction by investigating the relationships among morphology, performance, and social dominance in males of the slender crayfish Cherax dispar. Crayfish routinely use their enlarged front claws (chelae) for both intimidation and fighting, making this species ideal for studying the honesty of weapon size. We evaluated five competing models relating morphological and physiological traits to dominance during paired competitive bouts. Based on the best model, larger chelae clearly resulted in greater dominance; however, chela strength had no bearing on dominance. Thus, displays of chela size were dishonest signals of strength, and the enlarged chelae of males seemingly function more for intimidation than for fighting. In addition, an analysis of the performance of isolated chela muscle showed that muscle from male crayfish produced only half the force that muscle from female crayfish produced (236.6+/-26.4 vs. 459.5+/-71.6 kN m(-2)), suggesting that males invest more in developing larger chelae than they do in producing high-quality chela muscle. From our studies of crayfish, we believe dishonest signaling could play a greater role in territorial disputes than previously imagined.

  11. 47 CFR 80.753 - Signal strength requirements at the service area contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal strength requirements at the service... Station VHF Coverage § 80.753 Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. (a) The requirements for reception by a marine VHF shipboard receiver are satisfied if the field strength from...

  12. Effect of macular edema on optical coherence tomography signal strength.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Hamid; Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Nowroozizadeh, Sarah; Jafari, Peyman; Ashraf, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of macular edema (ME) on Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Stratus OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) signal strength (SS). Part 1: Macular OCT was performed in 57 eyes with ME, at 2 different time points with different degrees of ME. The relationships between SS change and change in center point thickness and total macular volume in two scans were examined. Part 2: In 54 eyes with ME, Stratus OCT examinations with macular thickness mapping and retinal nerve fiber layer analysis protocols were performed. The paired values of SS obtained with two scan protocols were compared. The relationship between SS difference between two test protocols with center point thickness and total macular volume was evaluated. Part 1: There was a significant correlation between SS change and the change in center point thickness and total macular volume in 2 consecutive scans. Part 2: Maximum SS obtained during macular OCT examination was significantly less than that obtained during retinal nerve fiber layer OCT. Significant correlations were observed between the difference in SS obtained in two scan protocols and center point thickness as well as total macular volume. Macular edema decreases macular OCT SS. In patients with ME, SS obtained during macular OCT examination was significantly lower than that obtained during retinal nerve fiber layer OCT examination.

  13. Hippocampal Mismatch Signals Are Modulated by the Strength of Neural Predictions and Their Similarity to Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hongmi

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without measuring them directly. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here, we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word–picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues). After initial learning, a subset of cues was paired with a novel, unexpected outcome, whereas other cues continued to predict the same outcome. Critically, when outcomes changed, the new outcome was either “near” to the predicted outcome (same visual category as the predicted picture) or “far” from the predicted outcome (different visual category). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we indexed cue-evoked reactivation (prediction) within neocortical areas and related these trial-by-trial measures of prediction strength to univariate hippocampal responses to the outcomes. We found that prediction strength positively modulated hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes, particularly when unexpected outcomes were close, but not identical, to the prediction. Hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes were also associated with a tradeoff in performance during a subsequent memory test: relatively faster retrieval of new (updated) associations, but relatively slower retrieval of the original (older) associations. Together, these results indicate that hippocampal mismatch signals reflect a comparison between active predictions and current outcomes and that these signals are most robust when predictions are similar, but not identical, to outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the hippocampus is widely thought to signal “mismatches” between memory-based predictions and outcomes

  14. Hippocampal Mismatch Signals Are Modulated by the Strength of Neural Predictions and Their Similarity to Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Long, Nicole M; Lee, Hongmi; Kuhl, Brice A

    2016-12-14

    The hippocampus is thought to compare predicted events with current perceptual input, generating a mismatch signal when predictions are violated. However, most prior studies have only inferred when predictions occur without measuring them directly. Moreover, an important but unresolved question is whether hippocampal mismatch signals are modulated by the degree to which predictions differ from outcomes. Here, we conducted a human fMRI study in which subjects repeatedly studied various word-picture pairs, learning to predict particular pictures (outcomes) from the words (cues). After initial learning, a subset of cues was paired with a novel, unexpected outcome, whereas other cues continued to predict the same outcome. Critically, when outcomes changed, the new outcome was either "near" to the predicted outcome (same visual category as the predicted picture) or "far" from the predicted outcome (different visual category). Using multivoxel pattern analysis, we indexed cue-evoked reactivation (prediction) within neocortical areas and related these trial-by-trial measures of prediction strength to univariate hippocampal responses to the outcomes. We found that prediction strength positively modulated hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes, particularly when unexpected outcomes were close, but not identical, to the prediction. Hippocampal responses to unexpected outcomes were also associated with a tradeoff in performance during a subsequent memory test: relatively faster retrieval of new (updated) associations, but relatively slower retrieval of the original (older) associations. Together, these results indicate that hippocampal mismatch signals reflect a comparison between active predictions and current outcomes and that these signals are most robust when predictions are similar, but not identical, to outcomes. Although the hippocampus is widely thought to signal "mismatches" between memory-based predictions and outcomes, previous research has not linked

  15. 47 CFR 80.753 - Signal strength requirements at the service area contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. 80.753 Section 80.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Station VHF Coverage § 80.753 Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. (a)...

  16. 47 CFR 80.753 - Signal strength requirements at the service area contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. 80.753 Section 80.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Station VHF Coverage § 80.753 Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 80.753 - Signal strength requirements at the service area contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. 80.753 Section 80.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Station VHF Coverage § 80.753 Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. (a)...

  18. 47 CFR 80.753 - Signal strength requirements at the service area contour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. 80.753 Section 80.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Station VHF Coverage § 80.753 Signal strength requirements at the service area contour. (a)...

  19. Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Ori; Shapira, Yinon; Gershoni, Assaf; Vainer, Igor; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between signal strength and macular thickness as measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT)’s fast macular thickness protocol in healthy subjects. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study 79 eyes of 42 healthy subjects were enrolled. The age, gender, and eye (right vs left) of each subject were recorded. The Stratus OCT fast macular thickness scan protocol was used and the macular thickness was measured with retinal thickness map analysis. Each eye was imaged at least six times to acquire images with signal strengths of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 out of 10 via adjustment of the focusing knob. The OCT parameters included in the analysis were thickness in the central 1 mm and in the different quadrants in the 3-mm area. Results Overall 79 eyes of 42 patients with a mean age of 38.4±12.4 were included. There was no significant difference between the signal strength measurements obtained with different signal strengths in the central thickness (P=0.20). In the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal quadrants, a signal strength of 8 demonstrated up to 3 µm thicker measurements than a signal strength of 5 (P<0.05). In general linear regression analysis, after accounting for age and gender, signal strength did not remain a significant predictor of thickness in any quadrant. Conclusions When using fast map macular measurements, a signal strength of 5 is clinically as efficient as a signal strength of 8 in measuring macular thickness in all quadrants. Insisting on higher signal strength may not be necessary. PMID:27956823

  20. Relationship between macular thickness measurement and signal strength using Stratus optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Segal, Ori; Shapira, Yinon; Gershoni, Assaf; Vainer, Igor; Nemet, Arie Y; Geffen, Noa; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between signal strength and macular thickness as measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT)'s fast macular thickness protocol in healthy subjects. In this prospective cross-sectional study 79 eyes of 42 healthy subjects were enrolled. The age, gender, and eye (right vs left) of each subject were recorded. The Stratus OCT fast macular thickness scan protocol was used and the macular thickness was measured with retinal thickness map analysis. Each eye was imaged at least six times to acquire images with signal strengths of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 out of 10 via adjustment of the focusing knob. The OCT parameters included in the analysis were thickness in the central 1 mm and in the different quadrants in the 3-mm area. Overall 79 eyes of 42 patients with a mean age of 38.4±12.4 were included. There was no significant difference between the signal strength measurements obtained with different signal strengths in the central thickness (P=0.20). In the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal quadrants, a signal strength of 8 demonstrated up to 3 µm thicker measurements than a signal strength of 5 (P<0.05). In general linear regression analysis, after accounting for age and gender, signal strength did not remain a significant predictor of thickness in any quadrant. When using fast map macular measurements, a signal strength of 5 is clinically as efficient as a signal strength of 8 in measuring macular thickness in all quadrants. Insisting on higher signal strength may not be necessary.

  1. Infusing Cultural Competence and Advocacy into Strength-Based Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; McAuliffe, Garett; Craigen, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Strength-based counseling represents a welcome shift from prevailing deficit perspectives. However, the literature often treats enhancing strengths as an acultural concept, minimizing or ignoring the essential role of culture in forming and defining strengths. Integrating cultural competence and advocacy into strength-based practice is examined as…

  2. Infusing Cultural Competence and Advocacy into Strength-Based Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; McAuliffe, Garett; Craigen, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Strength-based counseling represents a welcome shift from prevailing deficit perspectives. However, the literature often treats enhancing strengths as an acultural concept, minimizing or ignoring the essential role of culture in forming and defining strengths. Integrating cultural competence and advocacy into strength-based practice is examined as…

  3. Factors affecting signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryan; Tham, Yih-Chung; Cheung, Carol Y; Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Lim, Sing-Hui; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-04-09

    To identify ocular factors that affect signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Data from 1312 participants of the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (SiMES-2) were included in the analysis. All participants underwent standardized ophthalmic examination, including measurements of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, axial length, corneal curvature and presence of cataracts. Optic disc and macular cube scans were acquired using the Cirrus HD-OCT (software version 6.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA). Signal strength of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan was recorded for each study eye. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between ocular factors and signal strength of the OCT scans. The mean (±SD) age of our study participants was 61 ± 9 years, and 44.6% were male. Mean optic disc scan signal strength was 7.90 ± 1.25, range = 0-10, while mean macular scan signal strength was 8.80 ± 1.27, range = 0-10. In multivariable regression analyses, poorer signal strength in optic disc and macular cube scans was each associated with older age (per decade, β = -0.373, p < 0.001; β = -0.373, p < 0.001, respectively), poorer BCVA (per logMAR line; β = -0.123, p < 0.001; β = -0.156, p < 0.001, respectively), greater degree of myopia (per negative dioptre of spherical equivalent; β = -0.112, p < 0.001; β = -0.117, p < 0.001, respectively), presence of cortical cataracts (β = -0.331, p < 0.001; β = -0.314, p < 0.001, respectively) and presence of posterior subcapsular cataracts (β = -0.910, p < 0.001; β = -0.797, p < 0.001, respectively). We found that older age, poorer BCVA, greater degree of myopia and presence of cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts were associated with reduced signal strength in Cirrus SD-OCT. Our findings provide information on the barriers to obtaining good image

  4. Desmosomes: adhesive strength and signalling in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Helen A; Scothern, Anthea; McHarg, Selina; Garrod, David R

    2010-08-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions whose primary function is strong intercellular adhesion, known as hyperadhesion. In the present review, we discuss how their structure appears to support this function as well as how they are assembled and down-regulated. Desmosomal components also have signalling functions that are important in tissue development and remodelling. Their adhesive and signalling functions are both compromised in genetic and autoimmune diseases that affect the heart, skin and mucous membranes. We conclude that much work is required on structure-function relationships within desmosomes in vivo and on how they participate in signalling processes to enhance our knowledge of tissue homoeostasis and human disease.

  5. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging. PMID:26343673

  6. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-08-28

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging.

  7. Vegetation Feature Extraction from ALSM Measurements for Evaluation of GPS Signal Strength in Forested Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Lee, H.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of GPS signal strength before data collection in forested area is of particular interest to surveyors and forestry researchers. However, it is difficult to predict performance of GPS positioning because the signal propagated within vegetation may suffer attenuation and furthermore exacerbate the signal reception and positioning accuracy. The conventional wisdom is that the forest is like a uniformly horizontal slab, as shown in traditional slab models, so the signal attenuation is dependent on elevation angle (θ). In fact, elevation dominates the global scale signal attenuation, but still large differences of signal attenuation can be observed from varied azimuths (φ) at the same elevation angle while considering on local scale. 2D skyward photography methods were exploited to compute the relative canopy closure and attempted to relate the GPS signal strength to the open sky fraction. Although it could consider the directional elements (θ, φ), a lack of 3D profile forest information is inefficient to estimate the real vegetative interference within the signal transmitted path. ALSM system is capable of collecting high resolution 3D spatial information from a region of interest with high laser pulse and scan rates. Due to its multiple return characteristic with dense horizontal coverage, the vegetation structure is relatively well captured. This study presents a development of directional 3D structuring elements to segment ALSM points and relate to signal attenuation. The attenuation of GPS signals is determined by mapping between signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of received GPS signals under canopies and the directional canopy features derived from ALSM observations. Firstly, a directional cylindrical scope function is constructed to segment the obstructions which interfere with the signal propagation between the satellite vehicle and the receiver, and a vegetation feature, called the directional vegetation path length (DVPL), is computed by measuring the

  8. Measuring Soil Moisture using the Signal Strength of Buried Bluetooth Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, R.; Campbell, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    A low power bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) device is burried 20cm into the soil and a smartphone is placed on top of the soil to test if bluetooth signal strength can be related to soil moisture. The smartphone continuesly records and stores bluetooth signal strength of the device. The soil is artifcially wetted and drained. Results show a relation between BLE signal strength and soil moisture that could be used to measure soil moisture using these off-the-shelf consumer electronics. This opens the possibily to develop sensors that can be buried into the soil, possibly below the plow-line. These sensors can measure local parameters such as electric conductivity, ph, pressure, etc. Readings would be uploaded to a device on the surface using BLE. The signal strength of this BLE would be an (additional) measurement of soil moisture.

  9. Quantitative relationship between contact stress and magnetic signal strength in perpendicular recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuliang; Xiong, Shaomin; Lou, Jia; Bogy, David B.; Zhang, Guangyu

    2014-05-01

    A series of nanoscratch experiments is conducted using constant loading scratch profiles to apply mechanical contact stress on perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media to cause its magnetic signal strength decay, which is characterized by the magnetic force microscope. The dependence of the magnetic signal strength on the applied normal load is quantitatively investigated. The results indicate that an increase of the applied normal load leads to a decrease of the magnetic signal strength. In addition, in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the results, a 3D finite element model is created to calculate the stress under different normal loads. Finally, the quantitative relationship between residual shear stress and magnetic signal strength is identified.

  10. Assessment of fetal growth on the basis of signal strength in fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, P; Beuvink, Y; Lange, S; Klein, A; Geue, D; Grönemeyer, D

    2004-11-30

    Fetal magnetocardiography has shown that fetal P wave and QRS complex durations increase with gestational age, reflecting change in cardiac muscle mass. The latter should, in principle, be associated with an increase in signal strength. We examined two approaches for determining QRS signal strength in a healthy fetus on a weekly basis in the second and third trimester. Twenty-two fetal magnetocardiograms of the same fetus were obtained using a 61 channel Magnes 1300 biomagnetometer (20th-42nd week of gestation). In the signal averaged fetal beat produced at each week, signal strength was assessed on the basis of 1) peak-to-peak QRS signal amplitudes and 2) strength of an equivalent current dipole (ECD) computed at R peak. The results were assessed on the basis of correlation to week of gestation and by comparison to changes in QRS interval duration. All values increased with advancing gestation and regression analysis suggested a nonlinear dependency on age. ECD strength reflected gestational age slightly more reliably (r2=0.93) than signal amplitude values (mean, median, maximum: r2=089, 0.88, 0.85, respectively). ECD strength and mean signal amplitude also correlated well (r=0.97, p<0.0005) Values calculated from QRS complexes determined immediately before and after a clear change in fetal position (acquisition week 24) demonstrated a certain instability in both approaches. Nonetheless, the overall correlation of the amplitude to gestational age compared favorably with that of QRS complex duration. This indicates that not only magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals but also signal strength may be used to assess fetal growth.

  11. Strengths-Based Education: Probing Its Limits. The Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    Except for Timothy Hodges and James Harter's restrained research summary, the feature articles in this issue are evangelical in their praise of strengths-based education. It is, they assure us, a major innovation. English teacher Alexis Onishi writes that StrengthsQuest, a specific strengths-based approach, will have "a lifelong impact on how…

  12. Using Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practices with Gifted Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Jennifer E.; Niemiec, Ryan M.; Lawrence, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness and character strengths are synergistic tools that work together to cultivate well-being. Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practice (MBSP) combines the research and practice of these constructs to enhance well-being, meaning, and engagement. In this article, research supporting how mindfulness and character strengths may benefit the gifted…

  13. Quantitative immunohistochemistry by measuring cumulative signal strength using commercially available software photoshop and matlab.

    PubMed

    Matkowskyj, K A; Schonfeld, D; Benya, R V

    2000-02-01

    Currently available techniques for performing quantitative immunohistochemistry (Q-IHC) rely upon pixel-counting algorithms and therefore cannot provide information as to the absolute amount of chromogen present. We describe a novel algorithm for true Q-IHC based on calculating the cumulative signal strength, or energy, of the digital file representing any portion of an image. This algorithm involves subtracting the energy of the digital file encoding the control image (i.e., not exposed to antibody) from that of the experimental image (i.e., antibody-treated). In this manner, the absolute amount of antibody-specific chromogen per pixel can be determined for any cellular region or structure. (J Histochem Cytochem 48:303-311, 2000)

  14. Strengths-Based Approach for Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huiting

    2013-01-01

    Many health systems have traditionally adopted a view of mental disorders based on pathologies and the risk individuals have towards mental disorders. However, with this approach, mental disorders continue to cost billions a year for the healthcare system. This paper aimed to introduce and explore what the strengths-based approach is in the psychiatric arena. Strengths-based approach moves the focus away from deficits of people with mental illnesses (consumers) and focuses on the strengths and resources of the consumers. The paper also aligned the relevance of strength-based approach to mental health nursing and its contribution to mental health recovery. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644504

  15. Evaluation and comparison of transverse and impact strength of different high strength denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhinav; Tewari, R K

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the impact strength and transverse strength of the high-impact denture base materials. A conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin was used as a control. The entire experiment was divided into four main groups with twenty specimens each according to denture base material selected Trevalon, Trevalon Hi, DPI Tuff and Metrocryl Hi. These groups were further subgrouped into the two parameters selected, impact strength and flexural strength with ten specimens each. These specimens were then subjected to transverse bend tests with the help of Lloyds instrument using a three point bend principle. Impact tests were undertaken using an Izod-Charpy digital impact tester. This study was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance using Fisher f-test and Bonferroni t-test. There was a significant improvement in the impact strength of high-impact denture base resins as compared to control (Trevalon). However, in terms of transverse bend tests, only DPI Tuff showed higher transverse strength in comparison to control. Trevalon Hi and Metrocryl Hi showed a decrease in transverse strength. Within the limits of this in vitro study, (1) There is a definite increase in impact strength due to the incorporation of butadiene styrene rubber in this high strength denture base materials as compared to Trevalon used as a control. (2) Further investigations are required to prevent the unduly decrease of transverse strength. (3) It was the limitation of the study that the exact composition of the high-impact resins was not disclosed by the manufacturer that would have helped in better understanding of their behavior.

  16. Retentive shear strengths of various bonding attachment bases.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J I

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the commercially available attachment bases had significantly better retentive properties. This was determined by their shear strengths after all were bonded to bovine incisors with Auto-Tach. The mean shear strengths of sixteen bases were statistically compared to each other at 24 hours and at 30 days. In addition, the data were converted to pounds per square inch to ascertain if the size of the base significantly influenced the mean shear strength. It was concluded that (1). one of the foil mesh bases tested for shear strength was significantly superior to the two other base designs (indents with undercuts and solid bases with perforations); (2). mechanical retention of the attachment bases to the adhesive was not significantly affected after being placed in distilled water at 37 degrees C. either for 24 hours or for 30 days; (3). smaller foil mesh bases could be used without sacrificing significant shear strength.

  17. Signaling Responses After Varying Sequencing of Strength and Endurance Training in a Fed State.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Walshe, Ian H; Hamilton, David L; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; Price, Oliver J; Gibson, Alan St Clair; French, Duncan N

    2016-10-01

    To compare anabolic signaling responses to differing sequences of concurrent strength and endurance training in a fed state. Eighteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to the following experimental conditions: strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), or endurance followed by strength training (END-ST). Muscle tissue samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before each exercise protocol, on cessation of exercise, and 1 h after cessation of strength training. Tissue was analyzed for total and phosphorylated (p-) signaling proteins linked to the mTOR and AMPK networks. Strength-training performance was similar between ST, ST-END, and END-ST. p-S6k1 was elevated from baseline 1 h posttraining in ST and ST-END (both P < .05). p-4E-BP1 was significantly lower than baseline post-ST (P = .01), whereas at 1 h postexercise in the ST-END condition p-4E-BP1 was significantly greater than postexercise (P = .04). p-ACC was elevated from baseline both postexercise and 1 h postexercise (both P < .05) in the END-ST condition. AMPK, mTOR, p38, PKB, and eEF2 responded similarly to ST, ST-END, and END-ST. Signaling responses to ST, ST-END, and END were largely similar. As such it cannot be ascertained which sequence of concurrent strength and endurance training is most favorable in promoting anabolic signaling. In the case of the current study an acute bout of concurrent training of differing sequences elicited similar responses of the AMPK and mTOR networks.

  18. Indoor Location Sensing with Invariant Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Husen, Mohd Nizam; Lee, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    A method of location fingerprinting based on the Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS) in an indoor environment is presented. The method aims to overcome the RSS instability due to varying channel disturbances in time by introducing the concept of invariant RSS statistics. The invariant RSS statistics represent here the RSS distributions collected at individual calibration locations under minimal random spatiotemporal disturbances in time. The invariant RSS statistics thus collected serve as the reference pattern classes for fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is carried out at an unknown location by identifying the reference pattern class that maximally supports the spontaneous RSS sensed from individual Wi-Fi sources. A design guideline is also presented as a rule of thumb for estimating the number of Wi-Fi signal sources required to be available for any given number of calibration locations under a certain level of random spatiotemporal disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only provides 17% higher success rate than conventional ones but also removes the need for recalibration. Furthermore, the resolution is shown finer by 40% with the execution time more than an order of magnitude faster than the conventional methods. These results are also backed up by theoretical analysis. PMID:27845711

  19. Indoor Location Sensing with Invariant Wi-Fi Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Husen, Mohd Nizam; Lee, Sukhan

    2016-11-11

    A method of location fingerprinting based on the Wi-Fi received signal strength (RSS) in an indoor environment is presented. The method aims to overcome the RSS instability due to varying channel disturbances in time by introducing the concept of invariant RSS statistics. The invariant RSS statistics represent here the RSS distributions collected at individual calibration locations under minimal random spatiotemporal disturbances in time. The invariant RSS statistics thus collected serve as the reference pattern classes for fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is carried out at an unknown location by identifying the reference pattern class that maximally supports the spontaneous RSS sensed from individual Wi-Fi sources. A design guideline is also presented as a rule of thumb for estimating the number of Wi-Fi signal sources required to be available for any given number of calibration locations under a certain level of random spatiotemporal disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed method not only provides 17% higher success rate than conventional ones but also removes the need for recalibration. Furthermore, the resolution is shown finer by 40% with the execution time more than an order of magnitude faster than the conventional methods. These results are also backed up by theoretical analysis.

  20. Kernel-Based Reconstruction of Graph Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Daniel; Ma, Meng; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2017-02-01

    A number of applications in engineering, social sciences, physics, and biology involve inference over networks. In this context, graph signals are widely encountered as descriptors of vertex attributes or features in graph-structured data. Estimating such signals in all vertices given noisy observations of their values on a subset of vertices has been extensively analyzed in the literature of signal processing on graphs (SPoG). This paper advocates kernel regression as a framework generalizing popular SPoG modeling and reconstruction and expanding their capabilities. Formulating signal reconstruction as a regression task on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of graph signals permeates benefits from statistical learning, offers fresh insights, and allows for estimators to leverage richer forms of prior information than existing alternatives. A number of SPoG notions such as bandlimitedness, graph filters, and the graph Fourier transform are naturally accommodated in the kernel framework. Additionally, this paper capitalizes on the so-called representer theorem to devise simpler versions of existing Thikhonov regularized estimators, and offers a novel probabilistic interpretation of kernel methods on graphs based on graphical models. Motivated by the challenges of selecting the bandwidth parameter in SPoG estimators or the kernel map in kernel-based methods, the present paper further proposes two multi-kernel approaches with complementary strengths. Whereas the first enables estimation of the unknown bandwidth of bandlimited signals, the second allows for efficient graph filter selection. Numerical tests with synthetic as well as real data demonstrate the merits of the proposed methods relative to state-of-the-art alternatives.

  1. Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutz, Silvio; Bellemann, Matthias E.; Leder, Uwe; Haueisen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Vortex currents may be of importance in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction caused by an occlusion of a coronary artery. We investigated the influence of a passive vortex current distribution, modelled by different conductivities in a hollow cylinder, on the localization error and on the signal strength in both the magnetocardiogram and the electrocardiogram. The hollow cylinder was mounted in a realistically shaped physical torso phantom. A platinum dipole was inserted into the cylinder. The compartment boundaries were modelled with two special ionic exchange membranes. The conductivity ratio of the cylinder compartment to the torso compartment was varied from 0.25 to 100. We compared the simultaneously measured magnetic and electric signal strengths as a function of this conductivity ratio. We found that an increasing conductivity ratio causes only a slight increase (about 19%) of the magnetic signal strength but a strong decrease (about 81%) of the electric signal strength. Using a homogeneous torso model, the dipole localization errors were, depending on the conductivity ratio, up to 16 mm. In conclusion, passive vortex currents might partially explain the differences between magnetocardiographic and electrocardiographic recordings observed both experimentally and clinically.

  2. Passive vortex currents in magneto- and electrocardiography: comparison of magnetic and electric signal strengths.

    PubMed

    Dutz, Silvio; Bellemann, Matthias E; Leder, Uwe; Haueisen, Jens

    2006-01-07

    Vortex currents may be of importance in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction caused by an occlusion of a coronary artery. We investigated the influence of a passive vortex current distribution, modelled by different conductivities in a hollow cylinder, on the localization error and on the signal strength in both the magnetocardiogram and the electrocardiogram. The hollow cylinder was mounted in a realistically shaped physical torso phantom. A platinum dipole was inserted into the cylinder. The compartment boundaries were modelled with two special ionic exchange membranes. The conductivity ratio of the cylinder compartment to the torso compartment was varied from 0.25 to 100. We compared the simultaneously measured magnetic and electric signal strengths as a function of this conductivity ratio. We found that an increasing conductivity ratio causes only a slight increase (about 19%) of the magnetic signal strength but a strong decrease (about 81%) of the electric signal strength. Using a homogeneous torso model, the dipole localization errors were, depending on the conductivity ratio, up to 16 mm. In conclusion, passive vortex currents might partially explain the differences between magnetocardiographic and electrocardiographic recordings observed both experimentally and clinically.

  3. Building a Strengths-Based Campus to Support Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stubblefield, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches are flourishing across hundreds of higher education institutions as student affairs practitioners and educators seek to leverage students' natural talents so they can reach "previously unattained levels of personal excellence" (Lopez & Louis, 2009, p. 2). Even amid the growth of strengths-based approaches…

  4. Building a Strengths-Based Campus to Support Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stubblefield, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches are flourishing across hundreds of higher education institutions as student affairs practitioners and educators seek to leverage students' natural talents so they can reach "previously unattained levels of personal excellence" (Lopez & Louis, 2009, p. 2). Even amid the growth of strengths-based approaches…

  5. Ordering design tasks based on coupling strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1994-01-01

    The design process associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into modules of design tasks which are coupled through the transference of output data. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine which interactions figure prominently enough to significantly affect the accuracy of the system solution. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design tasks and interactions exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the analysis process. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature for DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) will allow the design manager to use coupling strength information to find a proper sequence for ordering the design tasks. In addition, these coupling strengths aid in deciding if certain tasks or couplings could be removed (or temporarily suspended) from consideration to achieve computational savings without a significant loss of system accuracy. New rules are presented and two small test cases are used to show the effects of using coupling strengths in this manner.

  6. Ordering Design Tasks Based on Coupling Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.; Bloebaum, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The design process associated with large engineering systems requires an initial decomposition of the complex system into modules of design tasks which are coupled through the transference of output data. In analyzing or optimizing such a coupled system, it is essential to be able to determine which interactions figure prominently enough to significantly affect the accuracy of the system solution. Many decomposition approaches assume the capability is available to determine what design tasks and interactions exist and what order of execution will be imposed during the analysis process. Unfortunately, this is often a complex problem and beyond the capabilities of a human design manager. A new feature for DeMAID (Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition) will allow the design manager to use coupling strength information to find a proper sequence for ordering the design tasks. In addition, these coupling strengths aid in deciding if certain tasks or couplings could be removed (or temporarily suspended) from consideration to achieve computational savings without a significant loss of system accuracy. New rules are presented and two small test cases are used to show the effects of using coupling strengths in this manner.

  7. TCR Signal Strength Alters T-DC Activation and Interaction Times and Directs the Outcome of Differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Panhuys, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor-induced activation of CD4+ T cells, both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine-based signals. Recently, advances in two--photon microscopy and tetramer-based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review, we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T-DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events, which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation.

  8. TCR Signal Strength Alters T–DC Activation and Interaction Times and Directs the Outcome of Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuys, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor-induced activation of CD4+ T cells, both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine-based signals. Recently, advances in two-­photon microscopy and tetramer-based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review, we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T–DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events, which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation. PMID:26834747

  9. Surfactant Protein A integrates activation signal strength to differentially modulate T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Giamberardino, Charles; Thomas, Joseph; Evans, Kathy; Goto, Hisatsugu; Ledford, Julie G; Hsia, Bethany; Pastva, Amy M; Wright, Jo Rae

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lipoproteins lower the surface tension at the alveolar:airway interface of the lung and participate in host defense. Previous studies reported that surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that SP-A mediated modulation of T cell activation depends upon the strength, duration and type of lymphocyte activating signals. Modulation of T cell signal strength imparted by different activating agents ex and in vivo in different mouse models, and in vitro with human T cells show a strong correlation between strength of signal (SoS) and functional effects of SP-A interactions. T cell proliferation is enhanced in the presence of SP-A at low SoS imparted by exogenous mitogens, specific antibodies, APCs or in homeostatic proliferation. Proliferation is inhibited at higher SoS imparted by different doses of the same T cell mitogens, or indirect stimuli such as LPS. Importantly, reconstitution with exogenous SP-A into the lungs of SP-A-/- mice stimulated with a strong signal also resulted in suppression of T cell proliferation, while elevating baseline proliferation in unstimulated T cells. These signal strength and SP-A dependent effects are mediated by changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels over time, involving extrinsic Ca2+ activated channels late during activation. These effects are intrinsic to the global T cell population, and are manifested in vivo in naïve as well as memory phenotype T cells. Thus, SP-A appears to integrate signal thresholds to control T cell proliferation. PMID:22219327

  10. Strength gain and cementation of flexible pavement bases (revised)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimpfer, W. H.

    1991-02-01

    The strength gain of selected carbonate Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) flexible pavement base materials is addressed. The gain in strength after aging of base sections constructed in an inside environment and outside environment was measured. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were also taken and examined to determine changes in structure. The materials investigated were: (1) bank run shell; (2) limerock; and (3) cemented coquina. Strength tests were the Clegg Impact Value (CIV) performed on inside and outside sections and a rigid plate test performed on the inside section. There was a small gain in strength for all three carbonate bases after 22 months. Changes in the matrix particles were observed in the SEM study. The three complementary phases (CIV, plate modulus, and SEM) tend to reinforce each other, indicating a small gain in strength.

  11. Strength-Based Assessment for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Koegel, Robert L.; Greenwell, Ashley; Klein, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Despite improvements in interventions for children with autism, assessments tend to focus on their social, cognitive, and behavioral deficits, without similar systematic examination of their strengths. Strength-based assessment (SBA), which has been used in work with children with milder behavioral disorders, may also have value for individuals…

  12. High strength forgeable tantalum base alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckman, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing tungsten content of tantalum base alloy to 12-15% level will improve high temperature creep properties of existing tantalum base alloys while retaining their excellent fabrication and welding characteristics.

  13. Received Signal Strength Recovery in Green WLAN Indoor Positioning System Using Singular Value Thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    Green WLAN is a promising technique for accessing future indoor Internet services. It is designed not only for high-speed data communication purposes but also for energy efficiency. The basic strategy of green WLAN is that all the access points are not always powered on, but rather work on-demand. Though powering off idle access points does not affect data communication, a serious asymmetric matching problem will arise in a WLAN indoor positioning system due to the fact the received signal strength (RSS) readings from the available access points are different in their offline and online phases. This asymmetry problem will no doubt invalidate the fingerprint algorithm used to estimate the mobile device location. Therefore, in this paper we propose a green WLAN indoor positioning system, which can recover RSS readings and achieve good localization performance based on singular value thresholding (SVT) theory. By solving the nuclear norm minimization problem, SVT recovers not only the radio map, but also online RSS readings from a sparse matrix by sensing only a fraction of the RSS readings. We have implemented the method in our lab and evaluated its performances. The experimental results indicate the proposed system could recover the RSS readings and achieve good localization performance. PMID:25587977

  14. T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength controls arthritis severity in proteoglycan-specific TCR transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Olasz, K; Boldizsar, F; Kis-Toth, K; Tarjanyi, O; Hegyi, A; van Eden, W; Rauch, T A; Mikecz, K; Glant, T T

    2012-01-01

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) mice specific for the arthritogenic 5/4E8 epitope in the G1 domain of cartilage proteoglycan were generated and back-crossed into arthritis-prone BALB/c background. Although more than 90% of CD4+ T cells of all TCR-Tg lines were 5/4E8-specific, one (TCR-TgA) was highly sensitive to G1-induced or spontaneous arthritis, while another (TCR-TgB) was less susceptible. Here we studied whether fine differences in TCR signalling controlled the onset and severity of arthritis. Mice from the two TCR-Tg lines were immunized side by side with purified recombinant human G1 (rhG1) domain for G1 domain of cartilage proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (GIA). TCR-TgA mice developed severe and early-onset arthritis, whereas TCR-TgB mice developed weaker arthritis with delayed onset, although TCR-TgB CD4+ T cells expressed approximately twice more TCR-Vβ4 chain protein. The more severe arthritis in TCR-TgA mice was associated with higher amounts of anti-G1 domain-specific antibodies, larger numbers of B cells and activated T helper cells. Importantly, TCR-TgB CD4+ T cells were more sensitive to in vitro activation-induced apoptosis, correlating with their higher TCR and CD3 expression and with the increased TCR signal strength. These findings indicate that TCR signal strength determines the clinical outcome of arthritis induction: ‘optimal’ TCR signal strength leads to strong T cell activation and severe arthritis in TCR-TgA mice, whereas ‘supra-optimal’ TCR signal leads to enhanced elimination of self-reactive T cells, resulting in attenuated disease. PMID:22236012

  15. Early-age concrete strength estimation based on piezoelectric sensor using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junkyeong; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Seunghee

    2014-04-01

    Recently, novel methods to estimate the strength of concrete have been reported based on numerous NDT methods. Especially, electro-mechanical impedance technique using piezoelectric sensors are studied to estimate the strength of concrete. However, the previous research works could not provide the general information about the early-age strength important to manage the quality of concrete and/or the construction process. In order to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, the electro-mechanical impedance method and the artificial neural network(ANN) is utilized in this study. The electro-mechanical impedance varies with the mechanical properties of host structures. Because the strength development is most influential factor among the change of mechanical properties at early-age of curing, it is possible to estimate the strength of concrete by analyzing the change of E/M impedance. The strength of concrete is a complex function of several factors like mix proportion, temperature, elasticity, etc. Because of this, it is hard to mathematically derive equations about strength of concrete. The ANN can provide the solution about early-age strength of concrete without mathematical equations. To verify the proposed approach, a series of experimental studies are conducted. The impedance signals are measured using embedded piezoelectric sensors during curing process and the resonant frequency of impedance is extracted as a strength feature. The strength of concrete is calculated by regression of strength development curve obtained by destructive test. Then ANN model is established by trained using experimental results. Finally the ANN model is verified using impedance data of other sensors.

  16. Differences in tissue oxygenation and changes in total hemoglobin signal strength in the brain, liver, and lower-limb muscle during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ookawara, Susumu; Ito, Kiyonori; Ueda, Yuichiro; Miyazawa, Haruhisa; Hayasaka, Hideyuki; Kofuji, Masaya; Uchida, Takayuki; Ishii, Hiroki; Shindo, Mitsutoshi; Kitano, Taisuke; Aomatsu, Akinori; Hirai, Keiji; Kaku, Yoshio; Hoshino, Taro; Tabei, Kaoru; Morishita, Yoshiyuki

    2017-08-07

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to measure regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) based on the total hemoglobin (t-Hb) signal strength. To date, few studies have investigated the changes of systemic oxygenation and t-Hb signal strength during hemodialysis (HD). This study aimed to (1) monitor rSO2 and t-Hb signal strength in the brain, liver, and lower-limb muscle during HD and (2) clarify the differences in rSO2 and t-Hb signal strength in each compartment. Fifty-three patients receiving 4-h HD were included and divided into three groups according to the compartments in which tissue oxygenation was measured as follows: brain (n = 44), liver (n = 42), and lower-limb muscle (n = 40). The rSO2 and t-Hb signal strength was monitored using an INVOS 5100c (Covidien Japan, Tokyo, Japan). The rSO2 levels were significantly lower in the brain than in the liver from HD initiation to the end (HD initiation: rSO2 in the brain and liver, 46.5 ± 1.3 and 52.4 ± 1.7%, respectively, p = 0.031). Furthermore, compared to the t-Hb signal strength ratio [value at t (min) during HD/initial value before HD] in the brain during HD, there were significant increases in the liver and lower-limb muscle, respectively. In conclusion, deterioration of cerebral oxygenation was remarkable compared to the hepatic oxygenation in HD patients. Our results, which revealed significant differences among the t-Hb signal strength ratios in the brain, liver, and lower-limb muscle during HD, might reflect the non-uniform body-fluid reduction within systemic tissues induced by ultrafiltration.

  17. Analytical Derivation of 2×2 MIMO Channel Capacity in Terms of Multipath Angle Spread and Signal Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, Halil; Kavak, Adnan

    2012-03-01

    The capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication channels is affected by the multipath angle spread and relative multiple signal strength (RMSS) at both sides of the transmitter and the receiver. In this paper, we study analytically how these two factors emerge in the MIMO capacity equation when the channel state information (CSI) is unknown at the transmitter and perfectly known at the receiver. Mathematical expression for the channel capacity is carried out for 2×2 MIMO system and two propagation paths between the base station (BS) and the mobile terminal (MS) are considered. The proposed analytical model is verified through numerical results, which show that channel capacity increases with increasing angle spread. Also, as the relative strength of multipaths becomes larger, the better channel capacity is obtained.

  18. Chaos-Based Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorzałek, Maciej J.

    2002-07-01

    Nonlinear systems exhibiting chaotic behavior can be considered as a source of a great variety of signals. Given a time series measured from a known or an unknown dynamical system we address a series of problems, such as section-wise approximation of the measured signal by pieces of trajectories from a chosen nonlinear dynamical system (model) signal restoration when the measured signal has been corrupted e.g. by quantization; signal coding and compression. The key to attack these problems is estimation of the initial conditions for a dynamical system which is used as the generator of approximating waveforms.

  19. [Development of Muscle Strength Evaluating System Based on Mobile Platform].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiulin; Yao, Xiaoming; Xu, Xijiao; Hu, Xiaohui

    2015-08-01

    The development of muscle strength evaluating system based on Android system was developed in this research. The system consists of a lower unit and an intelligent mobile terminal. The pressure sensor of the lower unit was used to collect muscle strength parameters. And the parameters were sent to the Android device through the wireless Bluetooth serial port. Then the Android device would send the parameters to the doctor monitored platform through the Internet. The system realized analyzing the muscle strength parameters and real-time displaying them. After it ran on the Android mobile phones, it showed an effective result which proved that the system combined with mobile platform could make more convenient for the patients to assess their own muscle strength. It also provided reliable data references for doctors to know the patients' rehabilitation condition and to make the next rehabilitation plan.

  20. Concurrent Validity of the Strength-Based "Behavioral Objective Sequence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K.; Braaten, Sheldon; Wilhite, Kathi; Algozzine, Bob

    2006-01-01

    An essential task of diagnosticians is the accurate assessment of behavioral skills. Traditionally, deficit-based behavioral assessments have underscored student social skill deficits. Strength-based assessments delineate student competencies and are useful for individualized education program (IEP) and behavioral intervention plan (BIP)…

  1. A Strength-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teachers of six primary schools in the Netherlands and…

  2. Strengths-Based Advising: A New Lens for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Laurie; Anderson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Strengths-based advising is proposed as a new lens for higher education, one that enables advisors to see diverse groups of students fulfill their potential and achieve excellence. Based on research from social work, positive psychology, and the business world, this approach enables advisors to identify and build on the inherent talents students…

  3. Concurrent Validity of the Strength-Based "Behavioral Objective Sequence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lynn K.; Braaten, Sheldon; Wilhite, Kathi; Algozzine, Bob

    2006-01-01

    An essential task of diagnosticians is the accurate assessment of behavioral skills. Traditionally, deficit-based behavioral assessments have underscored student social skill deficits. Strength-based assessments delineate student competencies and are useful for individualized education program (IEP) and behavioral intervention plan (BIP)…

  4. A Strength-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teachers of six primary schools in the Netherlands and…

  5. Strengths-Based Advising: A New Lens for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Laurie; Anderson, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Strengths-based advising is proposed as a new lens for higher education, one that enables advisors to see diverse groups of students fulfill their potential and achieve excellence. Based on research from social work, positive psychology, and the business world, this approach enables advisors to identify and build on the inherent talents students…

  6. Normalization of neuronal responses in cortical area MT across signal strengths and motion directions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianbo; Niu, Yu-Qiong; Wiesner, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Multiple visual stimuli are common in natural scenes, yet it remains unclear how multiple stimuli interact to influence neuronal responses. We investigated this question by manipulating relative signal strengths of two stimuli moving simultaneously within the receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the extrastriate middle temporal (MT) cortex. Visual stimuli were overlapping random-dot patterns moving in two directions separated by 90°. We first varied the motion coherence of each random-dot pattern and characterized, across the direction tuning curve, the relationship between neuronal responses elicited by bidirectional stimuli and by the constituent motion components. The tuning curve for bidirectional stimuli showed response normalization and can be accounted for by a weighted sum of the responses to the motion components. Allowing nonlinear, multiplicative interaction between the two component responses significantly improved the data fit for some neurons, and the interaction mainly had a suppressive effect on the neuronal response. The weighting of the component responses was not fixed but dependent on relative signal strengths. When two stimulus components moved at different coherence levels, the response weight for the higher-coherence component was significantly greater than that for the lower-coherence component. We also varied relative luminance levels of two coherently moving stimuli and found that MT response weight for the higher-luminance component was also greater. These results suggest that competition between multiple stimuli within a neuron's RF depends on relative signal strengths of the stimuli and that multiplicative nonlinearity may play an important role in shaping the response tuning for multiple stimuli. PMID:24899674

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Aircraft Strength Testing System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhou, Genyuan; Ji, Sai; Wang, Zilong; Wang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST) system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system. PMID:22408521

  8. Design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhou, Genyuan; Ji, Sai; Wang, Zilong; Wang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST) system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  9. Shank3 Is Part of a Zinc-Sensitive Signaling System That Regulates Excitatory Synaptic Strength.

    PubMed

    Arons, Magali H; Lee, Kevin; Thynne, Charlotte J; Kim, Sally A; Schob, Claudia; Kindler, Stefan; Montgomery, Johanna M; Garner, Craig C

    2016-08-31

    Shank3 is a multidomain scaffold protein localized to the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Functional studies in vivo and in vitro support the concept that Shank3 is critical for synaptic plasticity and the trans-synaptic coupling between the reliability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic responsiveness. However, how Shank3 regulates synaptic strength remains unclear. The C terminus of Shank3 contains a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain that is essential for its postsynaptic localization and also binds zinc, thus raising the possibility that changing zinc levels modulate Shank3 function in dendritic spines. In support of this hypothesis, we find that zinc is a potent regulator of Shank3 activation and dynamics in rat hippocampal neurons. Moreover, we show that zinc modulation of synaptic transmission is Shank3 dependent. Interestingly, an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated variant of Shank3 (Shank3(R87C)) retains its zinc sensitivity and supports zinc-dependent activation of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. However, elevated zinc was unable to rescue defects in trans-synaptic signaling caused by the R87C mutation, implying that trans-synaptic increases in neurotransmitter release are not necessary for the postsynaptic effects of zinc. Together, these data suggest that Shank3 is a key component of a zinc-sensitive signaling system, regulating synaptic strength that may be impaired in ASD. Shank3 is a postsynaptic protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. In this study, we show that Shank3 is a key component of a zinc-sensitive signaling system that regulates excitatory synaptic transmission. Intriguingly, an autism-associated mutation in Shank3 partially impairs this signaling system. Therefore, perturbation of zinc homeostasis may impair, not only synaptic functionality and plasticity, but also may lead to cognitive and behavioral abnormalities seen in patients with

  10. Signal Strength Is an Important Determinant of Accuracy of Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurement by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziqiang; Huang, Jingjing; Dustin, Laurie; Sadda, Srinivas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of signal strength on the measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Eyes with known or suspected glaucoma or non-glaucomatous optic atrophy were scanned twice within the same visit using Stratus OCT's Fast Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness (FNFLT) protocol. Only those eyes with two high quality scans (signal strengths of at least 5 and different from each other, no error messages, and no obvious segmentation errors) were included in the study. The RNFL thickness measurements from the initial and the repeat scans were compared and then correlated with the differences in signal strength. Subgroup analyses were performed similarly among patients with average RNFL thickness less than 90 microns and those with at least 90 microns. Results Scans with higher signal strengths are associated with greater RNFL thickness measurements if the signal strength is less than 7. Scans with signal strength of at least 7 have higher reproducibility. This is true among all patients as well as subgroups divided on the basis of average RNFL thickness. Additionally, we found that the greater the variability between the initial and repeat scans, the greater the variability in the RNFL thickness measurements. Scans with higher signal strengths have less variability, especially when the optic nerve is relatively healthy. Conclusions When measuring the RNFL thickness with the Stratus OCT, it is important to aim for a signal strength of at least 7. Visual field testing may be more reliable in some patients, especially when the optic nerve is significantly compromised. PMID:19295375

  11. Digital Signal Processing Based Biotelemetry Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Avtar; Hines, John; Somps, Chris

    1997-01-01

    This is an attempt to develop a biotelemetry receiver using digital signal processing technology and techniques. The receiver developed in this work is based on recovering signals that have been encoded using either Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) or Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) technique. A prototype has been developed using state-of-the-art digital signal processing technology. A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is being developed based on the technique and technology described here. This board is intended to be used in the UCSF Fetal Monitoring system developed at NASA. The board is capable of handling a variety of PPM and PCM signals encoding signals such as ECG, temperature, and pressure. A signal processing program has also been developed to analyze the received ECG signal to determine heart rate. This system provides a base for using digital signal processing in biotelemetry receivers and other similar applications.

  12. A set of enhanced green fluorescent protein concatemers for quantitative determination of nuclear localization signal strength.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Jennifer; Thavaraja, Ramya; Giehler, Susanne; Nalaskowski, Marcus M

    2017-09-15

    Regulated transport of proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm is an important process in the eukaryotic cell. In most cases, active nucleo-cytoplasmic protein transport is mediated by nuclear localization signal (NLS) and/or nuclear export signal (NES) motifs. In this study, we developed a set of vectors expressing enhanced GFP (EGFP) concatemers ranging from 2 to 12 subunits (2xEGFP to 12xEGFP) for analysis of NLS strength. As shown by in gel GFP fluorescence analysis and αGFP Western blotting, EGFP concatemers are expressed as fluorescent full-length proteins in eukaryotic cells. As expected, nuclear localization of concatemeric EGFPs decreases with increasing molecular weight. By oligonucleotide ligation this set of EGFP concatemers can be easily fused to NLS motifs. After determination of intracellular localization of EGFP concatemers alone and fused to different NLS motifs we calculated the size of a hypothetic EGFP concatemer showing a defined distribution of EGFP fluorescence between nucleus and cytoplasm (n/c ratio = 2). Clear differences of the size of the hypothetic EGFP concatemer depending on the fused NLS motif were observed. Therefore, we propose to use the size of this hypothetic concatemer as quantitative indicator for comparing strength of different NLS motifs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. TCR signal strength controls thymic differentiation of discrete proinflammatory γδ T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel; Ribot, Julie C.; Grosso, Ana R.; Gonçalves-Sousa, Natacha; Pamplona, Ana; Pennington, Daniel J.; Regueiro, José R.

    2016-01-01

    The murine thymus produces discrete γδ T cell subsets making either interferon-γ (IFN--γ) or interleukin 17 (IL-17), but the role of the TCR in this developmental process remains controversial. Here we show that mice haploinsufficient for both Cd3g and Cd3d (CD3DH, for CD3 double haploinsufficient) have reduced TCR expression and signaling strength selectively on γδ T cells. CD3DH mice had normal numbers and phenotype of αβ thymocyte subsets but impaired differentiation of fetal Vγ6+ (but not Vγ4+) IL-17-producing γδ T cells and a marked depletion of IFN-γ-producing CD122+ NK1.1+ γδ T cells throughout ontogeny. Adult CD3DH mice showed reduced peripheral IFN-γ+ γδ T cells and were resistant to experimental cerebral malaria. Thus, TCR signal strength within specific thymic developmental windows is a major determinant of the generation of proinflammatory γδ T cell subsets and their impact on pathophysiology. PMID:27043412

  14. Bond strength with custom base indirect bonding techniques.

    PubMed

    Klocke, Arndt; Shi, Jianmin; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2003-04-01

    Different types of adhesives for indirect bonding techniques have been introduced recently. But there is limited information regarding bond strength with these new materials. In this in vitro investigation, stainless steel brackets were bonded to 100 permanent bovine incisors using the Thomas technique, the modified Thomas technique, and light-cured direct bonding for a control group. The following five groups of 20 teeth each were formed: (1) modified Thomas technique with thermally cured base composite (Therma Cure) and chemically cured sealant (Maximum Cure), (2) Thomas technique with thermally cured base composite (Therma Cure) and chemically cured sealant (Custom I Q), (3) Thomas technique with light-cured base composite (Transbond XT) and chemically cured sealant (Sondhi Rapid Set), (4) modified Thomas technique with chemically cured base adhesive (Phase II) and chemically cured sealant (Maximum Cure), and (5) control group directly bonded with light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT). Mean bond strengths in groups 3, 4, and 5 were 14.99 +/- 2.85, 15.41 +/- 3.21, and 13.88 +/- 2.33 MPa, respectively, and these groups were not significantly different from each other. Groups 1 (mean bond strength 7.28 +/- 4.88 MPa) and 2 (mean bond strength 7.07 +/- 4.11 MPa) showed significantly lower bond strengths than groups 3, 4, and 5 and a higher probability of bond failure. Both the original (group 2) and the modified (group 1) Thomas technique were able to achieve bond strengths comparable to the light-cured direct bonded control group.

  15. Inferring strength and deformation properties of hot mix asphalt layers from the GPR signal: recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Adabi, Saba; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    The great flexibility of ground-penetrating radar has led to consider worldwide this instrument as an effective and efficient geophysical tool in several fields of application. As far as pavement engineering is concerned, ground-penetrating radar is employed in a wide range of applications, including physical and geometrical evaluation of road pavements. Conversely, the mechanical characterization of pavements is generally inferred through traditional (e.g., plate bearing test method) or advanced non-destructive techniques (e.g., falling weight deflectometer). Nevertheless, measurements performed using these methods, inevitably turn out to be both much more time-consuming and low-significant whether compared with ground-penetrating radar's potentials. In such a framework, a mechanical evaluation directly coming from electromagnetic inspections could represent a real breakthrough in the field of road assets management. With this purpose, a ground-penetrating radar system with 600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequencies of investigation and ground-coupled antennas was employed to survey a 4m×30m flexible pavement test site. The test area was marked by a regular grid mesh of 836 nodes, respectively spaced by a distance of 0.40 m alongside the horizontal and vertical axes. At each node, the elastic modulus was measured using a light falling weight deflectometer. Data processing has provided to reconstruct a 3-D matrix of amplitudes for the surveyed area, considering a depth of around 300 mm, in accord to the influence domain of the light falling weight deflectometer. On the other hand, deflectometric data were employed for both calibration and validation of a semi-empirical model by relating the amplitude of signal reflections through the media along fixed depths within the depth domain considered, and the Young's modulus of the pavement at the evaluated point. This statistically-based model is aimed at continuously taking into account alongside the depth of investigation

  16. Implementing Paraprofessional Strength-Based Early Intervention Home Visitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the implementation process for Parenting Plus, an early intervention program in a rural, western Canadian health district. Parenting Plus, as modeled after Hawaii Healthy Start, provides strength-based paraprofessional home visitations to overburdened parents of newborns. The general inductive…

  17. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  18. Implementing Paraprofessional Strength-Based Early Intervention Home Visitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykota, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the implementation process for Parenting Plus, an early intervention program in a rural, western Canadian health district. Parenting Plus, as modeled after Hawaii Healthy Start, provides strength-based paraprofessional home visitations to overburdened parents of newborns. The general inductive…

  19. The Colorful Evolution of a Strength-Based Treatment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Richard

    2003-01-01

    For more than 50 years, adolescent peer group treatment has been both glorified and criticized. Quality control has been a problem for the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment modality throughout its history. The following article includes observations and commentary on the history, strength-based elements, and criticism of PPC.

  20. Strength-Based Efforts for Promoting Recovery from Psychological Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Civita, Mirella

    2006-01-01

    Much resilience research highlights protective factors that prevent risk. Here the author focuses on resilience as the ability to recover from psychological harm. The strength-based view sees resilience as a transformational experience. One applicant of this approach is the Phoenix Intervention Program for Children (PIPC) which combines concepts…

  1. Strength-Based Assessment: A Triad of Troubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Traditional diagnosis treats behavior problems as "disorders" in the individual rather than "discord" in relationships. From an ecological perspective, a "problem" involves behavior that hurts self or others. Three global patterns of problems are: Inconsiderate of Others, Inconsiderate of Self, and Low Self-Worth. Strength-based assessment…

  2. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  3. Globin-based redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    De Henau, Sasha; Braeckman, Bart P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In recent years, moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have become recognized as signaling cues that participate at all levels of cellular organization. Globins, with their redox-active heme iron and ubiquitous presence, seem ideally suited to participate in ROS metabolism. Here we comment on our recent findings that show the participation of a globin, GLB-12, in a redox signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that GLB-12 produces superoxide, a type of ROS, after which this is converted to what appears to be a hydrogen peroxide gradient over the plasma membrane by the activity of intracellular and extracellular superoxide dismutases. In the first part, we discuss in more detail the different regulatory mechanisms that increase the effectiveness of this redox signal. In the second part, we comment on how specific structural and biochemical properties allow this globin to perform redox reactions. Interestingly, these properties are also observed in 2 other C. elegans globins that appear to be involved in redox biology. We therefore hypothesize that globins involved in redox signaling display similar structural and biochemical characteristics and propose that a subgroup of globins can be added to the group of proteins that play a vital role in redox signaling. PMID:27695650

  4. Globin-based redox signaling.

    PubMed

    De Henau, Sasha; Braeckman, Bart P

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, moderate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have become recognized as signaling cues that participate at all levels of cellular organization. Globins, with their redox-active heme iron and ubiquitous presence, seem ideally suited to participate in ROS metabolism. Here we comment on our recent findings that show the participation of a globin, GLB-12, in a redox signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that GLB-12 produces superoxide, a type of ROS, after which this is converted to what appears to be a hydrogen peroxide gradient over the plasma membrane by the activity of intracellular and extracellular superoxide dismutases. In the first part, we discuss in more detail the different regulatory mechanisms that increase the effectiveness of this redox signal. In the second part, we comment on how specific structural and biochemical properties allow this globin to perform redox reactions. Interestingly, these properties are also observed in 2 other C. elegans globins that appear to be involved in redox biology. We therefore hypothesize that globins involved in redox signaling display similar structural and biochemical characteristics and propose that a subgroup of globins can be added to the group of proteins that play a vital role in redox signaling.

  5. Enhanced consumer goal achievement through strengths-based group supervision.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Charles A; Goscha, Richard J; Fukui, Sadaaki

    2015-09-01

    This article seeks to enhance and support consumer-centered care in psychiatric rehabilitation through the use of strengths-based group supervision (SBGS). The article is based on social science research findings, 30 years of experience with the model, and the literature on supervision. Relevant findings from research on the model are included. SBGS is a promising approach for improving consumer goal achievement and centeredness. It warrants further implementation and research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Science of Strength: Reflections on the National Strength and Conditioning Association and the Emergence of Research-Based Strength and Conditioning.

    PubMed

    Shurley, Jason P; Todd, Janice S; Todd, Terry C

    2017-02-01

    Shurley, JP, Todd, JS, and Todd, TC. The science of strength: reflections on the National Strength and Conditioning Association and the emergence of research-based strength and conditioning. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 517-530, 2017-The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) formed in 1978 when a group of 76 strength and conditioning coaches banded together to start an organization whose goal was to facilitate the exchange of ideas on strength training for sports. At the time, very little research existed regarding strength training protocols or their effects. Members clamored for scientific information, however, and by the group's second meeting, they moved to establish a research committee and a professional journal. In the years that followed, more members with experience both as practitioners of strength coaching and training and as scientists joined the organization. As membership demographics shifted, the NSCA's mission changed from exchanging ideas about strength training to creating research on its effects. The group sought to "bridge the gap" between scientists and practitioners, and to that end, the NSCA Journal published features like the "Sport Performance Series" and "Roundtable" articles containing applied science and investigations of claims made by strength equipment manufacturers about the efficacy of their products. In 1987, a second journal, The Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, was established to provide more access to research-based publications, now renamed the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. With over 400 articles published in the JSCR in 2014 alone, the science of strength has advanced dramatically since the NSCA's founding.

  7. Signal extrapolation based on wavelet representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiang-Gen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Zhang, Zhen

    1993-11-01

    The Papoulis-Gerchberg (PG) algorithm is well known for band-limited signal extrapolation. We consider the generalization of the PG algorithm to signals in the wavelet subspaces in this research. The uniqueness of the extrapolation for continuous-time signals is examined, and sufficient conditions on signals and wavelet bases for the generalized PG (GPG) algorithm to converge are given. We also propose a discrete GPG algorithm for discrete-time signal extrapolation, and investigate its convergence. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the discrete GPG algorithm.

  8. Where did my wifi go? Measuring soil moisture using wifi signal strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is tricky to measure. Currently soil moisture is measured at small footprints using probes and other field devices, or at large footprints using satellites. Promising developments in measuring soil moisture are using fiber optic cables for measurements along a line, or using cosmos rays for field scale measurements. In this demonstration we present a low cost alternative to measure soil moisture at footprints of a few square meters. We use a wifi hotspot and a wifi dongle, both mounted in a cantenna for beam forming. We aim the hotspot on a piece of soil and put the dongle in the path of the reflection. By logging the signal strength of the wifi netwerk, we have a proxy for soil moisture. A first proof of concept is presented.

  9. Electrocardiograph signal denoising based on sparse decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjiang; Li, Xiaolu

    2017-08-01

    Noise in ECG signals will affect the result of post-processing if left untreated. Since ECG is highly subjective, the linear denoising method with a specific threshold working well on one subject could fail on another. Therefore, in this Letter, sparse-based method, which represents every segment of signal using different linear combinations of atoms from a dictionary, is used to denoise ECG signals, with a view to myoelectric interference existing in ECG signals. Firstly, a denoising model for ECG signals is constructed. Then the model is solved by matching pursuit algorithm. In order to get better results, four kinds of dictionaries are investigated with the ECG signals from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, compared with wavelet transform (WT)-based method. Signal-noise ratio (SNR) and mean square error (MSE) between estimated signal and original signal are used as indicators to evaluate the performance. The results show that by using the present method, the SNR is higher while the MSE between estimated signal and original signal is smaller.

  10. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  11. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  12. SSL: Signal Similarity-Based Localization for Ocean Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengpeng; Ma, Honglu; Gao, Shouwan; Huang, Yan

    2015-11-24

    Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for ocean scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes' positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches heavily depend on extra hardware capabilities, while range-free ones often suffer from poor accuracy and low scalability, far from the practical ocean monitoring applications. In response to the above limitations, this paper proposes a novel signal similarity-based localization (SSL) technology, which localizes the nodes' positions by fully utilizing the similarity of received signal strength and the open-air characteristics of the sea surface. In the localization process, we first estimate the relative distance between neighboring nodes through comparing the similarity of received signal strength and then calculate the relative distance for non-neighboring nodes with the shortest path algorithm. After that, the nodes' relative relation map of the whole network can be obtained. Given at least three anchors, the physical locations of nodes can be finally determined based on the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technology. The design is evaluated by two types of ocean experiments: a zonal network and a non-regular network using 28 nodes. Results show that the proposed design improves the localization accuracy compared to typical connectivity-based approaches and also confirm its effectiveness for large-scale ocean sensor networks.

  13. SSL: Signal Similarity-Based Localization for Ocean Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengpeng; Ma, Honglu; Gao, Shouwan; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, wireless sensor networks are often deployed on the sea surface for ocean scientific monitoring. One of the important challenges is to localize the nodes’ positions. Existing localization schemes can be roughly divided into two types: range-based and range-free. The range-based localization approaches heavily depend on extra hardware capabilities, while range-free ones often suffer from poor accuracy and low scalability, far from the practical ocean monitoring applications. In response to the above limitations, this paper proposes a novel signal similarity-based localization (SSL) technology, which localizes the nodes’ positions by fully utilizing the similarity of received signal strength and the open-air characteristics of the sea surface. In the localization process, we first estimate the relative distance between neighboring nodes through comparing the similarity of received signal strength and then calculate the relative distance for non-neighboring nodes with the shortest path algorithm. After that, the nodes’ relative relation map of the whole network can be obtained. Given at least three anchors, the physical locations of nodes can be finally determined based on the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) technology. The design is evaluated by two types of ocean experiments: a zonal network and a non-regular network using 28 nodes. Results show that the proposed design improves the localization accuracy compared to typical connectivity-based approaches and also confirm its effectiveness for large-scale ocean sensor networks. PMID:26610520

  14. Enhancement of neuromuscular dynamics and strength behavior using extremely low magnitude mechanical signals in mice.

    PubMed

    Mettlach, Gabriel; Polo-Parada, Luis; Peca, Lauren; Rubin, Clinton T; Plattner, Florian; Bibb, James A

    2014-01-03

    Exercise in general, and mechanical signals in particular, help ameliorate the neuromuscular symptoms of aging and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders by enhancing muscle function. To better understand the salutary mechanisms of such physical stimuli, we evaluated the potential for low intensity mechanical signals to promote enhanced muscle dynamics. The effects of daily brief periods of low intensity vibration (LIV) on neuromuscular functions and behavioral correlates were assessed in mice. Physiological analysis revealed that LIV increased isometric force production in semitendinosus skeletal muscle. This effect was evident in both young and old mice. Isometric force recordings also showed that LIV reduced the fatiguing effects of intensive synaptic muscle stimulation. Furthermore, LIV increased evoked neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses but had no effect on spontaneous end plate potential amplitude or frequency. In behavioral studies, LIV increased mouse grip strength and potentiated initial motor activity in a novel environment. These results provide evidence for the efficacy of LIV in producing changes in the neuromuscular system that translate into performance gains at a behavioral scale. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Differential Role of Base Pairs on gal Promoters Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dale E. A.; Le, Phuoc; Adhya, Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Sequence alignments of promoters in prokaryotes postulated that the frequency of occurrence of a base pair at a given position of promoter elements reflects its contribution to intrinsic promoter strength. We directly assessed the contribution of the four bp in each position in the intrinsic promoter strength by keeping the context constant in Escherichia coli cAMP-CRP regulated gal promoters by in vitro transcription assays. First, we show that bp frequency within known consensus elements correlates well with promoter strength. Second, we observe some substitutions upstream of the ex-10 TG-motif that are important for promoter function. Although the galP1 and P2 promoters overlap, only three positions were found where substitutions inactivated both promoters. We propose that RNA polymerase binds to the −12T bp as part of dsDNA while opening base pairs from −11A to +3 to form the single stranded transcription bubble DNA during isomerization. The cAMP-CRP complex rescued some deleterious substitutions in the promoter region. The base pair roles and their flexibilities reported here for E. coli gal promoters may help construction of synthetic promoters in gene circuitry experiments in which overlapping promoters with differential controls may be warranted. PMID:25543084

  16. Correlation between stimulation strength and onset time of signal traveling within the neocortical neural circuits under caffeine application.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Honjo, Miho; Sugai, Tokio; Kaneyama, Keiseki; Segami, Natsuki; Kato, Nobuo

    2011-08-01

    In general, strength of input to neocortical neural circuits affects the amplitude of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), thereby modulating the way signals are transmitted within the circuits. Caffeine is one of the pharmacological agents able to modulate synaptic activities. The present study investigated how strength of input affects signal propagation in neocortical circuits under the application of caffeine. Spatio-temporal neural activities were observed from visual cortical slices of rats using optical recording methods with voltage-sensitive dye. Electrical stimulations were applied to white matter in the primary visual cortex with bath-application of caffeine. When the strength of stimulation was 0.3mA, signals propagated from the site of stimulation in the primary visual cortex toward the secondary visual cortex along vertical and horizontal pathways. When stimulation strength was reduced from 0.3mA to 0.07mA, start of signal propagation was delayed about 25ms without affecting field PSP amplitude or the manner of signal propagation. Conversely, co-application of caffeine and d-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (d-AP5) did not induce delays in signal start. These findings suggest that conversion of neural code from amplitude code to temporal code is inducible at the level of neocortical circuits in an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity-dependent manner.

  17. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-03-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null-distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto-occipital zone. The obtained segmentations consistently show a sparse number of significantly connected voxels that are located near the surface of the anterior thalamus over a population of 38 subjects.

  18. Building a dishonest signal: the functional basis of unreliable signals of strength in males of the two-toned fiddler crab, Uca vomeris.

    PubMed

    Bywater, Candice L; Seebacher, Frank; Wilson, Robbie S

    2015-10-01

    Males of many species use signals during aggressive contests to communicate their fighting capacity. These signals are usually reliable indicators of an individual's underlying quality; however, in several crustacean species, displays of weapons do not always accurately reflect the attribute being advertised. Male fiddler crabs possess one enlarged claw that is used to attract females and to intimidate opponents during territorial contests. After the loss of their major claw, males can regenerate a replacement claw that is similar in size but considerably weaker. As this inferior weapon can still be used to successfully intimidate rivals, it represents one of the clearest cases of unreliable signalling of strength during territorial contests. We investigated the functional mechanisms that govern signal reliability in the two-toned fiddler crab, Uca vomeris. Male U. vomeris exhibit both reliable and unreliable signals of strength via the expression of original and regenerated claw morphs. We examined the morphological, biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of original and regenerated claws to establish the best predictors of variation in claw strength. For a given claw size, regenerated claws have less muscle mass than original claws, and for a given muscle mass, regenerated claws were significantly weaker than original claws. The mechanical advantage was also lower in regenerated claws compared with original claws. However, the activity of three catabolic enzymes did not differ between claw types. We conclude that the structural and physiological predictors of force production influence the frequencies of reliable and unreliable signals of strength in U. vomeris. This study furthers our understanding of the proliferation of unreliable signals in natural populations.

  19. Modulating the Strength and Threshold of NOTCH Oncogenic Signals by mir-181a-1/b-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Song; Schaffert, Steven; Gong, Xue; Yue, Sibiao; Luong, Richard; Min, Hyeyoung; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Davis, Mark; Pear, Warren; Chen, Chang-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenes, which are essential for tumor initiation, development, and maintenance, are valuable targets for cancer therapy. However, it remains a challenge to effectively inhibit oncogene activity by targeting their downstream pathways without causing significant toxicity to normal tissues. Here we show that deletion of mir-181a-1/b-1 expression inhibits the development of Notch1 oncogene-induced T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). mir-181a-1/b-1 controls the strength and threshold of Notch activity in tumorigenesis in part by dampening multiple negative feedback regulators downstream of NOTCH and pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. Importantly, although Notch oncogenes utilize normal thymic progenitor cell genetic programs for tumor transformation, comparative analyses of mir-181a-1/b-1 function in normal thymocyte and tumor development demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1 can be specifically targeted to inhibit tumor development with little toxicity to normal development. Finally, we demonstrate that mir-181a-1/b-1, but not mir-181a-2b-2 and mir-181-c/d, controls the development of normal thymic T cells and leukemia cells. Together, these results illustrate that NOTCH oncogene activity in tumor development can be selectively inhibited by targeting the molecular networks controlled by mir-181a-1/b-1. PMID:22916024

  20. Enhanced astroglial Ca2+ signaling increases excitatory synaptic strength in the epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Ferradas, Carla; Morales, Juan Carlos; Wellmann, Mario; Nualart, Francisco; Roncagliolo, Manuel; Fuenzalida, Marco; Bonansco, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The fine-tuning of synaptic transmission by astrocyte signaling is crucial to CNS physiology. However, how exactly astroglial excitability and gliotransmission are affected in several neuropathologies, including epilepsy, remains unclear. Here, using a chronic model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats, we found that astrocytes from astrogliotic hippocampal slices displayed an augmented incidence of TTX-insensitive spontaneous slow Ca(2+) transients (STs), suggesting a hyperexcitable pattern of astroglial activity. As a consequence, elevated glutamate-mediated gliotransmission, observed as increased slow inward current (SICs) frequency, up-regulates the probability of neurotransmitter release in CA3-CA1 synapses. Selective blockade of spontaneous astroglial Ca(2+) elevations as well as the inhibition of purinergic P2Y1 or mGluR5 receptors relieves the abnormal enhancement of synaptic strength. Moreover, mGluR5 blockade eliminates any synaptic effects induced by P2Y1R inhibition alone, suggesting that the Pr modulation via mGluR occurs downstream of P2Y1R-mediated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release from astrocyte. Our findings show that elevated Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate gliotransmission from hyperexcitable astrocytes up-regulates excitatory neurotransmission in epileptic hippocampus, suggesting that gliotransmission should be considered as a novel functional key in a broad spectrum of neuropathological conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0--20Fe, 10--30Cr, 2--12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05--3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01--0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni. 3 figs.

  2. Advanced nickel base alloys for high strength, corrosion applications

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.

    1998-01-01

    Improved nickel-base alloys of enhanced strength and corrosion resistance, produced by atomization of an alloy melt under an inert gas atmosphere and of composition 0-20Fe, 10-30Cr, 2-12Mo, 6 max. Nb, 0.05-3 V, 0.08 max. Mn, 0.5 max. Si, less than 0.01 each of Al and Ti, less than 0.05 each of P and S, 0.01-0.08C, less than 0.2N, 0.1 max. 0, bal. Ni.

  3. Further observations on high impact strength denture-base materials.

    PubMed

    Rodford, R A; Braden, M

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high impact strength can be conferred on denture-base poly(methyl methacrylate) polymers by modification with acrylic-terminated butadiene-styrene block copolymers, and that the acrylic end-group was necessary for effective reinforcement. It is now shown that, by solvent extraction studies, grafting of the copolymer occurs both with acrylic-terminated and non-terminated block copolymers. It is therefore concluded that the mode of grafting is different, and some possible mechanisms are discussed.

  4. [Studies on bond strength and hardness of base materials].

    PubMed

    Suga, T; Chiba, E; Shinya, A; Yokozuka, S

    1989-04-01

    Since base materials are used in the construction of abutment teeth and the cavity walls of the teeth with healthy pulp, they need considerable bonding and mechanical strength depending on the site of application. In the present study we examined bonding strength, Martens-Mayer hardness and Vickers hardness of base materials in comparison with natural dentin in order to reevaluate them in terms of prosthetic materials and to provide assessment criteria for their application to prosthetic treatment. The results were as follows: 1) The bonding test showed the lowest value (4.6kgf/cm2) in calcium hydroxide FR (HFR) and the highest (47.9kgf/cm2) in HY-Bond polycarboxylate cement (CHC), a type of polycarboxylate cement. 2) In the test of bonding strength with various types of cement, calcium hydroxide preparations and zinc phosphate cement showed low values (4.6-23.5kgf/cm2) while polycarboxylate cement and glass-ionomer cement showed relatively high values (17.8-40.5kgf/cm2). 3) The Martens-Mayer hardness test showed the highest value (10.82 x 10(4] in dentin cement (GDE) and the lowest (1.09 x 10(4] in propack (EPR). 4) The Vickers hardness test showed the highest value (82) in neo-protect cement (ZPR) and the lowest (1) in propack (EPR). 5) In both Martens-Mayer and Vickers hardness tests with various types of cement, zinc phosphate cement and glass- ionomer cement showed high values, while low values were obtained in calcium hydroxide preparations and zinc-oxide eugenol cement. 6) Zinc phosphate cement and glass-ionomer cement showed no statistically significant differences from natural dentin in either Martens-Mayer hardness or Vickers hardness.

  5. Strength-based crisis programming: Evaluating the process of care.

    PubMed

    Hootz, Terra; Mykota, David B; Fauchoux, Laurissa

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a utilization-focused process evaluation framework was used to explore client and service providers' experiences of Crisis Management Services (CMS), their perceptions of the services provided, and the process of client engagement CMS offers. CMS is a strength-based program that targets individuals who experience crises every day. The Community-University Institute for Social Research facilitated the evaluation by engaging academic expertise in a coordinated collaborative approach to community-university partnerships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the clients and service providers. The general inductive approach was used for transcript analysis with seven themes emerging. A conceptual model of service delivery is presented, which integrates the interviews conducted with clients and service providers. Results affirm that the establishment of a close personal strength-based relationship is key to client engagement. Collaborative goal setting with informal and formal community resources viewed as potential assets, characterizes the process that enables clients to live at their optimal level of independence. This study is unique as it provides valuable insight on the perspectives of vulnerable individuals in crisis situations. Through the establishment of community-university partnerships the gap between scholarly research and its applicability to community organizations is narrowed with opportunities for improving the quality of life enhanced.

  6. Dielectric response based characterization and strength prediction of cementitious materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchiryal, Ram Kishore

    aggregates is evident. The relaxation times of the cement pastes are determined using several methods. Among those, relaxation times determined using a modified equivalent circuit model is found to be adequate. Representing the dielectric constant (or conductivities) at particular frequencies as a function of the capillary porosities in the cement pastes, it is observed that percolation threshold of porosity of cement pastes can be detected. The observed percolation thresholds agree well with those reported for cement based materials. The compressive strengths of cement pastes are predicted using two methods that employ electrical conductivity. The first method is developed using the measured non-evaporable water contents to determine degrees of hydration, and thus the porosity. Standard strength-porosity relationships are then used to extract strength from porosity values. In the second method, a generalized effective medium (GEM) theory is used along with the measured effective conductivity to predict the porosity and then the, compressive strength. The compressive strength predicted by both methods agrees well with the experimental results.

  7. Does a Social Work Degree Predict Practice Orientation? Measuring Strengths-Based Practice among Child Welfare Workers with the Strengths-Based Practices Inventory-Provider Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Emily M.; McCarthy, Sean C.; Serino, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Strengths-based practice (SBP) is one of the primary modalities of social work practice. The literature on SBP does not address a standardized tool for measuring SBP or whether receipt of a social work degree is related to practice orientation. We measure SBP with a provider-based Strengths-Based Practices Inventory (SBPI-P) and examine whether a…

  8. Signal/Noise Analysis of FRET-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Woehler, Andrew; Wlodarczyk, Jakub; Neher, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Molecular sensors based on intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have become versatile tools to monitor regulatory molecules in living tissue. However, their use is often compromised by low signal strength and excessive noise. We analyzed signal/noise (SNR) aspects of spectral FRET analysis methods, with the following conclusions: The most commonly used method (measurement of the emission ratio after a single short wavelength excitation) is optimal in terms of signal/noise, if only relative changes of this uncalibrated ratio are of interest. In the case that quantitative data on FRET efficiencies are required, these can be calculated from the emission ratio and some calibration parameters, but at reduced SNR. Lux-FRET, a recently described method for spectral analysis of FRET data, allows one to do so in three different ways, each based on a ratio of two out of three measured fluorescence signals (the donor and acceptor signal during a short-wavelength excitation and the acceptor signal during long wavelength excitation). Lux-FRET also allows for calculation of the total abundance of donor and acceptor fluorophores. The SNR for all these quantities is lower than that of the plain emission ratio due to unfavorable error propagation. However, if ligand concentration is calculated either from lux-FRET values or else, after its calibration, from the emission ratio, SNR for both analysis modes is very similar. Likewise, SNR values are similar, if the noise of these quantities is related to the expected dynamic range. We demonstrate these relationships based on data from an Epac-based cAMP sensor and discuss how the SNR changes with the FRET efficiency and the number of photons collected. PMID:20923670

  9. Satellite based Global Flood Detection System - strengths and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Salamon, Peter; Thielen, Jutta; De Groeve, Tom; Zajac, Zuzanna

    2014-05-01

    One of the main problems for global hydrological models is that for many regions only very limited or no observational data for a model assessment is available. This problem could be overcome with filling the gaps using information derived from satellite observations. Thus, an evaluation of the remote sensing signal of the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) against observed discharge data was performed in order to test the use of this data in sparsely gauged river basins. The study was carried out at 398 locations near the main rivers and in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. After evaluating different methodologies for extracting the satellite signal, a temporal (4 days) and spatial (4 GFDS pixels) average was chosen to proceed with the analysis. For the 340 stations with a concurrent time series longer than seven years for both, the signal and the in situ observed discharge (obtained mainly from the Global Runoff Data Centre), a calibration based on monthly linear models was carried out. The validation was executed and several skill scores were calculated such as the R2, Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). It is important to highlight that, for this study, 230 stations globally had Nash-Sutcliffe efficient score higher than zero, indicating that for specific conditions the satellite signal as used in GFDS can fill the gaps where observations are not available. For example, several locations in African catchments have good performance as in the Niger, Volta and Zambezi for which Nash-Sutcliffe is greater than 0.75. It is known that a number of factors affect total upwelling microwave brightness from a mixed water and land surface measured by a single image pixel. Aiming to better understand how some features of the sites could affect the satellite signal and the correlation with in situ observations, apart from the dependency on the river geometry, a multivariate analysis was carried out between the skill scores (NSE and

  10. Shear Bond Strength of Bracket Bases to Adhesives Based on Bracket Base Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    accepted technique since introduced by Newman in 1965. Bond strength values ranging from 6-8 MPa for composite resin cements were originally reported...bonding orthodontic brackets. Our in vitro study utilized a cured block of Transbond XT TM composite resin with minimal filler particles. This in...the specimen surface area. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was used to assess the amount of resin left on the bracket base after debonding. A

  11. Development of an empirically based dynamic biomechanical strength model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, A.; Maida, J.; Aldridge, A.; Hasson, S.; Woolford, B.

    1992-01-01

    The focus here is on the development of a dynamic strength model for humans. Our model is based on empirical data. The shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints are characterized in terms of maximum isolated torque, position, and velocity in all rotational planes. This information is reduced by a least squares regression technique into a table of single variable second degree polynomial equations determining the torque as a function of position and velocity. The isolated joint torque equations are then used to compute forces resulting from a composite motion, which in this case is a ratchet wrench push and pull operation. What is presented here is a comparison of the computed or predicted results of the model with the actual measured values for the composite motion.

  12. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  13. Positive Psychology and Character Strengths: Application to Strengths-Based School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The basic premise of positive psychology is that the happiness and fulfillment of children and youth entail more than the identification and treatment of their problems. This article provides an overview of positive psychology and the Values in Action (VIA) project that classifies and measures 24 widely recognized character strengths. Good…

  14. Positive Psychology and Character Strengths: Application to Strengths-Based School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The basic premise of positive psychology is that the happiness and fulfillment of children and youth entail more than the identification and treatment of their problems. This article provides an overview of positive psychology and the Values in Action (VIA) project that classifies and measures 24 widely recognized character strengths. Good…

  15. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    two treatments on hypertrophy signalling pathways and satellite cell activity in skeletal muscle after acute strength exercise. Cold water immersion attenuated long term gains in muscle mass and strength. It also blunted the activation of key proteins and satellite cells in skeletal muscle up to 2 days after strength exercise. Individuals who use strength training to improve athletic performance, recover from injury or maintain their health should therefore reconsider whether to use cold water immersion as an adjuvant to their training. PMID:26174323

  16. Photoacoustic signal simulation and detection optimization based on laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Du, Yi; Zhao, Qingliang; Li, Qian; Chai, Xinyu; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-11-01

    Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (LSOR-PAM) has a high application potential in ophthalmology and other clinical fields because of its high resolution and imaging speed. The stationary unfocused ultrasonic transducer of this system decides the efficiency and field of view (FOV) of photoacoustic signal detection, but the refraction and attenuation of laser generated photoacoustic signal in different tissue mediums will cause signal strength and direction distribution uneven. In this study, we simulated the photoacoustic signal propagation and detection in compound medium models with different tissue parameters using k-space method based on LSOR-PAM imaging principle. The results show a distance related signal strength attenuation and FOV changes related to transducer angle. Our study provides a method for photoacoustic signal detection optimization for different complex tissue structure with LSOR-PAM.

  17. FMRI signals associated with memory strength in the medial temporal lobes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wais, Peter E

    2008-12-01

    To identify patterns of memory-related neural activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL), a quantitative meta-analysis of 17 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies was performed. The analysis shows that increased activity in the hippocampus and the parahippocampal cortex predicts subsequent memory strength. During retrieval, activity in the hippocampus increases in association with strong memory. In the perirhinal cortex, increased activity predicts subsequent recognition, whether based on weak or strong memory, whereas during retrieval activity decreases below the level for misses in association with both weak and strong memory. The results are consistent with the claim that the hippocampus selectively subserves recollection, whereas adjacent structures subserve familiarity [Eichenbaum, H., Yonelinas, A., & Ranganath, C. (2007). The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. The Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30, 123-152]. However, this conclusion depends on a specific dual-process theory of recognition memory that has been used to interpret the results. An alternative dual-process model holds that the behavioral methods used to differentiate recollection from familiarity instead separate strong memories from weak memories. When the fMRI data are interpreted in terms of the alternative theory, the fMRI results do not point to selective roles for the hippocampus or the adjacent MTL structures. The fMRI data alone cannot distinguish between these two models, so other methods are needed to resolve the issue.

  18. Characterization of the respiratory and heart beat signal from an air pressure-based ballistocardiographic setup.

    PubMed

    Willemen, Tim; Van Deun, Dorien; Verhaert, Vincent; Van Huffel, Sabine; Haex, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2014-01-01

    Off-body detection of respiratory and cardiac activity presents an enormous opportunity for general health, stress and sleep quality monitoring. The presented setup detects the mechanical activity of both heart and lungs by measuring pressure difference fluctuations between two air volumes underneath the chest area of the subject. The registered signals were characterized over four different sleep postures, three different base air pressures within the air volumes and three different mattress top layer materials. Highest signal strength was detected in prone posture for both the respiratory and heart beat signal. Respiratory signal strength was the lowest in supine posture, while heart beat signal strength was lowest for right lateral. Heart beat cycle variability was highest in prone and lowest in supine posture. Increasing the base air pressure caused a reduction in signal amplitude for both the respiratory and the heart beat signal. A visco-elastic poly-urethane foam top layer had significantly higher respiration amplitude compared to high resilient poly-urethane foam and latex foam. For the heart beat signal, differences between the top layers were small. The authors conclude that, while the influence of the mattress top layer material is small, the base air pressure can be tuned for optimal mechanical transmission from heart and lungs towards the registration setup.

  19. Recollection- and Familiarity-Based Decisions Reflect Memory Strength

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

    2008-01-01

    We used event-related fMRI to investigate whether recollection- and familiarity-based memory judgments are modulated by the degree of visual similarity between old and new art paintings. Subjects performed a flower detection task, followed by a Remember/Know/New surprise memory test. The old paintings were randomly presented with new paintings, which were either visually similar or visually different. Consistent with our prediction, subjects were significantly faster and more accurate to reject new, visually different paintings than new, visually similar ones. The proportion of false alarms, namely remember and know responses to new paintings, was significantly reduced with decreased visual similarity. The retrieval task evoked activation in multiple visual, parietal and prefrontal regions, within which remember judgments elicited stronger activation than know judgments. New, visually different paintings evoked weaker activation than new, visually similar items in the intraparietal sulcus. Contrasting recollection with familiarity revealed activation predominantly within the precuneus, where the BOLD response elicited by recollection peaked significantly earlier than the BOLD response evoked by familiarity judgments. These findings suggest that successful memory retrieval of pictures is mediated by activation in a distributed cortical network, where memory strength is manifested by differential hemodynamic profiles. Recollection- and familiarity-based memory decisions may therefore reflect strong memories and weak memories, respectively. PMID:18958245

  20. Simulate different environments TDLAS On the analysis of the test signal strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    TDLAS system is the use of the wavelength tuning characteristics of the laser diode, for detecting the absorption spectrum of the gas absorption line. Detecting the gas space, temperature, pressure and flow rate and concentration. The use of laboratory techniques TDLAS gas detection, experimental simulation engine combustion water vapor and smoke. using an optical lens system receives the signal acquisition and signal interference test analysis. Analog water vapor and smoke in two different environments in the sample pool interference. In both experiments environmental interference gas absorption in the optical signal acquisition, signal amplitude variation analysis, and records related to the signal data. In order to study site conditions in the engine combustion process for signal acquisition provides an ideal experimental data .

  1. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of a Strength-Based Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Norwood, Sarah Jane; Whitley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the strength-based bullying prevention program, "Strengths in Motion," and to evaluate the program utilizing a mixed-method design. Participants included students in Grades 4 to 8 from an intervention (n = 50) and a comparison (n = 53) school in Northern Ontario. Measures of bullying, strengths, and…

  2. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; 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Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    Measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] final states. The result is based on pp collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb[Formula: see text] at a collision energy of [Formula: see text] TeV. Using the [Formula: see text] method, the observed 95 [Formula: see text] confidence level (CL) upper limit on the off-shell signal strength is in the range 5.1-8.6, with an expected range of 6.7-11.0. In each case the range is determined by varying the unknown [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] background K-factor from higher-order quantum chromodynamics corrections between half and twice the value of the known signal K-factor. Assuming the relevant Higgs boson couplings are independent of the energy scale of the Higgs boson production, a combination with the on-shell measurements yields an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on [Formula: see text] in the range 4.5-7.5 (6.5-11.2) using the same variations of the background K-factor. Assuming that the unknown [Formula: see text] background K-factor is equal to the signal K-factor, this translates into an observed (expected) 95 [Formula: see text] CL upper limit on the Higgs boson total width of 22.7 (33.0) MeV.

  3. Zinc transporter SLC39A10/ZIP10 controls humoral immunity by modulating B-cell receptor signal strength

    PubMed Central

    Hojyo, Shintaro; Miyai, Tomohiro; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Kawamura, Masami; Yasuda, Takuwa; Hijikata, Atsushi; Bin, Bum-Ho; Irié, Tarou; Tanaka, Junichi; Atsumi, Toru; Murakami, Masaaki; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Himeno, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Koseki, Haruhiko; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Mishima, Kenji; Fukada, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    The humoral immune response, also called the antibody-mediated immune response, is one of the main adaptive immune systems. The essential micronutrient zinc (Zn) is known to modulate adaptive immune responses, and dysregulated Zn homeostasis leads to immunodeficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this Zn-mediated modulation are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Zn transporter SLC39A10/ZIP10 plays an important role in B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction. Zip10-deficiency in mature B cells attenuated both T-cell–dependent and –independent immune responses in vivo. The Zip10-deficient mature B cells proliferated poorly in response to BCR cross-linking, as a result of dysregulated BCR signaling. The perturbed signaling was found to be triggered by a reduction in CD45R phosphatase activity and consequent hyperactivation of LYN, an essential protein kinase in BCR signaling. Our data suggest that ZIP10 functions as a positive regulator of CD45R to modulate the BCR signal strength, thereby setting a threshold for BCR signaling in humoral immune responses. PMID:25074919

  4. On the Signaling of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors: Collision- and Folding-Based Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yi; Uzawa, Takanori; White, Ryan J.; DeMartini, Daniel; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new class of electrochemical sensors predicated on target binding-induced folding of electrode-bound redox-modified aptamers and directed against targets ranging from small molecules to proteins. Previous studies of the relationship between gain and probe-density for these electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors suggest that signal transduction is linked to binding-induced changes in the efficiency with which the attached redox tag strikes the electrode. This, in turn, suggests that even well folded aptamers may support E-AB signaling if target binding sufficiently alters their flexibility. Here we investigate this using a thrombin-binding aptamer that undergoes binding-induced folding at low ionic strength but can be forced to adopt a folded conformation at higher ionic strength even in the absence of its protein target. We find that, under conditions in which the thrombin aptamer is fully folded prior to target binding, we still obtain a ca. 30% change in E-AB signal upon saturated target levels. In contrast, however, under conditions in which the aptamer is unfolded in the absence of target and thus undergoes binding-induced folding the observed signal change is twice as great. The ability of folded aptamers to support E-AB signaling, however, is not universal: a fully folded anti-IgE aptamer, for example, produces only an extremely small, ca. 2.5% signal change in the presence of target despite the larger steric bulk of this protein. Thus, while it appears that binding-induced changes in the dynamics in fully folded aptamers can support E-AB signaling, this signaling mechanism may not be general, and in order to ensure the design of high-gain sensors binding must be linked to a large-scale conformational change. PMID:20436787

  5. Metabolic incentives for dishonest signals of strength in the fiddler crab Uca vomeris.

    PubMed

    Bywater, Candice L; White, Craig R; Wilson, Robbie S

    2014-08-15

    To reduce the potential costs of combat, animals may rely upon signals to resolve territorial disputes. Signals also provide a means for individuals to appear better than they actually are, deceiving opponents and gaining access to resources that would otherwise be unattainable. However, other than resource gains, incentives for dishonest signalling remain unexplored. In this study, we tested the idea that unreliable signallers pay lower metabolic costs for their signals, and that energetic savings could represent an incentive for cheating. We focused on two-toned fiddler crabs (Uca vomeris), a species that frequently uses its enlarged claws as signals of dominance to opponents. Previously, we found that regenerated U. vomeris claws are often large but weak (i.e. unreliable). Here, we found that the original claws of male U. vomeris consumed 43% more oxygen than weaker, regenerated claws, suggesting that muscle quantity drives variation in metabolic costs. Therefore, it seems that metabolic savings could provide a powerful incentive for dishonesty within fiddler crabs.

  6. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    PubMed Central

    TANOUE, Naomi; MATSUDA, Yasuhiro; YANAGIDA, Hiroaki; MATSUMURA, Hideo; SAWASE, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. Material and Methods Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm) were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1) air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON); 2) 1) + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA); 3) 1) + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP); 4) treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. Results The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05) greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. Conclusion Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used. PMID:24037070

  7. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Ryan P.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Somasundaram, Agila; Simpson, Cory L.; Prakriya, Murali; Denning, Mitchell F.; Green, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    Darier's disease (DD) is an inherited autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized histologically by loss of adhesion between keratinocytes. DD is typically caused by mutations in sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2), a major regulator of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the skin. However, a defined role for SERCA2 in regulating intercellular adhesion remains poorly understood. We found that diminution of SERCA2 function by pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing in multiple human epidermal-derived cell lines was sufficient to disrupt desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength. Specifically, SERCA2-deficient cells exhibited up to a 60% reduction in border translocation of desmoplakin (DP), the desmosomal cytolinker protein necessary for intermediate filament (IF) anchorage to sites of robust cell-cell adhesion. In addition, loss of SERCA2 impaired the membrane translocation of protein kinase C α (PKCα), a known regulator of DP-IF association and desmosome assembly, to the plasma membrane by up to 70%. Exogenous activation of PKCα in SERCA2-deficient cells was sufficient to rescue the defective DP localization, desmosome assembly, and intercellular adhesive strength to levels comparable to controls. Our findings indicate that SERCA2-deficiency is sufficient to impede desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength via a PKCα-dependent mechanism, implicating SERCA2 as a novel regulator of PKCα signaling.—Hobbs, R. P., Amargo, E. V., Somasundaram, A., Simpson, C. L., Prakriya, M., Denning, M. F., Green, K. J. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling. PMID:21156808

  8. Tyrosine-based signal mediates LRP6 receptor endocytosis and desensitization of Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Roth, Barbara; Bu, Guojun

    2014-10-03

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling orchestrates a number of critical events including cell growth, differentiation, and cell survival during development. Misregulation of this pathway leads to various human diseases, specifically cancers. Endocytosis and phosphorylation of the LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), an essential co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, play a vital role in mediating Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. However, its regulatory mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we define the mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytic trafficking regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. We show that LRP6 mutant with defective tyrosine-based signal in its cytoplasmic tail has an increased cell surface distribution and decreased endocytosis rate. These changes in LRP6 endocytosis coincide with an increased distribution to caveolae, increased phosphorylation, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We further demonstrate that treatment of Wnt3a ligands or blocking the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of LRP6 leads to a redistribution of wild-type receptor to lipid rafts. The LRP6 tyrosine mutant also exhibited an increase in signaling activation in response to Wnt3a stimulation when compared with wild-type LRP6, and this activation is suppressed when caveolae-mediated endocytosis is blocked. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytosis routes regulate its phosphorylation and the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and have implications on how this pathway can be modulated in human diseases.

  9. Kinesthetic imagery training of forceful muscle contractions increases brain signal and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wan X; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Allexandre, Didier; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of training using internal imagery (IMI; also known as kinesthetic imagery or first person imagery) with that of external imagery (EMI; also known as third-person visual imagery) of strong muscle contractions on voluntary muscle strengthening. Eighteen young, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups (6 in each group): internal motor imagery (IMI), external motor imagery (EMI), or a no-practice control (CTRL) group. Training lasted for 6 weeks (~15 min/day, 5 days/week). The participants' right arm elbow-flexion strength, muscle electrical activity, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) were evaluated before and after training. Only the IMI group showed significant strength gained (10.8%) while the EMI (4.8%) and CTRL (-3.3%) groups did not. Only the IMI group showed a significant elevation in MRCP on scalp locations over both the primary motor (M1) and supplementary motor cortices (EMI group over M1 only) and this increase was significantly greater than that of EMI and CTRL groups. These results suggest that training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions was effective in improving voluntary muscle strength without physical exercise. We suggest that the IMI training likely strengthened brain-to-muscle (BTM) command that may have improved motor unit recruitment and activation, and led to greater muscle output. Training by IMI of forceful muscle contractions may change the activity level of cortical motor control network, which may translate into greater descending command to the target muscle and increase its strength.

  10. Strengths-Based Partnerships: A School-Family-Community Partnership Approach to Empowering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Henry, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    When school counselors team and collaborate with school personnel, families, and community members to foster strengths-based partnerships, they are able to implement classroom, schoolwide, and community-based programs and interventions that support and empower children and families. Strengths-based partnerships utilize the assets found in schools,…

  11. Helmet-based physiological signal monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Sung; Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Haet Bit; Choi, Jong Min; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-02-01

    A helmet-based system that was able to monitor the drowsiness of a soldier was developed. The helmet system monitored the electrocardiogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram (alpha waves) without constraints. Six dry electrodes were mounted at five locations on the helmet: both temporal sides, forehead region and upper and lower jaw strips. The electrodes were connected to an amplifier that transferred signals to a laptop computer via Bluetooth wireless communication. The system was validated by comparing the signal quality with conventional recording methods. Data were acquired from three healthy male volunteers for 12 min twice a day whilst they were sitting in a chair wearing the sensor-installed helmet. Experimental results showed that physiological signals for the helmet user were measured with acceptable quality without any intrusions on physical activities. The helmet system discriminated between the alert and drowsiness states by detecting blinking and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters extracted from ECG. Blinking duration and eye reopening time were increased during the sleepiness state compared to the alert state. Also, positive peak values of the sleepiness state were much higher, and the negative peaks were much lower than that of the alert state. The LF/HF ratio also decreased during drowsiness. This study shows the feasibility for using this helmet system: the subjects' health status and mental states could be monitored without constraints whilst they were working.

  12. Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda

    2011-10-01

    Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. General strategy for biodetection in high ionic strength solutions using transistor-based nanoelectronic sensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ning; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-03-11

    Transistor-based nanoelectronic sensors are capable of label-free real-time chemical and biological detection with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, although the short Debye screening length in high ionic strength solutions has made difficult applications relevant to physiological conditions. Here, we describe a new and general strategy to overcome this challenge for field-effect transistor (FET) sensors that involves incorporating a porous and biomolecule permeable polymer layer on the FET sensor. This polymer layer increases the effective screening length in the region immediately adjacent to the device surface and thereby enables detection of biomolecules in high ionic strength solutions in real-time. Studies of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors with additional polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification show that prostate specific antigen (PSA) can be readily detected in solutions with phosphate buffer (PB) concentrations as high as 150 mM, while similar devices without PEG modification only exhibit detectable signals for concentrations ≤10 mM. Concentration-dependent measurements exhibited real-time detection of PSA with a sensitivity of at least 10 nM in 100 mM PB with linear response up to the highest (1000 nM) PSA concentrations tested. The current work represents an important step toward general application of transistor-based nanoelectronic detectors for biochemical sensing in physiological environments and is expected to open up exciting opportunities for in vitro and in vivo biological sensing relevant to basic biology research through medicine.

  14. Sleep stage classification based on respiratory signal.

    PubMed

    Tataraidze, Alexander; Anishchenko, Lesya; Korostovtseva, Lyudmila; Kooij, Bert Jan; Bochkarev, Mikhail; Sviryaev, Yurii

    2015-01-01

    One of the research tasks, which should be solved to develop a sleep monitor, is sleep stages classification. This paper presents an algorithm for wakefulness, rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and non-REM sleep detection based on a set of 33 features, extracted from respiratory inductive plethysmography signal, and bagging classifier. Furthermore, a few heuristics based on knowledge about normal sleep structure are suggested. We used the data from 29 subjects without sleep-related breathing disorders who underwent a PSG study at a sleep laboratory. Subjects were directed to the PSG study due to suspected sleep disorders. A leave-one-subject-out cross-validation procedure was used for testing the classification performance. The accuracy of 77.85 ± 6.63 and Cohen's kappa of 0.59 ± 0.11 were achieved for the classifier. Using heuristics we increased the accuracy to 80.38 ± 8.32 and the kappa to 0.65 ± 0.13. We conclude that heuristics may improve the automated sleep structure detection based on the analysis of indirect information such as respiration signal and are useful for the development of home sleep monitoring system.

  15. Measurement of Adhesion Strength of DLC Film Prepared by Utilizing Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Yoshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    High-adhesion diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was prepared by a hybrid process of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition using superimposed RF and high-voltage pulses. The adhesion strength of DLC film on a stainless steel (SUS304) was enhanced by the carbon ion implantation to the substrate. Furthermore, ion implantation of mixed carbon and silicon led to considerable enhancement of adhesion strength above the resin glue strength. The adhesion strength of DLC film on the aluminum alloy (A-5052) was improved above the resin glue strength only by the carbon ion implantation to the substrate.

  16. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  17. Signal feature recognition based on lightwave neuromorphic signal processing.

    PubMed

    Fok, Mable P; Deming, Hannah; Nahmias, Mitchell; Rafidi, Nicole; Rosenbluth, David; Tait, Alexander; Tian, Yue; Prucnal, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    We developed a hybrid analog/digital lightwave neuromorphic processing device that effectively performs signal feature recognition. The approach, which mimics the neurons in a crayfish responsible for the escape response mechanism, provides a fast and accurate reaction to its inputs. The analog processing portion of the device uses the integration characteristic of an electro-absorption modulator, while the digital processing portion employ optical thresholding in a highly Ge-doped nonlinear loop mirror. The device can be configured to respond to different sets of input patterns by simply varying the weights and delays of the inputs. We experimentally demonstrated the use of the proposed lightwave neuromorphic signal processing device for recognizing specific input patterns.

  18. Equations for estimating the strength of TV signals scattered by wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, David A.; Sengupta, Dipak L.

    1994-05-01

    During the late 1970's and early 1980's, concerns about the potential interference of wind turbine generators with electromagnetic communication signals led to a series of research studies, both in the laboratory and in the field, conducted by the staff of the University of Michigan Radiation Laboratory. These studies were sponsored by organizations such as the U.S. Department of Energy, the Solar Energy Research Institute, and private developers of wind power stations. Research objectives were to identify the mechanisms by which wind turbines might adversely affect communication signals, estimate the severity of these effects for different types of signals (e.g. television, radio, microwave, and navigation), and formulate mathematical models with which to predict the sizes of potential interference zones around wind turbines and wind power plants. This work formed the basis for preliminary standards on assessing electromagnetic interference (EMI) by wind turbines. With the current renewal of interest in wind energy projects, it is appropriate that the many experimental and analytical aspects of this pioneering work be reviewed and correlated. The purpose of this study is to combine test data and theory from previously published and unpublished research reports into a unified and consistent set of equations which are useful for estimating potential levels of television interference from wind turbines. To be comprehensive, these equations will include both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWT's and VAWT's), blade configuration parameters (e.g. number, size, material, twist, and coning), signal frequency and power, and directional characteristics of the receiving antenna. The approach that is followed in this report is as follows. First, some basic equations that describe electromagnetic signals with interference are presented without detailed derivations, since the latter are available in the references. Minor changes in terminology are made for

  19. Equations for Estimating the Strength of TV Signals Scattered by Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, David A.; Sengupta, Dipak L.

    1994-01-01

    During the late 1970's and early 1980's, concerns about the potential interference of wind turbine generators with electromagnetic communication signals led to a series of research studies, both in the laboratory and in the field, conducted by the staff of the University of Michigan Radiation Laboratory. These studies were sponsored by organizations such as the U.S. Department of Energy, the Solar Energy Research Institute, and private developers of wind power stations. Research objectives were to identify the mechanisms by which wind turbines might adversely affect communication signals, estimate the severity of these effects for different types of signals (e.g. television, radio, microwave, and navigation), and formulate mathematical models with which to predict the sizes of potential interference zones around wind turbines and wind power plants. This work formed the basis for preliminary standards on assessing electromagnetic interference (EMI) by wind turbines. With the current renewal of interest in wind energy projects, it is appropriate that the many experimental and analytical aspects of this pioneering work be reviewed and correlated. The purpose of this study is to combine test data and theory from previously published and unpublished research reports into a unified and consistent set of equations which are useful for estimating potential levels of television interference from wind turbines. To be comprehensive, these equations will include both horizontal-axis and vertical-axis wind turbines (HAWT's and VAWT's), blade configuration parameters (e.g. number, size, material, twist, and coning), signal frequency and power, and directional characteristics of the receiving antenna. The approach that is followed in this report is as follows. First, some basic equations that describe electromagnetic signals with interference are presented without detailed derivations, since the latter are available in the references. Minor changes in terminology are made for

  20. Effect of 8 weeks of free-weight and machine-based strength training on strength and power performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Klaus; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre; Mickel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of free-weight and machine-based exercises to increase different strength and speed-strength variables. One hundred twenty male participants (age: 23.8 ± 2.5 years; body height: 181.0 ± 6.8 cm; body mass: 80.2 ± 8.9 kg) joined the study. The 2 experimental groups completed an 8 week periodized strength training program that included 2 training sessions per week. The exercises that were used in the strength training programs were the parallel barbell squat and the leg press. Before and after the training period, the 1-repetition-maximum in the barbell squat and the leg press, the squat jump, the countermovement jump and unilateral isometric force (maximal isometric force and the rate of force development) were evaluated. To compare each group pre vs. post-intervention, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Scheffé post-hoc tests were used. The leg press group increased their 1-repetition-maximum significantly (p < 0.001), while in the squat group such variables as 1-repetition-maximum, the squat jump and the countermovement jump increased significantly (p < 0.001). The maximal isometric force showed no statistically significant result for the repeated measures factor, while the rate of force development of the squat group even showed a statistically significant decrease. Differences between the 2 experimental groups were detected for the squat jump and the countermovement jump. In comparison with the leg press, the squat might be a better strength training exercise for the development of jump performance. PMID:28149424

  1. Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…

  2. Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…

  3. IL-12-mediated STAT4 signaling and TCR signal strength cooperate in the induction of CD40L in human and mouse CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Stark, Regina; Hartung, Anett; Zehn, Dietmar; Frentsch, Marco; Thiel, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    CD40L is one of the key molecules bridging the activation of specific T cells and the maturation of professional and nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells including B cells. CD4(+) T cells have been regarded as the major T-cell subset that expresses CD40L upon cognate activation; however, we demonstrate here that a putative CD8(+) helper T-cell subset expressing CD40L is induced in human and murine CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in mice immunized with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. IL-12 and STAT4-mediated signaling was the major instructive cytokine signal boosting the ability of CD8(+) T cells to express CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, TCR signaling strength modulated CD40L expression in CD8(+) T cells after primary differentiation in vitro as well as in vivo. The induction of CD40L in CD8(+) T cells regulated by IL-12 and TCR signaling may enable CD8(+) T cells to respond autonomously of CD4(+) T cells. Thus, we propose that under proinflammatory conditions, a self-sustaining positive feedback loop could facilitate the efficient priming of T cells stimulated by high affinity peptide displaying APCs.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily costimulation couples T cell receptor signal strength to thymic regulatory T cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Shawn A.; Manlove, Luke S.; Schmitz, Heather M.; Xing, Yan; Wang, Yanyan; Owen, David L.; Schenkel, Jason M.; Boomer, Jonathan S.; Green, Jonathan M.; Yagita, Hideo; Chi, Hongbo; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells express tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) members, but their role in thymic Treg development is undefined. We demonstrate that Treg progenitors highly express the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40, and TNFR2. Expression of these receptors correlates directly with T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength, and requires CD28 and the kinase TAK1. Neutralizing TNFSF ligands markedly reduced Treg development. Conversely, TNFRSF agonists enhanced Treg differentiation by augmenting IL-2R/STAT5 responsiveness. GITR-ligand costimulation elicited a dose-dependent enrichment of lower-affinity cells within the Treg repertoire. In vivo, combined inhibition of GITR, OX40 and TNFR2 abrogated Treg development. Thus TNFRSF expression on Treg progenitors translates strong TCR signals into molecular parameters that specifically promote Treg differentiation and shape the Treg repertoire. PMID:24633226

  5. p75NTR-mediated signaling promotes the survival of myoblasts and influences muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Reddypalli, Shailaja; Roll, Kristin; Lee, Hyung-Kook; Lundell, Martha; Barea-Rodriguez, Edwin; Wheeler, Esther F

    2005-09-01

    During muscle development, the p75(NTR) is expressed transiently on myoblasts. The temporal expression pattern of the receptor raises the possibility that the receptor is influencing muscle development. To test this hypothesis, p75(NTR)-deficient mutant mice were tested for muscle strength by using a standard wire gripe strength test and were found to have significantly decreased strength relative to that of normal mice. When normal mybolasts were examined in vivo for expression of NGF receptors, p75(NTR) was detected on myoblasts but the high affinity NGF receptor, trk A, was not co-expressed with p75(NTR). In vitro, proliferating C2C12 and primary myoblasts co-expressed the p75(NTR) and MyoD, but immunofluorescent analysis of primary myoblasts and RT-PCR analysis of C2C12 mRNA revealed that myoblasts were devoid of trk A. In contrast to the cell death functions that characterize the p75(NTR) in neurons, p75(NTR)-positive primary and C2C12 myoblasts did not differentiate or undergo apoptosis in response to neurotrophins. Rather, myoblasts survived and even proliferated when grown at subconfluent densities in the presence of the neurotrophins. Furthermore, when myoblasts treated with NGF were lysed and immunoprecipitated with antibodies against phosphorylated I-kappaB and AKT, the cells contained increased levels of both phospho-proteins, both of which promote cell survival. By contrast, neurotrophin-treated myoblasts did not induce phosphorylation of Map Kinase p42/44 or p38, indicating the survival was not mediated by the trk A receptor. Taken together, the data indicate that the p75(NTR) mediates survival of myoblasts prior to differentiation and that the activity of this receptor during myogenesis is important for developing muscle. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Traits-based approaches in bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Alexander, Alexa C; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Goedkoop, Willem; Goethals, Peter L M; Liess, Matthias; Dyer, Scott D

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of biological organization, but the fact that a specific species may be less abundant in a potentially impacted site compared with a reference site is, regrettably, insufficient to provide diagnostic information. Species traits may, however, overcome the problems associated with taxonomy-based bioassessment. Trait-based approaches could provide signals regarding what environmental factors may be responsible for the impairment and, thereby, provide causal insight into the interaction between species and stressors. For development of traits-based (TBA), traits should correspond to specific types of stressors or suites of stressors. In this paper, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of TBA in both applications was used to identify challenges and potentials. This paper is part of a series describing the output of the TERA (Traits-based ecological risk assessment: Realising the potential of ecoinformatics approaches in ecotoxicology) Workshop held between 7 and 11 September, 2009, in Burlington, Ontario, Canada. The recognized strengths were that traits are transferrable across geographies, add mechanistic and diagnostic knowledge, require no new sampling methodology, have an old tradition, and can supplement taxonomic analysis. Weaknesses include autocorrelation, redundancy, and inability to protect biodiversity directly. Automated image analysis, combined with genetic and biotechnology tools and improved data analysis to solve autocorrelation problems were identified as opportunities, whereas low availability of trait data, their transferability, their quantitative interpretation, the risk of developing nonrelevant traits, low quality of historic

  7. Fatigue Strength Prediction of Drilling Materials Based on the Maximum Non-metallic Inclusion Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dezhi; Tian, Gang; Liu, Fei; Shi, Taihe; Zhang, Zhi; Hu, Junying; Liu, Wanying; Ouyang, Zhiying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the statistics of the size distribution of non-metallic inclusions in five drilling materials were performed. Based on the maximum non-metallic inclusion size, the fatigue strength of the drilling material was predicted. The sizes of non-metallic inclusions in drilling materials were observed to follow the inclusion size distribution rule. Then the maximum inclusion size in the fatigue specimens was deduced. According to the prediction equation of the maximum inclusion size and fatigue strength proposed by Murakami, fatigue strength of drilling materials was obtained. Moreover, fatigue strength was also measured through rotating bending tests. The predicted fatigue strength was significantly lower than the measured one. Therefore, according to the comparison results, the coefficients in the prediction equation were revised. The revised equation allowed the satisfactory prediction results of fatigue strength of drilling materials at the fatigue life of 107 rotations and could be used in the fast prediction of fatigue strength of drilling materials.

  8. Moving from Pathology to Possibility: Integrating Strengths-Based Interventions in Child Welfare Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabalauskas, Kara L.; Ortolani, Charles L.; McCall, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Child welfare providers are increasingly required to demonstrate that strengths-based, evidence-informed practices are central to their intervention methodology. This case study describes how a large child welfare agency instituted cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as the core component of a strength-based practice model with the goal of…

  9. Moving from Pathology to Possibility: Integrating Strengths-Based Interventions in Child Welfare Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabalauskas, Kara L.; Ortolani, Charles L.; McCall, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Child welfare providers are increasingly required to demonstrate that strengths-based, evidence-informed practices are central to their intervention methodology. This case study describes how a large child welfare agency instituted cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as the core component of a strength-based practice model with the goal of…

  10. The Use of Mapping in Child Welfare Investigations: A Strength-Based Hybrid Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwin, Kristen; Versanov, Avi; Cheung, Connie; Goodman, Deborah; Andrews, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To enhance strengths-based service, a large urban child welfare agency in Ontario, Canada implemented part of the Signs of Safety (SOS) model in 2010. SOS was created to engage families involved with the child welfare system, and is rooted in the beliefs of collaboration, strengths-based practice, and safety. The hybrid of the full SOS model…

  11. Using Strengths-Based Approaches in Early Years Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…

  12. The Use of Mapping in Child Welfare Investigations: A Strength-Based Hybrid Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lwin, Kristen; Versanov, Avi; Cheung, Connie; Goodman, Deborah; Andrews, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To enhance strengths-based service, a large urban child welfare agency in Ontario, Canada implemented part of the Signs of Safety (SOS) model in 2010. SOS was created to engage families involved with the child welfare system, and is rooted in the beliefs of collaboration, strengths-based practice, and safety. The hybrid of the full SOS model…

  13. Using Strengths-Based Approaches in Early Years Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Angela; Walsh, Kerryann; Wong, Sandie; Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches draw upon frameworks and perspectives from social work and psychology but have not necessarily been consistently defined or well articulated across disciplines. Internationally, there are increasing calls for professionals in early years settings to work in strengths-based ways to support the access and participation of…

  14. Correlation of Solar X-ray Flux and SID Modified VLF Signal Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    the reports were released in 1945, a new field of study emerged known as radio astronomy, which focused on categorizing solar radio signals [Foukal...Particles that do not escape, or that are accelerated back toward the sun, can become caught in the new magnetic field lines. These particles release...radio gyrosynchrotron radiation, which is caused by the direction of the charged particles’ motion changing as they spiral along the new magnetic

  15. Contribution of TCR signaling strength to CD8+ T cell peripheral tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Trevor R F; Verdeil, Gregory; Marquardt, Kristi; Sherman, Linda A

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral tolerance mechanisms are in place to prevent T cells from mediating aberrant immune responses directed against self and environmental Ags. Mechanisms involved in the induction of peripheral tolerance include T cell-intrinsic pathways, such as anergy or deletion, or exogenous tolerance mediated by regulatory T cells. We have previously shown that the density of peptide-MHC class I recognized by the TCR determines whether CD8(+) T cells undergo anergy or deletion. Specifically, using a TCR-transgenic CD8(+) T cell model, we demonstrated that persistent peripheral exposure to low- or high-dose peptides in the absence of inflammatory signals resulted in clonal deletion or anergy of the T cell, respectively. In this study, by altering the affinity of the peptide-MHC tolerogen for TCR, we have confirmed that this mechanism is dependent on the level of TCR signaling that the CD8(+) T cell receives. Using altered peptide ligands (APLs) displaying high TCR affinities, we show that increasing the TCR signaling favors anergy induction. Conversely, using APLs displaying a decreased TCR affinity tilted our system in the direction of deletional tolerance. We demonstrate how differential peripheral CD8(+) T cell tolerance mechanisms are controlled by both the potency and density of MHC class I-peptide tolerogen.

  16. Enhanced long-term strength and durability of shotcrete with high-strength C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Won, Jong-Pil Hwang, Un-Jong; Lee, Su-Jin

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluated the performance of shotcrete using high strength C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator that has been developed to improve the durability and long-term strength. Rebound, compressive strength and flexural strength were tested in the field. Test result showed that existing C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator exhibits better early strength than the high-strength C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator until the early age, but high-strength C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator shows about 29% higher at the long-term age of 28 days. Microstructural analysis such as scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption method was evaluated to analyze long-term strength development mechanism of high strength C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator. As analysis result, it had more dense structure due to the reaction product by adding material that used to enhanced strength. It had better resistance performance in chloride ion penetration, freezing–thawing and carbonation than shotcrete that used existing C{sub 12}A{sub 7} mineral-based accelerator.

  17. Determination of Base Binding Strength and Base Stacking Interaction of DNA Duplex Using Atomic Force Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian-biao; Zhang, Chang-lin; Dong, Zai-li; Guan, Yi-fu

    2015-01-01

    As one of the most crucial properties of DNA, the structural stability and the mechanical strength are attracting a great attention. Here, we take advantage of high force resolution and high special resolution of Atom Force Microscope and investigate the mechanical force of DNA duplexes. To evaluate the base pair hydrogen bond strength and base stacking force in DNA strands, we designed two modes (unzipping and stretching) for the measurement rupture forces. Employing k-means clustering algorithm, the ruptured force are clustered and the mean values are estimated. We assessed the influence of experimental parameters and performed the force evaluation for DNA duplexes of pure dG/dC and dA/dT base pairs. The base binding strength of single dG/dC and single dA/dT were estimated to be 20.0 ± 0.2 pN and 14.0 ± 0.3 pN, respectively, and the base stacking interaction was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.1 pN. Our results provide valuable information about the quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of the DNA duplexes. PMID:25772017

  18. Determination of base binding strength and base stacking interaction of DNA duplex using atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-biao; Zhang, Chang-lin; Dong, Zai-li; Guan, Yi-fu

    2015-03-16

    As one of the most crucial properties of DNA, the structural stability and the mechanical strength are attracting a great attention. Here, we take advantage of high force resolution and high special resolution of Atom Force Microscope and investigate the mechanical force of DNA duplexes. To evaluate the base pair hydrogen bond strength and base stacking force in DNA strands, we designed two modes (unzipping and stretching) for the measurement rupture forces. Employing k-means clustering algorithm, the ruptured force are clustered and the mean values are estimated. We assessed the influence of experimental parameters and performed the force evaluation for DNA duplexes of pure dG/dC and dA/dT base pairs. The base binding strength of single dG/dC and single dA/dT were estimated to be 20.0 ± 0.2 pN and 14.0 ± 0.3 pN, respectively, and the base stacking interaction was estimated to be 2.0 ± 0.1 pN. Our results provide valuable information about the quantitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of the DNA duplexes.

  19. Micromechanics-based strength and lifetime prediction of polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandorawalla, Tozer Jamshed

    With the increasing use of composite materials for diverse applications ranging from civil infrastructure to offshore oil exploration, the durability of these materials is an important issue. Practical and accurate models for lifetime will enable engineers to push the boundaries of design and make the most efficient use of composite materials, while at the same time maintaining the utmost standards of safety. The work described in this dissertation is an effort to predict the strength and rupture lifetime of a unidirectional carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite using micromechanical techniques. Sources of material variability are incorporated into these models to predict probabilistic distributions for strength and lifetime. This approach is best suited to calculate material reliability for a desired lifetime under a given set of external conditions. A systematic procedure, with experimental verification at each important step, is followed to develop the predictive models in this dissertation. The work begins with an experimental and theoretical understanding of micromechanical stress redistribution due to fiber fractures in unidirectional composite materials. In-situ measurements of fiber stress redistribution are made in macromodel composites where the fibers are large enough that strain gauges can be mounted directly onto the fibers. The measurements are used to justify and develop a new form of load sharing where the load of the broken fiber is redistributed only onto the nearest adjacent neighbors. The experimentally verified quasi-static load sharing is incorporated into a Monte Carlo simulation for tensile strength modeling. Very good agreement is shown between the predicted and experimental strength distribution of a unidirectional composite. For the stress-rupture models a time and temperature dependent load-sharing analysis is developed to compute stresses due to an arbitrary sequence of fiber fractures. The load sharing is incorporated into a simulation

  20. Pseudorange Measurement Method Based on AIS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Shufang; Wang, Jinpeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to use the existing automatic identification system (AIS) to provide additional navigation and positioning services, a complete pseudorange measurements solution is presented in this paper. Through the mathematical analysis of the AIS signal, the bit-0-phases in the digital sequences were determined as the timestamps. Monte Carlo simulation was carried out to compare the accuracy of the zero-crossing and differential peak, which are two timestamp detection methods in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Considering the low-speed and low-dynamic motion characteristics of ships, an optimal estimation method based on the minimum mean square error is proposed to improve detection accuracy. Furthermore, the α difference filter algorithm was used to achieve the fusion of the optimal estimation results of the two detection methods. The results show that the algorithm can greatly improve the accuracy of pseudorange estimation under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. In order to verify the effectiveness of the scheme, prototypes containing the measurement scheme were developed and field tests in Xinghai Bay of Dalian (China) were performed. The test results show that the pseudorange measurement accuracy was better than 28 m (σ) without any modification of the existing AIS system. PMID:28531153

  1. Estimation of lightning stroke peak current as a function of peak electric field and the normalized amplitude of signal strength: Corrections and improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Y.P.; Cook, D.R.; Sisterson, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    Corrections and improvements have been made to published equations relating return stroke peak current and peak electric field for cloud-to-ground lightning. The original equations were derived from measurements made at the Rocket-Triggered-Lightning Program facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Some previous articles include errors in the conversion of equations from units of volts per meter, for peak electric field, into Lightning Location and Protection units, representing normalized signal strength amplitude. This article presents the proper conversion procedure and the resultant corrected equations. Furthermore, equations are presented that were produced by converting other published relationships. Finally, we combined 1985--1988 RTLP data to produce equations based on more data than has been used previously; the resulting equation for peak current as a function of normalized signal strength amplitude supports previous evidence that the slope should be near 0.2 for a zero intercept. All relationships are tabulated, and three are graphically compared against the data.

  2. Signal Separation of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Signal Separation Of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation Si Tran Nguyen Nguyen 1, Sandun Kodituwakku...RR–0436 ABSTRACT A novel wavelet-based sparse signal representation technique is used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a... separation techniques cannot be applied. A sparse signal representation technique is now proposed for this problem with the tunable Q wavelet transform

  3. Thermally enhanced signal strength and SNR improvement of photoacoustic radar module

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Mandelis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A thermally enhanced method for improving photoacoustic imaging depth and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio is presented in this paper. Experimental results showed that the maximum imaging depth increased by 20% through raising the temperature of absorbing biotissues (ex-vivo beef muscle) uniformly from 37 to 43°C, and the SNR was increased by 8%. The parameters making up the Gruneisen constant were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The studies showed that the Gruneisen constant of biotissues increases with temperature, and the results were found to be consistent with the photoacousitc radar theory. PMID:25136501

  4. Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases.

    PubMed

    Lugato, Isabel Cristina Prado Torres; Pignatta, Lilian Maria Brisque; Arantes, Flávia de Moraes; Santos, Eduardo César Almada

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil) with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group), according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional Transbond XT (3M - Unitek); System B - Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer + Transbond XT (3M - Unitek) and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.). Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC), using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa) and system C (13.24 MPa) presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

  5. Caveolin-1 regulates TCR signal strength and regulatory T-cell differentiation into alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Schönle, Anne; Hartl, Frederike A; Mentzel, Jan; Nöltner, Theresa; Rauch, Katharina S; Prestipino, Alessandro; Wohlfeil, Sebastian A; Apostolova, Petya; Hechinger, Anne-Kathrin; Melchinger, Wolfgang; Fehrenbach, Kerstin; Guadamillas, Marta C; Follo, Marie; Prinz, Gabriele; Ruess, Ann-Katrin; Pfeifer, Dietmar; del Pozo, Miguel Angel; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Duyster, Justus; Hippen, Keli I; Blazar, Bruce R; Schachtrup, Kristina; Minguet, Susana; Zeiser, Robert

    2016-04-14

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a key organizer of membrane specializations and a scaffold protein that regulates signaling in multiple cell types. We found increased Cav-1 expression in human and murine T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Indeed, Cav-1(-/-)donor T cells caused less severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and yielded higher numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with controls. Depletion of Tregs from the graft abrogated this protective effect. Correspondingly, Treg frequencies increased when Cav-1(-/-)T cells were exposed to transforming growth factor-β/T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 activation or alloantigen stimulation in vitro compared with wild-type T cells. Mechanistically, we found that the phosphorylation of Cav-1 is dispensable for the control of T-cell fate by using a nonphosphorylatable Cav-1 (Y14F/Y14F) point-mutation variant. Moreover, the close proximity of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) to the TCR induced by TCR-activation was reduced in Cav-1(-/-)T cells. Therefore, less TCR/Lck clustering results in suboptimal activation of the downstream signaling events, which correlates with the preferential development into a Treg phenotype. Overall, we report a novel role for Cav-1 in TCR/Lck spatial distribution upon TCR triggering, which controls T-cell fate toward a regulatory phenotype. This alteration translated into a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs and reduced GVHD in vivo.

  6. The intersection of software and strengths: Using internet technology and case management software to assist Strength-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Michael D; Brien, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the helping professionals working within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. This article looks at how innovative technology-in the form of automated case management software and Internet connectivity-can assist effective implementation of Strength-based Practice and agency services within tribal courts and the many other helping agencies that serve AI/AN populations. We seek to expand practice knowledge by reviewing the benefits that this software and Internet connectivity can offer to agency operations and exploring how they can assist case management services.

  7. Spatial design and strength of spatial signal: Effects on covariance estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Gitelman, Alix I.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    In a spatial regression context, scientists are often interested in a physical interpretation of components of the parametric covariance function. For example, spatial covariance parameter estimates in ecological settings have been interpreted to describe spatial heterogeneity or “patchiness” in a landscape that cannot be explained by measured covariates. In this article, we investigate the influence of the strength of spatial dependence on maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimates of covariance parameters in an exponential-with-nugget model, and we also examine these influences under different sampling designs—specifically, lattice designs and more realistic random and cluster designs—at differing intensities of sampling (n=144 and 361). We find that neither ML nor REML estimates perform well when the range parameter and/or the nugget-to-sill ratio is large—ML tends to underestimate the autocorrelation function and REML produces highly variable estimates of the autocorrelation function. The best estimates of both the covariance parameters and the autocorrelation function come under the cluster sampling design and large sample sizes. As a motivating example, we consider a spatial model for stream sulfate concentration.

  8. Anisotropy of high temperature strength in precipitation-hardened nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Y. G.; Terashima, H.; Yoshizawa, H.; Ohta, Y.; Murakami, K.

    1986-01-01

    The anisotropy of high temperature strength of nickel-base superalloy, Alloy 454, in service for advanced jet engine turbine blades and vanes, was investigated. Crystallographic orientation dependence of tensile yield strength, creep and creep rupture strength was found to be marked at about 760C. In comparison with other single crystal data, a larger allowance in high strength off-axial orientation from the 001 axis, and relatively poor strength at near the -111 axis were noted. From transmission electron microscopy the anisotropic characteristics of this alloy were explained in terms of available slip systems and stacking geometries of gamma-prime precipitate cuboids which are well hardened by a large tantalum content. 100 cube slip was considered to be primarily responsible for the poor strength of the -111 axis orientation replacing the conventional 111 plane slip systems.

  9. The Strength-Based Model for Counseling At-Risk Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2006-01-01

    In her strength-based model to train counseling psychologists, Smith (2006 [this issue]) criticizes deficit models of counseling. Rather than focusing on at-risk adolescents' victim status, she argues that counseling psychologists should concentrate on identifying at-risk youths' cultural and individual strengths. One can infer from her new…

  10. Integrating Strength-Based Education into a First-Year Experience Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Soria, Krista M.; Albecker, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an initiative that integrated a strengths-base curriculum into a first-year experience program at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Using a positive psychology framework, students completed the StrengthsQuest and participated in activities designed to help them learn and apply their signature talent themes. A pre- and…

  11. Evaluating the Use of a Strengths-Based Development Tool with Head Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Liz; Woods, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated an educational psychologist's use of a strengths-based development tool with head teachers, in the context of influencing and supporting leaders in school organisations. Nine head teachers completed the "Realise2 Introductory Profile" online strengths assessment and then received a structured debrief…

  12. Strength-Based Interventions: Their Importance in Application to the Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, René T.; Gander, Fabian; Tandler, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology has revived psychology's abandoned interest in the study of morally positively valued traits (the so-called character strengths) and virtues. We review literature generated on strength-based approaches and focus on applications in the so-called positive psychology interventions. There seems to be great potential in this…

  13. Integrating Strength-Based Education into a First-Year Experience Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Soria, Krista M.; Albecker, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an initiative that integrated a strengths-base curriculum into a first-year experience program at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. Using a positive psychology framework, students completed the StrengthsQuest and participated in activities designed to help them learn and apply their signature talent themes. A pre- and…

  14. Physicochemical Properties and Dentin Bond Strength of a Tricalcium Silicate-Based Retrograde Material.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Camila de Paula Telles Pires; Viapiana, Raqueli; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Camilleri, Josette; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and the apical dentin bond strength of the tricalcium silicate-based Biodentine in comparison to white MTA and zinc oxide eugenol-based cement (ZOE). Setting time and radiopacity were evaluated according to ISO 6876:2012 specification. Final setting time, compressive strength and pH were also assessed. Material's bond strength to the apical root canal dentin was measured by the push-out assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey-Krammer post-hoc test. Biodentine presented the shortest initial (16.2±1.48 min) and final setting time (35.4±5.55 min). Radiopacity of Biodentine (2.79±0.27 mmAl) does not agree with ISO 6876:2012 specifications. On the other hand, Biodentine showed higher compressive strength after 21 days (37.22±5.27 MPa) and higher dentin bond strength (11.2±2.16 MPa) in comparison to white MTA (27.68±3.56 MPa for compressive strength and 2.98±0.64 MPa for bond strength) (p<0.05). Both MTA and Biodentine produced an alkaline environment (approximately pH 10) (p>0.05) compared to ZOE (pH 7). It may be concluded that Biodentine exhibited faster setting, higher long-term compressive strength and bond strength to the apical dentin than MTA and ZOE.

  15. Ligand-dependent Notch signaling strength orchestrates lateral induction and lateral inhibition in the developing inner ear.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Jelena; Formosa-Jordan, Pau; Luna-Escalante, Juan C; Abelló, Gina; Ibañes, Marta; Neves, Joana; Giraldez, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    During inner ear development, Notch exhibits two modes of operation: lateral induction, which is associated with prosensory specification, and lateral inhibition, which is involved in hair cell determination. These mechanisms depend respectively on two different ligands, jagged 1 (Jag1) and delta 1 (Dl1), that rely on a common signaling cascade initiated after Notch activation. In the chicken otocyst, expression of Jag1 and the Notch target Hey1 correlates well with lateral induction, whereas both Jag1 and Dl1 are expressed during lateral inhibition, as are Notch targets Hey1 and Hes5. Here, we show that Jag1 drives lower levels of Notch activity than Dl1, which results in the differential expression of Hey1 and Hes5. In addition, Jag1 interferes with the ability of Dl1 to elicit high levels of Notch activity. Modeling the sensory epithelium when the two ligands are expressed together shows that ligand regulation, differential signaling strength and ligand competition are crucial to allow the two modes of operation and for establishing the alternate pattern of hair cells and supporting cells. Jag1, while driving lateral induction on its own, facilitates patterning by lateral inhibition in the presence of Dl1. This novel behavior emerges from Jag1 acting as a competitive inhibitor of Dl1 for Notch signaling. Both modeling and experiments show that hair cell patterning is very robust. The model suggests that autoactivation of proneural factor Atoh1, upstream of Dl1, is a fundamental component for robustness. The results stress the importance of the levels of Notch signaling and ligand competition for Notch function. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Single cell tuning of Myc expression by antigen receptor signal strength and interleukin-2 in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gavin C; Sinclair, Linda V; Kaskar, Aneesa; Hukelmann, Jens L; Navarro, Maria N; Ferrero, Isabel; MacDonald, H Robson; Cowling, Victoria H; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2015-01-01

    Myc controls the metabolic reprogramming that supports effector T cell differentiation. The expression of Myc is regulated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now show that the TCR is a digital switch for Myc mRNA and protein expression that allows the strength of the antigen stimulus to determine the frequency of T cells that express Myc. IL-2 signalling strength also directs Myc expression but in an analogue process that fine-tunes Myc quantity in individual cells via post-transcriptional control of Myc protein. Fine-tuning Myc matters and is possible as Myc protein has a very short half-life in T cells due to its constant phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We show that Myc only accumulates in T cells exhibiting high levels of amino acid uptake allowing T cells to match Myc expression to biosynthetic demands. The combination of digital and analogue processes allows tight control of Myc expression at the population and single cell level during immune responses. PMID:26136212

  17. Signal strength and climate calibration of a European tree-ring isotope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treydte, K.; Frank, D.; Esper, J.; Andreu, L.; Bednarz, Z.; Berninger, F.; Boettger, T.; D'Alessandro, C. M.; Etien, N.; Filot, M.; Grabner, M.; Guillemin, M. T.; Gutierrez, E.; Haupt, M.; Helle, G.; Hilasvuori, E.; Jungner, H.; Kalela-Brundin, M.; Krapiec, M.; Leuenberger, M.; Loader, N. J.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Pazdur, A.; Pawelczyk, S.; Pierre, M.; Planells, O.; Pukiene, R.; Reynolds-Henne, C. E.; Rinne, K. T.; Saracino, A.; Saurer, M.; Sonninen, E.; Stievenard, M.; Switsur, V. R.; Szczepanek, M.; Szychowska-Krapiec, E.; Todaro, L.; Waterhouse, J. S.; Weigl, M.; Schleser, G. H.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first European network of tree ring δ 13C and δ 18O, containing 23 sites from Finland to Morocco. Common climate signals are found over broad climatic-ecological ranges. In temperate regions we find positive correlations with summer maximum temperatures and negative correlations with summer precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (PDSI) with no obvious species-specific differences. Regional δ 13C and δ 18O chronologies share high common variance in year-to-year variations. Long-term variations, however, exhibit differences that may reflect spatial variability in environmental forcings, age trends and/or plant physiological responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. Rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) and climate field correlations enable the identification of four sub-regions in the δ 18O network - northern and eastern Central Europe, Scandinavia and the western Mediterranean. Regional patterns in the δ 13C network are less clear and are timescale dependent. Our results indicate that future reconstruction efforts should concentrate on δ 18O data in the identified European regions.

  18. Perceptual learning increases the strength of the earliest signals in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bao, Min; Yang, Lin; Rios, Cristina; He, Bin; Engel, Stephen A

    2010-11-10

    Training improves performance on most visual tasks. Such perceptual learning can modify how information is read out from, and represented in, later visual areas, but effects on early visual cortex are controversial. In particular, it remains unknown whether learning can reshape neural response properties in early visual areas independent from feedback arising in later cortical areas. Here, we tested whether learning can modify feedforward signals in early visual cortex as measured by the human electroencephalogram. Fourteen subjects were trained for >24 d to detect a diagonal grating pattern in one quadrant of the visual field. Training improved performance, reducing the contrast needed for reliable detection, and also reliably increased the amplitude of the earliest component of the visual evoked potential, the C1. Control orientations and locations showed smaller effects of training. Because the C1 arises rapidly and has a source in early visual cortex, our results suggest that learning can increase early visual area response through local receptive field changes without feedback from later areas.

  19. Mechanisms of CB1 receptor signaling: endocannabinoid modulation of synaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Mackie, K

    2006-04-01

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor has attracted much recent interest because of the observation that CB1 receptor antagonists have efficacy in treating metabolic syndrome and obesity. CB1 receptors also mediate most of the psychotropic effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC), the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. In addition, they are one component of an interesting and widespread paracrine signaling system, the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous cannabinoids, and the metabolic pathways responsible for their synthesis and degradation. The details of the endocannabinoid system have been most thoroughly studied in the brain. Here it has been shown to be intimately involved in several forms of neuronal plasticity. That is, activation of CB1 receptors by endocannabinoids produces either short- or long-term changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission. The behavioral consequences of these changes are many, but some of the most striking and relevant to the current symposium are those associated with endogenous reward and consumptive behavior.

  20. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals.

    PubMed

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A

    2016-03-05

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states.

  1. Quaternion-Based Signal Analysis for Motor Imagery Classification from Electroencephalographic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Batres-Mendoza, Patricia; Montoro-Sanjose, Carlos R.; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Almanza-Ojeda, Dora L.; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Ibarra-Manzano, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaternions can be used as an alternative to model the fundamental patterns of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in the time domain. Thus, this article presents a new quaternion-based technique known as quaternion-based signal analysis (QSA) to represent EEG signals obtained using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to detect and interpret cognitive activity. This quaternion-based signal analysis technique can extract features to represent brain activity related to motor imagery accurately in various mental states. Experimental tests in which users where shown visual graphical cues related to left and right movements were used to collect BCI-recorded signals. These signals were then classified using decision trees (DT), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) techniques. The quantitative analysis of the classifiers demonstrates that this technique can be used as an alternative in the EEG-signal modeling phase to identify mental states. PMID:26959029

  2. A comb filter based signal processing method to effectively reduce motion artifacts from photoplethysmographic signals.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fulai; Liu, Hongyun; Wang, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    A photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal can provide very useful information about a subject's cardiovascular status. Motion artifacts (MAs), which usually deteriorate the waveform of a PPG signal, severely obstruct its applications in the clinical diagnosis and healthcare area. To reduce the MAs from a PPG signal, in the present study we present a comb filter based signal processing method. Firstly, wavelet de-noising was implemented to preliminarily suppress a part of the MAs. Then, the PPG signal in the time domain was transformed into the frequency domain by a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Thirdly, the PPG signal period was estimated from the frequency domain by tracking the fundamental frequency peak of the PPG signal. Lastly, the MAs were removed by the comb filter which was designed based on the obtained PPG signal period. Experiments with synthetic and real-world datasets were implemented to validate the performance of the method. Results show that the proposed method can effectively restore the PPG signals from the MA corrupted signals. Also, the accuracy of blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), calculated from red and infrared PPG signals, was significantly improved after the MA reduction by the proposed method. Our study demonstrates that the comb filter can effectively reduce the MAs from a PPG signal provided that the PPG signal period is obtained.

  3. Erythropoietin (EPO): EPO-receptor signaling improves early endochondral ossification and mechanical strength in fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Joerg H; Menger, Michael D; Scheuer, Claudia; Meier, Christoph; Culemann, Ulf; Wirbel, Rainer J; Garcia, Patric; Pohlemann, Tim

    2007-02-13

    Beyond its role in the regulation of red blood cell proliferation, the glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to promote cell regeneration and angiogenesis in a variety of different tissues. In addition, EPO has been indicated to share significant functional and structural homologies with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a cytokine essential in the process of fracture healing. However, there is complete lack of information on the action of EPO in bone repair and fracture healing. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EPO treatment on bone healing in a murine closed femur fracture model using radiological, histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, biomechanical and protein biochemical analysis. Thirty-six SKH1-hr mice were treated with daily i.p. injections of 5000 U/kg EPO from day 1 before fracture until day 4 after fracture. Controls received equivalent amounts of the vehicle. After 2 weeks of fracture healing, we could demonstrate expression of the EPO-receptor (EPOR) in terminally differentiating chondrocytes within the callus. At this time point EPO-treated animals showed a higher torsional stiffness (biomechanical analysis: 39.6+/-19.4% of the contralateral unfractured femur) and an increased callus density (X-ray analysis (callus density/spongiosa density): 110.5+/-7.1%) when compared to vehicle-treated controls (14.3+/-8.2% and 105.9+/-6.6%; p<0.05). Accordingly, the histomorphometric examination revealed an increased fraction of mineralized bone and osteoid (33.0+/-3.0% versus 28.5+/-3.6%; p<0.05). Of interest, this early effect of the initial 6-day EPO treatment had vanished at 5 weeks after fracture. We conclude that EPO-EPOR signaling is involved in the process of early endochondral ossification, enhancing the transition of soft callus to hard callus.

  4. Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analyses of Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    classification. Some signals, notably those of a transient nature, are inherently difficult to analyze with these traditional tools. The Discrete Wavelet Transform has...scales. This thesis investigates dyadic discrete wavelet decompositions of signals. A new multiphase wavelet transform is proposed and investigated. The

  5. Navigation signal structure based on complex carrier modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ying; Yuan, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Signal structure design is an important part of satellite navigation system research, which directly affects navigation performance. Signal performance parameters are analyzed and performances of BPSK modulated signals and BOC modulated signals are compared. Aiming at requirements of high navigation precision and high anti-jamming ability, a new navigation signal structure based on complex carrier modulation is proposed and performances of the signal are researched with different parameters. A synchronization algorithm is put forward according to the signal characteristics, and the synchronization performance is qualitatively analyzed. Next, the applications of the complex carrier modulated signal are discussed, which include anti-jamming, navigation enhancement, power combing and so on. Simulations and analysis show that the proposed navigation signal structure based on complex carrier modulation has good navigation capabilities and anti-jamming abilities, which deserves further study.

  6. Inferring the spatial variation of the wedge strength based on a modified critical taper model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Liu, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Dong, J.

    2013-12-01

    Critical taper wedge theory has been widely applied to evaluate the strength of the detachment fault and the wedge by measuring taper angle. Traditional taper model, which incorporated constant cohesion and friction angle, fails to explain the lateral variation of the taper angle. A modified critical taper model adopting nonlinear Hoek-Brown failure criterion is proposed accordingly. The fold-and-thrust belt of central Taiwan was studied. Based on the field works and laboratory tests, the geological strength index (GSI) and the uniaxial compressive strength were obtained and the wedge strength can be estimated accordingly. The GSI values from investigation are decreased from the west to the east along the cross section due to the wedge strength heterogeneity. The uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock varies from the age of formation and lithology. The estimated wedge strength exhibits a strong spatial variation. The strength of the detachment fault was derived from rotary shear tests using fault gouge materials under different velocities and normal stresses. General speaking, the steady-state friction coefficient are about 0.29-0.46 when the shear velocity less than 0.1 m/s. The friction coefficient is not sensitive to the normal stress. Consequently, the lateral variation of the taper angle, which calculated by modified critical taper model, is mainly dominated by the wedge strength heterogeneity and the thickening of the wedge from the west to the east.

  7. Rejection properties of stochastic-resonance-based detectors of weak harmonic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, R. P.; Demma, Th.; Galdi, V.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Postiglione, F.

    2004-06-01

    In [

    V. Galdi et al., Phys. Rev. E 57, 6470 (1998)
    ] a thorough characterization in terms of receiver operating characteristics of stochastic-resonance detectors of weak harmonic signals of known frequency in additive Gaussian noise was given. It was shown that strobed sign-counting based strategies can be used to achieve a nice trade-off between performance and cost, by comparison with noncoherent correlators. Here we discuss the more realistic case where besides the sought signal (whose frequency is assumed known) further unwanted spectrally nearby signals with comparable amplitude are present. Rejection properties are discussed in terms of suitably defined false-alarm and false-dismissal probabilities for various values of interfering signal(s) strength and spectral separation.

  8. Bond Strength of Resin Cements to Noble and Base Metal Alloys with Different Surface Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Raeisosadat, Farkhondeh; Ghavam, Maryam; Hasani Tabatabaei, Masoomeh; Arami, Sakineh; Sedaghati, Maedeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The bond strength of resin cements to metal alloys depends on the type of the metal, conditioning methods and the adhesive resins used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of resin cements to base and noble metal alloys after sand blasting or application of silano-pen. Materials and Method: Cylinders of light cured Z 250 composite were cemented to “Degubond 4” (Au Pd) and “Verabond” (Ni Cr) alloys by either RelyX Unicem or Panavia F2, after sandblasting or treating the alloys with Silano-Pen. The shear bond strengths were evaluated. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and t tests at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: When the alloys were treated by Silano-Pen, RelyX Unicem showed a higher bond strength for Degubond 4 (P=0.021) and Verabond (P< 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the bond strength of Panavia F2 to the alloys after either of surface treatments, Degubond 4 (P=0.291) and Verabond (P=0.899). Panavia F2 showed a higher bond strength to sandblasted Verabond compared to RelyX Unicem (P=0.003). The bond strength of RelyX Unicem was significantly higher to Silano-Pen treated Verabond (P=0.011). The bond strength of the cements to sandblasted Degubond 4 showed no significant difference (P=0.59). RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated Degubond 4 (P=0.035). Conclusion: The bond strength of resin cements to Verabond alloy was significantly higher than Degubond 4. RelyX Unicem had a higher bond strength to Silano-Pen treated alloys. Surface treatments of the alloys did not affect the bond strength of Panavia F2. PMID:25628687

  9. T cell receptor signal strength in Treg and iNKT cell development demonstrated by a novel fluorescent reporter mouse

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Amy E.; Holzapfel, Keli L.; Xing, Yan; Cunningham, Nicole R.; Maltzman, Jonathan S.; Punt, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The ability of antigen receptors to engage self-ligands with varying affinity is crucial for lymphocyte development. To further explore this concept, we generated transgenic mice expressing GFP from the immediate early gene Nr4a1 (Nur77) locus. GFP was up-regulated in lymphocytes by antigen receptor stimulation but not by inflammatory stimuli. In T cells, GFP was induced during positive selection, required major histocompatibility complex for maintenance, and directly correlated with the strength of T cell receptor (TCR) stimulus. Thus, our results define a novel tool for studying antigen receptor activation in vivo. Using this model, we show that regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and invariant NKT cells (iNKT cells) perceived stronger TCR signals than conventional T cells during development. However, although Treg cells continued to perceive strong TCR signals in the periphery, iNKT cells did not. Finally, we show that Treg cell progenitors compete for recognition of rare stimulatory TCR self-ligands. PMID:21606508

  10. Laser heterodyne interferometric signal processing method based on rising edge locking with high frequency clock signal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enzheng; Chen, Benyong; Yan, Liping; Yang, Tao; Hao, Qun; Dong, Wenjun; Li, Chaorong

    2013-02-25

    A novel phase measurement method composed of the rising-edge locked signal processing and the digital frequency mixing is proposed for laser heterodyne interferometer. The rising-edge locked signal processing, which employs a high frequency clock signal to lock the rising-edges of the reference and measurement signals, not only can improve the steepness of the rising-edge, but also can eliminate the error counting caused by multi-rising-edge phenomenon in fringe counting. The digital frequency mixing is realized by mixing the digital interference signal with a digital base signal that is different from conventional frequency mixing with analogue signals. These signal processing can improve the measurement accuracy and enhance anti-interference and measurement stability. The principle and implementation of the method are described in detail. An experimental setup was constructed and a series of experiments verified the feasibility of the method in large displacement measurement with high speed and nanometer resolution.

  11. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  12. Constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson signal strength in the high-mass ZZ and WW final states with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.

    2015-07-17

    The measurements of the ZZ and WW final states in the mass range above the \\(2m_Z\\) and \\(2m_W\\) thresholds provide a unique opportunity to measure the off-shell coupling strength of the Higgs boson. This paper presents constraints on the off-shell Higgs boson event yields normalised to the Standard Model prediction (signal strength) in the \\(ZZ \\rightarrow 4\\ell \\), \\(ZZ\\rightarrow 2\\ell 2\

  13. A Comparison of Base Strengths Using Visual and EMF Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments which provide excellent evidence for different degrees of dissociation of a series of complexes and precipitate. The series is based on the copper ion as the acid and sample data are provided. (GS)

  14. Cortical and subcortical contributions to state- and strength-based perceptual judgments

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Mariam; Wansard, Murielle; Segovia, Fermín; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Bastin, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual judgments can be made on the basis of different kinds of information: state-based access to specific details that differentiate two similar images, or strength-based assessments of relational match/mismatch. We explored state- and strength-based perception in eleven right-hemisphere stroke patients, and examined lesion overlap images to gain insight into the neural underpinnings of these different kinds of perceptual judgments. Patients and healthy controls were presented with pairs of scenes that were either identical or differed in that one scene was slightly expanded or contracted relative to the other. Same/different confidence judgments were used to plot receiver-operating characteristics and estimate the contributions of state- and strength-based perception. The patient group showed a significant and selective impairment of strength-based, but not state-based, perception. This finding was not an artifact of reduced levels of overall performance, because matching perceptual discriminability levels between controls and patients revealed a double dissociation, with higher state-based, and lower strength-based, perception in patients versus controls. We then conducted exploratory follow-up analyses on the patient group, based on the observation of substantial individual differences in state-based perception — differences that were masked in analyses based on the group mean. Patients who were relatively spared in state-based perception (but impaired in strength-based perception) had damage that was primarily in temporo-parietal cortical regions. Patients who were relatively impaired in both state- and strength-based perception had overlapping damage in the thalamus, putamen, and adjacent white matter. These patient groups were not different in any other measure, e.g., presence of spatial neglect symptoms, age, education, lesion volume, or time since stroke. These findings shed light on the different roles of right hemisphere regions in high

  15. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Ken-ichi . E-mail: u4381@toyokohan.co.jp

    2006-09-15

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2} and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} and Mo{sub 2}NiB{sub 2} base ones consist of a tetragonal M {sub 3}B{sub 2} (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  16. Scratch-resistant, highly conductive, and high-strength carbon nanotube-based composite yarns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Sun, Yinghui; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Ruifeng; Wang, Jiaping; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2010-10-26

    High-strength and conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns are very attractive in many potential applications. However, there is a difficulty when simultaneously enhancing the strength and conductivity of CNT yarns. Adding some polymers into CNT yarns to enhance their strength will decrease their conductivity, while treating them in acid or coating them with metal nanoparticles to enhance their conductivity will reduce their strength. To overcome this difficulty, here we report a method to make high-strength and highly conductive CNT-based composite yarns by using a continuous superaligned CNT (SACNT) yarn as a conductive framework and then inserting polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) into the intertube spaces of the framework through PVA/dimethyl sulphoxide solution to enhance the strength of yarns. The as-produced CNT/PVA composite yarns possess very high tensile strengths up to 2.0 GPa and Young's moduli more than 120 GPa, much higher than those of the CNT/PVA yarns reported. The electric conductivity of as-produced composite yarns is as high as 9.2 × 10(4) S/m, comparable to HNO(3)-treated or Au nanoparticle-coated CNT yarns. These composite yarns are flexible, lightweight, scratch-resistant, very stable in the lab environment, and resistant to extremely humid ambient and as a result can be woven into high-strength and heatable fabrics, showing potential applications in flexible heaters, bullet-proof vests, radiation protection suits, and spacesuits.

  17. GPR-based evaluation of strength properties of unbound pavement material from electrical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Tosti, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    the use of road material, typically employed for subgrade and subbase courses. Different types of soil ranging from group A1 to A4 by AASHTO soil classification system, are analyzed. As regards the laboratory experiments, material is gradually compacted in electrically and hydraulically isolated test boxes. A large metal sheet supports the experimental boxes, so that the transmitted GPR signal is totally reflected. GPR inspections are carried out for any compaction step up to the maximum density value available. Moreover, in-situ tests are carried out on targeted types of soil, with grain size distribution and texture comparable to those analyzed in laboratory environment. The results of this study confirm a promising correlation between the electric permittivities and the strength and deformation properties of the surveyed soils. Laboratory analyses show that the relationship between the relative permittivity and the bulk density is positive: the higher the density of the compacted soil sample, the higher the electric permittivity of the medium. Analogously, in-situ validation presents a good comparison between measured and predicted data. Percentage errors less than 20% demonstrate that a reliable prediction of Young Modulus using this GPR-based approach can be achieved.

  18. Strength-Based Scholarship and Good Education: The Scholarship Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dilly

    2017-01-01

    In an era in which "teaching excellence" in higher education attracts much attention, what is "scholarship?" In this conceptual paper, I re-examine the notion of scholarship in relation to the goals and purposes of higher education. How does "scholarship" speak to value-based conceptions of "good" education…

  19. A Renewed Focus on Strengths-Based Assessment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma; Henley, Laura

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are often called upon to provide assessment and recommendations for struggling students. These assessments often open doors to specialised services or interventions and provide opportunities for students to build competencies in areas of need. However, these assessments often fail to highlight the abilities of these…

  20. Strength-Based Scholarship and Good Education: The Scholarship Circle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dilly

    2017-01-01

    In an era in which "teaching excellence" in higher education attracts much attention, what is "scholarship?" In this conceptual paper, I re-examine the notion of scholarship in relation to the goals and purposes of higher education. How does "scholarship" speak to value-based conceptions of "good" education…

  1. A Renewed Focus on Strengths-Based Assessment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma; Henley, Laura

    2016-01-01

    School-based practitioners are often called upon to provide assessment and recommendations for struggling students. These assessments often open doors to specialised services or interventions and provide opportunities for students to build competencies in areas of need. However, these assessments often fail to highlight the abilities of these…

  2. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention

    PubMed Central

    Proyer, René T.; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness. PMID:25954221

  3. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention.

    PubMed

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness.

  4. Coreceptor signal strength regulates positive selection but does not determine CD4/CD8 lineage choice in a physiologic in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Erman, Batu; Alag, Amala S; Dahle, Oyvind; van Laethem, François; Sarafova, Sophia D; Guinter, Terry I; Sharrow, Susan O; Grinberg, Alexander; Love, Paul E; Singer, Alfred

    2006-11-15

    TCR signals drive thymocyte development, but it remains controversial what impact, if any, the intensity of those signals have on T cell differentiation in the thymus. In this study, we assess the impact of CD8 coreceptor signal strength on positive selection and CD4/CD8 lineage choice using novel gene knockin mice in which the endogenous CD8alpha gene has been re-engineered to encode the stronger signaling cytoplasmic tail of CD4, with the re-engineered CD8alpha gene referred to as CD8.4. We found that stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors specifically improved the efficiency of CD8-dependent positive selection and quantitatively increased the number of MHC class I (MHC-I)-specific thymocytes signaled to differentiate into CD8+ T cells, even for thymocytes expressing a single, transgenic TCR. Importantly, however, stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors did not alter the CD8 lineage choice of any MHC-I-specific thymocytes, even MHC-I-specific thymocytes expressing the high-affinity F5 transgenic TCR. This study documents in a physiologic in vivo model that coreceptor signal strength alters TCR-signaling thresholds for positive selection and so is a major determinant of the CD4:CD8 ratio, but it does not influence CD4/CD8 lineage choice.

  5. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    PubMed Central

    Sillapasa, Kittima; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yukio; Seo, Nobushiro

    2017-01-01

    Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1) = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints. PMID:28772543

  6. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints.

    PubMed

    Sillapasa, Kittima; Mutoh, Yoshiharu; Miyashita, Yukio; Seo, Nobushiro

    2017-02-15

    Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = -1) = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  7. A magnetoelectric composite based signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Serov, V. N.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Makovkin, S. A.; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Self-oscillations in an active loop consisting of a wide-band amplifier and a magnetoelectric composite in the feedback circuit have been observed. The composite with a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate bimorph and ferromagnetic Metglas serves as a resonator that determines the frequency of oscillations and provides the feedback voltage. Under amplitude balance and phase matching conditions, the device generated signals at 2.3 kHz, at the bending resonance frequency of the composite. The oscillations were observed over a specific range of magnetic bias H. The shape of the signal generated is dependent on electrical circuit parameters and magnitude and orientation of H.

  8. Strength of nanoporous Ni-based superalloy membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösler, J.; Näth, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanoporous Ni-based superalloy membranes are a new material class. They are fabricated from the two phase γ/γ' base material by thermomechanical processing, followed by selective phase extraction. Compared to other metallic membrane materials, they stand out due to an extremely regular and fine channel-like porosity on the nanoscale. This allows for particularly interesting applications in areas such as particle filtration, catalysis of chemical reactions or heat exchange. However, fundamental understanding of the mechanical behaviour is a prerequisite in all these cases. Thus, the microstructure property correlation of these novel materials is analyzed here, examining a γ'-membrane (where the γ-phase is leached out) by tensile testing. It will be demonstrated that nanoporous superalloy membranes are remarkably strong materials, provided the processing parameters are properly selected.

  9. Microstructure-strength relationships of heavily deformed Cu-based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Trybus, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Heavily deformed Cu-based composites attain anomalous increases in strength upon mechanical deformation. The unique filamentary microstructures that evolve during processing (cold rolling, wire drawing or swaging) are the source of the strengthening. Composite strength is correlated to microstructural characteristics for arc-melted Cu-20 vol.% Nb cold rolled up to a true strain of 6.9. During rolling Nb elongates and becomes ribbon-like while the Cu matrix undergoes a cycle of deformation-dynamic recovery-recrystallization which allows for the further reduction of the Nb. Longitudinal and transverse specimens have equivalent mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength of the sheet showed a weak dependence on Nb filament spacing and its strength is controlled by a dislocation propagation mechanism. The feasibility of producing heavily deformed Cu-based composites via powder metallurgical processing techniques is explored because of the wider range of composite compositions which can be produced in contrast with ingot metallurgy.

  10. Time course of disassociation of bone formation signals with bone mass and bone strength in sclerostin antibody treated ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanfei L; Hamang, Matthew; Lucchesi, Jonathan; Bivi, Nicoletta; Zeng, Qianqiang; Adrian, Mary D; Raines, Sarah E; Li, Jiliang; Kuhstoss, Stuart A; Obungu, Victor; Bryant, Henry U; Krishnan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sclerostin antibodies increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. However, human and animal studies show that bone formation increases transiently and returns to pre-treatment level despite ongoing antibody treatment. To understand its mechanism of action, we studied the time course of bone formation, correlating the rate and extent of accrual of bone mass and strength after sclerostin antibody treatment. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with a sclerostin-antibody (Scle-ab) at 20mg/kg sc once weekly and sacrificed at baseline and 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8weeks post-treatment. In Scle-ab treated rats, serum PINP and OCN rapidly increased at week 1, peaked around week 3, and returned to OVX control levels by week 6. Transcript analyses from the distal femur revealed an early increase in bone formation followed by a sustained decrease in bone resorption genes. Lumbar vertebral (LV) osteoblast surface increased 88% by week 2, and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) increased 138% by week 4. Both parameters were below OVX control by week 8. Bone formation was primarily a result of modeling based formation. Endocortical and periosteal BFR/BS peaked around week 4 at 313% and 585% of OVX control, respectively. BFR/BS then declined but remained higher than OVX control on both surfaces through week 8. Histomorphometric analyses showed LV-BV/TV did not further increase after week 4, while BMD continued to increase at LV, mid femur (MF), and femoral neck (FN) through week 8. Biomechanical tests showed a similar improvement in bone strength through 8weeks in MF and FN, but bone strength plateaued between weeks 6 and 8 for LV. Our data suggest that bone formation with Scle-ab treatment is rapid and modeling formation dominated in OVX rats. Although transient, the bone formation response persists longer in cortical than trabecular bone.

  11. Shock induced shear strength in an HMX based plastic bonded explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, J. C. F.; Taylor, P.; Appleby-Thomas, G.

    2017-01-01

    The shock induced mechanical response of an HMX based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) has been investigated in terms of the shear strength. Results show that shear strength increases with impact stress. However comparison with the calculated elastic response of both the PBX and pure HMX suggests that the overall mechanical response is controlled by the HMX crystals, with the near liquid like nature of the binder phase having a minimal contribution.

  12. Shear Elastic and Strength Characteristics of Syntactics Based on Hollow Glass Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, A. M.; Turusov, R. A.; Gorenberg, A. J.; Solodilov, V. I.; Korokhin, R. A.; Gorbatkina, Yu. A.; Ivanova-Mumzhieva, V. G.; Zhuravleva, O. A.; Baikov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods to study the elastic and strength properties of syntactics — materials based on epoxy resins filled with hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) — are presented. Measurement results for the shear modulus and strength of the materials are analyzed. The effect of microsphere volume fraction in the polymeric matrix on the characteristics is shown. Experiments are performed to investigate the failure mechanisms of syntactics under compression.

  13. Moisture influence on compressive strength of ternary gypsum-based binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Vimmrová, Alena

    2017-07-01

    The environmental influence on the ternary gypsum-based binders is described in the paper. The ternary mixtures were composed from gypsum, lime and pozzolan. The crushed ceramic, microsilica and granulated blast slag were selected as representatives of pozzolan. Changes of compressive strength were investigated according to the method of storing and treatment before the test. Samples with microsilica have the best results of compressive strength from all tested mixtures when stored in the water and tested in moist state.

  14. Enacting Firm, Fair and Friendly Practice: A Model for Strengths-Based Child Protection Relationships?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Carolyn; Charles, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Strengths-based solution-focused approaches are gaining ground in statutory child protection work, but few studies have asked front line practitioners how they navigate the complex worker-client relationships such approaches require. This paper describes one component of a mixed-methods study in a large Canadian statutory child protection agency in which 225 workers described how they applied the ideas of strengths-based practice in their daily work. Interviews with twenty-four practitioners were analysed using an interpretive description approach. Only four interviewees appeared to successfully enact a version of strengths-based practice that closely mirrored those described by key strengths-based child protection theorists and was fully congruent with their mandated role. They described navigating a shifting balance of collaboration and authority in worker-client relationships based on transparency, impartial judgement, attentiveness to the worker-client interaction and the value that clients were fellow human beings. Their accounts extend current conceptualisations of the worker-client relationship in strengths-based child protection work and are congruent with current understandings of effective mandated relationships. They provide what may be a useful model to help workers understand and navigate relationships in which they must reconcile their own authority and expertise with genuine support for the authority and expertise of their clients.

  15. Strengths and Limitations of Evidence-Based Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Hywel C

    2014-01-01

    The need for understanding and reflecting on evidence-based dermatology (EBD) has never been greater given the exponential growth of new external evidence to inform clinical practice. Like any other branch of medicine, dermatologists need to acquire new skills in constructing answerable questions, efficiently searching electronic bibliographic databases, and critically appraising different types of studies. Secondary summaries of evidence in the form of systematic reviews (SR), that is, reviews that are conducted in a systematic, unbiased and explicit manner, reside at the top of the evidence hierarchy, because they are less prone to bias than traditional expert reviews. In addition to providing summaries of the best external evidence, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are also powerful ways of identifying research gaps and ultimately setting the agenda of future clinical research in dermatology. But like any paradigm, EBD can have its limitations. Wrong application, misuse and overuse of EBD can have serious consequences. For example, mindless pooling together of data from dissimilar studies in a meta-analysis may render it a form of reductionism that does not make any sense. Similarly, even highly protocolised study designs such as SRs and RCTs are still susceptible to some degree of dishonesty and bias. Over-reliance on randomized controlled trials (RCT) may be inappropriate, as RCTs are not a good source for picking up rare but important adverse effects such as lupus syndrome with minocycline. A common criticism leveled against SRs is that these frequently conclude that there is lack of sufficient evidence to inform current clinical practice, but arguably, such a perception is grounded more on the interpretation of the SRs than anything else. The apparent absence of evidence should not paralyze the dermatologist to adopt a state of therapeutic nihilism. Poor primary data and an SR based on evidence that is not up-to-date are also

  16. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (p< 0.05). The mean tensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint.

  17. Composite Stress Rupture: A New Reliability Model Based on Strength Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, James R.

    2012-01-01

    A model is proposed to estimate reliability for stress rupture of composite overwrap pressure vessels (COPVs) and similar composite structures. This new reliability model is generated by assuming a strength degradation (or decay) over time. The model suggests that most of the strength decay occurs late in life. The strength decay model will be shown to predict a response similar to that predicted by a traditional reliability model for stress rupture based on tests at a single stress level. In addition, the model predicts that even though there is strength decay due to proof loading, a significant overall increase in reliability is gained by eliminating any weak vessels, which would fail early. The model predicts that there should be significant periods of safe life following proof loading, because time is required for the strength to decay from the proof stress level to the subsequent loading level. Suggestions for testing the strength decay reliability model have been made. If the strength decay reliability model predictions are shown through testing to be accurate, COPVs may be designed to carry a higher level of stress than is currently allowed, which will enable the production of lighter structures

  18. Effect of blood contamination on the compressive strength of three calcium silicate-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sheykhrezae, Mohammad S; Meraji, Naghmeh; Ghanbari, Fatemeh; Nekoofar, Mohammad H; Bolhari, Behnam; Dummer, Paul M H

    2017-09-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human blood exposure on the compressive strength of various calcium silicate-based cements. Two hundred and eighty-eight customised cylindrical moulds were randomly divided into three groups according to material used: ProRoot MTA, Biodentine or CEM cement (n = 96). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to exposure conditions: PBS or blood. Then, the compressive strength of the specimens was measured after 6 h, 24 h, 72 h and 7 days. The compressive strength of CEM cement could not be measured after 6 and 24‏ h regardless of the exposure conditions nor could the compressive strength of 6 h blood-exposed ProRoot MTA. The compressive strength of blood-exposed ProRoot MTA was only significantly lower after 6 h, but no difference was seen at other time intervals. Blood exposed did adversely affected the compressive strength of Biodentine. The compressive strength of all groups significantly increased over time (P < 0.005). © 2017 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  19. Biomedical signals monitoring based in mobile computing.

    PubMed

    Serigioli, Nilton; Reina Munoz, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Edgar Charry

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this project consists in the development of a biomedical instrumentation prototype for acquisition, processing and transmission of biomedical signals. These biomedical signals are acquired and then processed with a microcontroller. After processing, all data are sent to a communication interface that can send this information to a personal computer or a cell phone. The prototype developed, which is a digital blood pressure meter, is intended to allow remote monitoring of patients living in areas with limited access to medical assistance or scarce clinical resources. We believe that this development could be helpful to improve people's quality of life, as well as to allow an improvement in the government attendance indices.

  20. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  1. Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

  2. Comparison of flexural strength in three types of denture base resins: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jaikumar, R. Arun; Karthigeyan, Suma; Ali, Syed Asharf; Naidu, N. Madhulika; Kumar, R. Pradeep; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the flexural strength of a commercially available, heat polymerized acrylic denture base material could be improved using reinforcements. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 specimens (65 mm × 10 mm × 3 mm) were fabricated; the specimens were divided into three groups with 10 specimens each. They were Group 1 - conventional denture base resins, Group 2 - high impact denture base resins, and Group 3 - glass reinforced denture base resins. The specimens were loaded until failure on a three-point bending test machine. An one-way analysis of variance was used to determine statistical differences among the flexural strength of three groups. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21.0© (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) and the results were obtained. Results: The flexural strength values showed statistically significant differences among experimental groups (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) reinforced with glass fibers showed the highest flexural strength values this was followed by PMMA reinforced with butadiene styrene, and the least strength was observed in the conventional denture base resins. PMID:26538898

  3. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-12-23

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  4. Effect of composition of experimental fluorinated soft lining materials on bond strength to denture base resin.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yoshihito; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Akiba, Norihisa; Hibino, Yasushi; Nagasawa, Yuko; Sumi, Yasunori; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the composition of experimental fluorinated soft lining materials on bond strength to denture base resin. Vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoro propylene copolymer (2-6F), tridecafluorooctyl methacrylate (13FMA), methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate (MDGMA), and silica (as filler) were used for fabrication of the experimental soft lining materials. Nine experimental soft lining materials having various compositions of 2-6F, 13FMA, and MDGMA were prepared. Shear and tensile bond strength tests were performed before and after immersion in water. The water sorption for the materials was also measured. An increase in the content of acrylic monomer, MDGMA, in the experimental materials increased the bond strength before immersion in water but reduced the bond strength after immersion in water as compared to that before immersion in water. The inclusion of fluorinated monomer (13FMA) in the materials appeared to affect water sorption.

  5. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; ...

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa.more » The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.« less

  6. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.

  7. Physically-based strength model of tantalum incorporating effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett C.; Brown, Justin L.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2016-06-14

    In this work, we develop a tantalum strength model that incorporates e ects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. Dislocation kink-pair theory is used to incorporate temperature and strain rate e ects while the pressure dependent yield is obtained through the pressure dependent shear modulus. Material constants used in the model are parameterized from tantalum single crystal tests and polycrystalline ramp compression experiments. It is shown that the proposed strength model agrees well with the temperature and strain rate dependent yield obtained from polycrystalline tantalum experiments. Furthermore, the model accurately reproduces the pressure dependent yield stresses up to 250 GPa. The proposed strength model is then used to conduct simulations of a Taylor cylinder impact test and validated with experiments. This approach provides a physically-based multi-scale strength model that is able to predict the plastic deformation of polycrystalline tantalum through a wide range of temperature, strain and pressure regimes.

  8. Development of quantitative computed-tomography-based strength indicators for the identification of low bone-strength individuals in a clinical environment.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bino; Short, David; Hangartner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop quantitative computed-tomography (QCT)-based bone-strength indicators that highly correlate with finite-element (FE)-based strength. Transaxial QCT scans were obtained from 36 major, cadaveric, long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) from 4 females and 2 males, 53 to 86 years old. These images were used to construct the FE models and to develop the QCT-based bone strength indicators under every-day, simplified loading conditions. We have evaluated the performance of area-weighted (AW), density-weighted (DW) and modulus-weighted (MW) rigidity measures as well as popular strength indicators like section modulus (Z) and stress-strain index (SSI). We have also developed a novel strength metric, the centroid deviation, which analyzes the spatial distribution of the centroids along the length of the bone. The correlation results show that the MW polar moment of inertia and the MW moment of inertia are the two top-performers for all bones and loading conditions (average r>0.89). The MW centroid deviations correlated highly with the estimated load to fracture for all bones under compression (r>0.83), except for the humerus (r=0.67). Consistently DW or MW rigidity measures produced a statistically significant improvement in capturing bone strength compared to AW rigidity measures. As expected, MW rigidity measures showed a higher correlation with the FE-based fracture load than the DW rigidity measures; however, the improvement was not statistically significant. Through this study we present a short-list of useful QCT-based strength parameters that correlate well with FE-based fracture load. Although a few parameters perform reasonably well across most bones and loading conditions, a judicious assessment of bone strength should include multiple parameters evaluated at multiple critical locations in the long bones, with attention to the type of loading and bone type. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  10. Papain-based gel for biochemical caries removal: influence on microtensile bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Corá, Felipe; Henn, Sandrina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of a papain-based gel (Papacárie) for chemo-mechanical caries removal on bond strength to dentin. Human molars were assigned to the following groups: Group 1: sound teeth were flattened to expose dentin; Group 2: after flattening of surfaces, the papain-based gel was applied on the sound dentin; Group 3: overlying enamel from carious teeth was removed and mechanical excavation of dentin was conducted; Group 4: chemo-mechanical excavation of carious dentin was conducted using the papain-based gel. The Prime&Bond NT or Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems were used for restorative procedures. A microtensile bond strength test was performed, and the modes of failure were determined under SEM. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < or = 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the sound dentin groups. For both excavation methods, Clearfil presented a significantly higher bond strength than Prime&Bond NT. Also, for Clearfil, the mechanically excavated samples disclosed a significantly higher bond strength than the chemo-mechanically ones. For Prime&Bond NT, no significant differences were detected between the excavation methods. Predominance of mixed failures for the sound substrate and of adhesive failures for the carious dentin one was detected. The bond strength to carious dentin of the self-etching system was negatively affected by chemo-mechanical excavation using the papain-based gel.

  11. A micromechanics-based strength prediction methodology for notched metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    An analytical micromechanics based strength prediction methodology was developed to predict failure of notched metal matrix composites. The stress-strain behavior and notched strength of two metal matrix composites, boron/aluminum (B/Al) and silicon-carbide/titanium (SCS-6/Ti-15-3), were predicted. The prediction methodology combines analytical techniques ranging from a three dimensional finite element analysis of a notched specimen to a micromechanical model of a single fiber. In the B/Al laminates, a fiber failure criteria based on the axial and shear stress in the fiber accurately predicted laminate failure for a variety of layups and notch-length to specimen-width ratios with both circular holes and sharp notches when matrix plasticity was included in the analysis. For the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 laminates, a fiber failure based on the axial stress in the fiber correlated well with experimental results for static and post fatigue residual strengths when fiber matrix debonding and matrix cracking were included in the analysis. The micromechanics based strength prediction methodology offers a direct approach to strength prediction by modeling behavior and damage on a constituent level, thus, explicitly including matrix nonlinearity, fiber matrix debonding, and matrix cracking.

  12. Detectability of CO2 Flux Signals by a Space-Based Lidar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for improving our quantitative understanding of the carbon cycle. Prospective observations include those from space-based lidar such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Here we explore the ability of such a mission to detect regional changes in CO2 fluxes. We investigate these using three prototypical case studies, namely the thawing of permafrost in the Northern High Latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China, and changes in the source-sink characteristics of the Southern Ocean. These three scenarios were used to design signal detection studies to investigate the ability to detect the unfolding of these scenarios compared to a baseline scenario. Results indicate that the ASCENDS mission could detect the types of signals investigated in this study, with the caveat that the study is based on some simplifying assumptions. The permafrost thawing flux perturbation is readily detectable at a high level of significance. The fossil fuel emission detectability is directly related to the strength of the signal and the level of measurement noise. For a nominal (lower) fossil fuel emission signal, only the idealized noise-free instrument test case produces a clearly detectable signal, while experiments with more realistic noise levels capture the signal only in the higher (exaggerated) signal case. For the Southern Ocean scenario, differences due to the natural variability in the ENSO climatic mode are primarily detectable as a zonal increase.

  13. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  14. Evaluation of compressive strength of hydraulic silicate-based root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ryan M; Woodmansey, Karl F; Glickman, Gerald N; He, Jianing

    2014-07-01

    Hydraulic silicate cements such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have many clinical advantages. Newer hydraulic silicate materials have been developed that improve on the limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate such as the long setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of saline and fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the setting and compressive strength of the following hydraulic silicate cements: ProRoot MTA (white WMTA; Dentsply International, Tulsa Dental Specialties, Johnson City, TN), EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), MTA Plus (MTAP; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL), and QuickSet (QS; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL). Samples of root-end filling materials were compacted into polyethylene molds. Samples were exposed to FBS or saline for 7 days. A universal testing machine was used to determine the compressive strengths. QS had significantly lower compressive strength than all other materials (P < .001). White MTA and MTAP mixed with liquid had lower compressive strengths after exposure to FBS compared with saline (P = .003). ERRM, MTAP mixed with gel, and QS were not affected by the exposure to FBS. New silicate-based root-end filling materials, other than QS, have compressive strength similar to MTA. Within the limits of this study, premixed materials and those mixed with antiwashout gel maintain their compressive strength when exposed to biological fluids. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inconsistency in the strength testing of dental resin-based composites among researchers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to review the current strength testing methods of the dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to explore the inconsistencies with regard to strength testing among researchers. Data selection/extraction: An outline of the most relevant aspects of RBCs was created, and a subsequent literature search for articles published during last four decades (1970-2010) was conducted using the databases, namely PubMed, Science Direct and ISI Web of Knowledge. The literature review highlighted a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the reliability of ISO recommended three-point flexure strength testing method. Several investigators have used Weibull statistics for the analysis of RBCs strength data, however their applicability might be questioned as many RBCs contain greater resin content and may exhibit sufficient viscous deformation prior to brittle failure. In addition, variability in the selection of cross-head speed and mould material for strength testing was evident which may lead to variation in the strength data and render the interpretation difficult among researchers.

  16. Neural network-based sensor signal accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, M. C.

    2000-10-16

    A strategy has been developed to computationally accelerate the response time of a generic electronic sensor. The strategy can be deployed as an algorithm in a control system or as a physical interface (on an embedded microcontroller) between a slower responding external sensor and a higher-speed control system. Optional code implementations are available to adjust algorithm performance when computational capability is limited. In one option, the actual sensor signal can be sampled at the slower rate with adaptive linear neural networks predicting the sensor's future output and interpolating intermediate synthetic output values. In another option, a synchronized collection of predictors sequentially controls the corresponding synthetic output voltage. Error is adaptively corrected in both options. The core strategy has been demonstrated with automotive oxygen sensor data. A prototype interface device is under construction. The response speed increase afforded by this strategy could greatly offset the cost of developing a replacement sensor with a faster physical response time.

  17. A new EEG synchronization strength analysis method: S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dong; Pu, Weiting; Liu, Jing; Bian, Zhijie; Li, Qiuli; Wang, Lei; Gu, Guanghua

    2016-10-01

    Synchronization is an important mechanism for understanding information processing in normal or abnormal brains. In this paper, we propose a new method called normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (NWPMI) for double variable signal synchronization analysis and combine NWPMI with S-estimator measure to generate a new method named S-estimator based normalized weighted-permutation mutual information (SNWPMI) for analyzing multi-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization strength. The performances including the effects of time delay, embedding dimension, coupling coefficients, signal to noise ratios (SNRs) and data length of the NWPMI are evaluated by using Coupled Henon mapping model. The results show that the NWPMI is superior in describing the synchronization compared with the normalized permutation mutual information (NPMI). Furthermore, the proposed SNWPMI method is applied to analyze scalp EEG data from 26 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 20 age-matched controls with normal cognitive function, who both suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The proposed methods NWPMI and SNWPMI are suggested to be an effective index to estimate the synchronization strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear stimulated Brillouin scattering based photonic signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Minasian, Robert A.

    2014-10-06

    Recent new methods in photonic signal processing based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, that enable the realization of photonic mixers with high conversion efficiency, ultra-wide continuously tunable high-resolution microwave photonic filters and programmable switchable microwave photonic tunable filters, are presented. These processors provide new capabilities for the realisation of high-performance and high-resolution signal processing.

  19. SFM signal parameter estimation based on an enhanced DSFMT algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Xingguang; Chen, Dianren

    2017-01-01

    It is proposed a SFM signal parameter estimation method based on the Enhanced DSFMT(EDSFMT) algorithm and provided the derivation of transformation formulas in this paper .Analysis and simulations were performed, which proved its capability of arbitrary multi-component SFM signal parameter estimation.

  20. High-impact strength acrylic denture base material processed by autoclave.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahhab, Salwan Sami

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effect of two different cycles of autoclave processing on the transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness and the porosity of high-impact strength acrylic denture base material. High Impact Acryl was the heat-cured acrylic denture base material included in the study. A total of 120 specimens were prepared, the specimens were grouped into: control groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by conventional water-bath processing technique (74°C for 1.5 h then boil for 30 min) and experimental groups in which high-impact strength acrylic resins processed by autoclave at 121°C, 210 kPa .The experimental groups were divided into (fast) groups for 15 min, and (slow) groups for 30 min. To study the effect of the autoclave processing (Tuttnauer 2540EA), four tests were conducted transverse strength (Instron universal testing machine), impact strength (Charpy tester), surface hardness (shore D), and porosity test. The results were analyzed to ANOVA and LSD test. In ANOVA test, there were highly significant differences between the results of the processing techniques in transverse, impact, hardness, and porosity test. The LSD test showed a significant difference between control and fast groups in transverse and hardness tests and a non-significant difference in impact test and a highly significant difference in porosity test; while, there were a highly significant differences between control and slow groups in all examined tests; finally, there were a non-significant difference between fast and slow groups in transverse and porosity tests and a highly significant difference in impact and hardness tests. In the autoclave processing technique, the slow (long) curing cycle improved the tested physical and mechanical properties as compared with the fast (short) curing cycle. The autoclave processing technique improved the tested physical and mechanical properties of High Impact Acryl. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society

  1. [Research progress on emotion recognition based on physiological signals].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2015-02-01

    Emotion recognition will be prosperious in multifarious applications, like distance education, healthcare, and human-computer interactions, etc. Emotions can be recognized from the behavior signals such as speech, facial expressions, gestures or the physiological signals such as electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram. Contrast to other methods, the physiological signals based emotion recognition can achieve more objective and effective results because it is almost impossible to be disguised. This paper introduces recent advancements in emotion research using physiological signals, specified to its emotion model, elicitation stimuli, feature extraction and classification methods. Finally the paper also discusses some research challenges and future developments.

  2. Study on torpedo fuze signal denoising method based on WPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Sun, Changcun; Zhang, Tao; Ren, Zhiliang

    2013-07-01

    Torpedo fuze signal denoising is an important action to ensure reliable operation of fuze. Based on the good characteristics of wavelet packet transform (WPT) in signal denoising, the paper used wavelet packet transform to denoise the fuze signal under a complex background interference, and a simulation of the denoising results with Matlab is performed. Simulation result shows that the WPT denoising method can effectively eliminate background noise exist in torpedo fuze target signal with higher precision and less distortion, leading to advance the reliability of torpedo fuze operation.

  3. A novel signal compression method based on optimal ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing vibration signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Tse, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Today, remote machine condition monitoring is popular due to the continuous advancement in wireless communication. Bearing is the most frequently and easily failed component in many rotating machines. To accurately identify the type of bearing fault, large amounts of vibration data need to be collected. However, the volume of transmitted data cannot be too high because the bandwidth of wireless communication is limited. To solve this problem, the data are usually compressed before transmitting to a remote maintenance center. This paper proposes a novel signal compression method that can substantially reduce the amount of data that need to be transmitted without sacrificing the accuracy of fault identification. The proposed signal compression method is based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the vibration signal into different bands of signal components, termed intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). An optimization method was designed to automatically select appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signal, and in particular to select the appropriate level of the added white noise in the EEMD method. An index termed the relative root-mean-square error was used to evaluate the decomposition performances under different noise levels to find the optimal level. After applying the optimal EEMD method to a vibration signal, the IMF relating to the bearing fault can be extracted from the original vibration signal. Compressing this signal component obtains a much smaller proportion of data samples to be retained for transmission and further reconstruction. The proposed compression method were also compared with the popular wavelet compression method. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimization of EEMD parameters can automatically find appropriate EEMD parameters for the analyzed signals, and the IMF-based compression method provides a higher compression ratio, while retaining the bearing defect

  4. Evaluating Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength Over CONUS Using Satellite-based Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Ferguson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the coupling strength between land and its overlying boundary layer is important to establishing the role of the surface state in boundary layer development and related processes. Much of our current understanding has resulted from model diagnostics carried out by Alan K. Betts using the European Center's (ECMWF) forecast and reanalysis model outputs. Other model based analysis under the GEWEX Land Atmospheric Coupling Experiments (GLACE), lead by Randy Koster, has suggested that models with strong coupling have inferred "hot spots" that imply enhanced predictability of seasonal precipitation. Other analysis (Mitchell, personal communication) suggests that models with strong coupling fail to represent the observed diurnal cycle of precipitation across the central U.S. Dirmeyer et al. in 2006 compared the coupling strength (using Betts" measure that relates surface soil moisture to the lifting condensation level (LCL) pressure) for a number of models from the GLACE experiment, which showed a wide range of strength. This presentation utilizes space-based remote sensing (RS) observations to estimate the strength of warm season land-atmosphere coupling over the continental US. The remote sensing products are derived from the suite of sensors on-board NASA Aqua, including AMSR-E (soil moisture), AIRS (relative humidity, air temperature, skin temperature), MODIS (LAI, NDVI), and CERES (radiation). The relative strength of coupling is quantified in terms of observational diagnostics set forth by the work of Alan Betts, based on his work with the ERA40 model output data set, and Fendall and Eltahir, based on radiosonde data. While the analysis covers the continental US (CONUS), emphasis is placed on the southern Great Plains where dense in-situ measurements enable direct comparison between coupling strengths obtained from ground observations and those from remote sensing, and a region that previous studies by Koster et al. have inferred to be a coupling "hot

  5. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base.

    PubMed

    Gad, Mohammed; ArRejaie, Aws S; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers.

  6. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.; Abdel-Halim, Mohamed Saber; Rahoma, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of glass fiber, zirconia, and nano-zirconia on the transverse strength of repaired denture base. Materials and Methods. Eighty specimens of heat polymerized acrylic resin were prepared and randomly divided into eight groups (n = 10): one intact group (control) and seven repaired groups. One group was repaired with autopolymerized resin while the other six groups were repaired using autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 wt% or 5 wt% glass fiber, zirconia, or nano-zirconia particles. A three-point bending test was used to measure the transverse strength. The results were analyzed using SPSS and repeated measure ANOVA and post hoc least significance (LSD) test (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Among repaired groups it was found that autopolymerized resin reinforced with 2 or 5 wt% nano-zirconia showed the highest transverse strength (P ≤ 0.05). Repairs with autopolymerized acrylic resin reinforced with 5 wt% zirconia showed the lowest transverse strength value. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with repair resin without reinforcement, 2 wt% zirconia, and glass fiber reinforced resin. Conclusion. Reinforcing of repair material with nano-zirconia may significantly improve the transverse strength of some fractured denture base polymers. PMID:27366150

  7. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  8. The effects of strength-based versus deficit-based self-regulated learning strategies on students' effort intentions.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Van Yperen, Nico W

    In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students' intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative strengths and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to further improve those strengths) versus deficit-based SRL strategies (i.e., identifying perceived relative shortcomings and, subsequently, selecting professional development activities to improve those shortcomings). Across both studies, analysis of variance revealed that, relative to students who used deficit-based SRL strategies, students who used strength-based SRL strategies were higher in perceived competence, intrinsic motivation, and effort intentions. Moreover, the results of multi-mediator analysis and structural equation modeling supported the hypothesis that the effect of strength-based versus deficit-based SRL strategies on students' effort intentions was sequentially mediated by perceived competence and intrinsic motivation. Implications for the application of self-regulated learning strategies in the context of professional self-development are discussed.

  9. Electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a new improved wavelet thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guoqiang; Xu, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Good quality electrocardiogram (ECG) is utilized by physicians for the interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. In general, ECG signals may mix various noises such as baseline wander, power line interference, and electromagnetic interference in gathering and recording process. As ECG signals are non-stationary physiological signals, wavelet transform is investigated to be an effective tool to discard noises from corrupted signals. A new compromising threshold function called sigmoid function-based thresholding scheme is adopted in processing ECG signals. Compared with other methods such as hard/soft thresholding or other existing thresholding functions, the new algorithm has many advantages in the noise reduction of ECG signals. It perfectly overcomes the discontinuity at ±T of hard thresholding and reduces the fixed deviation of soft thresholding. The improved wavelet thresholding denoising can be proved to be more efficient than existing algorithms in ECG signal denoising. The signal to noise ratio, mean square error, and percent root mean square difference are calculated to verify the denoising performance as quantitative tools. The experimental results reveal that the waves including P, Q, R, and S waves of ECG signals after denoising coincide with the original ECG signals by employing the new proposed method.

  10. Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Holten, Mads K; Zacho, Morten; Gaster, Michael; Juel, Carsten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Dela, Flemming

    2004-02-01

    Strength training represents an alternative to endurance training for patients with type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the effect on insulin action and key proteins in skeletal muscle, and the necessary volume of strength training is unknown. A total of 10 type 2 diabetic subjects and 7 healthy men (control subjects) strength-trained one leg three times per week for 6 weeks while the other leg remained untrained. Each session lasted no more than 30 min. After strength training, muscle biopsies were obtained, and an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with arterio-femoral venous catheterization of both legs was carried out. In general, qualitatively similar responses were obtained in both groups. During the clamp, leg blood flow was higher (P < 0.05) in trained versus untrained legs, but despite this, arterio-venous extraction glucose did not decrease in trained legs. Thus, leg glucose clearance was increased in trained legs (P < 0.05) and more than explained by increases in muscle mass. Strength training increased protein content of GLUT4, insulin receptor, protein kinase B-alpha/beta, glycogen synthase (GS), and GS total activity. In conclusion, we found that strength training for 30 min three times per week increases insulin action in skeletal muscle in both groups. The adaptation is attributable to local contraction-mediated mechanisms involving key proteins in the insulin signaling cascade.

  11. No increase of the blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal with higher field strength: implications for brain activation studies.

    PubMed

    Seehafer, Jörg U; Kalthoff, Daniel; Farr, Tracy D; Wiedermann, Dirk; Hoehn, Mathias

    2010-04-14

    Experimental data up to 7.0 T show that the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) increases with higher magnetic field strength. Although several studies at 11.7 T report higher BOLD signal compared with studies at 7.0 T, no direct comparison at these two field strengths has been performed under the exact same conditions. It therefore remains unclear whether the expected increase of BOLD effect with field strength will still continue to hold for fields >7.0 T. To examine this issue, we compared the BOLD activation signal at 7.0 and 11.7 T with the two common sequences, spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GE) echo planar imaging (EPI). We chose the physiologically well controlled rat model of electrical forepaw stimulation under medetomidine sedation. While a linear to superlinear increase in activation with field strengths up to 7.0 T was reported in the literature, we observed no significant activation difference between 7.0 and 11.7 T with either SE or GE. Discussing the results in light of the four-component model of the BOLD signal, we showed that at high field only two extravascular contributions remain relevant, while both intravascular components vanish. Constancy of the BOLD effect is discussed due to motional narrowing, i.e., susceptibility gradients become so strong that phase variance of diffusing spins decreases and therefore the BOLD signal also decreases. This finding will be of high significance for the planning of future human and animal fMRI studies at high fields and their quantitative analysis.

  12. Systems biology. Conditional density-based analysis of T cell signaling in single-cell data.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Smita; Spitzer, Matthew H; Mingueneau, Michael; Bendall, Sean C; Litvin, Oren; Stone, Erica; Pe'er, Dana; Nolan, Garry P

    2014-11-28

    Cellular circuits sense the environment, process signals, and compute decisions using networks of interacting proteins. To model such a system, the abundance of each activated protein species can be described as a stochastic function of the abundance of other proteins. High-dimensional single-cell technologies, such as mass cytometry, offer an opportunity to characterize signaling circuit-wide. However, the challenge of developing and applying computational approaches to interpret such complex data remains. Here, we developed computational methods, based on established statistical concepts, to characterize signaling network relationships by quantifying the strengths of network edges and deriving signaling response functions. In comparing signaling between naïve and antigen-exposed CD4(+) T lymphocytes, we find that although these two cell subtypes had similarly wired networks, naïve cells transmitted more information along a key signaling cascade than did antigen-exposed cells. We validated our characterization on mice lacking the extracellular-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK2, which showed stronger influence of pERK on pS6 (phosphorylated-ribosomal protein S6), in naïve cells as compared with antigen-exposed cells, as predicted. We demonstrate that by using cell-to-cell variation inherent in single-cell data, we can derive response functions underlying molecular circuits and drive the understanding of how cells process signals. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. SIG-VISA: Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D.; Mayeda, K. M.; Myers, S. C.; Russell, S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional seismic monitoring systems rely on discrete detections produced by station processing software; however, while such detections may constitute a useful summary of station activity, they discard large amounts of information present in the original recorded signal. We present SIG-VISA (Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis), a system for seismic monitoring through Bayesian inference on seismic signals. By directly modeling the recorded signal, our approach incorporates additional information unavailable to detection-based methods, enabling higher sensitivity and more accurate localization using techniques such as waveform matching. SIG-VISA's Bayesian forward model of seismic signal envelopes includes physically-derived models of travel times and source characteristics as well as Gaussian process (kriging) statistical models of signal properties that combine interpolation of historical data with extrapolation of learned physical trends. Applying Bayesian inference, we evaluate the model on earthquakes as well as the 2009 DPRK test event, demonstrating a waveform matching effect as part of the probabilistic inference, along with results on event localization and sensitivity. In particular, we demonstrate increased sensitivity from signal-based modeling, in which the SIGVISA signal model finds statistical evidence for arrivals even at stations for which the IMS station processing failed to register any detection.

  14. Manufacturing of agarose-based chromatographic adsorbents--effect of ionic strength and cooling conditions on particle structure and mechanical strength.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Nicolas; Bowen, James; Pacek, Andrzej; Zhang, Zhibing

    2012-02-01

    The effect of ionic strength of agarose solution and quenching temperature of the emulsion on the structure and mechanical strength of agarose-based chromatographic adsorbents was investigated. Solutions of agarose containing different amounts of NaCl were emulsified at elevated temperature in mineral oil using a high-shear mixer. The hot emulsion was quenched at different temperatures leading to the gelation of agarose and formation of soft particles. Analysis of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images of particle surfaces shows that pore size of particles increases with ionic strength and/or high quenching temperature. Additionally it has been found that the compressive strength of particles measured by micromanipulation also increases with ionic strength of the emulsion and/or high quenching temperature but these two parameters have no significant effect on the resulting particle size and particle size distribution. Results from both characterization methods were compared with Sepharose 4B, a commercial agarose-based adsorbent. This is the first report examining the effect of ionic strength and cooling conditions on the microstructure of micron-sized agarose beads for bioseparation.

  15. Model-based Bayesian signal extraction algorithm for peripheral nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10-20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of

  16. The Consequences of Differentiation in Episodic Memory: Similarity and the Strength Based Mirror Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2006-01-01

    When items on one list receive more encoding than items on another list, the improvement in performance usually manifests as an increase in the hit rate and a decrease in the false alarm rate (FAR). A common account of this strength based mirror effect is that participants adopt a more strict criterion following a strongly than weakly encoded list…

  17. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  18. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  19. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  20. Balancing the Imbalance: Integrating a Strength-Based Approach with a Medical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    There are major differences in perspective between the traditional medical model of treatment for troubled children and more recent strength-based approaches. This is particularly evident when widespread use of psychoactive drugs becomes a substitute for interpersonal therapeutic interventions. Drugs and relationships both impact the brain, but in…

  1. Effect of a papain-based gel for chemomechanical caries removal on dentin shear bond strength.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Michelle Cristina; Mascarini, Raphaella Capitoni; da Silva, Bruna Maria Covre Garcia; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the shear bond strength of an adhesive restorative system on sound and demineralized dentin after the use of a papain-based agent. Forty human dentin slabs were randomly distributed into 4 groups: (1) sound dentin slabs that received an application of papain-based gel (N=10); (2) sound dentin slabs that did not receive a papain-based gel application (N=10); (3) demineralized slabs that received an application of the agent (N=10); and (4) demineralized slabs that did not receive an application of the agent (N=10). After manual excavation and use of the chemomechanical agent, the slabs were restored with a total etch adhesive system and microhybrid resin composite. The test specimens were individually stored in a damp environment for 7 days, and the shear bond strength test was performed using a universal test machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The fragments were observed under a stereoscopic microscope to assess the fracture mode. Fracture mode assessment showed adhesive and cohesive type fractures in resin for all the groups. The analysis of variance and the Tukey test showed that there were no differences in the shear bond strength means among the groups (P>.05). The use of a papain-based gel to remove dental caries did not interfere in the bond strength of restorative materials to dentin.

  2. Microtensile strength of spruce pine after exposure to acids and bases

    Treesearch

    F.G. Manwiller; P.R. Godfrey

    1973-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood microtensile specimens from 12 trees of Pinus glabra Walt. were subjected to 10-percent solution of 5 acids and 3 bases at good for up to 3 hours. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids were the most damaging, lowering maximum tensile strength 27 and 17 percent in earlywood and 36 and 39 percent in latewood; they reduced work to maximum load 40 percent...

  3. Microtensile strength of spruce pine after exposure to acids and bases

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Manwiller; Paul R. Godfrey

    1972-01-01

    Earlywood and latewood microtensile specimens from 12 trees of Pinus glabra Wal. were subjected to 10-percent solution of 5 acids and 3 bases at 90oC for up to 3 hours. Hydrochloric and sulfuric acids were the most damaging, lowering maximum tensile strength 27 and 17 percent in earlywood and 36 and 39 percent in latewood; they...

  4. Collaborative Strengths-Based Brief Therapy with Self-Injuring Adolescents and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a family competency-based treatment approach that capitalizes on the strengths and resources of self-injuring adolescents and their families. Throughout the article, the author provides therapeutic tools and strategies that he has found effective in his clinical practice of working with self-injuring youth and their families…

  5. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  6. Strength-based Supervision: Frameworks, Current Practice, and Future Directions A Wu-wei Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jeffrey K.; Chen, Mei-Whei

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a method of counseling supervision similar to the wu-wei practice in Zen and Taoism. Suggests that this strength-based method and an understanding of isomorphy in supervisory relationships are the preferred practice for the supervision of family counselors. States that this model of supervision potentiates the person-of-the-counselor.…

  7. Evaluation of a sugar based edible adhesive utilizing a tensile strength tester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new method to evaluate adhesives has been developed and utilized to formulate a recently patented adhesive based on sugar and citric acid. Factors affecting adhesive performance were uncovered, such as reduced strength due to improper heating time, and an optimal curing temperature of 60oC was ac...

  8. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Restraint Reduction: A State Initiative to Promote Strength-Based Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBel, Janice; Stromberg, Nan; Duckworth, Ken; Kerzner, Joan; Goldstein, Robert; Weeks, Michael; Harper, Gordon; LaFlair, Lareina; Sudders, Marylou

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the use of restraint and seclusion with children and adolescents in psychiatric inpatient units by promoting a preventive, strength-based model of care. Method: The State Mental Health Authority used data analysis, quality improvement strategies, regulatory oversight, and technical assistance to develop and implement system…

  9. A Social Justice Perspective on Strengths-Based Approaches: Exploring Educators' Perspectives and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Morgan K. A.; Toope, Deborah Florence

    2011-01-01

    What does it mean to engage in strengths-based (SB) approaches from a social justice perspective? In this paper we explore the accounts of educators who work with youth experiencing social and educational barriers to describe what it might mean to engage in SB practices from a social justice perspective. Using data generated from interviews, we…

  10. Collaborative Strengths-Based Brief Therapy with Self-Injuring Adolescents and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a family competency-based treatment approach that capitalizes on the strengths and resources of self-injuring adolescents and their families. Throughout the article, the author provides therapeutic tools and strategies that he has found effective in his clinical practice of working with self-injuring youth and their families…

  11. Using Strength-Based Approaches to Explore Pretreatment Change in Men Who Abuse Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; DeGeer, Ian; Hymmen, Peter; Lehmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Group work with men who batter has traditionally consisted predominantly of psychoeducational programs that ignore concepts such as self-determination, goal setting, and positive engagement with men. More recently, this paradigm has begun to shift to include cognitive approaches and the utilization of strength-based strategies. The present sample…

  12. Promoting Multicultural Personality Development: A Strengths-Based, Positive Psychology Worldview for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Mendelowitz, David E.; Collabolletta, Ernest A.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends the relevance of multicultural development to the Strengths-Based School Counseling (SBSC; Galassi & Akos, 2007) perspective. A relatively new construct for school counselors, the "multicultural personality" (MP), is introduced and defined. The MP is conceptualized as a cluster of narrow personality traits that…

  13. Towards a Strength-Based Juvenile Correctional Facility: Sustainability and Effects of an Institutional Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, William H.; Mackin, Juliette R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the administration of a state-run, secure juvenile correctional facility initiated an attempt to transform its institutional culture using a strength-based approach to assessment and case planning. This resulted in a rapid improvement in institutional climate. The current study revisits this setting several years later to see if those…

  14. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  15. The Strength-Based Counseling Model: A Paradigm Shift in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    2006-01-01

    Sometimes, it is difficult for a profession to move forward because its members interpret emerging conceptual models from the perspective of old frameworks. Each of the five reactants in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" interpreted the strength-based counseling model within their own self-adopted framework--Adlerian psychology, role…

  16. Strength-Based RTI: Developing Gifted Potential in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita; Harris, Bryn

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a strength-based response to intervention (RTI) model for developing and identifying gifted potential in English language learners (ELLs). In the recent years, much has been written about RTI; however, the potential of RTI for meeting the needs of gifted ELLs has not yet been explored. This article seeks to address this void…

  17. Strength-Based Teaching: The Affective Teacher, No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Tim J.

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, virtually every school in America is expected to meet high academic standards in the face of declining resources. The requirements to meet these standards are rising as funding decreases, and little help is available to schools. "Strength-Based Teaching" is intended to fill that…

  18. A Salutogenic, Strengths-Based Approach as a Theory to Guide HPE Curriculum Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuaig, Louise; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    The draft Australian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012c) takes a strengths-based approach that emphasizes questions such as "What keeps me healthy and active?" rather than "What risks, diseases and behaviours should I learn to avoid?". This…

  19. A Strengths-Based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gabriel Tobin; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Sperry, Rachel Wagner; LeBuffe, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a strengths-based approach to supervised visitation within the child welfare system of the United States. Supervised visitation gives parents accused of abuse or neglect the opportunity to spend time with children temporarily removed from their care. Although supervised visitation has the potential to be a tool for promoting…

  20. The Consequences of Differentiation in Episodic Memory: Similarity and the Strength Based Mirror Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.

    2006-01-01

    When items on one list receive more encoding than items on another list, the improvement in performance usually manifests as an increase in the hit rate and a decrease in the false alarm rate (FAR). A common account of this strength based mirror effect is that participants adopt a more strict criterion following a strongly than weakly encoded list…

  1. Strength-Based RTI: Developing Gifted Potential in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Margarita; Harris, Bryn

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a strength-based response to intervention (RTI) model for developing and identifying gifted potential in English language learners (ELLs). In the recent years, much has been written about RTI; however, the potential of RTI for meeting the needs of gifted ELLs has not yet been explored. This article seeks to address this void…

  2. A Salutogenic, Strengths-Based Approach as a Theory to Guide HPE Curriculum Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuaig, Louise; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Macdonald, Doune

    2013-01-01

    The draft Australian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012c) takes a strengths-based approach that emphasizes questions such as "What keeps me healthy and active?" rather than "What risks, diseases and behaviours should I learn to avoid?". This…

  3. Strength-Based Factors for Successful Adaptation to an Early College High School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In an early college high school setting, students are subject to varying academic, social and contextual demands of a higher educational environment. In a strength-based study of 136 diverse early college high school students, this research explored the relationship of internal and external developmental assets to adaptive functioning of…

  4. Solution-Focused Therapy: Strength-Based Counseling for Children with Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and…

  5. Balancing the Imbalance: Integrating a Strength-Based Approach with a Medical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    There are major differences in perspective between the traditional medical model of treatment for troubled children and more recent strength-based approaches. This is particularly evident when widespread use of psychoactive drugs becomes a substitute for interpersonal therapeutic interventions. Drugs and relationships both impact the brain, but in…

  6. A Strengths-Based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gabriel Tobin; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Sperry, Rachel Wagner; LeBuffe, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a strengths-based approach to supervised visitation within the child welfare system of the United States. Supervised visitation gives parents accused of abuse or neglect the opportunity to spend time with children temporarily removed from their care. Although supervised visitation has the potential to be a tool for promoting…

  7. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  8. Tensile Bond Strength between Soft Liners and Two Chemically Different Denture Base Materials: Effect of Thermocycling.

    PubMed

    Tugut, Faik; Coskun, Mehmet Emre; Dogan, Derya Ozdemir; Kirmali, Omer; Akin, Hakan

    2016-06-01

    The bond strength of soft denture liner to a recently introduced denture base resin after thermocycling has not been compared to traditional denture base materials. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of thermocycling on the tensile bond strength of soft denture liners to two chemically different denture base resins, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA). A total of 48 PMMA and UDMA tensile test specimens were fabricated by attaching two different soft denture liners (Molloplast-B, Permaflex) according to the manufacturers' instructions and assigned to two groups. Half of the specimens for each group were stored in water for 1 week, and the other half were thermocycled (5000 cycles) between baths of 5°C and 55°C. Specimens were mounted on a universal testing machine with a 5 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-Kramer multiple comparisons tests (α = 0.05). The highest bond strength was measured in the specimens from the UDMA/Molloplast groups, and the lowest was seen in the PMMA/Permaflex group. No significant difference in bond strength was detected in PMMA/Permaflex groups after thermocycling (p = 0.082), whereas other groups exhibited significant differences after thermocycling (p < 0.05). Thermocycling decreased the bond strength values in both the PMMA and UDMA groups. Regardless of types of soft liners, PMMA specimens presented lower bond strength values than UDMA specimens, both before and after thermocycling. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. The Effect of Gap Angle on Tensile Strength of Preceramic Base Metal Solder Joints

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Hashemi Ardakani, Zahra; Hashemi Ardakani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Soldering is a process commonly used in fabricating dental prosthesis. Since most soldered prosthesis fail at the solder joints; the joint strength is of utmost importance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap angle on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Materials and Method A total number of 40 Ni-Cr samples were fabricated according to ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test. Samples were cut at the midpoint of the bar, and were placed at the considered angles by employing an explicitly designed device. They were divided into 4 groups regarding the gap angle; Group C (control group) with parallel gap on steady distance of 0.2mm, Group 1: 10°, Group 2: 20°, and Group3: 30° gap angles. When soldered, the specimens were all tested for tensile strength using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min with a preload of 10N. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to compare tensile strength among the groups (p< 0.05). Results The mean tensile strength values obtained from the study groups were respectively 307.84, 391.50, 365.18, and 368.86 MPa. The tensile strength was not statistically different among the four groups in general (p≤ 0.490). Conclusion Making the gap angular at the solder joints and the subsequent unsteady increase of the gap distance would not change the tensile strength of the joint. PMID:26636118

  10. Effect of Aging on Bond Strength of Two Soft Lining Materials to a Denture Base Polymer.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alaa'a M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation the effect of immersion in distilled water and inorganic artificial saliva on the shear bond strength of a heat-polymerized and an auto-polymerized silicone-based denture lining materials. The denture liners investigated were Molloplast-B (heat-polymerized), and Mollosil plus (auto-polymerized). The soft liner specimens were 10 × 10 × 2.5 mm and were processed between two poly(methylmethacrylate) plates. Thirty shear specimens for each type of test lining material were prepared. Specimens were divided equally into three groups for each test lining material: first group, specimens were tested after 48 h of preparation without immersion; second group, specimens were tested following immersion in distilled water at 37 °C for 12 months; and third group, specimens were tested following immersion in inorganic artificial saliva at 37 °C for 12 months. Shear bond strength was measured using an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 40 mm/min and failure mode (adhesive, cohesive and mixed) after debonding was assessed. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (α = 0.05). ANOVA was followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests for pairwise comparisons. A significant difference in shear bond strength was detected between Molloplast-B and Mollosil plus following immersion in distilled water and artificial saliva. Molloplast-B demonstrated considerably higher shear strength than Mollosil plus after immersion. Shear strengths of the lining materials investigated reduced significantly after immersion in both solutions. Visual examination after separation revealed that the soft materials tested exhibited mostly adhesive failure. The effect of immersion in distilled water and inorganic artificial saliva on bond strength of test lining materials was perceivable; however, both of them had acceptable bond strength and might be proper for long-term use.

  11. Effect of Intermediate Agents and Preheated Composites on Repair Bond Strength of Silorane-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Daryadar, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Repairing composite restorations is a challenging procedure especially when two different types of composites are used. This study aimed to compare the repair strength of silorane-based composite (SC) (Filtek P90) with that of preheated SC, methacrylate composite (MC)(Z250), flowable MC (Filtek Supreme Plus) and different adhesive/composite combinations. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four SC specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into seven groups (G). In the control group (G7), SC was bonded immediately to SC. The other specimens were water-aged for two months and were then roughened, etched and repaired with the following materials: G1) Silorane Adhesive Bond (SAB)/SC; G2) Preheated SC; G3) SAB/MC; G4) Adper Single Bond (SB)/MC; G5) Flowable MC/MC; G6) Preheated MC. After water storage and thermocycling, the repaired specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Preheated SC and MC, flowable MC and SAB/SC resulted in bond strength comparable to that of the control group. Preheated SC showed significantly higher bond strength when compared to SAB/MC (P=0.04) and SB/MC (P<0.001). Bond strength of SB/MC was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.05), except for SAB/SC and SAB/MC. Conclusion: All repairing materials except for SB/MC resulted in bond strength values comparable to that of the control group. Repair with preheated SC yielded the highest bond strength. PMID:27148378

  12. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, S.M.; Tao, H.; Todd-Copley, J.A.

    1991-06-11

    A process is disclosed for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength. 1 figure.

  13. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, Stephen M.; Tao, Hongyi; Todd-Copley, Judith A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the tensile bond strength of two silicone based denture liners with denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manish; Anil Kumar, S; Sandhu, H S; Iyer, Satish R; Ahuja, Ratandeep S

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate and compare tensile bond strength of two silicone based liners with heat cure and heat cure high impact denture base resin at baseline and after storage in artificial saliva for 30 and 60 days. Heat cure conventional and high impact acrylic blocks (120 blocks each) prepared with final test specimen of two blocks of each resin with a liner. The baseline samples and those tested after 30 and 60 days interval stored in artificial saliva in thermal incubator, all were pulled apart in UTM at 20 mm/min. The tensile bond strength and mode of failure (adhesive/cohesive) were assessed. Mean, SD determined and analysis using one way ANOVA and paired 't' test. The highest mean tensile bond strength (1.028 MPa) and the least i.e. 0.289 MPa was observed with Permaflex silicone liner against heat cure PMMA after storage in artificial saliva at 37 ± 1 °C. The study rejected the null hypothesis because storage time in artificial saliva affected the bond strength of the resilient liners examined. The results revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) of artificial saliva storage on the bond strength of both the liners. After storage in artificial saliva for 30 days and 60 days at 37 ± 1 °C, all the specimens showed a significant reduction in the tensile bond strength.

  15. Increased TCR signal strength in DN thymocytes promotes development of gut TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) intraepithelial lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Capucine L; Sumaria, Nital; Martin, Stefania; Pennington, Daniel J

    2017-09-06

    CD4((+))CD8((+)) "double positive" (DP) thymocytes differentiate into diverse αβ T cell sub-types using mechanistically distinct programs. For example, conventional αβ T cells develop from DP cells after partial-agonist T cell receptor (TCR) interactions with self-peptide/MHC, whereas unconventional αβ T cells, such as TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), require full-agonist TCR interactions. Despite this, DP cells appear homogeneous, and it remains unclear how distinct TCR signalling instructs distinct developmental outcomes. Moreover, whether TCR signals at earlier stages of development, for example in CD4((-))CD8((-)) double negative (DN) cells, impact on later fate decisions is presently unknown. Here, we assess four strains of mice that display altered TCR signal strength in DN cells, which correlates with altered generation of unconventional TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IELs. FVB/n mice (compared to C57BL/6 animals) and mice with altered preTCRα (pTα) expression, both displayed weaker TCR signalling in DN cells, an inefficient DN-to-DP transition, and reduced contribution of TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IELs to gut epithelium. Conversely, TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IEL development was favoured in mice with increased TCR signal strength in DN cells. Collectively, these data suggest TCR signal strength in DN cells directly impacts on subsequent DP cell differentiation, fundamentally altering the potential of thymocyte progenitors to adopt conventional versus unconventional T cell fates.

  16. Shear bond strength of epoxy resin-based endodontic sealers to bovine dentin after ozone application.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Witold; Czarnecka, Beata; Pryliński, Mariusz; Walory, Jarosław

    2009-01-01

    The idea of using ozone to disinfect root canals is of recent origin. The wide acceptance of epoxy resin-based sealers lead us to investigate whether ozone can influence the adhesion to the dentin. In this study, we tested the shear bond strength of AH Plus and EZ Fill. Forty freshly extracted bovine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups. 16 of these samples were treated with ozone for 60 seconds (HealOzone, Kavo). 8 samples were conditioned with the G Bond bonding system. The groups tested were: (1) AH Plus, (2) AH Plus and ozone, (3) EZ Fill, (4) EZ Fill and ozone, (5) AH Plus and G Bond. 48 hours after being prepared the specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between materials (AH Plus > EZ Fill) and significant, positive influence of ozone and bonding agent on the shear bond strength.

  17. Building on the strengths of a Cambodian refugee community through community-based outreach.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Saito, Dorcas; Och, Sheila; Liang, Sidney; Toof, Robin; Silka, Linda

    2008-10-01

    Literature and practice are limited on strategies to reach elder Southeast Asian refugees by using their strengths and resilience. This article presents the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Cambodian Community Health 2010 Program in Lowell, Massachusetts, as a case example and provides refugee history, project background, community survey results about strengths and risks, literature on strengths-based approaches, outreach activities, and evaluation. The focus is elimination of health disparities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes. "Community conversations" and a daylong forum with community leaders were used to develop plans for outreach. A Cambodian Elders Council provided information and guidance used to refine the program. Key findings highlight involving elders in organizing events, avoiding reliance on literacy, integrating health promotion with socialization, using ties with Buddhist temples, developing transportation alternatives, and utilizing local Khmer-language media. Implications include applicability to other refugee communities with low literacy, high levels of trauma, limited English, and strong religious involvement.

  18. Magnetic Field Strength Dependence of Transverse Relaxation and Signal-to-Noise Ratio for Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 and Helium-3 Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Viqueira, William

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases (HNG), 3He or 129Xe, has become a promising approach for studying lung anatomy and function. Unlike conventional MR imaging, the magnetization in HNG MR is independent of the magnetic field strength. This means that no improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is expected with increasing clinical field strength above ˜0.25T. Furthermore, it has been predicted that the SNR may decline at clinical field strength due to decreases in the apparent transverse relaxation time (T2*), caused by the increased magnetic susceptibility induced field gradients at the air-tissue interface. In this thesis the magnetic field strength dependence of T2* and SNR in HNG MR is investigated experimentally in rodent and human lungs. For rodent imaging, a novel broad-band (0.1-100MHz) variable field strength MR imaging system for rodents was built. This system permitted imaging of 129Xe, 3He and 1H at low magnetic field strengths (3-73.5mT) to experimentally investigate the field dependence of HNG imaging SNR in rodent lungs. In vivo 129Xe and 3He signals were acquired at 73.5mT and T 2* was estimated to be approximately 180+/-8 ms, in good agreement with previously reported values. At 73.5mT, image noise is dominated by losses originated from the radiofrequency (RF) coils. To address this issue, RF coils were built using different types of copper wire and compared in phantoms and in vivo in rat lungs using hyperpolarized 3He and 129Xe gas. An SNR improvement of up to 200% was obtained with Litz wire compared to conventional copper wire. This improvement demonstrated the feasibility of HNG lung imaging in rodents at 73.5mT with SNR comparable to that obtained at clinical field strengths. To verify the SNR field dependence in humans, hyperpolarized 3He lung imaging at two commonly used clinical field strengths (1.5T and 3T) was performed in the same volunteers and compared. No significant differences in SNR were obtained

  19. A stochastic XFEM model for the tensile strength prediction of heterogeneous graphite based on microstructural observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Manik; Singh, I. V.; Mishra, B. K.; Sharma, Kamal; Khan, I. A.

    2017-04-01

    A stochastic XFEM model based on microstructural observations has been developed to evaluate the tensile strength of NBG-18 nuclear graphite. The nuclear graphite consists of pitch matrix, filler particles, pores and micro-cracks. The numerical simulations are performed at two length scales due to large difference in average size of filler particles and pores. Both deterministic and stochastic approaches have been implemented. The study intends to illustrate the variation in tensile strength due to heterogeneities modeled stochastically. The properties of pitch matrix and filler particles are assumed to be known at the constituent level. The material models for both pitch and fillers are assumed to be linear elastic. The stochastic size and spatial distribution of the pores and filler particles has been modeled during the micro and macro analysis respectively. The strength of equivalent porous pitch matrix evaluated at micro level has been distributed stochastically in the elemental domain along with filler particles for macro analysis. The effect of micro-cracks has been incorporated indirectly by considering fracture plane in each filler particle. Tensile strength of nuclear graphite is obtained by performing the simulations at macro-level. Statistical parameters evaluated using numerical tensile strength data agree well with experimentally obtained statistical parameters available in the literature.

  20. Impact strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bochio, Bruna C; Wady, Amanda F; Jorge, Janaina H; Canevarolo, Sebastião V; Vergani, Carlos E

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact strength of a denture base resin (Lucitone 550—L) and four reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II—T; Ufi Gel Hard—U; New Truliner—NT, and Kooliner—K), both intact and in a reline combination (L/L, L/T, L/U, L/NT, and L/K). For each group (n = 20), half of the specimens were thermocycled before testing. Charpy tests were performed, and the impact strengths were calculated. Data were analyzed by two-way analyses of variance and Tukey’s test (p = 0.05). For the intact groups, mean impact strength values for L (1.65 and 1.50) were significantly higher than those of the reline resins (0.38–1.17). For the relined groups, the highest mean impact strength values were produced by L/T (5.76 and 5.12), L/NT (6.20 and 6.03), and L/K (5.60 and 5.31) and the lowest by L/U (0.76 and 0.78). There were no significant differences between L and L/L. Thermocycling reduced the impact strength of T (from 0.73 to 0.38) and L/L (from 1.82 to 1.56). PMID:22977461

  1. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO2-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozulin, A. A.; Narikovich, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.; Leitsin, V. N.; Kulkov, S. S.

    2016-08-01

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO2-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91-0.98, 0.8-0.83, and 0.73-0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 105 stress cycles is in the range 33-34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  2. An evaluation of elastomeric impression materials based on surface compressive strength.

    PubMed

    Omori, K; Arikawa, H; Inoue, K

    2001-04-01

    The setting times of seven commercially available elastomeric impression materials were determined using Wilson's reciprocating rheometer at temperatures 23 +/- 0.5 or 32 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The surface compressive strength and depression of these materials after setting time were measured using a rheometer (Fudoh). Each material was mixed according to the mixing proportion (base/accelerator or catalyst ratio) recommended by the manufacturer. The surface compressive strength and the depression of each material were measured by using a method which pressed the material to the edge of a sensitive rod (2.0 mm in diameter) connected to a load cell. In the case of silicone impression materials (additional type) at a temperature of 23 +/- 0.5 degrees C, the surface compressive strength and the depression of these materials were extremely stable after the setting time. However, the surface compressive strength of other materials except additional type materials increased markedly after setting time and the depression corresponding to the surface compressive strength decreased. These increased largely with the increase, in pressing speed to the sensitive rod. At 450 s from the setting time of all materials, there was an adequate correlation (r = 0.84) between measured values and theoretical values derived using the theory of elasticity.

  3. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kozulin, A. A. Kulkov, S. S.; Narikovich, A. S.; Leitsin, V. N.; Kulkov, S. N.

    2016-08-02

    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO{sub 2}-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91–0.98, 0.8–0.83, and 0.73–0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 10{sup 5} stress cycles is in the range 33–34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  4. Design of transient light signal simulator based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Chen, Rong-li; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    A design scheme of transient light signal simulator based on Field Programmable gate Array (FPGA) was proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of transient light signals and measured feature points of optical intensity signals, a fitted curve was created in MATLAB. And then the wave data was stored in a programmed memory chip AT29C1024 by using SUPERPRO programmer. The control logic was realized inside one EP3C16 FPGA chip. Data readout, data stream cache and a constant current buck regulator for powering high-brightness LEDs were all controlled by FPGA. A 12-Bit multiplying CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) DAC7545 and an amplifier OPA277 were used to convert digital signals to voltage signals. A voltage-controlled current source constituted by a NPN transistor and an operational amplifier controlled LED array diming to achieve simulation of transient light signal. LM3405A, 1A Constant Current Buck Regulator for Powering LEDs, was used to simulate strong background signal in space. Experimental results showed that the scheme as a transient light signal simulator can satisfy the requests of the design stably.

  5. Enhanced Wnt signaling improves bone mass and strength, but not brittleness, in the Col1a1(+/mov13) mouse model of type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Christina M; Schwartz, Marissa A; Roberts, Heather J; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Zurakowski, David; Robling, Alexander G; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of genetic skeletal fragility disorders. The mildest form of OI, Osteogenesis Imperfecta type I, is frequently caused by haploinsufficiency mutations in COL1A1, the gene encoding the α1(I) chain of type 1 collagen. Children with OI type I have a 95-fold higher fracture rate compared to unaffected children. Therapies for OI type I in the pediatric population are limited to anti-catabolic agents. In adults with osteoporosis, anabolic therapies that enhance Wnt signaling in bone improve bone mass, and ongoing clinical trials are determining if these therapies also reduce fracture risk. We performed a proof-of-principle experiment in mice to determine whether enhancing Wnt signaling in bone could benefit children with OI type I. We crossed a mouse model of OI type I (Col1a1(+/Mov13)) with a high bone mass (HBM) mouse (Lrp5(+/p.A214V)) that has increased bone strength from enhanced Wnt signaling. Offspring that inherited the OI and HBM alleles had higher bone mass and strength than mice that inherited the OI allele alone. However, OI+HBM and OI mice still had bones with lower ductility compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that enhancing Wnt signaling does not make OI bone normal, but does improve bone properties that could reduce fracture risk. Therefore, agents that enhance Wnt signaling are likely to benefit children and adults with OI type 1.

  6. Effect of different housing retaining materials on the flexural strength of an acrylic resin overdenture base.

    PubMed

    Ozkir, Serhat Emre; Yilmaz, Burak

    2017-04-03

    An attachment housing inside an overdenture may weaken the acrylic resin base. The type of housing retaining material may affect the strength of the housing retaining material-acrylic resin base assembly. The effect of different housing retaining materials on the strength of acrylic resin base is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different materials used to retain the housing on the flexural strength of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin base. Sixty PMMA specimens (64×10×4 mm) were prepared with a clearance inside to allow the insertion of overdenture housings. Five different materials were used for housing orientation: an autopolymerizing composite resin, an acrylic resin reline material, a heat-polymerized PMMA, an autopolymerizing PMMA (n=10), and a control group (n=10) were prepared without any preparation or housing. The specimens were thermocycled 5000 times between 5°C and 55°C. The flexural strength data were analyzed by an analysis of variance using the maximum likelihood estimation method to eliminate the needs for normality within the groups and for equality of variances between the groups. If statistically significant, resolution of the significance factor was obtained by pairwise comparisons using the Tukey adjustment (α=.05). The fracture values were statistically significantly higher (P<.05) for the control group (90.22 ±12.46 MPa) than the test groups (heat-polymerized, 27.36 ±4.86 MPa), the autopolymerizing material (26.78 ±6.72 MPa), the acrylic resin reline material (16.94 ±4.38 MPa), the Ufigel (16.07 ±3.40 MPa), and the autopolymerizing composite resin (19.37 ±3.13 MPa). Heat- and autopolymerizing PMMA groups were significantly different from acrylic resin-based hard reline materials (P<.05). However, the remaining groups were not significantly different from each other. All fractures included both the PMMA and retaining material except for one of the hard reline groups, which separated

  7. COMPARISON OF QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY-BASED MEASURES IN PREDICTING VERTEBRAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jenni M.; Loo, Kenneth; Motherway, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Patient-specific measures derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans are currently being developed as a clinical tool for vertebral strength prediction. QCT-based measurement techniques vary greatly in structural complexity and generally fall into one of three categories: 1) bone mineral density (BMD), 2) “mechanics of solids” (MOS) models, such as minimum axial rigidity (the product of axial stiffness and vertebral height), or 3) three dimensional finite element (FE) models. There is no clear consensus as to the relative performance of these measures due to differences in experimental protocols, sample sizes and demographics, and outcome metrics. The goal of this study was to directly compare the performance of QCT-based assessment techniques of varying degrees of structural sophistication in predicting experimental vertebral compressive strength. Eighty-one human thoracic vertebrae (T6 – T10) from 44 donors cadavers (F = 32, M = 12; 85 + 8 y.o., max = 97 y.o., min = 54 y.o.) were QCT scanned and destructively tested in uniaxial compression. The QCT scans were processed to generate FE models and various BMD and MOS measures, including trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD), integral bone mineral density (iBMD), and axial rigidity. Bone mineral density was weakly to moderately predictive of compressive strength (R2 = 0.16 and 0.62 for tBMD and iBMD, respectively). Ex vivo vertebral strength was strongly correlated with both axial rigidity (R2 = 0.81) and FE strength measurements (R2 = 0.80), and the predictive capabilities of these two metrics were statistically equivalent (p > 0.05 for differences between FE and axial rigidity). The results of this study indicate that non-invasive predictive measures of vertebral strength should include some level of structural sophistication, specifically, gross geometric and material property distribution information. However, for uniaxial compression of isolated vertebrae, which is the current biomechanical

  8. Wearable Systems for Service based on Physiological Signals.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young-Sung; Lee, Jeun-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Many researches for useful status information on humans have been done using the bio-signals. The bio-signal acquisition systems can be used to connect a user and a ubiquitous computing environment. The ubiquitous computing environment has to give various services anywhere, anytime. Consequently, ubiquitous computing requires new technology, such as a new user interface, dynamic service mechanism based on context and mobility support, which is different from technology used in desktop environment. To do this, we developed a wearable system, which can sense physiological data, determine emotional status and execute service based on the emotion. In this paper, we described wearable systems for personalized service based on physiological signals. The wearable system is composed of three subsystems, the physiological data sensing subsystem, the human status awareness subsystem and the service management subsystem. The physiological data sensing subsystem senses PPG, GSR and SKT signals from the data glove and sends the data to a wearable system using Bluetooth. The human status awareness subsystem in the wearable system receives the data from bio-sensors and determines emotional status using nonlinear mapping and rule-base. After determining emotion, the service management subsystem activates proper service automatically, and the service management subsystem can provide personalized service for users based on acquired bio-signals. Also, we presented various feature extraction using bio-signals such as PPG, GSR, SKT considering mobility, and emotion recognition of human status for the ubiquitous computing service.

  9. Bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four kinds of injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) and PMMA, as a control, were tested. The eight types of surface treatment: ((1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) air abrasion and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating, and (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin) were applied to each specimen. The chairside autopolymerizing reline resins were bonded to disks of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. All of the specimens were immersed in water for 4 months and then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5 and 55°C. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths of the two polyamides treated using air abrasion, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were exceedingly low. The greatest bond strength was recorded for the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.5MPa). The bond strengths of the other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins increased using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin were the most effective surface treatments among all denture base resins tested. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Preliminary study of bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramic and veneering porcelains].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-li; Gao, Mei-qin; Cheng, Yu-ye; Zhang, Fei-min

    2015-04-01

    In order to choose the best veneering porcelain for diatomite-based dental ceramic substrate, the bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramics and veneering porcelains was measured, and the microstructure and elements distribution of interface were analyzed. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diatomite-based dental ceramics was detected by dilatometry. Three veneering porcelain materials were selected with the best CTE matching including alumina veneering porcelain (group A), titanium porcelain veneering porcelain (group B), and E-max veneering porcelain (group C). Shear bonding strength was detected. SEM and EDS were used to observe the interface microstructure and element distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. The CTE of diatomite-based dental ceramics at 25-500 degrees centigrade was 8.85×10-6K-1. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combined best with group C. Shear bonding strength between group A and C and group B and C both showed significant differences(P<0.05). SEM and EDS showed that the interface of group C sintered tightly and elements permeated on both sides of the interface. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combines better with E-max porcelain veneer.

  11. Determination of the electric field strength of filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, P.; Kettlitz, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Höft, H.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that a four-wave mixing technique based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) can determine the electric field strength of a pulsed-driven filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of 1 mm gap, using hydrogen as a tracer medium in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The measurements are presented for a hydrogen admixture of 10%, but even 5% H2 admixture delivers sufficient infrared signals. The lasers do not affect the discharge by photoionization or by other radiation-induced processes. The absolute values of the electric field strength can be determined by the calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. This procedure also enables the determination of the applied breakdown voltage. The alteration of the electric field is observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. One advantage of the CARS technique over emission-based methods is that it can be used independently of emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive discharges, where no emission occurs at all.

  12. Repair bond strength in aged methacrylate- and silorane-based composites.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Atais; Consani, Rafael Leonardo; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre; Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Cavalcante, Larissa Maria; Pfeifer, Carmem Silva; Schneider, Luis Felipe

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the tensile bond strength at repaired interfaces of aged dental composites, either dimethacrylate- or silorane-based, when subjected to different surface treatments. The composites used were Filtek P60 (methacrylate-based, 3M ESPE) and Filtek P90 (silorane-based, 3M ESPE), of which 50 slabs were stored for 6 months at 37°C. The surface of adhesion was abraded with a 600-grit silicone paper and the slabs repaired with the respective composite, according to the following surface treatment protocols: G1: no treatment; G2: adhesive application; G3: silane + adhesive; G4: sandblasting (Al2O3) + adhesive; G5: sandblasting (Al2O3) + silane + adhesive. After 24-h storage in distilled water at 37°C, tensile bond strength (TBS) was determined in a universal testing machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The original data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). The methacrylate-based composite presented a statistically significantly higher repair potential than did the silorane-based resin (p = 0.0002). Of the surface treatments for the silorane-based composite, aluminum-oxide air abrasion and adhesive (18.5 ± 3.3MPa) provided higher bond strength than only adhesive application or the control group without surface treatment. For Filtek P60, the control without treatment presented lower repair strength than all other groups with surface treatments, which were statistically similar to each other. The interaction between the factors resin composite and surface treatment was significant (p = 0.002). For aged silorane-based materials, repairs were considered successful after sandblasting (Al2O3) and adhesive application. For methacrylate resin, repair was successful with all surface treatments tested.

  13. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    PubMed Central

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-01-01

    Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events

  14. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy--a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles.

    PubMed

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Verschuren, Olaf; Tempelaars, Els; Hensen, Maartje; Becher, Jules G

    2008-10-08

    Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training) or a control group (usual care). The strength training was given in groups of 4-5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM). To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests) and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test). Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test), mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire), and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment). Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any adverse events. Randomized clinical trials are

  15. Hydrogen induced cracking tests of high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the bolt-loaded specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Vigilante, G.N.; Underwood, J.H.; Crayon, D.; Tauscher, S.; Sage, T.; Troiano, E.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen induced cracking tests were conducted on high strength steels and nickel-iron base alloys using the constant displacement bolt-loaded compact specimen. The bolt-loaded specimen was subjected to both acid and electrochemical cell environments in order to produce hydrogen. The materials tested were A723, Maraging 200, PH 13-8 Mo, Alloy 718, Alloy 706, and A286, and ranged in yield strength from 760--1400 MPa. The effects of chemical composition, refinement, heat treatment, and strength on hydrogen induced crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and thresholds were examined. In general, all high strength steels tested exhibited similar crack growth rates and threshold levels. In comparison, the nickel-iron base alloys tested exhibited up to three orders of magnitude lower crack growth rates than the high strength steels tested. It is widely known that high strength steels and nickel base alloys exhibit different crack growth rates, in part, because of their different crystal cell structure. In the high strength steels tested, refinement and heat treatment had some effect on hydrogen induced cracking, though strength was the predominant factor influencing susceptibility to cracking. When the yield strength of one of the high strength steels tested was increased moderately, from 1130 MPa to 1275 MPa, the incubation times decreased by over two orders of magnitude, the crack growth rates increased by an order of magnitude, and the threshold stress intensity was slightly lower.

  16. A Channelization-Based DOA Estimation Method for Wideband Signals

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yue; Lin, Qianqiang; Chen, Zengping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method for wideband signals with sensor arrays. The proposed method splits the wideband array output into multiple frequency sub-channels and estimates the signal parameters using a digital channelization receiver. Based on the output sub-channels, a channelization-based incoherent signal subspace method (Channelization-ISM) and a channelization-based test of orthogonality of projected subspaces method (Channelization-TOPS) are proposed. Channelization-ISM applies narrowband signal subspace methods on each sub-channel independently. Then the arithmetic mean or geometric mean of the estimated DOAs from each sub-channel gives the final result. Channelization-TOPS measures the orthogonality between the signal and the noise subspaces of the output sub-channels to estimate DOAs. The proposed channelization-based method isolates signals in different bandwidths reasonably and improves the output SNR. It outperforms the conventional ISM and TOPS methods on estimation accuracy and dynamic range, especially in real environments. Besides, the parallel processing architecture makes it easy to implement on hardware. A wideband digital array radar (DAR) using direct wideband radio frequency (RF) digitization is presented. Experiments carried out in a microwave anechoic chamber with the wideband DAR are presented to demonstrate the performance. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:27384566

  17. Microshear Bond Strength of Tri-Calcium Silicate-based Cements to Different Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Ulusoy, Nuran

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength of tri-calcium silicate-based materials to different restorative materials. Thirty-five disks of TheraCal LC and Biodentine were fabricated using teflon molds according to manufacturers' instructions. Then the specimens were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the materials applied: Fuji IX, Fuji II, Equia Fil, Vertise Flow, Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative, Filtek Z250 with Prime&Bond NT and with Clearfil SE Bond. All restorative materials were placed onto the disks using tygon tubes. Following a storage period, the specimens underwent microshear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine, and fracture modes were analyzed. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. For all restorative materials, TheraCal LC showed significantly higher μSBS values compared to Biodentine. GIC based materials showed the lowest μSBS for TheraCal and Biodentine. For Biodentine, Filtek Z250 applied with Prime&Bond NT and Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative applied with Scotchbond Universal Adhesive exhibited the highest μSBS, while Filtek Z250 applied with Clearfil SE Bond revealed the highest bond strength to TheraCal LC. For all restorative materials tested in this study, TheraCal LC showed higher μSBS compared to Biodentine. For both TheraCal LC and Biodentine, the placement of GIC-based materials prior to composite resin restorations might decrease the bond strength. Composite resins applied with self-etching adhesives increased the bond strength of TheraCal LC; however, for Biodentine, application of etch-and-rinse adhesives may improve the adhesion of composite resins.

  18. The fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates the strength and fidelity of calcium signaling in Drosophila mushroom body neurons.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder characterized by hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli, hyperactivity and severe cognitive impairment. FXS is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, whose FMRP product regulates mRNA translation downstream of synaptic activity to modulate changes in synaptic architecture, function and plasticity. Null Drosophila FMR1 (dfmr1) mutants exhibit reduced learning and loss of protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation, which is dependent on the brain mushroom body (MB) learning and memory center. We targeted a transgenic GFP-based calcium reporter to the MB in order to analyze calcium dynamics downstream of neuronal activation. In the dfmr1 null MB, there was significant augmentation of the calcium transients induced by membrane depolarization, as well as elevated release of calcium from intracellular organelle stores. The severity of these calcium signaling defects increased with developmental age, although early stages were characterized by highly variable, low fidelity calcium regulation. At the single neuron level, both calcium transient and calcium store release defects were exhibited by dfmr1 null MB neurons in primary culture. Null dfmr1 mutants exhibit reduced brain mRNA expression of calcium-binding proteins, including calcium buffers calmodulin and calbindin, predicting that the inability to appropriately sequester cytosolic calcium may be the common mechanistic defect causing calcium accumulation following both influx and store release. Changes in the magnitude and fidelity of calcium signals in the absence of dFMRP likely contribute to defects in neuronal structure/function, leading to the hallmark learning and memory dysfunction of FXS.

  19. Space-based RF signal classification using adaptive wavelet features

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, M.; Briles, S.

    1995-04-01

    RF signals are dispersed in frequency as they propagate through the ionosphere. For wide-band signals, this results in nonlinearly- chirped-frequency, transient signals in the VHF portion of the spectrum. This ionospheric dispersion provide a means of discriminating wide-band transients from other signals (e.g., continuous-wave carriers, burst communications, chirped-radar signals, etc.). The transient nature of these dispersed signals makes them candidates for wavelet feature selection. Rather than choosing a wavelet ad hoc, we adaptively compute an optimal mother wavelet via a neural network. Gaussian weighted, linear frequency modulate (GLFM) wavelets are linearly combined by the network to generate our application specific mother wavelet, which is optimized for its capacity to select features that discriminate between the dispersed signals and clutter (e.g., multiple continuous-wave carriers), not for its ability to represent the dispersed signal. The resulting mother wavelet is then used to extract features for a neutral network classifier. The performance of the adaptive wavelet classifier is the compared to an FFT based neural network classifier.

  20. Are free radicals involved in thiol-based redox signaling?

    PubMed

    Winterbourn, Christine C

    2015-03-01

    Cells respond to many stimuli by transmitting signals through redox-regulated pathways. It is generally accepted that in many instances signal transduction is via reversible oxidation of thiol proteins, although there is uncertainty about the specific redox transformations involved. The prevailing view is that thiol oxidation occurs by a two electron mechanism, most commonly involving hydrogen peroxide. Free radicals, on the other hand, are considered as damaging species and not generally regarded as important in cell signaling. This paper examines whether it is justified to dismiss radicals or whether they could have a signaling role. Although there is no direct evidence that radicals are involved in transmitting thiol-based redox signals, evidence is presented that they are generated in cells when these signaling pathways are activated. Radicals produce the same thiol oxidation products as two electron oxidants, although by a different mechanism, and at this point radical-mediated pathways should not be dismissed. There are unresolved issues about how radical mechanisms could achieve sufficient selectivity, but this could be possible through colocalization of radical-generating and signal-transducing proteins. Colocalization is also likely to be important for nonradical signaling mechanisms and identification of such associations should be a priority for advancing the field.

  1. An evidence-based combining classifier for brain signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, high dimensionality and noisy signals. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of brain signals and the impacts of mental states on brain function, the brain signals are associated with an inherent uncertainty. In this paper, an evidence-based combining classifiers method is proposed for brain signal analysis. This method exploits the power of combining classifiers for solving complex problems and the ability of evidence theory to model as well as to reduce the existing uncertainty. The proposed method models the uncertainty in the labels of training samples in each feature space by assigning soft and crisp labels to them. Then, some classifiers are employed to approximate the belief function corresponding to each feature space. By combining the evidence raised from each classifier through the evidence theory, more confident decisions about testing samples can be made. The obtained results by the proposed method compared to some other evidence-based and fixed rule combining methods on artificial and real datasets exhibit the ability of the proposed method in dealing with complex and uncertain classification problems.

  2. An Evidence-Based Combining Classifier for Brain Signal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Nowzari-Dalini, Abbas; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, brain signals are employed in various scientific and practical fields such as Medical Science, Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, and Brain Computer Interfaces. Hence, the need for robust signal analysis methods with adequate accuracy and generalizability is inevitable. The brain signal analysis is faced with complex challenges including small sample size, high dimensionality and noisy signals. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of brain signals and the impacts of mental states on brain function, the brain signals are associated with an inherent uncertainty. In this paper, an evidence-based combining classifiers method is proposed for brain signal analysis. This method exploits the power of combining classifiers for solving complex problems and the ability of evidence theory to model as well as to reduce the existing uncertainty. The proposed method models the uncertainty in the labels of training samples in each feature space by assigning soft and crisp labels to them. Then, some classifiers are employed to approximate the belief function corresponding to each feature space. By combining the evidence raised from each classifier through the evidence theory, more confident decisions about testing samples can be made. The obtained results by the proposed method compared to some other evidence-based and fixed rule combining methods on artificial and real datasets exhibit the ability of the proposed method in dealing with complex and uncertain classification problems. PMID:24392125

  3. Mathematical operations for acoustic signals based on layered labyrinthine metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Shu-Yu; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic devices such as acoustic diodes, switches, and logic gates can manipulate acoustic signals extraordinarily and show potential in acoustic engineering. However, pioneering works suffer from the limitations of simple functionality, high losses, and geometrical complexity. Here, we present an acoustic analog computing system based on acoustic metasurfaces constructed from layered labyrinthine metamaterials. The system can perform complex mathematical operations, such as spatial differentiation, integration, and convolution on acoustic signals. The proposed system offers a practical, efficient, and flexible solution of designing compact devices for acoustic computing applications, signal processing, and acoustic wave manipulations.

  4. [Design of Electrocardiogram Signal Generator Based on Typical Electrocardiogram Database].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuting; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Dongshang; Liu, Guili

    2016-02-01

    Using LabVIEW programming and high-speed multifunction data acquisition card PCI-6251, we designed an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal generator based on Chinese typical ECG database. When the ECG signals are given off by the generator, the generator can also display the ECG information annotations at the same time, including waveform data and diagnostic results. It could be a useful assisting tool of ECG automatic diagnose instruments.

  5. Sparse representation-based ECG signal enhancement and QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yichao; Hu, Xiyuan; Tang, Zhenmin; Ahn, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal enhancement and QRS complex detection is a critical preprocessing step for further heart disease analysis and diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a sparse representation-based ECG signal enhancement and QRS complex detection algorithm. Unlike traditional Fourier or wavelet transform-based methods, which use fixed bases, the proposed algorithm models the ECG signal as the superposition of a few inner structures plus additive random noise, where these structures (referred to here as atoms) can be learned from the input signal or a training set. Using these atoms and their properties, we can accurately approximate the original ECG signal and remove the noise and other artifacts such as baseline wandering. Additionally, some of the atoms with larger kurtosis values can be modified and used as an indication function to detect and locate the QRS complexes in the enhanced ECG signals. To demonstrate the robustness and efficacy of the proposed algorithm, we compare it with several state-of-the-art ECG enhancement and QRS detection algorithms using both simulated and real-life ECG recordings.

  6. NO regulates the strength of synaptic inputs onto hippocampal CA1 neurons via NO-GC1/cGMP signalling.

    PubMed

    Neitz, A; Mergia, E; Neubacher, U; Koesling, D; Mittmann, T

    2015-06-01

    GABAergic interneurons are the predominant source of inhibition in the brain that coordinate the level of excitation and synchronization in neuronal circuitries. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here we report nitric oxide (NO)/NO-GC1 signalling as an important regulatory mechanism of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampal CA1 region. Deletion of the NO receptor NO-GC1 induced functional alterations, indicated by a strong reduction of spontaneous and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), which could be compensated by application of the missing second messenger cGMP. Moreover, we found a general impairment in the strength of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs onto CA1 pyramidal neurons deriving from NO-GC1KO mice. Finally, we disclosed one subpopulation of GABAergic interneurons, fast-spiking interneurons, that receive less excitatory synaptic input and consequently respond with less spike output after blockage of the NO/cGMP signalling pathway. On the basis of these and previous findings, we propose NO-GC1 as the major NO receptor which transduces the NO signal into cGMP at presynaptic terminals of different neuronal subtypes in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, we suggest NO-GC1-mediated cGMP signalling as a mechanism which regulates the strength of synaptic transmission, hence being important in gating information processing between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 region.

  7. Effects of follicular versus luteal phase-based strength training in young women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Eunsook; Han, Ahreum; Hinrichs, Timo; Vorgerd, Matthias; Manchado, Carmen; Platen, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle (MC) may influence trainability of strength. We investigated the effects of a follicular phase-based strength training (FT) on muscle strength, muscle volume and microscopic parameters, comparing it to a luteal phase-based training (LT). Eumenorrheic women without oral contraception (OC) (N = 20, age: 25.9 ± 4.5 yr, height: 164.2 ± 5.5 cm, weight: 60.6 ± 7.8 kg) completed strength training on a leg press for three MC, and 9 of them participated in muscle biopsies. One leg had eight training sessions in the follicular phases (FP) and only two sessions in the luteal phases (LP) for follicular phase-based training (FT), while the other leg had eight training sessions in LP and only two sessions in FP for luteal phase-based training (LT). Estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (free T) and DHEA-s were analysed once during FP (around day 11) and once during LP (around day 25). Maximum isometric force (Fmax), muscle diameter (Mdm), muscle fibre composition (No), fibre diameter (Fdm) and cell nuclei-to-fibre ratio (N/F) were analysed before and after the training intervention. T and free T were higher in FP compared to LP prior to the training intervention (P < 0.05). The increase in Fmax after FT was higher compared to LT (P <0.05). FT also showed a higher increase in Mdm than LT (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found significant increases in Fdm of fibre type ΙΙ and in N/F only after FT; however, there was no significant difference from LT. With regard to change in fibre composition, no differences were observed between FT and LT. FT showed a higher gain in muscle strength and muscle diameter than LT. As a result, we recommend that eumenorrheic females without OC should base the periodization of their strength training on their individual MC.

  8. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups). Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray), with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups), or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) (Three-step/Methacrylate group) (n = 6). The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm), and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min) to perform microtensile testing. Results Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p < 0.05). However, it was not significantly different from Preetching/Silorane and Methacrylate groups. Conclusions Pre-etching increased bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. PMID:25671209

  9. Effects of different cavity disinfectants on shear bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Soley; Yazici, A Ruya; Gorucu, Jale; Ertan, Atilla; Pala, Kansad; Ustun, Yakup; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E

    2011-07-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different cavity disinfection agents on bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. Thirty-six caries-free human third mandibular molars sectioned in mesio-distal direction were mounted in acrylic resin with their flat dentin surfaces exposed. After the dentin surfaces were wet ground with # 600 silicon carbide paper, the teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 each according to the cavity disinfection agents; chlorhexidine (CHX); sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), propolis, ozone, Er,Cr:YSGG laser and no treatment (control). After treatment of dentin surfaces with one of these cavity disinfection agents, Filtek Silorane adhesive system was applied. The silorane-based resin composite, Filtek Silorane was condensed into a mold and polymerized. After storage at 37°C for 24 hours, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (p>0.05). The use of the tested cavity disinfection agents, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, propolis, ozone and Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not significantly affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite, filtek supreme. Cavity disinfectant applications did not affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite.

  10. Low-Temperature Curing Strength Enhancement in Cement-Based Materials Containing Limestone Powder.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Dale P; Stutzman, Paul E; Zunino, Franco

    2017-06-01

    With the ongoing sustainability movement, the incorporation of limestone powder in cementitious binders for concrete in the U.S. has become a subject of renewed interest. In addition to accelerating the early age hydration reactions of cementitious systems by providing additional surfaces for nucleation and growth of products, limestone powder is also intriguing based on its influence on low-temperature curing. For example, previous results have indicated that the utilization of limestone powder to replace one quarter of the fly ash in a high volume fly ash mixture (40 % to 60 % cement replacement) produces a reduction in the apparent activation energy for setting for temperatures below 25 °C. In the present study, the relationship between heat release and compressive strength of mortars at batching/curing temperatures of 10 °C and 23 °C is investigated. For Portland-limestone cements (PLC) with limestone additions on the order of 10 %, a higher strength per unit heat release is obtained after only 7 d of curing in lime water. Surprisingly, in some cases, the absolute strength of these mortar cubes measured at 7 d is higher when cured at 10 °C than at 23 °C. Solubilities vs. temperature, reaction stoichiometries and enthalpies, and projected phase distributions based on thermodynamic modeling for the cementitious phases are examined to provide some theoretical insight into this strength enhancement. For a subset of the investigated cements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are conducted on 7-d paste specimens produced at the two temperatures to examine differences in their reaction rates and the phases produced. The strength enhancement observed in the PLC cements is related to the cement hydration products formed in the presence of carbonates as a function of temperature.

  11. Effect of gap distance on tensile strength of preceramic base metal solder joints.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Motamedi, Milad

    2011-01-01

    In order to fabricate prostheses with high accuracy and durability, soldering techniques have been introduced to clinical dentistry. However, these prostheses always fail at their solder joints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap distance on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Based on ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test, 40 specimens were fabricated from a Ni-Cr alloy and cut at the midpoint of 3-mm diameter bar and placed at desired positions by a specially designed device. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples according to the desired solder gap distance: Group1: 0.1mm; Group2: 0.25mm; Group3: 0.5mm; and Group4: 0.75mm. After soldering, specimens were tested for tensile strength by a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min with a preload of 10N. The mean tensile strength values of the groups were 162, 307.8, 206.1 and 336.7 MPa, respectively. The group with 0.75-mm gap had the highest and the group with 0.1-mm gap had the lowest tensile strength. Bonferroni test showed that Group1 and Group4 had statistically different values (P=0.023), but the differences between other groups were not sig-nificant at a significance level of 0.05. There was no direct relationship between increasing soldering gap distance and tensile strength of the solder joints.

  12. Bayesian Inference for Signal-Based Seismic Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional seismic monitoring systems rely on discrete detections produced by station processing software, discarding significant information present in the original recorded signal. SIG-VISA (Signal-based Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis) is a system for global seismic monitoring through Bayesian inference on seismic signals. By modeling signals directly, our forward model is able to incorporate a rich representation of the physics underlying the signal generation process, including source mechanisms, wave propagation, and station response. This allows inference in the model to recover the qualitative behavior of recent geophysical methods including waveform matching and double-differencing, all as part of a unified Bayesian monitoring system that simultaneously detects and locates events from a global network of stations. We demonstrate recent progress in scaling up SIG-VISA to efficiently process the data stream of global signals recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), including comparisons against existing processing methods that show increased sensitivity from our signal-based model and in particular the ability to locate events (including aftershock sequences that can tax analyst processing) precisely from waveform correlation effects. We also provide a Bayesian analysis of an alleged low-magnitude event near the DPRK test site in May 2010 [1] [2], investigating whether such an event could plausibly be detected through automated processing in a signal-based monitoring system. [1] Zhang, Miao and Wen, Lianxing. "Seismological Evidence for a Low-Yield Nuclear Test on 12 May 2010 in North Korea". Seismological Research Letters, January/February 2015. [2] Richards, Paul. "A Seismic Event in North Korea on 12 May 2010". CTBTO SnT 2015 oral presentation, video at https://video-archive.ctbto.org/index.php/kmc/preview/partner_id/103/uiconf_id/4421629/entry_id/0_ymmtpps0/delivery/http

  13. Solubility and strength of zirconia-based dental materials after artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Ketil; Karlsson, Stig

    2013-10-01

    Advanced high-strength dental ceramics based on zirconium oxide are widely used for dental restorations. However, their durability in liquids has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to compare the flexure strength of zirconium dioxide materials designed for different sintering techniques before and after surface exposure to an acidic solution and to correlate the dissolution of the materials with strength data. An accelerated aging test, immersion in hot (80°C) 4 vol% acetic acid was used to study the solubility of elements from the surface and the effect on the strength of 3 dental zirconia products: DY: Y-TZP material, milled in HIPed state (Denzir); DM: Mg-PSZ material, milled in dense-sintered state (Denzir M); and CY: Y-TZP material, milled from presintered block and then dense-sintered (Cercon base). Disks were prepared with a surface conditioning as for copings provided for dental restorations. After immersion for 1 week, the liquid was analyzed for a range of elements with ICP-MS. Biaxial flexure strength was measured for 3 samples (n=15) of each material: ground on a 20 µm diamond disk without immersion; after 1 week's immersion in acetic acid; and after 1 week's immersion, grinding, and 1 more week in acid. Fracture probability was analyzed by maximum likelihood attribution of individual measurements to 1 or 2 Weibull distributions, each with 2 free parameters. Dissolution was found to be limited. The total mass loss was less than 0.7 µg/cm(2) for Y-TZP and 3.5 µg/cm(2) for Mg-PSZ. The mean strength was reduced for all materials after immersion in the fluid. Weibull statistics revealed 2 fracture mechanisms in Y-TZP milled in fully sintered condition. For DY only, 2 distributions significantly (P>.99) improved the description of individual treatment data. Y-TZP materials showed the highest biaxial flexure strength. Immersion for 1 week in hot 4 vol% acetic acid weakened all 3 zirconia materials by 100 to 200 MPa. Milling in the presintered

  14. Predictive model for tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets based on local hardness measurements.

    PubMed

    Juban, Audrey; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile; Briancon, Stéphanie; Hoc, Thierry; Puel, François

    2015-07-25

    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage forms for oral administration. During the manufacture of tablets, measures are taken to assure that they possess a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling while ensuring disintegration after administration. Accordingly, the tensile strength is an essential parameter to consider. In the present study, microscopic hardness and macroscopic tensile strength of binary tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose and caffeine in various proportions were measured. A relationship between these two mechanical properties was found for binary mixture. The proposed model was based on two physical measurements easily reachable: hardness and tablet density. Constants were determined from the two extreme compositions of this given system. This model was validated with experimental results, and a comparison was made with the one developed by Wu et al. (2005). Both models are relevant for this studied system. Nonetheless, with this model, the tablet tensile strength can be connected with a tablet characteristic at microscopic scale in which porosity is not needed.

  15. Effect of polymerization cycles on flexural strengths and microhardness of different denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Gungor, Hasan; Gundogdu, Mustafa; Alkurt, Murat; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polymerization cycles on the flexural strengths and microhardness of two denture base materials (Meliodent and Paladent). Heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (65.0 mm long×10.0 mm wide×2.5 mm in height) were prepared using different short and long polymerization cycles. After the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37±1°C for 24 h. Flexural strength test was performed at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min and Vickers microhardness was measured. Data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test, and Student t-test (α=0.05). The flexural strengths and microhardness were significantly different between Meliodent and Paladent (p<0.05). Significant differences were found among the polymerization cycles in terms of flexural strengths and microhardness (p<0.05). Polymerization with G cycle may be suggested for Meliodent and H cycle may be suggested for Paladent.

  16. Multimedia-Based Therapy Model for Non-Pharmacological Stroke with Decrease Impaired Muscle Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar Puji Sejati, Rr; Muhimmah, Izzati; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patients who experience a decrease in muscle strength need to do exercises so that they can increase their muscle strength. In order to enable the patient does exercise independently the multimedia-based stroke therapy model is needed. These exercises can be done independently, with supervision of the family member at home. So, we develop prototype of the multimedia-based therapy for the family member so that they can assist patients performing exercises without attending therapy session in hospital. This model was built according to the advices from physiotherapist and a medical rehabilitation doctor. This model has been evaluated through focused group discussion by physiotherapists. And they gave positive responses to this proposed model.

  17. In vitro comparison of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Durkan, Rukiye; Ozel, Mehmet Birol; Bağiş, Bora; Usanmaz, Ali

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of autoclave polymerization on the transverse strength of denture base polymers. To this end, 30 rectangular test specimens were fabricated of two heat-polymerized denture base polymers. The test groups were: (I) control, i.e., conventional water bath to polymerize resins by heat at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes; (II) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 10 minutes; and (III) autoclave polymerization at 60 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by 130 degrees C for 20 minutes. The specimens were tested with three-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. It was revealed that the transverse strength of specimens increased with statistical significance when the autoclave was used for polymerization.

  18. The effect of configuration on strength, durability, and handle of Kevlar fabric-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, L. L.; Munson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Five Kevlar based laminates and three Kevlar based coated materials were designed, hand made, and tested against comparative conventional Dacron based materials for strength, peel, tear, puncture, creases, and handle. Emphasis was placed on evaluating geometric orientation of constituents, use of elastomeric film in place of high modulus films, and the use of flying thread loom bias reinforcement of Kevlar yarns. Whereas, the performance of the Kevlar laminates was severely degraded by crease effects, significant gains in overall performance factors were shown for the coated Kevlar materials.

  19. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B

    2017-09-12

    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovative Approach for High Strength, High Thermal Conductive Composite Materials: Data Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Creating a robust prepreg processing line to infuse unidirectional pitch fiber tape that can be used with other fibers…Pan-based carbon or glass...pitch fiber types, from which we were able to down select K6356U pitch fiber with balanced TC and strength properties. A prepreg processing line was...pitch fiber composites • Compression molding process outperforms autoclaving in mechanical and thermal properties using the same prepreg material and

  1. Muscle Strength Enhancement Following Home-Based Virtual Cycling Training in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n = 13) or a…

  2. Muscle Strength Enhancement Following Home-Based Virtual Cycling Training in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n = 13) or a…

  3. Cross Psi(B)-energy operator-based signal detection.

    PubMed

    Boudraa, Abdel-Ouahab; Cexus, Jean-Christophe; Abed-Meraim, Karim

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, two methods for signal detection and time-delay estimation based on the cross Psi(B)-energy operator are proposed. These methods are well suited for mono-component AM-FM signals. The Psi(B) energy operator measures how much one signal is present in another one. The peak of the Psi(B) operator corresponds to the maximum of interaction between the two signals. Compared to the cross-correlation function, the Psi(B) operator includes temporal information and relative changes of the signal which are reflected in its first and second derivatives. The discrete version of the continuous-time form of the Psi(B) operator, which is used in its implementation, is presented. The methods are illustrated on synthetic and real signals and the results compared to those of the matched filter and the cross correlation. The real signals correspond to impulse responses of buried objects obtained by active sonar in iso-speed single path environments.

  4. Prompt Earthquake Detection based on Transient Gravity Signals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhel, K.; Montagner, J. P.; Barsuglia, M.; Ampuero, J. P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Harms, J.; Whiting, B. F.; Bernard, P.; Clevede, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The deformation caused by an earthquake induces changes in the Earth's gravitational field known as coseismic gravity changes, especially during mega-earthquakes. So far, only static gravity changes have been detected, considerably after the end of the rupture. Since gravity changes propagate at the speed of light, a dynamic gravity signal is produced everywhere on Earth during the rupture, even before the arrival of seismic waves. Here we confirm the evidence of this prompt gravity signal. We have analyzed, with a statistical blind method, the data recorded during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake by a superconducting gravimeter in the underground Kamioka observatory, about 500 km away from the earthquake centroid. We find that a gravity signal is present before the P wave arrival, with a statistical significance of more than 99%. The signal amplitude is a fraction of μGal, consistent in sign and order-of-magnitude with theoretical predictions. A similar analysis is being conducted on data recorded by the broadband seismometers of the japanese network Fnet. Numerical simulations based on normal-mode method and an analytical model of dynamic gravity signals are used to compute synthetic seismograms, and thus characterize the prompt gravity signal. The robust detection of this prompt gravity signal with instruments more immune to the background seismic noise could, in principle, open new directions in earthquake seismology and overcome limitations of current earthquake early-warning systems imposed by the propagation speed of seismic waves.

  5. Seamless measurement technology of transient signals based on approximate entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Tian, Shulin; Guo, Lianping; Huang, Wuhuang

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of waveforms and the analysis of transient characteristics of signals are the fundamental tasks for time-domain measurement, while the reduction of the measuring gap till seamless measurement is extremely important to the acquisition, measurement, and analysis of transient signals. This paper, aimed at the seamless time-domain measurement of non-stationary transient signals, proposes an approximate entropy-based characteristic signal extraction algorithm on the basis of information entropy theories. The algorithm quantitatively describes the complexity (amount of information) of sampled signals using the approximate entropy value, self-adaptively captures characteristic signals under the control of the approximate entropy in real time, extracts the critical or useful information, and removes redundant or useless information so as to reduce the time consumption of processing data and displaying waveforms and realize the seamless time-domain measurement of transient signals finally. Experimental results show that the study could provide a new method for the design of electronic measuring instrument with seamless measurement capability.

  6. Cloning of a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase gene based on fiber strength transcriptome QTL mapping in the cotton species Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Shi, R F; Wang, X F; Pan, Y X; Zang, G Y; Ma, Z Y

    2012-09-25

    Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is highly valued for its superior fiber qualities, especially fiber strength. Based on a transcript-derived fragment originated from transcriptome QTL mapping, a fiber strength related candidate gene of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase cDNA, designated as GbPI4K, was first cloned, and its expression was characterized in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of G. barbadense fibers. The ORF of GbPI4K was found to be 1926 bp in length and encoded a predicted protein of 641 amino acid residues. The putative protein contained a clear PI3/4K kinase catalytic domain and fell into the plant type II PI4K cluster in phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the expression of cotton PI4K protein was also induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a fused protein. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressed in the root, hypocotyl and leaf of the cotton plants. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that this gene in Sea Island cotton fibers expressed 10 days longer than that in Upland cotton fibers, and the main expression difference of PI4K between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton in fibers was located in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of the fiber. Further analysis indicated that PI4K is a crucial factor in the ability of Rac proteins to regulate phospholipid signaling pathways.

  7. Effect of glass fiber reinforcement on the flexural strength of different denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cemal; Yilmaz, Handan; Cağlar, Alper

    2002-06-01

    Different types of fibers have been added to polymer materials to improve their mechanical properties. Glass fibers have been used in either continuous or woven form as a strengthening material. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a new glass fiber reinforcement system on the flexural strength of three different denture base resins (heat polymerized, autopolymerized, and photopolymerized). Ninety specimens were formed in a specially designed mold to produce identical specimens in accordance with each manufacturer's recommendations. The fibers of Stick and Stick Net were well impregnated with the resin of polymer matrix. Stick and Stick Net reinforcement significantly enhanced the flexural strength of the tested specimens. In all groups, specimens reinforced with Stick glass fibers exhibited the highest flexural strength, followed by Stick Net glass fibers. The control group specimens without fiber exhibited the lowest values. The process of reinforcement of denture base resins with glass fiber may be a useful means of strengthening denture bases beyond their normal limits.

  8. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Josária F.; Alvim, Felipe C.; Castro, Eliane A.; Doimo, Leonice A.; Silva, Marcus V.; Novo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and p<0.000, respectively) compared to group YO. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that changes in isometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. PMID:24676705

  9. Blind I/Q Signal Separation-Based Solutions for Receiver Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkama, Mikko; Renfors, Markku; Koivunen, Visa

    2005-12-01

    This paper introduces some novel digital signal processing (DSP)-based approaches to some of the most fundamental tasks of radio receivers, namely, channel equalization, carrier synchronization, and I/Q mismatch compensation. The leading principle is to show that all these problems can be solved blindly (i.e., without training signals) by forcing the I and Q components of the observed data as independent as possible. Blind signal separation (BSS) is then introduced as an efficient tool to carry out these tasks, and simulation examples are used to illustrate the performance of the proposed approaches. The main application area of the presented carrier synchronization and I/Q mismatch compensation techniques is in direct-conversion type receivers, while the proposed channel equalization principles basically apply to any radio architecture.

  10. Gear wear monitoring by modulation signal bispectrum based on motor current signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruiliang; Gu, Fengshou; Mansaf, Haram; Wang, Tie; Ball, Andrew D.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are important mechanical components for power transmissions. Tooth wear is one of the most common failure modes, which can present throughout a gear's lifetime. It is significant to accurately monitor gear wear progression in order to take timely predictive maintenances. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is an effective and non-intrusive approach which is able to monitor faults from both electrical and mechanical systems. However, little research has been reported in monitoring the gear wear and estimating its severity based on MCSA. This paper presents a novel gear wear monitoring method through a modulation signal bispectrum based motor current signal analysis (MSB-MCSA). For a steady gear transmission, it is inevitable to exist load and speed oscillations due to various errors including wears. These oscillations can induce small modulations in the current signals of the driving motor. MSB is particularly effective in characterising such small modulation signals. Based on these understandings, the monitoring process was implemented based on the current signals from a run-to-failure test of an industrial two stages helical gearbox under a moderate accelerated fatigue process. At the initial operation of the test, MSB analysis results showed that the peak values at the bifrequencies of gear rotations and the power supply can be effective monitoring features for identifying faulty gears and wear severity as they exhibit agreeable changes with gear loads. A monotonically increasing trend established by these features allows a clear indication of the gear wear progression. The dismantle inspection at 477 h of operation, made when one of the monitored features is about 123% higher than its baseline, has found that there are severe scuffing wear marks on a number of tooth surfaces on the driving gear, showing that the gear endures a gradual wear process during its long test operation. Therefore, it is affirmed that the MSB-MSCA approach proposed is reliable

  11. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Muscle strength enhancement following home-based virtual cycling training in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n=13) or a control group (n=15). Outcome measures, including gross motor function of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and muscle strength (isokinetic torque of knee extensor and flexor muscle), were administered before and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at post-treatment showed that, compared to the control group, the hVCT group had significantly higher isokinetic torque in the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60°/s and 120°/s angular velocities (p<0.05). At post-treatment, the hVCT group also showed greater isokinetic strength improvement in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at 60°/s (knee flexor: 41%; knee extensor: 19%) and at 120°/s (knee flexor: 36%; knee extensor: 30%). However, the BOTMP scores at post-treatment did not differ between the two groups. Although the proposed 12-week hVCT protocol does not improve gross motor function, it enhances knee muscle strength in children with CP. The protocol obtains larger gains in the knee flexor than in the knee extensor at different angular velocities. The study findings will help clinicians to provide more effective and efficient strategies for muscle strength training in children with CP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flexural strength of glass-infiltrated zirconia/alumina-based ceramics and feldspathic veneering porcelains.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Marco Antonio; Salazar-Marocho, Susana M; Leite, Fabiola P P; Vásquez, Vanessa C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2009-07-01

    To compare the flexural strength of two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics and two veneering glass-ceramics. Four ceramic materials were tested: two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics used as framework in metal-free restorations [In-Ceram Zirconia IZ (Gr1) and In-Ceram Alumina IA (Gr2)], and two glass-ceramics used as veneering material in metal-free restorations [Vita VM7 (Gr3) and Vitadur-alpha (Gr4)]. Bar specimens (25 x 5 x 2 mm3) made from core ceramics, alumina, and zirconia/alumina composites were prepared and applied to a silicone mold, which rested on a base from a gypsum die material. The IZ and IA specimens were partially sintered in an In-Ceram furnace according to the firing cycle of each material, and then were infiltrated with a low-viscosity glass to yield bar specimens of high density and strength. The Vita VM7 and Vitadur-alpha specimens were made from veneering materials, by vibration of slurry porcelain powder and condensation into a two-part brass Teflon matrix (25 x 5 x 2 mm3). Excess water was removed with absorbent paper. The veneering ceramic specimens were then removed from the matrix and were fired as recommended by the manufacturer. Another ceramic application and sintering were performed to compensate the contraction of the feldspar ceramic. The bar specimens were then tested in a three-point bending test. The core materials (Gr1: 436.1 +/- 54.8; Gr2: 419.4 +/- 83.8) presented significantly higher flexural strength (MPa) than the veneer ceramics (Gr3: 63.5 +/- 9.9; Gr4: 57.8 +/- 12.7). In-Ceram Alumina and Zirconia were similar statistically and more resistant than VM7 and Vitadur-alpha.

  14. The cell-surface proteins Dally-like and Ihog differentially regulate Hedgehog signaling strength and range during development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dong; Wu, Yihui; Yang, Yongfei; Belenkaya, Tatyana Y.; Tang, Xiaofang; Lin, Xinhua

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) acts as a morphogen in various developmental contexts to specify distinct cell fates in a concentration-dependent manner. Hh signaling is regulated by two conserved cell-surface proteins: Ig/fibronectin superfamily member Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that comprises a core protein and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Here, we show in Drosophila that the Dlp core protein can interact with Hh and is essential for its function in Hh signaling. In wing discs, overexpression of Dlp increases short-range Hh signaling while reducing long-range signaling. By contrast, Ihog has biphasic activity in Hh signaling in cultured cells: low levels of Ihog increase Hh signaling, whereas high levels decrease it. In wing discs, overexpression of Ihog represses high-threshold targets, while extending the range of low-threshold targets, thus showing opposite effects to Dlp. We further show that Ihog and its family member Boi are required to maintain Hh on the cell surface. Finally, Ihog and Dlp have complementary expression patterns in discs. These data led us to propose that Dlp acts as a signaling co-receptor. However, Ihog might not act as a classic co-receptor; rather, it may act as an exchange factor by retaining Hh on the cell surface, but also compete with the receptor for Hh binding. PMID:20501592

  15. UWB radar echo signal detection based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Shugao; Sichina, Jeffrey; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-05-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technology has been widely utilized in radar system because of the advantage of the ability of high spatial resolution and object-distinction capability. A major challenge in UWB signal processing is the requirement for very high sampling rate under Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem which exceeds the current ADC capacity. Recently, new approaches based on the Finite Rate of Innovation (FRI) allow significant reduction in the sampling rate. A system for sampling UWB radar echo signal at an ultra-low sampling rate and the estimation of time-delays is presented in the paper. An ultra-low rate sampling scheme based on FRI is applied, which often results in sparse parameter extraction for UWB radar signal detection. The parameters such as time-delays are estimated using the framework of compressed sensing based on total-variation norm minimization. With this system, the UWB radar signal can be accurately reconstructed and detected with overwhelming probability at the rate much lower than Nyquist rate. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective for sampling and detecting UWB radar signal at an ultra-low sampling rate.

  16. Bond strengths of two integral bracket-base combinations: an in vitro comparison with foil-mesh.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; van Noort, R

    1989-05-01

    The tensile/peel and shear/peel bond strengths of a cast integral bracket-base were compared with a machined integral base and a foil-mesh base. The bases were tested with both a 'no-mix' and a two-paste adhesive. The cast base performed significantly better than the other two. All the bases produced a higher bond strength when subjected to a shear mode of loading and greater bond strengths were obtained with both loading configurations when using the two-paste adhesive. These differences in bond strength between the bases cannot be explained in terms of the differences in the surface areas of the bases, so that other factors will need to be considered.

  17. Connectivity strength-weighted sparse group representation-based brain network construction for MCI classification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Renping; Zhang, Han; An, Le; Chen, Xiaobo; Wei, Zhihui; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-02-02

    Brain functional network analysis has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and also in identifying biomarkers for brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In these applications, accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Sparse learning has been widely used for brain network construction; however, its l1 -norm penalty simply penalizes each edge of a brain network equally, without considering the original connectivity strength which is one of the most important inherent linkwise characters. Besides, based on the similarity of the linkwise connectivity, brain network shows prominent group structure (i.e., a set of edges sharing similar attributes). In this article, we propose a novel brain functional network modeling framework with a "connectivity strength-weighted sparse group constraint." In particular, the network modeling can be optimized by considering both raw connectivity strength and its group structure, without losing the merit of sparsity. Our proposed method is applied to MCI classification, a challenging task for early AD diagnosis. Experimental results based on the resting-state functional MRI, from 50 MCI patients and 49 healthy controls, show that our proposed method is more effective (i.e., achieving a significantly higher classification accuracy, 84.8%) than other competing methods (e.g., sparse representation, accuracy = 65.6%). Post hoc inspection of the informative features further shows more biologically meaningful brain functional connectivities obtained by our proposed method. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Living better with dementia: strengths-based social work practice and dementia care.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Justine

    2015-01-01

    This article first argues that quality of life is possible despite the onset of dementia in late life. It also demonstrates how core concepts of social work practice, such as family systems theory, the strengths perspective, and use of self, can be applied to practice with dementia-affected persons. In addition, it provides practical suggestions for supporting care partners in nurturing "we-ness", focusing on what remains rather than was is lost, and remaining authentic. When strengths-based social work practice is integrated into dementia care protocols, wellbeing can increase. As a result, the more than 40 million persons worldwide who are affected by dementia do not have to resign themselves to the despair, devastation and inevitable demise of quality of life that dominate perception of the illness.

  19. Lunar soil strength estimation based on Chang'E-3 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Spiteri, Conrad; Li, Chun-Lai; Zheng, Yong-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) was the third mission by China to explore the Moon which had landed two spacecraft, the CE-3 lander and Yutu rover on the lunar surface in late 2013. The paper presents analytical results of high-resolution terrain data taken by CE-3's onboard cameras. The image data processing aims to extract sinkage profiles of the wheel tracks during the rover traverse. Further analysis leads to derivation or estimation of lunar soil physical properties (in terms of strength and stiffness) based on the wheel sinkage, despite the fact Yutu does not possess in situ soil measurement instruments. Our findings indicate that the lunar soil at the CE-3 landing site has similar stiffness to what is measured at the Luna 17 landing site but has much less strength compared to the Apollo 15 landing site.

  20. Effects of tin plating on base metal alloy-ceramic bond strength.

    PubMed

    Değer, S; Caniklioglu, M B

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the metal-ceramic bonding of treated metal surfaces. The study was divided into two parts. In Part I, the depth of tin diffusion from a tin-plated bone metal alloy surface was measured using an energy-dispersive spectrometer. In Part II the metal-ceramic bond strength was determined using a shear test. The weakest bonding was observed in the directly tin-plated group, and the strongest metal-ceramic bonding was maintained in the tin-diffused group. A controlled oxidation produced the greatest bond strengths. With the base metal alloys tested, diffusion under the argon environment was conducive to a stronger metal-ceramic bond. The metal oxidation rate should approximate the ceramic vitrification rate, and the diffusion rate of the metal elements should be slower than the vitrification rate to obtain the strongest metal-ceramic bond.

  1. High-strength zirconium diboride-based ceramic composites consolidated by low-temperature hot pressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuqi; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2012-08-01

    Two compositions of ZrB2-based ceramic composites containing Si3N4, Al2O3 and Y2O3 have been hot-pressed at different temperatures between 1673 and 1773 K for 60 min in vacuum. The densification behavior of the composites was examined during the sintering process. The microstructures of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the crystalline phases were identified by x-ray diffraction. The effects of Al2O3 and Y2O3 additives on the densification behavior and flexural strength were assessed. A relative density of ˜95% was obtained after sintering at 1723 K or higher temperatures. The microstructures of the composites consisted of (Zr,Y)B2, α-Si3N4 and Y3(Al,Si)5O12 phases. The room-temperature flexural strength increased with the amount of additives and approached 1 GPa.

  2. Effect of B2O3 on Volume Stability and Strength of Corundum-based Castables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanyin; Ye, Guotian; Shang, Xuejun; Zhai, Pengtao; Chen, Liugang

    2017-09-01

    Calcium aluminate cements (CAC) with 0.21 wt% B2O3 and without B2O3 were used as binders of corundum-based castables. The properties of the castables with and without B2O3 after heat treatment at 110 °C, 1,100 °C and 1,450 °C were investigated, with emphasis on studying the effect of B2O3 in CAC on the volume stability and high temperature strength of the castables. It is found that a very small amount (about 0.01 wt%) of B2O3 introduced by the cement alleviates the expansion of the castables after firing at 1,450 °C and decreases the high-temperature strength of castables as the presence of B2O3 should generate liquid phase.

  3. Development of strength and conductivity in deformation processed copper base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Insoo, M.

    1992-07-20

    Deformation processed copper based composite alloys have been recently investigated. In these composite alloys, copper, a matrix material, contributes to a high thermal and electrical conductivity, and a second phase material such as Fe, Nb, Cr, Mo, Ta and W acts as a reinforcement of the strength of the composites. Tungsten was chosen as the bcc phase in the first experiment because W has a high melting temperature which is expected to reduce the decrease in high temperature strength resulting from coarsening of fibers. However, brittleness of tungsten may bring crack problems. Because the matrix is ductile but the second phase is hard enough to resist the external forces, cracks may occur at the interfaces between deformed matrix and undeformed second phase. The purpose of the first experiment is to investigate the possibility of deformation of Cu-W compacts.

  4. Unveiling the Biometric Potential of Finger-Based ECG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, André; Silva, Hugo; Fred, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The ECG signal has been shown to contain relevant information for human identification. Even though results validate the potential of these signals, data acquisition methods and apparatus explored so far compromise user acceptability, requiring the acquisition of ECG at the chest. In this paper, we propose a finger-based ECG biometric system, that uses signals collected at the fingers, through a minimally intrusive 1-lead ECG setup recurring to Ag/AgCl electrodes without gel as interface with the skin. The collected signal is significantly more noisy than the ECG acquired at the chest, motivating the application of feature extraction and signal processing techniques to the problem. Time domain ECG signal processing is performed, which comprises the usual steps of filtering, peak detection, heartbeat waveform segmentation, and amplitude normalization, plus an additional step of time normalization. Through a simple minimum distance criterion between the test patterns and the enrollment database, results have revealed this to be a promising technique for biometric applications. PMID:21837235

  5. Pulse Onset Detection using Neighbor Pulse-Based Signal Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Detecting onsets of cardiovascular pulse wave signals is an important prerequisite for successfully conducting various analysis tasks involving the concept of pulse wave velocity. However, pulse onsets are frequently influenced by inherent noise and artifacts in signals continuously acquired in a clinical environment. The present work proposed and validated a neighbor pulse-based signal enhancement algorithm for reducing error in the detected pulse onset locations from noise-contaminated pulsatile signals. Pulse onset was proposed to be detected using the first principal component extracted from three adjacent pulses. This algorithm was evaluated using test signals constructed by mixing arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure pulses recorded from neurosurgical patients with white noise of various levels. The results showed that the proposed pulse enhancement algorithm improved (p < 0.05) pulse onset detection according to all three different onset definitions and for all three types of pulsatile signals as compared to results without using the pulse enhancement. These results suggested that the proposed algorithm could help achieve robustness in pulse onset detection and facilitate pulse wave analysis using clinical recordings. PMID:18632299

  6. Care Coordination From a Strengths Perspective: A Practice-Based Evidence Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Vanderboom, Catherine E; Olson, Kirstie S; Larson, Mary E; Holland, Diane E

    2017-02-01

    It is critical to accurately represent strengths interventions to improve data and enable intervention effectiveness research from a strengths perspective. However, it is challenging to understand strengths interventions from the multiple perspectives of computerized knowledge representation, evidence-based practice guidelines, and practice-based evidence narratives. Intervention phrases abstracted from nurse care coordinator practice narratives described strengths interventions with community-dwelling elders. This project aims were to (a) compare nurse care coordinator use of evidence-based interventions as described in the two guidelines (what to do and how to do it), (b) analyze nurse care coordinator intervention tailoring (individualized care), and (c) evaluate the usefulness of the Omaha System for comparison of narrative phrases to evidence-based guidelines. Phrases from expert nurse care coordinators were mapped to the Omaha System for comparison with the guidelines interventions and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Venn diagrams were used to visually depict intervention overlap between the guidelines and the phrases. Empirical evaluation of 66 intervention phrases mapped to 14 problems using 3 category terms and 19 target terms showed alignment between guidelines and the phrases, with the most overlap across two guidelines and the phrases in categories, and the most diversity in care descriptions. These findings demonstrate the value in having both standardized guidelines and expert clinicians who see the whole person and can synthesize and apply guidelines in tailored ways. There is potential to create a feedback loop between practice-based evidence and evidence-based practice by expanding this approach to use of practice-generated Omaha System data as practice-based evidence. Further research is needed to refine and advance the use of these methods with additional practices and guidelines.

  7. Signal-source trackers on Infrared-based Dedicated Short-Range Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Po-Wen; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-03-01

    Location-based ITS applications, especially the applications based on Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, require the absolute or relative location information of the communicating objects. GPS receivers are often used to give the absolute locations of the objects. However, the updating rate and the resolution of GPS receivers are not sufficient for neighboring and highly mobile vehicles. This paper renders two designs, a one-dimensional IR signal-source tracker and a two-dimensional IR signal-source tracker, to estimate the location of a communicating target. By analyzing the strength of the received signal, the relative location of the target is identified once the communication data are received. The realized 1D and 2D IR signal-source tracker can give the precise location, where the repeated tests on the 2D tracker show the given locations with low deviation. Since these two tracker designs are realized with the same IR components in the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC), the communicating devices, the roadside unit (RSU) and the onboard unit (OBU), can use the 1D or 2D tracker design depending on the application to locate each other, and then to control the radiation direction for saving power, to facilitate the completeness of transactions, and to locate vehicles in V2V applications. In this work, the proposed devices are designed, realized and tested. The experimental results show that these two designs are feasible.

  8. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day−1 and 235 mg day−1, respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants’ training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. PMID:25384788

  9. Vitamin C and E supplementation alters protein signalling after a strength training session, but not muscle growth during 10 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, G; Hamarsland, H; Cumming, K T; Johansen, R E; Hulmi, J J; Børsheim, E; Wiig, H; Garthe, I; Raastad, T

    2014-12-15

    This study investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on acute responses and adaptations to strength training. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men and women were randomly allocated to receive a vitamin C and E supplement (1000 mg day(-1) and 235 mg day(-1), respectively), or a placebo, for 10 weeks. During this period the participants' training involved heavy-load resistance exercise four times per week. Muscle biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were collected, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal isometric voluntary contraction force, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and muscle cross-sectional area (magnetic resonance imaging) were measured before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the cellular responses to a single exercise session were assessed midway in the training period by measurements of muscle protein fractional synthetic rate and phosphorylation of several hypertrophic signalling proteins. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis twice before, and 100 and 150 min after, the exercise session (4 × 8RM, leg press and knee-extension). The supplementation did not affect the increase in muscle mass or the acute change in protein synthesis, but it hampered certain strength increases (biceps curl). Moreover, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 and p70S6 kinase after the exercise session was blunted by vitamin C and E supplementation. The total ubiquitination levels after the exercise session, however, were lower with vitamin C and E than placebo. We concluded that vitamin C and E supplementation interfered with the acute cellular response to heavy-load resistance exercise and demonstrated tentative long-term negative effects on adaptation to strength training. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Microstructure-strength relationships of heavily deformed Cu-based composites

    SciTech Connect

    Trybus, C.L.

    1988-07-01

    Heavily deformed Cu-based composites attain anomalous increases in strength upon mechanical deformation. The unique filamentary microstructures that evolve during processing (cold rolling, wire drawing or swaging) are the source of the strengthening. Composite strength is correlated to microstructural characteristics for arc melted Cu-20 vol.% Nb cold rolled up to a true strain of 6.9. During rolling Nb elongates and becomes ribbon-like while the Cu matrix undergoes a cycle of deformation-dynamic recovery-recrystallization which allows for the further reduction of the Nb. Longitudinal and transverse specimens have equivalent mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength of the sheet showed a weak dependence on Nb filament spacing and its strength is controlled by a dislocation propagation mechanism. TEM analysis of the composite sheet substructure revealed dislocation densities of 1-2 /times/ 10/sup 10//cm/sup 2/. TEM sample preparation of Cu by ion-thinning was found to increase the dislocation density of annealed Cu by more than 400% but had a relatively small effect on heavily worked Cu. The orientations and textures of Cu and Nb in the composite are evaluated by TEM. The feasibility of producing heavily deformed Cu-based composites via powder metallurgical processing techniques is explored because of the wider range of composite compositions which can be produced in contrast with ingot metallurgy. Specifically, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of hot extruded elemental Cu and Nb powders and Cu-Nb powders pre-alloyed by the rotating electrode process are examined. 103 refs., 54 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. α-Catenin and Vinculin Cooperate to Promote High E-cadherin-based Adhesion Strength*

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, William A.; Boscher, Cécile; Chu, Yeh-Shiu; Cuvelier, Damien; Martinez-Rico, Clara; Seddiki, Rima; Heysch, Julie; Ladoux, Benoit; Thiery, Jean Paul; Mege, René-Marc; Dufour, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining cell cohesiveness within tissues requires that intercellular adhesions develop sufficient strength to support traction forces applied by myosin motors and by neighboring cells. Cadherins are transmembrane receptors that mediate intercellular adhesion. The cadherin cytoplasmic domain recruits several partners, including catenins and vinculin, at sites of cell-cell adhesion. Our study used force measurements to address the role of αE-catenin and vinculin in the regulation of the strength of E-cadherin-based adhesion. αE-catenin-deficient cells display only weak aggregation and fail to strengthen intercellular adhesion over time, a process rescued by the expression of αE-catenin or chimeric E-cadherin·αE-catenins, including a chimera lacking the αE-catenin dimerization domain. Interestingly, an αE-catenin mutant lacking the modulation and actin-binding domains restores cadherin-dependent cell-cell contacts but cannot strengthen intercellular adhesion. The expression of αE-catenin mutated in its vinculin-binding site is defective in its ability to rescue cadherin-based adhesion strength in cells lacking αE-catenin. Vinculin depletion or the overexpression of the αE-catenin modulation domain strongly decreases E-cadherin-mediated adhesion strength. This supports the notion that both molecules are required for intercellular contact maturation. Furthermore, stretching of cell doublets increases vinculin recruitment and α18 anti-αE-catenin conformational epitope immunostaining at cell-cell contacts. Taken together, our results indicate that αE-catenin and vinculin cooperatively support intercellular adhesion strengthening, probably via a mechanoresponsive link between the E-cadherin·β-catenin complexes and the underlying actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23266828

  12. TSLP Signaling Network Revealed by SILAC-Based Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jun; Kim, Min-Sik; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Wu, Xinyan; Huang, Tai-Chung; Getnet, Derese; Mitchell, Christopher J.; Palapetta, Shyam M.; Sharma, Jyoti; O'Meally, Robert N.; Cole, Robert N.; Yoda, Akinori; Moritz, Albrecht; Loriaux, Marc M.; Rush, John; Weinstock, David M.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2012-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that plays diverse roles in the regulation of immune responses. TSLP requires a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of IL-7 receptor α subunit and its unique TSLP receptor (gene symbol CRLF2) to transmit signals in cells. Abnormal TSLP signaling (e.g. overexpression of TSLP or its unique receptor TSLPR) contributes to the development of a number of diseases including asthma and leukemia. However, a detailed understanding of the signaling pathways activated by TSLP remains elusive. In this study, we performed a global quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the TSLP signaling network using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture. By employing titanium dioxide in addition to antiphosphotyrosine antibodies as enrichment methods, we identified 4164 phosphopeptides on 1670 phosphoproteins. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation, we determined that the phosphorylation status of 226 proteins was modulated by TSLP stimulation. Our analysis identified activation of several members of the Src and Tec families of kinases including Btk, Lyn, and Tec by TSLP for the first time. In addition, we report TSLP-induced phosphorylation of protein phosphatases such as Ptpn6 (SHP-1) and Ptpn11 (Shp2), which has also not been reported previously. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that Shp2 binds to the adapter protein Gab2 in a TSLP-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of an inducible protein complex in TSLP signaling. A kinase inhibitor screen revealed that pharmacological inhibition of PI-3 kinase, Jak family kinases, Src family kinases or Btk suppressed TSLP-dependent cellular proliferation making them candidate therapeutic targets in diseases resulting from aberrant TSLP signaling. Our study is the first phosphoproteomic analysis of the TSLP signaling pathway that greatly expands our understanding of TSLP signaling and provides novel therapeutic targets

  13. Study on the FOG's signal based on wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ji-qiang; Fang, Jian-cheng; Zhang, Yan-shun

    2006-11-01

    In order to study on the fiber optical gyro (abbreviated as FOG) signal based on wavelet, this paper researches the FOG signal drift model and the properties of wavelet analyzed noise, introduces the wavelet filtering method, wavelet base selection, soft and hard threshold value de-noising algorithm and compulsive filtering based on The Haar wavelet. These threshold value filtering results of both of the soft and of the hard threshold value for the same wavelet base of db4 with the same Donoho threshold values and these results of compulsive filtering based on The Haar wavelet and db4 wavelet are presented also in this paper and then these main conclusions based on foregoing analysis are reached: Larger the resolving scale is, the filtering effect is more perfect. The soft threshold value filtering effect is better than that of the hard threshold value filtering at the cost of calculation when the threshold value is same. The zero shift of the compulsive filtering is least when both the wavelet and the resolving scale are same for these filtering methods. For the compulsive filtering with same wavelets, the filtering effect of Harr is better than that of db4 and the calculation of the former is fewer. Finally the author point out that applying the compulsive filtering with the Harr wavelet base and suitable resolving scale to the signal processing of FOG be helpful for the FOG's design and manufacturing.

  14. Rough-set-based ADR signaling from spontaneous reporting data with missing values.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Lan, Lin; Huang, Feng-Hsiung; Wang, Min-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous reporting systems of adverse drug events have been widely established in many countries to collect as could as possible all adverse drug events to facilitate the detection of suspected ADR signals via some statistical or data mining methods. Unfortunately, due to privacy concern or other reasons, the reporters sometimes may omit consciously some attributes, causing many missing values existing in the reporting database. Most of research work on ADR detection or methods applied in practice simply adopted listwise deletion to eliminate all data with missing values. Very little work has noticed the possibility and examined the effect of including the missing data in the process of ADR detection. This paper represents our endeavor towards the exploration of this question. We aim at inspecting the feasibility of applying rough set theory to the ADR detection problem. Based on the concept of utilizing characteristic set based approximation to measure the strength of ADR signals, we propose twelve different rough set based measuring methods and show only six of them are feasible for the purpose. Experimental results conducted on the FARES database show that our rough-set-based approach exhibits similar capability in timeline warning of suspicious ADR signals as traditional method with missing deletion, and sometimes can yield noteworthy measures earlier than the traditional method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Model-based sediment classification using single-beam echosounder signals.

    PubMed

    Snellen, Mirjam; Siemes, Kerstin; Simons, Dick G

    2011-05-01

    Acoustic remote sensing techniques for mapping sediment properties are of interest due to their low costs and high coverage. Model-based approaches directly couple the acoustic signals to sediment properties. Despite the limited coverage of the single-beam echosounder (SBES), it is widely used. Having available model-based SBES classification tools, therefore, is important. Here, two model-based approaches of different complexity are compared to investigate their practical applicability. The first approach is based on matching the echo envelope. It maximally exploits the information available in the signal but requires complex modeling and optimization. To minimize computational costs, the efficient differential evolution method is used. The second approach reduces the information of the signal to energy only and directly relates this to the reflection coefficient to obtain quantitative information about the sediment parameters. The first approach provides information over a variety of sediment types. In addition to sediment mean grain size, it also provides estimates for the spectral strength and volume scattering parameter. The need to account for all three parameters is demonstrated, justifying computational expenses. In the second approach, the lack of information on these parameters and the limited SBES beamwidth are demonstrated to hamper the conversion of echo energy to reflection coefficient.

  16. Comparison of bond strength between simple foil mesh and laser-structured base retention brackets.

    PubMed

    Sorel, Olivier; El Alam, Rafeh; Chagneau, Francis; Cathelineau, Guy

    2002-09-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the bond strength of a new metallic orthodontic bracket with a laser structured base (Discovery, Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany), and its effects on the site of bond failure and on the behavior of the enamel after debonding. One hundred and twenty recently extracted human premolars were bonded with 1 of 2 types of mechanical interlock base metal brackets: a standard system with a simple foil mesh pad (Minitrim, Dentaurum) and the Discovery bracket. A resin-based, chemically activated bonding system, No-mix (Dentaurum), was used as the adhesive system in this trial. The teeth were immersed in normal saline solution at 37 degrees C for 7 days before debonding and were randomly assigned to different subgroups. A testing machine was used to evaluate tensile and fatigue bond strengths for both brackets. After debonding, the amount of residual adhesive on the bracket and enamel detachment were assessed according to the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and the enamel detachment index (EDI) with a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The scores obtained from the ARI and the EDI showed that the laser structured base brackets had a significantly higher bond strength (mean +/- SD: 17.1 +/- 0.7 MPa) that was 2 times higher than that observed with the simple foil mesh brackets (mean +/- SD: 8.7 +/- 1.4 MPa) (P <.001). Bond failure with the laser structured base was at the enamel-adhesive interface with an ARI score of 3 in 80% of the teeth, and bond failure with the simple foil mesh base was at the bracket-adhesive interface with an ARI score of 0 in 75% of the teeth. A small area, with less than 10% of the enamel damaged (1 on the EDI) and 1.5 microm in thickness, was observed for both brackets. The laser structured base bracket's bond strength was double that of the simple foil mesh bracket but was equally safe and did not induce significant enamel detachment.

  17. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  18. Reinforcement of Aluminum Oxide Filler on the Flexural Strength of Different Types of Denture Base Resins: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Dhole, Rohit I; Srivatsa, G; Shetty, Rohit; Huddar, Dayanand; Sankeshwari, Banashree; Chopade, Swapnil

    2017-04-01

    Acrylic resins have been used extensively for the fabrication of denture bases because of their aesthetic qualities, ease of manipulation and repairability. Flexural fatigue of the denture base has been shown to be a factor in the clinical failure of polymethyl methacrylate resin dentures. Also, the fracture can result from impact, fatigue or degradation of the base material. Hence, there is a need to increase the strength of denture base resins. To evaluate the effect of reinforcing alumina oxide filler on the flexural strength of different acrylic resins. A total of 180 acrylic specimens were fabricated, which were divided into three groups self cure acrylic resin (SC), conventional heat cure resin (HC) and high strength heat cure resin (HI). Each group was divided into four subgroups i.e., control group and the specimens of the remaining three groups were reinforced with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) powder by 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. Specimens were stored in distilled water for one week; flexural strength was tested by universal testing machine. Results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey paired group comparison tests. Flexural strength of SC increased by 9%, 13% and 19%, Flexural strength of HC increased by 8%, 15% and 19% and that of HI increased by 21%, 26% and 29% compared to control group by adding 5%,10% and 15% of alumina filler (p-value <0.001). Addition of 15% of alumina powder to SC showed high flexure strength compared to control group of HC (p-value <0.001). Addition of 10% and 15% of alumina powder to HC showed high flexural strength compared to control group of HI (p-value <0.001). Addition of alumina to self cure acrylic resin, conventional heat cure acrylic resin and high strength heat cure acrylic resin increased the flexural strength. Increasing the flexural strength of the acrylic resin base material could lead to more clinical success.

  19. When the entire population is the sample: strengths and limitations in register-based epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-08-01

    Studies based on databases, medical records and registers are used extensively today in epidemiological research. Despite the increasing use, no developed methodological literature on use and evaluation of population-based registers is available, even though data collection in register-based studies differs from researcher-collected data, all persons in a population are available and traditional statistical analyses focusing on sampling error as the main source of uncertainty may not be relevant. We present the main strengths and limitations of register-based studies, biases especially important in register-based studies and methods for evaluating completeness and validity of registers. The main strengths are that data already exist and valuable time has passed, complete study populations minimizing selection bias and independently collected data. Main limitations are that necessary information may be unavailable, data collection is not done by the researcher, confounder information is lacking, missing information on data quality, truncation at start of follow-up making it difficult to differentiate between prevalent and incident cases and the risk of data dredging. We conclude that epidemiological studies with inclusion of all persons in a population followed for decades available relatively fast are important data sources for modern epidemiology, but it is important to acknowledge the data limitations.

  20. Physiological stress links parasites to carotenoid-based colour signals.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Bortolotti, G R; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-03-01

    Vertebrates commonly use carotenoid-based traits as social signals. These can reliably advertise current nutritional status and health because carotenoids must be acquired through the diet and their allocation to ornaments is traded-off against other self-maintenance needs. We propose that the coloration more generally reveals an individual's ability to cope with stressful conditions. We tested this idea by manipulating the nematode parasite infection in free-living red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) and examining the effects on body mass, carotenoid-based coloration of a main social signal and the amount of corticosterone deposited in feathers grown during the experiment. We show that parasites increase stress and reduce carotenoid-based coloration, and that the impact of parasites on coloration was associated with changes in corticosterone, more than changes in body mass. Carotenoid-based coloration appears linked to physiological stress and could therefore reveal an individual's ability to cope with stressors.

  1. Towards navigation based on 120 satellites: Analyzing the new signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are experiencing a new era. The US Global Positioning System (GPS) now serves over 300 million users in a bewildering breadth of applications. The Russian GLONASS is enjoying a startling renaissance based on the recovery of the Russian economy. In addition, the European Union is developing the Galileo system that promises to place 30 more satellites in medium Earth orbit. If that is not enough, China has started their Compass system project that promises a rich combination of satellites in medium and geostationary earth orbit. All of these satellites will broadcast at least three civil signals in a multiplicity of frequency bands. If all of these new satellites are launched, we will have 120 satellites and over 300 signals in space for global navigation by 2020. So far, two test satellites of the European Galileo and one satellite from the Chinese Compass have been launched. The new satellites and new signals create a great opportunity for GNSS receivers to gain more redundancy and accuracy. On the other hand, the new GNSS signals could interfere with each other since their frequency bands overlap. Moreover, when the satellites were put into orbit, the signal specifications were not available to the public. This mystery made it impossible for GNSS receivers to acquire and track the new satellites. It was also impossible to analyze the interference among GNSS satellites. Thus, there was an urgent and great need for discovering the unknown signal characteristics. The contribution of this work is to design algorithms for deciphering all the new test satellite signals from the Galileo and Compass satellite programs. We reveal the spread spectrum codes for all the signals on the prototype satellites listed above. In addition, we derive the underlying code generators based on a modification of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm for solving systems of equations over finite fields. Several receiver companies, such as Trimble

  2. An Evaluation of a Numerical Prediction Method for Electric Field Strength of Low Frequency Radio Waves based on Wave-Hop Ionospheric Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitauchi, H.; Nozaki, K.; Ito, H.; Kondo, T.; Tsuchiya, S.; Imamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ishii, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present our recent efforts on an evaluation of the numerical prediction method of electric field strength for ionospheric propagation of low frequency (LF) radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012), "Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz," made by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). As part of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE), we conduct on-board measurements of the electric field strengths and phases of LF 40 kHz and 60 kHz of radio signals (call sign JJY) continuously along both the ways between Tokyo, Japan and Syowa Station, the Japanese Antarctic station, at 69° 00' S, 39° 35' E on East Ongul Island, Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The measurements are made by a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system installed on board the Japanese Antarctic research vessel (RV) Shirase. We obtained new data sets of the electric field strength up to approximately 13,000-14,000 km propagation of LF JJY 40 kHz and 60 kHz radio waves by utilizing a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system, comprised of an orthogonally crossed double-loop antenna and digital-signal-processing lock-in amplifiers, on board RV Shirase during the 55th JARE from November 2013 to April 2014. We have made comparisons between those on-board measurements and the numerical predictions of field strength for long-range propagation of low frequency radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012) to show that our results qualitatively support the recommended wave-hop theory for the great-circle paths approximately 7,000-8,000 km and 13,000-14,000 km propagations.

  3. Outcomes of a Character Strengths-Based Intervention on Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Youths.

    PubMed

    Toback, Rebecca L; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Patel, Paresh D

    2016-05-01

    Mental health treatment approaches based on character strengths can be used to complement the traditional focus on functional impairment. The study tested use of a character strengths-based intervention to enhance the self-esteem and self-efficacy of psychiatrically hospitalized youths. Eighty-one hospitalized adolescents were randomly assigned to intervention or comparison groups. The intervention used the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths for Youth to discover character strengths and incorporate them into coping skills. Self-efficacy and self-esteem were measured at baseline, postintervention, two weeks, and three months. Self-esteem and self-efficacy initially increased in both groups, but only the intervention group showed sustained improvement. The intervention was associated with increased self-efficacy at two weeks and increased self-efficacy and self-esteem at three months. A brief, easily administered character strengths-based intervention may be an adjunctive tool in the treatment of psychiatrically hospitalized youths.

  4. [The effect of core veneer thickness ratio on the flexural strength of diatomite-based dental ceramic].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Mei-qin; Zhang, Fei-min; Lu, Xiao-li

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different core veneer thickness ratios on the flexural strength and failure mode of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Diatomite-based dental ceramics blocks (16 mm×5.4 mm×1 mm) were sintered with different thickness of veneer porcelains: 0 mm (group A), 0.6 mm (group B), 0.8 mm (group C) and 1.0 mm (group D). Flexural strength was detected and scanning electron microscope was used to observe the interface microstructure. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. With the increase of the thickness of the veneer porcelain, flexural strength of group C showed highest flexural strength up to (277.24±5.47) MPa. Different core veneer thickness ratios can significantly influence the flexural strength of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Supported by Science and Technology Projects of Nantong City (HS2013010).

  5. A strengths based method for homeless youth: Effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While homelessness among youth is a serious problem, there is little information about evidence-based interventions for homeless youth. In cooperation with professionals and youths, Wolf (2012) developed Houvast (Dutch for ‘grip’): a strengths based method grounded in scientific and practice evidence. The main aim of Houvast is to improve the quality of life of homeless youths by focusing on their strengths, thus stimulating their capacity for autonomy and self-reliance. Method/Design The effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast will be tested in ten Dutch services for homeless youth which are randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 5), or a control group which provides care as usual (n = 5). Measurements of both objective and subjective quality of life and secondary outcomes (mental and physical health, substance use, coping, resilience, psychological needs, care needs, working relationship with the professional and attainment of personal goals) will be conducted among homeless youths (n = 251). Youths in both groups will be interviewed by means of a structured interview at baseline, at time of ending care or after having received care for six months (T1) and at nine months after baseline (T2). Model fidelity will be tested around T1. Discussion This study is unique as it includes a large number of homeless youths who are followed for a period of nine months, and because it focuses on a strengths based approach. If the Houvast method proves to be effective in improving quality of life it will be the first evidence-based intervention for homeless youth. Trail registration Netherlands Trail Register (NTR):NTR3254 PMID:23594410

  6. A strengths based method for homeless youth: effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Manon A M; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2013-04-18

    While homelessness among youth is a serious problem, there is little information about evidence-based interventions for homeless youth. In cooperation with professionals and youths, Wolf (2012) developed Houvast (Dutch for 'grip'): a strengths based method grounded in scientific and practice evidence. The main aim of Houvast is to improve the quality of life of homeless youths by focusing on their strengths, thus stimulating their capacity for autonomy and self-reliance. The effectiveness and fidelity of Houvast will be tested in ten Dutch services for homeless youth which are randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 5), or a control group which provides care as usual (n = 5). Measurements of both objective and subjective quality of life and secondary outcomes (mental and physical health, substance use, coping, resilience, psychological needs, care needs, working relationship with the professional and attainment of personal goals) will be conducted among homeless youths (n = 251). Youths in both groups will be interviewed by means of a structured interview at baseline, at time of ending care or after having received care for six months (T1) and at nine months after baseline (T2). Model fidelity will be tested around T1. This study is unique as it includes a large number of homeless youths who are followed for a period of nine months, and because it focuses on a strengths based approach. If the Houvast method proves to be effective in improving quality of life it will be the first evidence-based intervention for homeless youth. [corrected] Netherlands Trail Register (NTR):NTR3254.

  7. Relationships between youth and caregiver strengths and mental health outcomes in community based public mental health services.

    PubMed

    Radigan, Marleen; Wang, Rui

    2013-10-01

    To examine relationships between youth and caregiver strengths and behavioral health outcomes for youth in community service settings. Strengths and behavioral health needs of youth (N = 793) receiving Home and Community Based Services Waiver from 2002-2008 were characterized using the child and adolescent needs and strengths mental health assessment. Comparisons of assessment scores at admission and program completion were conducted using Chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA and Cohen's d effect size. Associations between strengths at admission and having behavioral health needs met were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Youth had high levels of needs on mental health, risk and functioning dimensions at admission. All needs improved significantly over the course of the service episode. Youth and caregiver strengths at admission were associated with significant improvements in youth behavioral needs areas at discharge. The findings support the importance of assessing and incorporating youth and caregiver strengths in planning and delivering public mental health services.

  8. Handgrip Strength: A Population-Based Study of Norms and Age Trajectories for 3- to 17-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Bubela, Deborah; Gershon, Richard C

    2017-04-01

    To provide normative values and equations for grip strength obtained from a population-based sample of individuals 3 to 17 years of age. This cross-sectional study used grip strength data from 2706 participants (49.2% males, 91% right-hand dominant) in the normative phase of the National Institutes of Health Toolbox project. Analyses showed greater strength in the dominant hand in boys and with each yearly increase in age. Normative data are presented separately for each side, sex, and age. Separate regression equations using age and weight as explanatory variables of grip strength are provided for each side by sex. The normative data can serve as a guide for interpreting grip strength measurements. The trajectories can be used to investigate the effect of various pathologies and conditions on grip strength during physical maturation.

  9. The influence of nickel slag aggregate concentration to compressive and flexural strength on fly ash-based geopolymer composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujiono, E. H.; Setiawan, A.; Husain, H.; Irhamsyah, A.; Samnur, S.; Subaer, S.

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer with nickel slag aggregate has been successfully produced. Fly ash and nickel slag were obtained from Bosowa Jeneponto Power Plant and PT. Vale Indonesia, respectively. This research aims to investigate the influence of nickel slag concentration to compressive strength, flexural strength, and microstructure of geopolymer composite. The increment of nickel slag aggregate on fly ash was relative to the weight of samples. Geopolymer composite were synthesized by using alkali activated method, cured at temperature of 70 °C for 1 hour. The resulting composites were left at room temperature for 14 days, before compressive and flexural strength were performed. The results showed that the addition of nickel slag aggregate was found to increase the compressive strength of the material. The optimum compressive strength was 14.81 MPa with the addition of 10% aggregate. The optimum flexural strength was 2.63 MPa with the addition of 15% aggregate.

  10. Well-Being on Campus: Testing the Effectiveness of an Online Strengths-Based Intervention for First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koydemir, Selda; Sun-Selisik, Z. Eda

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined the effectiveness of an 8-week online strengths-based intervention in promoting subjective and psychological well-being of first year university students. The intervention was composed of five modules pertaining to (a) finding and cultivating on character strengths, (b) regulation of emotions and increasing positive…

  11. Strengths-Based Approaches in College and University Student Housing: Implications for First-Year Students' Retention and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Taylor, Leonard, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches are expanding in higher education; however, little is known about the impacts of these approaches in housing and residence life settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between first-year students' strengths interactions in housing and their engagement and retention. The results suggest that…

  12. Well-Being on Campus: Testing the Effectiveness of an Online Strengths-Based Intervention for First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koydemir, Selda; Sun-Selisik, Z. Eda

    2016-01-01

    The present research examined the effectiveness of an 8-week online strengths-based intervention in promoting subjective and psychological well-being of first year university students. The intervention was composed of five modules pertaining to (a) finding and cultivating on character strengths, (b) regulation of emotions and increasing positive…

  13. Role Strain and Adaptation Issues in the Strength-Based Model: Diversity, Multilevel, and Life-Span Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    This article applauds the strength-based model (SBM) of counseling but calls for an extension. In the existential or humanistic tradition, the SBM builds on emerging trends in psychology to highlight the importance of individual strengths in counseling interventions. However, a role strain and adaptation (RSA) approach extends the SBM to…

  14. Strengths-Based Approaches in College and University Student Housing: Implications for First-Year Students' Retention and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Taylor, Leonard, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Strengths-based approaches are expanding in higher education; however, little is known about the impacts of these approaches in housing and residence life settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between first-year students' strengths interactions in housing and their engagement and retention. The results suggest that…

  15. Self directed home based electrical muscle stimulation training improves exercise tolerance and strength in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Prendergast, Ann; Rainsford, Gary; Minogue, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in muscle strength, exercise tolerance and subsequent capacity for activities of daily living. It is important that we develop effective strategies to halt this process of gradual decline in order to enhance functional ability and capacity for independent living. To achieve this, we must overcome the challenge of sustaining ongoing engagement in physical exercise programmes in the sedentary elderly population, particularly those who experience barriers to exercise participation. Recent developments in electrical muscle stimulation technology could provide a potential solution. In this pilot case-control study we investigated the effects of a self-directed home based programme of electrical muscle stimulation training on muscle strength and exercise tolerance in a group of 16 healthy elderly volunteers (10f, 6m). Study participants completed 30 separate 1-hour electrical muscle stimulation sessions at home over a 6-week period. We observed significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength and 6-minute walk distance, suggesting that this form of electrical muscle stimulation training has promise as an exercise modality in the elderly population.

  16. Effect of silorane-based adhesive system on bond strength between composite and dentin substrate

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Júnior, Lindomar Corrêa; de Souza Almeida, Mauro; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Honório, Heitor Marques; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto; De Souza, Grace Mendonca

    2015-01-01

    Context: The complexities of the oral environment, the dentin substrate, and the different bond and composite resin systems represent a challenge to the maintenance of reasonable bond between the composite resin and the tooth structure. Aims: To evaluate the effect of the adhesive system on bond strength between silorane-based composite resin and dentin. Materials and Methods: Fourteen human molars extracted were selected and vertically cut into 3 dentin fragments, randomly divided among the experimental groups and restored with Z250 and P90 composite resin using different adhesive protocols (Adper Single Bond 2, Silorano primer, Adper SE Plus, and Scotchbond Multiuse). Two composite resin cylinders were built up on each dentin surface (n = 10) and subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: According to the results, Kruskal–Wallis test evidenced at least one statistical significant difference (P = 0.001). The Tukey test showed statistically significant differences among the group (P < 0.05). Group PSM8 (P90 + SM) showed statically significant higher results when compared with groups PSP4 (P90 + SP), PSB2 (P90 + SB), and ZSE5 (Z250 + SE). Conclusion: The results evidenced that the monomer of the adhesive system has an effect on bond strength between the composite resin and dentin. PMID:26752846

  17. Peel bond strength of soft lining materials with antifungal to a denture base acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Aliaga, Adelaida; Pellissari, Cláudia Viviane Guimarães; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Michél, Milton Domingos; Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the addition of nystatin, miconazole, ketoconazole, chlorhexidine, and itraconazole into the soft lining materials Softone and Trusoft on their peel bond strength to a denture base acrylic resin was evaluated. Specimens of soft lining materials (n=7) were made without (control) or with the incorporation of antifungals at their minimum inhibitory concentrations to the biofilm of C. albicans and bonded to the acrylic resin. Peel testing was performed after immersion in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, 7 and 14 days. Data (MPa) were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA/Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05) and the failure modes were classified. The addition of nystatin and ketoconazole did not affect the peel bond strength for up to 14 days. Most failures were predominantly cohesive within soft lining materials. With the exception of itraconazole, incorporating the antifungals into the soft lining materials did not result in values below those recommended for peel bond strength after 7 and 14 days of analysis.

  18. Dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluid based on insulation oil after impulse test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, M.; Rasoulifard, M. H.; Hosseini, H.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the dielectric breakdown strength of magnetic nanofluids based on transformer mineral oil for use in power systems is reviewed. Nano oil samples are obtained from dispersion of the magnetic nanofluid within uninhibited transformer mineral oil NYTRO LIBRA as the base fluid. AC dielectric breakdown voltage measurement was carried out according to IEC 60156 standard and the lightning impulse breakdown voltage was obtained by using the sphere-sphere electrodes in an experimental setup for nano oil in volume concentration of 0.1-0.6%. Results indicate improved AC and lightning impulse breakdown voltage of nano oil compared to the base oil. AC test was performed again after applying impulse current and result showed that nano oil unlike the base oil retains its dielectric properties. Increase the dielectric strength of the nano oil is mainly due to dielectric and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles that act as free electrons snapper, and reduce the rate of free electrons in the ionization process.

  19. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading-unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  20. Thermocompaction decreases long-term push-out bond strength of methacrylate-based sealers.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Scarparo, Roberta Krochenborger; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term bond strengths to root dentin of Epiphany/Resilon and AH Plus/gutta-percha fillings, after using either lateral condensation or Tagger's hybrid thermomechanical compaction techniques. Eighty human single-rooted teeth were used. The root canals were prepared by means of hand crown-down technique up to a #45 K-file and irrigation with 1% sodium hypochlorite was performed. Samples were randomly divided into eight (n=10) experimental groups divided according to filling material (gutta-percha/AH Plus and Resilon/Epiphany), obturation technique (Lateral compaction and Tagger's hybrid thermomechanical compaction) and storage time (24 h and 6 months). During storage, the samples were kept at 37°C and 100% humidity. After the two experimental periods, each root was sectioned perpendicular to its long axis into three serial slices and push-out tests were carried out using a universal testing machine. Statistical significant differences were set by ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc (p<0.05). Using thermocompaction technique, the samples filled with Epiphany/Resilon decreased significantly the bond strength after a 6 months storage-period (p<0.05) and the ones filled with AH Plus/gutta-percha presented a tendency to lower values of the push-out test, although not statistically significant. For both materials, dentin bond strength of the specimens filled by means of lateral condensation remained stable throughout the experimental periods. Under the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the thermocompaction technique and the storage time can influence push-out bond strength when used with methacrylate-based sealers.

  1. Evolution of the Calcium-Based Intracellular Signaling System

    PubMed Central

    Marchadier, Elodie; Oates, Matt E.; Fang, Hai; Donoghue, Philip C.J.; Hetherington, Alistair M.; Gough, Julian

    2016-01-01

    To progress our understanding of molecular evolution from a collection of well-studied genes toward the level of the cell, we must consider whole systems. Here, we reveal the evolution of an important intracellular signaling system. The calcium-signaling toolkit is made up of different multidomain proteins that have undergone duplication, recombination, sequence divergence, and selection. The picture of evolution, considering the repertoire of proteins in the toolkit of both extant organisms and ancestors, is radically different from that of other systems. In eukaryotes, the repertoire increased in both abundance and diversity at a far greater rate than general genomic expansion. We describe how calcium-based intracellular signaling evolution differs not only in rate but in nature, and how this correlates with the disparity of plants and animals. PMID:27358427

  2. Dissimilarity measure based on ordinal pattern for physiological signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Shang, Pengjian; Shi, Wenbin; Cui, Xingran

    2016-08-01

    Complex physiologic signals may carry information of their underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce a dissimilarity measure to capture the features of underlying dynamics from various types of physiologic signals based on rank order statistics of ordinal patterns. Simulated 1/f noise and white noise are used to evaluate the effect of data length, embedding dimension and time delay on this measure. We then apply this measure to different physiologic signals. The method can successfully characterize the unique underlying patterns of subjects at similar physiologic states. It can also serve as a good discriminative tool for the healthy young, healthy elderly, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrilation and white noise groups. Furthermore, when investigated into the details of underlying ordinal patterns for each group, it is found that the distributions of ordinal patterns varies significantly for healthy and pathologic states, as well as aging.

  3. SoC-based architecture for biomedical signal processing.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rivas, R; Hernández, A; García, J J; Marnane, W

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, many algorithms have been proposed for processing biomedical signals. Most of these algorithms have been focused on the elimination of noise and artifacts existing in these signals, so they can be used for automatic monitoring and/or diagnosis applications. With regard to remote monitoring, the use of portable devices often requires a reduced number of resources and power consumption, being necessary to reach a trade-off between the accuracy of algorithms and their computational complexity. This paper presents a SoC (System-on-Chip) architecture, based on a FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) device, suitable for the implementation of biomedical signal processing. The proposal has been successfully validated by implementing an efficient QRS complex detector. The results show that, using a reduced amount of resources, values of sensitivity and positive predictive value above 99.49% are achieved, which make the proposed approach suitable for telemedicine applications.

  4. Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Straatsma, TP; McCammon, J A; Miller, John H; Smith, Paul E; Vorpagel, Erich R; Wong, Chung F; Zacharias, Martin W

    2006-03-03

    The goal of the Biomolecular Simulation of Base Excision Repair and Protein Signaling project is to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of human polymerase-β, one of the key enzymes in base excision repair (BER) and the cell-signaling enzymes cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. This work used molecular modeling and simulation studies to specifically focus on the • dynamics of DNA and damaged DNA • dynamics and energetics of base flipping in DNA • mechanism and fidelity of nucleotide insertion by BER enzyme human polymerase-β • mechanism and inhibitor design for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. Molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations have been performed using the computer resources at the Molecular Science Computing Facility at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic fields improve bone microstructure and strength in ovariectomized rats through a Wnt/Lrp5/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Li, Feijiang; Jiang, Maogang; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Xie, Kangning; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), as an alternative noninvasive method, could promote remarkable in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. However, the exact mechanism of PEMF on osteopenia/osteoporosis is still poorly understood, which further limits the extensive clinical application of PEMF. In the present study, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture and bone quality together with its associated signaling pathway mechanisms was systematically investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty rats were equally assigned to the Control, OVX and OVX+PEMF groups. The OVX+PEMF group was subjected to daily 8-hour PEMF exposure with 15 Hz, 2.4 mT (peak value). After 10 weeks, the OVX+PEMF group exhibited significantly improved bone mass and bone architecture, evidenced by increased BMD, Tb.N, Tb.Th and BV/TV, and suppressed Tb.Sp and SMI levels in the MicroCT analysis. Three-point bending test suggests that PEMF attenuated the biomechanical strength deterioration of the OVX rat femora, evidenced by increased maximum load and elastic modulus. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly promoted the overall gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5 and β-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling, but did not exhibit obvious impact on either RANKL or RANK gene expressions. Together, our present findings highlight that PEMF attenuated OVX-induced deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in rats by promoting the activation of Wnt/LRP5/β-catenin signaling rather than by inhibiting RANKL-RANK signaling. This study enriches our basic knowledge to the osteogenetic activity of PEMF, and may lead to more efficient and scientific clinical application of PEMF in inhibiting osteopenia/osteoporosis.

  6. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Improve Bone Microstructure and Strength in Ovariectomized Rats through a Wnt/Lrp5/β-Catenin Signaling-Associated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Xie, Kangning; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Shen, Guanghao; Luo, Erping

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), as an alternative noninvasive method, could promote remarkable in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. However, the exact mechanism of PEMF on osteopenia/osteoporosis is still poorly understood, which further limits the extensive clinical application of PEMF. In the present study, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture and bone quality together with its associated signaling pathway mechanisms was systematically investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty rats were equally assigned to the Control, OVX and OVX+PEMF groups. The OVX+PEMF group was subjected to daily 8-hour PEMF exposure with 15 Hz, 2.4 mT (peak value). After 10 weeks, the OVX+PEMF group exhibited significantly improved bone mass and bone architecture, evidenced by increased BMD, Tb.N, Tb.Th and BV/TV, and suppressed Tb.Sp and SMI levels in the MicroCT analysis. Three-point bending test suggests that PEMF attenuated the biomechanical strength deterioration of the OVX rat femora, evidenced by increased maximum load and elastic modulus. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly promoted the overall gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5 and β-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling, but did not exhibit obvious impact on either RANKL or RANK gene expressions. Together, our present findings highlight that PEMF attenuated OVX-induced deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in rats by promoting the activation of Wnt/LRP5/β-catenin signaling rather than by inhibiting RANKL-RANK signaling. This study enriches our basic knowledge to the osteogenetic activity of PEMF, and may lead to more efficient and scientific clinical application of PEMF in inhibiting osteopenia/osteoporosis. PMID:24244491

  7. The resistance of selected high strength alloys to embrittlement by a hydrogen environment. [iron and cobalt base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. B., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Selected high strength iron base and cobalt base alloys were resistant to degradation of mechanical properties in a one atmosphere hydrogen environment at ambient temperature. These alloys were strengthened initially by cold working which produced strain induced martensite and fcc mechanical twins in an fcc matrix. Heat treatment of the cobalt base alloy after cold working produced carbide precipitates with retention of an hcp epsilon phase which increased the yield strength level. High strength alloys can be produced which have some resistance to degradation of mechanical properties by a hydrogen environment under certain conditions.

  8. Retained energy-based coding for EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    The recent use of long-term records in electroencephalography is becoming more frequent due to its diagnostic potential and the growth of novel signal processing methods that deal with these types of recordings. In these cases, the considerable volume of data to be managed makes compression necessary to reduce the bit rate for transmission and storage applications. In this paper, a new compression algorithm specifically designed to encode electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is proposed. Cosine modulated filter banks are used to decompose the EEG signal into a set of subbands well adapted to the frequency bands characteristic of the EEG. Given that no regular pattern may be easily extracted from the signal in time domain, a thresholding-based method is applied for quantizing samples. The method of retained energy is designed for efficiently computing the threshold in the decomposition domain which, at the same time, allows the quality of the reconstructed EEG to be controlled. The experiments are conducted over a large set of signals taken from two public databases available at Physionet and the results show that the compression scheme yields better compression than other reported methods. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of surface characteristics of four silica-based machinable ceramics on flexural strength and bond strength of a dual-curing resin luting agent.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keiichi; Meng, Xiangfeng; Kamada, Kohji; Atsuta, Mitsuru

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the crystalline phase and microstructure of 4 commercial machinable ceramic blocks--Cerec Vitablocs Mark II (Vita), ProCAD (Ivoclar/Vivadent), GN-I (GC), and GNCeram (GC)--and compare flexural strength and shear bond strength between a dual-curing resin luting agent and the ceramics treated with a silane coupling agent. Specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffractometry. Three-point bending tests were performed with polished specimens 20 mm long, 4 mm wide, and 1.2 mm thick. Two differently shaped specimens for each of the 4 machinable ceramics were treated with a silane coupling agent. The specimens were then cemented together with a dual-curing resin luting agent. Half of the specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and the other half were thermocycled 20,000 times. Chemical composition, crystalline phase, and crystallinity were significantly different between brands. The Vitablocs Mark II material had the significantly lowest flexural strength (101.7 +/- 15.3 MPa), while the GNCeram material had the highest (174.8 +/- 10.3 MPa). The use of a silane coupling agent yielded high shear bond strength after 20,000 thermocycles (Vitablocs Mark II: 37.7 +/- 3.7 MPa, ProCAD: 41.2 +/- 3.1 MPa, GNCeram: 50.2 +/- 2.1 MPa), except with the GN-I material (23.9 +/- 4.4 MPa). It appeared that crystal distribution and particle size of leucite crystal, not crystallinity, in the feldspar glass matrix of silica-based machinable ceramics might influence the flexural strength and efficacy of a silane coupling agent in bonding between a dual-curing resin luting agent and machinable ceramics.

  10. Hedgehog Signaling Strength Is Orchestrated by the mir-310 Cluster of MicroRNAs in Response to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Ibrahim Ömer; Karaca, Samir; Brankatschk, Marko; Eaton, Suzanne; Urlaub, Henning; Shcherbata, Halyna R.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) only two decades ago, they have emerged as an essential component of the gene regulatory machinery. miRNAs have seemingly paradoxical features: a single miRNA is able to simultaneously target hundreds of genes, while its presence is mostly dispensable for animal viability under normal conditions. It is known that miRNAs act as stress response factors; however, it remains challenging to determine their relevant targets and the conditions under which they function. To address this challenge, we propose a new workflow for miRNA function analysis, by which we found that the evolutionarily young miRNA family, the mir-310s (mir-310/mir-311/mir-312/mir-313), are important regulators of Drosophila metabolic status. mir-310s-deficient animals have an abnormal diet-dependent expression profile for numerous diet-sensitive components, accumulate fats, and show various physiological defects. We found that the mir-310s simultaneously repress the production of several regulatory factors (Rab23, DHR96, and Ttk) of the evolutionarily conserved Hedgehog (Hh) pathway to sharpen dietary response. As the mir-310s expression is highly dynamic and nutrition sensitive, this signal relay model helps to explain the molecular mechanism governing quick and robust Hh signaling responses to nutritional changes. Additionally, we discovered a new component of the Hh signaling pathway in Drosophila, Rab23, which cell autonomously regulates Hh ligand trafficking in the germline stem cell niche. How organisms adjust to dietary fluctuations to sustain healthy homeostasis is an intriguing research topic. These data are the first to report that miRNAs can act as executives that transduce nutritional signals to an essential signaling pathway. This suggests miRNAs as plausible therapeutic agents that can be used in combination with low calorie and cholesterol diets to manage quick and precise tissue-specific responses to nutritional changes. PMID:26801178

  11. In vitro comparison of the tensile bond strength of denture adhesives on denture bases.

    PubMed

    Kore, Doris R; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Hall, Dan B; Bahjri, Khaled

    2013-12-01

    With several denture adhesives available, it is important for dentists to make appropriate patient recommendations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength of denture adhesives on denture base materials at time intervals of up to 24 hours. Fixodent, Super Poligrip, Effergrip, and SeaBond denture adhesives were tested with 3 denture base materials: 2 heat-polymerized (Lucitone 199 and SR Ivocap) and 1 visible-light-polymerized (shade-stable Eclipse). Artificial saliva with mucin was used as a control. Tensile bond strength was tested in accordance with American Dental Association specifications at 5 minutes, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after applying the adhesive. Maximum forces before failure were recorded in megapascals (MPa), and the data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). All 4 adhesives had greater tensile bond strength than the control. Fixodent, Super Poligrip, and SeaBond had higher tensile bond strength values than Effergrip. All adhesives had the greatest tensile bond strength at 5 minutes and the least at 24 hours. The 3 denture bases produced significantly different results with each adhesive (P<.001). Lucitone 199 with the adhesives had the greatest tensile bond strength, followed by Ivocap and Eclipse. All 4 adhesives had greater tensile bond strength than the control, and all 4 adhesives were strongest at the 5-minute interval. On all 3 types of denture bases, Effergrip produced significantly lower tensile bond strength, and Fixodent, Super Poligrip, and SeaBond produced significantly higher tensile bond strength. At 24 hours, the adhesive-base combinations with the highest tensile bond strength were Fixodent on Lucitone 199, Fixodent on Eclipse, Fixodent on Ivocap, and Super Poligrip on Ivocap. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Further development and evaluation of high impact strength denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Rodford, R A

    1990-06-01

    The further development of poly(methylmethacrylate) reinforced with low molecular weight polybutadiene-based rubbers previously studied is described. The materials produced have been optimized with respect to impact strength and Young's modulus, giving results up to 0.13 J for the former whilst maintaining the latter at about 2.3 G.Pa. Additionally, the systems have been evaluated with respect to viscoelastic properties, water absorption and the effect of the latter on mechanical properties. Further work on the underlying mechanisms should lead to a greater understanding of these systems which could, in turn, produce more superior materials.

  13. FEAMAC-CARES Software Coupling Development Effort for CMC Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Walton, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MACGMC composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMACCARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMACCARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMACCARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  14. Strength Characteristics of Resorbable Osteoconductive Ceramics Based on Diphosphates of Calcium and Alkali Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlayev, V. I.; Evdokimov, P. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Prosvirin, D. V.; Klimashina, E. S.; Safronova, T. V.; Ivanov, V. K.

    2014-02-01

    An investigation into the strength characteristics of ceramics based on diphosphates Ca(3- x)М2 x (PO4)2 ( x = 0-1 and М = Na, K) provides evidence of composition strengthening in the range х = 0.6-0.8 containing the greatest amount of the supercooled high-temperature modification α-СаМРО4. The method of high-temperature x-ray diffractometry is used to examine thermal expansion of rhenanite phases of СаМРО4.

  15. Evaluation of a sugar-based edible adhesive using a tensile strength tester.

    PubMed

    Doll, Kenneth M; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2011-04-01

    A method to evaluate adhesives has been developed and used to reformulate a recently patented adhesive which is based on sugar and citric acid. Factors affecting adhesive performance were uncovered, such as an optimal curing temperature of 60°C. The addition of maltodextrin and soy protein at optimized levels was shown to nearly double the bonding strength of the adhesive, from 0.46 ± 0.076 to 0.74 ± 0.26 kN, under our test conditions. Also discussed is the potential for this method to be automated using commercially available equipment.

  16. Shock Induced Shear Strength in Two HMX Based Polymer Bonded Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, Jeremy; Taylor, Peter; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2015-06-01

    The response of energetic materials to shock loading has largely concentrated on their detonation behaviour. However, they can also be considered to be structural materials in their own right, and hence their response to a purely mechanical shock loading is also of interest. Therefore we present results from two HMX based polymer bonded explosives, EDC37 and EDC32, where we investigate the shock induced shear strength behind the shock front. Results are discussed in terms of microstructure and differences of the binder phases.

  17. Strength and corrosion behavior of SiC - based ceramics in hot coal combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breder, K.; Parten, R.J.

    1996-08-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate the use of advanced ceramics in a new generation of coal-fired power plants, four SiC-based ceramics have been exposed to corrosive coal slag in a laboratory furnace and two pilot scale combustors. Initial results indicate that the laboratory experiments are valuable additions to more expensive pilot plant experiments. The results show increased corrosive attack with increased temperature, and that only slight changes in temperature may significantly alter the degree of strength degradation due to corrosive attack. The present results are part of a larger experimental matrix evaluating the behavior of ceramics in the coal combustion environment.

  18. A strong integrated strength and toughness artificial nacre based on dopamine cross-linked graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Liu, Jiyang; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2014-09-23

    Demands of the strong integrated materials have substantially increased across various industries. Inspired by the relationship of excellent integration of mechanical properties and hierarchical nano/microscale structure of the natural nacre, we have developed a strategy for fabricating the strong integrated artificial nacre based on graphene oxide (GO) sheets by dopamine cross-linking via evaporation-induced assembly process. The tensile strength and toughness simultaneously show 1.5 and 2 times higher than that of natural nacre. Meanwhile, the artificial nacre shows high electrical conductivity. This type of strong integrated artificial nacre has great potential applications in aerospace, flexible supercapacitor electrodes, artificial muscle, and tissue engineering.

  19. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  20. FEAMAC/CARES Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  1. A Micromechanics-Based Damage Model for the Strength Prediction of Composite Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camanho, Pedro P.; Mayugo, Joan A.; Maimi, Pere; Davila, Carlos G.

    2006-01-01

    A new damage model based on a micromechanical analysis of cracked [+/-0deg/90deg(sub n)]s laminates subjected to multiaxial loads is proposed. The model predicts the onset and accumulation of transverse matrix cracks in uniformly stressed laminates, the effect of matrix cracks on the stiffness of the laminate, as well as the ultimate failure of the laminate. The model also accounts for the effect of the ply thickness on the ply strength. Predictions relating the elastic properties of several laminates and multiaxial loads are presented.

  2. Pilot Signal Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Received Signal-To-Noise-Ratio-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Jungho; Kim, Donggun; Lee, Yuni; Sung, Youngchul

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the pilot signal design for massive MIMO systems to maximize the training-based received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is considered under two channel models: block Gauss-Markov and block independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel models. First, it is shown that under the block Gauss-Markov channel model, the optimal pilot design problem reduces to a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem, which can be solved numerically by a standard convex optimization tool. Second, under the block i.i.d. channel model, an optimal solution is obtained in closed form. Numerical results show that the proposed method yields noticeably better performance than other existing pilot design methods in terms of received SNR.

  3. A MUSIC-based method for SSVEP signal processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Zhou, Zude; Xie, Sheng Quan; Meng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The research on brain computer interfaces (BCIs) has become a hotspot in recent years because it offers benefit to disabled people to communicate with the outside world. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs are more widely used because of higher signal to noise ratio and greater information transfer rate compared with other BCI techniques. In this paper, a multiple signal classification based method was proposed for multi-dimensional SSVEP feature extraction. 2-second data epochs from four electrodes achieved excellent accuracy rates including idle state detection. In some asynchronous mode experiments, the recognition accuracy reached up to 100%. The experimental results showed that the proposed method attained good frequency resolution. In most situations, the recognition accuracy was higher than canonical correlation analysis, which is a typical method for multi-channel SSVEP signal processing. Also, a virtual keyboard was successfully controlled by different subjects in an unshielded environment, which proved the feasibility of the proposed method for multi-dimensional SSVEP signal processing in practical applications.

  4. Simple signal-to-signal beat interference cancellation receiver based on balanced detection for a single-sideband optical OFDM signal with a reduced guard band.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianxin

    2013-11-01

    A simple signal-to-signal beat interference cancellation receiver based on balanced detection (ICRBD) with an interleaver, a 2×2 three-decibel optical coupler, and a balanced photodiode pair is proposed for a single-sideband optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SSB-OOFDM) signal with a reduced guard band (GB). Simulation demonstration of the ICRBD for a 40 Gbit/s 16-QAM SSB-OOFDM signal with a reduced GB was achieved successfully.

  5. Chaos based encryption system for encrypting electroencephalogram signals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Shih, Shun-Han; Zhu, Jin-De

    2014-05-01

    In the paper, we use the Microsoft Visual Studio Development Kit and C# programming language to implement a chaos-based electroencephalogram (EEG) encryption system involving three encryption levels. A chaos logic map, initial value, and bifurcation parameter for the map were used to generate Level I chaos-based EEG encryption bit streams. Two encryption-level parameters were added to these elements to generate Level II chaos-based EEG encryption bit streams. An additional chaotic map and chaotic address index assignment process was used to implement the Level III chaos-based EEG encryption system. Eight 16-channel EEG Vue signals were tested using the encryption system. The encryption was the most rapid and robust in the Level III system. The test yielded superior encryption results, and when the correct deciphering parameter was applied, the EEG signals were completely recovered. However, an input parameter error (e.g., a 0.00001 % initial point error) causes chaotic encryption bit streams, preventing the recovery of 16-channel EEG Vue signals.

  6. Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic Brackets with Different Base Designs: Comparative In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohd. Younus; Agarwal, Deepak K; Bhattacharya, Preeti; Ansar, Juhi; Bhandari, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge about the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of ceramic brackets with different base design is essential as it affects bond strength to enamel. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of base designs of different ceramic brackets on SBS, and to determine the fracture site after debonding. Materials and Methods Four groups of ceramic brackets and one group of metal brackets with different base designs were used. Adhesive precoated base of Clarity Advanced (APC Flash-free) (Unitek/3M, Monrovia, California), microcrystalline base of Clarity Advanced (Unitek/3M, Monrovia, California), polymer mesh base of InVu (TP Orthodontics, Inc., La Porte, IN, United States), patented bead ball base of Inspire Ice (Ormco, Glendora, California), and a mechanical mesh base of Gemini Metal bracket (Unitek/3M, Monrovia, California). Ten brackets of each type were bonded to 50 maxillary premolars with Transbond XT (Unitek/3M). Samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours and subsequently tested in shear mode on a universal testing machine (Model 3382; Instron Corp., Canton, Massachusetts, USA) at a cross head speed of 1mm/minute with the help of a chisel. The debonded interface was recorded and analyzed to determine the predominant bond failure site under an optical microscope (Stereomicroscope) at 10X magnification. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare SBS. Tukey’s significant differences tests were used for post-hoc comparisons. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores were compared by chi-square test. Results Mean SBS of microcrystalline base (27.26±1.73), was the highest followed by bead ball base (23.45±5.09), adhesive precoated base (20.13±5.20), polymer mesh base (17.54±1.91), and mechanical mesh base (17.50±2.41) the least. Comparing the frequency (%) of ARI Score among the groups, chi-square test showed significantly different ARI scores among the groups (χ2 = 34.07, p<0

  7. AIRS Observations Based Evaluation of Relative Climate Feedback Strengths on a GCM Grid-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, G. I.; Susskind, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate feedback strengths, especially those associated with moist processes, still have a rather wide range in GCMs, the primary tools to predict future climate changes associated with man's ever increasing influences on our planet. Here, we make use of the first 10 years of AIRS observations to evaluate interrelationships/correlations of atmospheric moist parameter anomalies computed from AIRS Version 5 Level-3 products, and demonstrate their usefulness to assess relative feedback strengths. Although one may argue about the possible usability of shorter-term, observed climate parameter anomalies for estimating the strength of various (mostly moist processes related) feedbacks, recent works, in particular analyses by Dessler [2008, 2010], have demonstrated their usefulness in assessing global water vapor and cloud feedbacks. First, we create AIRS-observed monthly anomaly time-series (ATs) of outgoing longwave radiation, water vapor, clouds and temperature profile over a 10-year long (Sept. 2002 through Aug. 2012) period using 1x1 degree resolution (a common GCM grid-scale). Next, we evaluate the interrelationships of ATs of the above parameters with the corresponding 1x1 degree, as well as global surface temperature ATs. The latter provides insight comparable with more traditional climate feedback definitions (e. g., Zelinka and Hartmann, 2012) whilst the former is related to a new definition of "local (in surface temperature too) feedback strengths" on a GCM grid-scale. Comparing the correlation maps generated provides valuable new information on the spatial distribution of relative climate feedback strengths. We argue that for GCMs to be trusted for predicting longer-term climate variability, they should be able to reproduce these observed relationships/metrics as closely as possible. For this time period the main climate "forcing" was associated with the El Niño/La Niña variability (e. g., Dessler, 2010), so these assessments may not be descriptive of longer

  8. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

  9. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

    2014-10-01

    To identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. An intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. The results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. The teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life.

  10. HVCN1 modulates BCR signal strength via regulation of BCR-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Melania; Bhamrah, Mandeep K; Henley, Tom; Boyd, Robert S; Langlais, Claudia; Cain, Kelvin; Dinsdale, David; Pulford, Karen; Kan, Mahmood; Musset, Boris; Cherny, Vladimir V; Morgan, Deri; Gascoyne, Randy D; Vigorito, Elena; DeCoursey, Thomas E; MacLennan, Ian C M; Dyer, Martin J S

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated with the BCR complex and was internalized together with the BCR after activation. BCR-induced generation of ROS was lower in HVCN1-deficient B cells, which resulted in attenuated BCR signaling via impaired BCR-dependent oxidation of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This resulted in less activation of the kinases Syk and Akt, impaired mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, and diminished antibody responses in vivo. Our findings identify unanticipated functions for proton channels in B cells and demonstrate the importance of ROS in BCR signaling and downstream metabolism. PMID:20139987

  11. Strength and Persistence of Energy-Based Vessel Seals Rely on Tissue Water and Glycosaminoglycan Content.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Eric A; Cezo, James D; Fankell, Douglas P; Taylor, Kenneth D; Rentschler, Mark E; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2016-11-01

    Vessel ligation using energy-based surgical devices is steadily replacing conventional closure methods during minimally invasive and open procedures. In exploring the molecular nature of thermally-induced tissue bonds, novel applications for surgical resection and repair may be revealed. This work presents an analysis of the influence of unbound water and hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans on the formation and resilience of vascular seals via: (a) changes in pre-fusion tissue hydration, (b) the enzymatic digestion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) prior to fusion and (c) the rehydration of vascular seals following fusion. An 11% increase in pre-fusion unbound water led to an 84% rise in vascular seal strength. The digestion of GAGs prior to fusion led to increases of up to 82% in seal strength, while the rehydration of native and GAG-digested vascular seals decreased strengths by 41 and 44%, respectively. The effects of increased unbound water content prior to fusion combined with the effects of seal rehydration after fusion suggest that the heat-induced displacement of tissue water is a major contributor to tissue adhesion during energy-based vessel sealing. The effects of pre-fusion GAG-digestion on seal integrity indicate that GAGs are inhibitory to the bond formation process during thermal ligation. GAG digestion may allow for increased water transport and protein interaction during the fusion process, leading to the formation of stronger bonds. These findings provide insight into the physiochemical nature of the fusion bond, its potential for optimization in vascular closure and its application to novel strategies for vascular resection and repair.

  12. An emerging paradigm: a strength-based approach to exploring mental imagery

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Tadhg E.; Moran, Aidan P.; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery, or the ability to simulate in the mind information that is not currently perceived by the senses, has attracted considerable research interest in psychology since the early 1970's. Within the past two decades, research in this field—as in cognitive psychology more generally—has been dominated by neuroscientific methods that typically involve comparisons between imagery performance of participants from clinical populations with those who exhibit apparently normal cognitive functioning. Although this approach has been valuable in identifying key neural substrates of visual imagery, it has been less successful in understanding the possible mechanisms underlying another simulation process, namely, motor imagery or the mental rehearsal of actions without engaging in the actual movements involved. In order to address this oversight, a “strength-based” approach has been postulated which is concerned with understanding those on the high ability end of the imagery performance spectrum. Guided by the expert performance approach and principles of ecological validity, converging methods have the potential to enable imagery researchers to investigate the neural “signature” of elite performers, for example. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explain the origin, nature, and implications of the strength-based approach to mental imagery. Following a brief explanation of the background to this latter approach, we highlight some important theoretical advances yielded by recent research on mental practice, mental travel, and meta-imagery processes in expert athletes and dancers. Next, we consider the methodological implications of using a strength-based approach to investigate imagery processes. The implications for the field of motor cognition are outlined and specific research questions, in dynamic imagery, imagery perspective, measurement, multi-sensory imagery, and metacognition that may benefit from this approach in the future are sketched

  13. Bond strength and interactions of machined titanium-based alloy with dental cements.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2015-11-01

    The most appropriate luting agent for restoring cement-retained implant restorations has yet to be determined. Leachable chemicals from some types of cement designed for teeth may affect metal surfaces. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength and interactions of machined titanium-based alloy with dental luting agents. Eight dental luting agents representative of 4 different compositional classes (resin, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and zinc oxide-based cements) were used to evaluate their effect on machined titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy surfaces. Ninety-six paired disks were cemented together (n=12). After incubation in a 37°C water bath for 7 days, the shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine (Instron) and a custom fixture with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Differences were analyzed statistically with 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (α=.05). The debonded surfaces of the Ti alloy disks were examined under a light microscope at ×10 magnification to record the failure pattern, and the representative specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The mean ±SD of shear failure loads ranged from 3.4 ±0.5 to 15.2 ±2.6 MPa. The retention provided by both polycarboxylate cements was significantly greater than that of all other groups (P<.05). The scanning electron microscope examination revealed surface pits only on the bonded surface cemented with the polycarboxylate cements. Cementation with polycarboxylate cement obtained higher shear bond strength. Some chemical interactions occurred between the machined Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface and polycarboxylate cements during cementation. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal strengths: implications for in vivo MRS studies of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mon, Anderson; Abé, Christoph; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2013-12-01

    Recent MRS studies have indicated that a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower brain metabolite levels. Generally, individuals with higher BMIs have more body fat deposits than individuals with normal BMIs. This single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) study investigated possible effects of fat on MR-measured metabolite signal areas, which may at least partly explain the observed associations of BMI with MR-measured brain metabolite levels in vivo. SVS data were acquired at 4 T from a phantom containing N-acetylaspartate, glutamate and creatine, as well as from three healthy male adults. Back fat obtained from pig was used to assess the effects of fat on metabolite signals. With the same voxel size and placement, the phantom was first scanned without fat (baseline), and then with 0.7-cm- and 1.4-cm-thick fat layers placed on it. Each participant was also scanned first without fat and then with two 0.7-cm fat layers, one placed beneath the occiput and the other on the forehead. Two spectra were acquired per participant from the anterior cingulate and the parieto-occipital cortices. The metabolite resonance and corresponding water peak areas were then fitted and metabolite to water signal ratios were used for analyses. In both phantom and in vivo experiments, the metabolite-to-water ratios decreased in the presence of fat relative to baseline metabolite-to-water ratios. The reduced metabolite signals in the presence of fat reported here are reminiscent of the negative correlations observed between BMI and MR-measured metabolite levels. These apparent physical effects of fat have potentially far-reaching consequences for the accuracy of MR measurements of brain metabolite levels and their interpretation, particularly when large fat stores exist around the skull, such as in individuals with higher BMI.

  15. Leveraging Strengths Assessment and Intervention Model (LeStAIM): A Theoretical Strength-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laija-Rodriguez, Wilda; Grites, Karen; Bouman, Doug; Pohlman, Craig; Goldman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Current assessments in the schools are based on a deficit model (Epstein, 1998). "The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services" (2010), federal initiatives and mandates, and experts in the field of assessment have highlighted the need for the comprehensive…

  16. Leveraging Strengths Assessment and Intervention Model (LeStAIM): A Theoretical Strength-Based Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laija-Rodriguez, Wilda; Grites, Karen; Bouman, Doug; Pohlman, Craig; Goldman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Current assessments in the schools are based on a deficit model (Epstein, 1998). "The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services" (2010), federal initiatives and mandates, and experts in the field of assessment have highlighted the need for the comprehensive…

  17. Autofocusing system based on signal processing of single chip microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangdong; Zeng, Chao; Li, Feng; Huang, GuiZao

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, an auto-focusing system based on Signal Processing of Single-chip Microprocessor is introduced to realize auto-focusing. The system can automatically get the distance information of the worktable and drive the step motor to reach the aim of auto-focusing. The auto-focusing system is loaded in the original CMOS-based measuring system. After the AV signals from CMOS image sensor pass through the analog filter, the single-chip microprocessor samples and processes them, then controls the lens to be in focus. As a result, this method can not only achieve all functions of focusing, but also avoid complicated calculations. The system is low power consuming, programming rapidly. Here we analyse the key technique of the system and the results of the experiments are given. It can be practical applied and the further perfection of algorithm and software will result in the system having more function.

  18. Evidence-based practice and speech-language pathology: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists are increasingly required to demonstrate that their practice is based on evidence. While the concept of evidence-based practice has strengths, there have been some weaknesses in its application in speech-language pathology. Nevertheless, since current health care demands compliance, the profession must consider the opportunities and threats that evidence-based practice poses. This paper reviews the literature to provide an understanding of the relevance of evidence-based practice for speech-language pathology. It considers the assumptions on which definitions of evidenced-based practice rely and reviews the ways in which clinicians might base their practice on evidence. While the medical model of evidence-based practice research is controversial even in the medical field, the concept provides opportunities for the profession of speech-language pathology. Evidence-based practice has the potential to improve intervention for people with communication disorders, increase resources for services and enhance perception of the profession. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A new signal characterization and signal-based Chou's PseAAC representation of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Victoria; Peinado, Antonio M; Pérez-Córdoba, Jose L; Gómez, Angel M

    2015-10-01

    Most of the algorithms used for information extraction and for processing the amino acid chains that make up proteins treat them as symbolic chains. Fewer algorithms exploit signal processing techniques that require a numerical representation of amino acid chains. However, these algorithms are very powerful for extracting regularities that cannot be detected when working with a symbolic chain, which may be important for understanding the biological meaning of a sequence or in classification tasks. In this study, a new mathematical representation of amino acid chains is proposed, which is derived using a similarity measure based on the PAM250 amino acid substitution matrix and that generates 20 signals for each protein sequence. Using this representation 20 consensus spectra for a protein family are determined and the relevance of the frequency peaks is established, obtaining a group of significant frequency peaks that manifest common periodicities of the amino acid sequences that belong to a protein family. We also show that the proposed representation in 20 signals can be integrated into Chou's pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and constitute a useful alternative to amino acid physicochemical properties in Chou's PseAAC.

  20. Classification of Underwater Signals Using Wavelet-Based Decompositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    proposed by Learned and Willsky [21], uses the SVD information obtained from the power mapping, the second one selects the most within-a-class...34 SPIE, Vol. 2242, pp. 792-802, Wavelet Applications, 1994 [14] R. Coifman and D. Donoho, "Translation-Invariant Denoising ," Internal Report...J. Barsanti, Jr., Denoising of Ocean Acoustic Signals Using Wavelet-Based Techniques, MSEE Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California

  1. Effect of different surface treatments for ceramic bracket base on bond strength of rebonded brackets.

    PubMed

    Guarita, Monique Kruger; Moresca, Alexa Helena Köhler; Losso, Estela Maris; Moro, Alexandre; Moresca, Ricardo Cesar; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of rebonded ceramic brackets after subjecting the bracket base to different treatments. Seventy-five premolars were selected and randomly distributed into five groups (n=15), according to the type of the bracket surface treatment: I, no treatment, first bonding (control); II, sandblasting with aluminum oxide; III, sandblasting + silane; IV, silica coating + silane; and V, silicatization performed in a laboratory (Rocatec system). The brackets were fixed on an enamel surface with Transbond XT resin without acid etching. The brackets were then removed and their bases were subjected to different treatments. Thereafter, the brackets were fixed again to the enamel surface and the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was then evaluated for each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only between Rocatec and the other groups; the Rocatec group showed the lowest SBS values. The highest SBS values were observed for group 1, without any significant difference from the values for groups II, III and IV. Most groups had a higher percentage of failures at the enamel-resin interface (score 1). It was concluded that the surface treatments of rebonded ceramic brackets were effective, with SBS values similar to that of the control group, except Rocatec group.

  2. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Samantha M; Frese, Derek L; Llewellyn, Tamra L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior.

  3. Characterization of aerobic granular sludge treating high strength agro-based wastewater at different volumetric loadings.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Curtis, Thomas P; Yahya, Adibah; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between microbial community and mechanism of aerobic granulation could enable wider applications of granules for high-strength wastewater treatment. The majority of granulation studies principally determine the engineering aspects of granules formation with little emphasis on the microbial diversity. In this study, three identical reactors namely R1, R2 and R3 were operated using POME at volumetric loadings of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Aeration was provided at a volumetric flow rate of 2.5 cms(-1). Aerobic granules were successfully developed in R2 and R3 while bioflocs dominated R1 until the end of experiments. Fractal dimension (D(f)) averaged at 1.90 suggesting good compactness of granules. The PCR-DGGE results indicated microbial evolutionary shift throughout granulation despite different operating OLRs based on decreased Raup and Crick similarity indices upon mature granule formation. The characteristics of aerobic granules treating high strength agro-based wastewater are determined at different volumetric loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Eccentric, Velocity-Based Training on Strength and Power in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    DOLEZAL, SAMANTHA M.; FRESE, DEREK L.; LLEWELLYN, TAMRA L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if combining velocity-based training with eccentric focus (VEB) and velocity-based training (VBT) results in power and strength gains. Nineteen men and women collegiate track and field athletes participated in this study. The subjects completed a 12-week intervention with either a VEB program or a VBT program. To determine the effectiveness of each program, the subjects completed four exercise tests before and after the training period: vertical jump, medicine ball put test, 1RM projected bench press and 1RM projected squat. There were no significant differences between the VBT results and the VEB results. However, there were significant improvements between the pre-test and post-test measures for each group. There were increases in 1RM projected squat for VEB men, VBT men, and VBT women. There were also significant improvements in the VEB male vertical jump and medicine ball put test pre- to post-intervention. For track and field athletes, both programs may result in strength and power gains, however, the results cannot be used to conclude that one resistance training program is superior. PMID:27990226

  5. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  6. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d) staying active, and (e) recognizing emotions and behaviors. Results of the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention protocols are also presented. Design and Methods: Caregiving dyads were randomly assigned to participate in the intervention. Participants in the treatment condition were asked to complete a series of evaluation questions after each intervention session and an overall evaluation of the program. Data were also collected from the intervention specialists who implemented the protocols. Results: Overall, the evaluation data indicated that the content and process of the intervention were viewed as highly acceptable and feasible by both participants and intervention specialists. Implications: This article highlights the merit of using a strength-based approach for working with caregiving dyads with dementia and how a single intervention protocol can be used to address the goals of both care partners. Furthermore, the intervention program was found to be highly acceptable and feasible, which is an important aspect of developing dyadic protocols. PMID:19808841

  7. Age and response bias: evidence from the strength-based mirror effect.

    PubMed

    Criss, Amy H; Aue, William; Kılıç, Aslı

    2014-10-01

    Performance in episodic memory is determined both by accurate retrieval from memory and by decision processes. A substantial body of literature suggests slightly poorer episodic memory accuracy for older than younger adults; however, age-related changes in the decision mechanisms in memory have received much less attention. Response bias, the willingness to endorse an item as remembered, is an important decision factor that contributes to episodic memory performance, and therefore understanding age-related changes in response bias is critical to theoretical development. We manipulate list strength in order to investigate two aspects of response bias. First, we evaluate whether criterion placement in episodic memory differs for older and younger adults. Second, we ask whether older adults have the same degree of flexibility to adjust the criterion in response to task demands as younger adults. Participants were tested on weakly and strongly encoded lists where word frequency (Experiment 1) or similarity between targets and foils (Experiment 2) was manipulated. Both older and younger adults had higher hit rates and lower false-alarm rates for strong lists than for weak lists (i.e., a strength-based mirror effect). Older adults were more conservative (less likely to endorse an item as studied) than younger adults, and we found no evidence that older and younger adults differ in their ability to flexibly adjust their criterion based on the demands of the task.

  8. Screening for N-AHSL-Based-Signaling Interfering Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Uroz, Stéphane; Oger, Phil M

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS)-based signaling is a widespread pathway used by bacteria for the regulation of functions involved in their relation to the environment or their host. QS relies upon the production, accumulation and perception of small diffusable molecules by the bacterial population, hence linking high gene expression with high cell population densities. Among the different QS signal molecules, an important class of signal molecules is the N-acyl homoserine lactone (N-AHSL). In pathogens such as Erwinia or Pseudomonas, N-AHSL based QS is crucial to overcome the host defenses and ensure a successful infection. Interfering with QS-regulation allows the algae Delisea pulcra to avoid surface colonization by bacteria. Thus, interfering the QS-regulation of pathogenic bacteria is a promising antibiotic-free antibacterial therapeutic strategy. To date, two N-AHSL lactonases and one amidohydrolase families of N-ASHL degradation enzymes have been characterized and have proven to be efficient in vitro to control N-AHSL-based QS-regulated functions in pathogens. In this chapter, we provide methods to screen individual clones or bacterial strains as well as pool of clones for genomic and metagenomic libraries, that can be used to identify strains or clones carrying N-ASHL degradation enzymes.

  9. Fracture strength of root filled premolar teeth restored with silorane and methacrylate-based resin composite.

    PubMed

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Bagheri, R; Abu Holy, A

    2015-06-01

    To compare fracture characteristics of root-filled teeth with variable cavity design restored with a low shrinkage silorane and methacrylate-based resin composite. 77 extracted maxillary premolars were divided randomly into seven groups: (Group 1) intact teeth; (Groups 2-4) MOD plus endodontic access with the buccopalatal width of the occlusal isthmus equals one third of the intercuspal width; (Groups 5-7) MOD plus endodontic access with the buccopalatal width of the occlusal isthmus equals one half of the intercuspal width. Groups 2 and 5 were left unrestored, Groups 3 and 6 were restored with a silorane-based resin composite (Filtek P90) and Groups 4 and 7 with a methacrylate-based resin composite (Z250). Teeth were loaded in a universal testing machine; load and fracture patterns were recorded and compared statistically using 2-way ANOVA and t-test for pairwise comparisons and 1-way ANOVA with Dunnett test for multiple comparisons. Unrestored teeth became progressively weaker with more extensive preparations, Group 5 (unfilled ½) showed the lowest fracture load among the groups (71±22N, P<0.001). Restorations increased the fracture strength of unrestored teeth regardless of cavity size (P<0.001), but was still significantly weaker than sound teeth, with no significant difference between silorane and methacrylate groups. Failure of restored teeth was mostly adhesive at the tooth restoration interface. Silorane-based resin composite have no superior strengthening effect over the conventional methacrylate-based resin composite in restoration of root filled teeth. Both materials showed similar fracture patterns. Root filled teeth are considerably weakened via restorative and endodontic procedures. A direct adhesive restoration will aid in preserving tooth structure as far as it provides enough strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cavitating vortex characterization based on acoustic signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digulescu, A.; Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Ioana, C.; Vasile, G.; Serbanescu, A.

    2016-11-01

    In hydraulic turbines operating at part loads, a cavitating vortex structure appears at runner outlet. This helical vortex, called vortex rope, can be cavitating in its core if the local pressure is lower that the vaporization pressure. An actual concern is the detection of the cavitation apparition and the characterization of its level. This paper presents a potentially innovative method for the detection of the cavitating vortex presence based on acoustic methods. The method is tested on a reduced scale facility using two acoustic transceivers positioned in ”V” configuration. The received signals were continuously recorded and their frequency content was chosen to fit the flow and the cavitating vortex. Experimental results showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal - vortex interaction is observed as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Also, the signal processing results were correlated with the data measured with a pressure sensor mounted in the cavitating vortex section. Finally it is shown that this non-intrusive acoustic approach can indicate the apparition, development and the damping of the cavitating vortex. For real scale facilities, applying this method is a work in progress.

  11. In-depth Evaluation of Content-Based Phishing Detection to Clarify Its Strengths and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Koichiro; Seko, Toshinori; Ichinose, Yusuke; Kato, Kei; Kawano, Kohei; Yoshiura, Hiroshi

    Zhang et al. proposed a method for content-based phishing detection (CBD) and reported its high performance in detecting phishing sites written in English. However, the evaluations of the CBD method performed by Zhang et al. and others were small-scale and simply measured the detection and error rates, i.e, they did not analyze the causes of the detection errors. Moreover, the effectiveness of the CBD method with non-English sites, such as Japanese and Chinese language sites, has never been tested. This paper reports our in-depth evaluation and analysis of the CBD method using 843 actual phishing sites (including 475 English and 368 Japanese sites), and explains both the strengths of the CBD method and its limitations. Our work provides a base for using the CBD method in the real world.

  12. EEG signal features extraction based on fractal dimension.

    PubMed

    Finotello, Francesca; Scarpa, Fabio; Zanon, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    The spread of electroencephalography (EEG) in countless applications has fostered the development of new techniques for extracting synthetic and informative features from EEG signals. However, the definition of an effective feature set depends on the specific problem to be addressed and is currently an active field of research. In this work, we investigated the application of features based on fractal dimension to a problem of sleep identification from EEG data. We demonstrated that features based on fractal dimension, including two novel indices defined in this work, add valuable information to standard EEG features and significantly improve sleep identification performance.

  13. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic and Resin Denture Teeth on Different Acrylic Resin Bases

    PubMed Central

    Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial plan was designed and a three-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate if shear bond strength is affected by the following factors: (i) tooth material (ceramic or resin); (ii) base material (self-curing or thermal-curing resin); (iii) presence or absence of aluminium oxide sandblasting treatment at the tooth-base interface. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant difference between shear strength values measured for the dif-ferently prepared samples. It was found from ANOVA that the above mentioned factors all affect shear strength. Furthermore, post hoc analysis indi-cated that there are statistically significant differences (p-value=0.000) between measured shear strength values for: (i) teeth made of ceramic material vs. teeth made of acrylic resin material; (ii) bases made of self-curing resin vs. thermal-curing resin; (iii) specimens treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting vs. untreated specimens. Shear strength values measured for acryl-ic resin teeth were on average 70% higher than those measured for ceramic teeth. The shear bond strength was maximized by preparing samples with thermal-curing resin bases and resin teeth submitted to aluminium oxide sandblasting. PMID:25614770

  14. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals. PMID:26834379

  15. Flexural Strength Comparison of Silorane- and Methacrylate-Based Composites with Pre-impregnated Glass Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Karimizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Sufficient adhesion between silorane/methacrylate-based composites and methacrylate impregnated glass fiber increases the benefits of fibers and enhances the mechanical and clinical performance of both composites. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of silorane and methacrylate-based composites with pre-impregnated glass fiber by using flexural strength (FS) test. Materials and Method A total of 60 bar specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm) in 6 groups (n=10). In groups 1 and 4 (control), silorane-based (Filtek P90) and nanohybrid (Filtek Z350) composites were placed into the mold and photopolymerized with a high-intensity curing unit. In groups 2 and 5, pre-impregnated glass fiber was first placed into the mold and after two minutes of curing, the mold was filled with respective composites. Prior to filling the mold in groups 3 and 6, an intermediate adhesive layer was applied to the glass fiber. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and then their flexural strength was measured by 3 point bending test, using universal testing machine at the crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc test were used for analyzing the data (p< 0.05). Results A significant difference was observed between the groups (p< 0.05). The highest FS was registered for combination of Z350 composite, impregnated glass fiber, and application of intermediate adhesive layer .The lowest FS was obtained in Filtek P90 alone. Cohesive failure in composite was the predominant failure in all groups, except group 5 in which adhesive failure between the composite and fiber was exclusively observed. Conclusion Significant improvement in FS was achieved for both composites with glass fiber. Additional application of intermediate adhesive layer before composite build up seems to increase FS. Nanohybrid composite showed higher FS than silorane-based composite. PMID:27284555

  16. The Effect of Alkaline Activator Ratio on the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lăzărescu, A. V.; Szilagyi, H.; Baeră, C.; Ioani, A.

    2017-06-01

    Alkaline activation of fly ash is a particular procedure in which ash resulting from a power plant combined with a specific alkaline activator creates a solid material when dried at a certain temperature. In order to obtain desirable compressive strengths, the mix design of fly ash based geopolymer pastes should be explored comprehensively. To determine the preliminary compressive strength for fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material source, various ratios of Na2SiO3 solution/ NaOH solution were produced, keeping the fly ash/alkaline activator ratio constant. All the mixes were then cured at 70 °C for 24 hours and tested at 2 and 7 days, respectively. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary compressive strength results for producing fly ash based geopolymer paste using Romanian material sources, the effect of alkaline activators ratio on the compressive strength and studying the directions for future research.

  17. Observer-based beamforming algorithm for acoustic array signal processing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Long; Huang, Xun

    2011-12-01

    In the field of noise identification with microphone arrays, conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming is the most popular signal processing technique. However, acoustic imaging results that are generated by DAS beamforming are easily influenced by background noise, particularly for in situ wind tunnel tests. Even when arithmetic averaging is used to statistically remove the interference from the background noise, the results are far from perfect because the interference from the coherent background noise is still present. In addition, DAS beamforming based on arithmetic averaging fails to deliver real-time computational capability. An observer-based approach is introduced in this paper. This so-called observer-based beamforming method has a recursive form similar to the state observer in classical control theory, thus holds a real-time computational capability. In addition, coherent background noise can be gradually rejected in iterations. Theoretical derivations of the observer-based beamforming algorithm are carefully developed in this paper. Two numerical simulations demonstrate the good coherent background noise rejection and real-time computational capability of the observer-based beamforming, which therefore can be regarded as an attractive algorithm for acoustic array signal processing.

  18. Kernel-based machine learning techniques for infrasound signal classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuma, Matthias; Igel, Christian; Mialle, Pierrick

    2014-05-01

    Infrasound monitoring is one of four remote sensing technologies continuously employed by the CTBTO Preparatory Commission. The CTBTO's infrasound network is designed to monitor the Earth for potential evidence of atmospheric or shallow underground nuclear explosions. Upon completion, it will comprise 60 infrasound array stations distributed around the globe, of which 47 were certified in January 2014. Three stages can be identified in CTBTO infrasound data processing: automated processing at the level of single array stations, automated processing at the level of the overall global network, and interactive review by human analysts. At station level, the cross correlation-based PMCC algorithm is used for initial detection of coherent wavefronts. It produces estimates for trace velocity and azimuth of incoming wavefronts, as well as other descriptive features characterizing a signal. Detected arrivals are then categorized into potentially treaty-relevant versus noise-type signals by a rule-based expert system. This corresponds to a binary classification task at the level of station processing. In addition, incoming signals may be grouped according to their travel path in the atmosphere. The present work investigates automatic classification of infrasound arrivals by kernel-based pattern recognition methods. It aims to explore the potential of state-of-the-art machine learning methods vis-a-vis the current rule-based and task-tailored expert system. To this purpose, we first address the compilation of a representative, labeled reference benchmark dataset as a prerequisite for both classifier training and evaluation. Data representation is based on features extracted by the CTBTO's PMCC algorithm. As classifiers, we employ support vector machines (SVMs) in a supervised learning setting. Different SVM kernel functions are used and adapted through different hyperparameter optimization routines. The resulting performance is compared to several baseline classifiers. All

  19. Consequences of Base Time for Redundant Signals Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, James T.; Honey, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    We report analytical and computational investigations into the effects of base time on the diagnosticity of two popular theoretical tools in the redundant signals literature: (1) the race model inequality and (2) the capacity coefficient. We show analytically and without distributional assumptions that the presence of base time decreases the sensitivity of both of these measures to model violations. We further use simulations to investigate the statistical power model selection tools based on the race model inequality, both with and without base time. Base time decreases statistical power, and biases the race model test toward conservatism. The magnitude of this biasing effect increases as we increase the proportion of total reaction time variance contributed by base time. We marshal empirical evidence to suggest that the proportion of reaction time variance contributed by base time is relatively small, and that the effects of base time on the diagnosticity of our model-selection tools are therefore likely to be minor. However, uncertainty remains concerning the magnitude and even the definition of base time. Experimentalists should continue to be alert to situations in which base time may contribute a large proportion of the total reaction time variance. PMID:18670591

  20. Case studies of extended model-based flood forecasting: prediction of dike strength and flood impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet

    2017-04-01

    Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global

  1. Phthalonitrile-Based Carbon Foam with High Specific Mechanical Strength and Superior Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liying; Liu, Ming; Roy, Sunanda; Chu, Eng Kee; See, Kye Yak; Hu, Xiao

    2016-03-23

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) performance materials are urgently needed to relieve the increasing stress over electromagnetic pollution problems arising from the growing demand for electronic and electrical devices. In this work, a novel ultralight (0.15 g/cm(3)) carbon foam was prepared by direct carbonization of phthalonitrile (PN)-based polymer foam aiming to simultaneously achieve high EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) and deliver effective weight reduction without detrimental reduction of the mechanical properties. The carbon foam prepared by this method had specific compressive strength of ∼6.0 MPa·cm(3)/g. High EMI SE of ∼51.2 dB was achieved, contributed by its intrinsic nitrogen-containing structure (3.3 wt% of nitrogen atoms). The primary EMI shielding mechanism of such carbon foam was determined to be absorption. Moreover, the carbon foams showed excellent specific EMI SE of 341.1 dB·cm(3)/g, which was at least 2 times higher than most of the reported material. The remarkable EMI shielding performance combined with high specific compressive strength indicated that the carbon foam could be considered as a low-density and high-performance EMI shielding material for use in areas where mechanical integrity is desired.

  2. Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Isao; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the scheme of a research project funded by the Ministry of Land Infrastructure Transport and Tourism (MLIT) from the fiscal year of 2012 to 2014 under the title of "Development of base isolation device complied with the ultimate strength design code." The theoretical prediction tells us a new approach to develop a highly stable laminated rubber bearing that has a constant buckling load even under large lateral displacement. Relatively high shear stiffness makes it more stable and the height of the bearing should be longer than its diameter. They are the newly discovered theoretical buckling stability criteria from the previous studies conducted by the author's research team. The experimental studies in this project show the compatibility with the theoretical prediction and highly linear loaddisplacement relationship under large deformation. The performance of the newly developed device satisfies the requirement of the ultimate strength design code, if the ground condition of the target building is normally solid enough to prevent liquefaction. The theoretically predicted buckling stability of the laminated rubber bearings has been experimentally verified by the specimens of this project.

  3. Using strength-based approaches to explore pretreatment change in men who abuse their partners.

    PubMed

    Curwood, Susan Eckerle; DeGeer, Ian; Hymmen, Peter; Lehmann, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Group work with men who batter has traditionally consisted predominantly of psychoeducational programs that ignore concepts such as self-determination, goal setting, and positive engagement with men. More recently, this paradigm has begun to shift to include cognitive approaches and the utilization of strength-based strategies. The present sample included 42 men who were part of an ongoing batterer intervention program. Information for this study included assessment of each man's strengths, their goals, and their perceptions of the changes they felt they had already made prior to attending group treatment. Through a grounded theory analysis, a model was developed that highlights the pretherapeutic change processes that men experience due to their being arrested, charged with a misdemeanour domestic charge, and subsequently convicted of domestic violence. Particularly highlighted are changes in the ways that men view and navigate three distinct areas of their lives: their external world (including work and education); their internal world (perception of self, values, and skills); and their interpersonal relationships with their partner and children.

  4. An observation-based estimate of the strength of rainfall-vegetation interactions in the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, S. O.; Weedon, G. P.; North, P. R. J.; Kaduk, J. D.; Taylor, C. M.; Cox, P. M.

    2006-08-01

    Over the course of the twentieth century the African Sahel experienced large variations in annual precipitation; including the wet period during the 1950s and 1960s and the long-term drought during the 1970s and 1980s. Feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere can affect rainfall variability at monthly, annual and decadal time scales. However, the strength of the coupling between the land surface and precipitation is still highly uncertain, with climate-model derived estimates differing by an order of magnitude. Here a statistical model of vegetation greenness is used to estimate the vegetation-rainfall coupling strength in the Sahel, based on monthly satellite-derived vegetation index and meteorological data. Evidence is found for a positive feedback between vegetation and rainfall at the monthly time scale, and for a vegetation memory operating at the annual time scale. These vegetation-rainfall interactions increase the interannual variation in Sahelian precipitation; accounting for as much as 30% of the variability in annual precipitation in some hot spot regions between 15° and 20°N.

  5. Tensile strengths of polyamide based 3D printed polymers in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, P.; Shoemake, E. D.; Adam, P.; Leachman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing technology have made 3D printing a viable solution for many industries, allowing for the manufacture of designs that could not be made through traditional subtractive methods. Applicability of additive manufacturing in cryogenic applications is hindered, however, by a lack of accurate material properties information. Nylon is available for printing using fused deposition modeling (FDM) and selective laser sintering (SLS). We selected 5 SLS (DuraForm® EX, DuraForm® HST, DuraForm® PA, PA 640-GSL, and PA 840-GSL) and 2 FDM (Nylon 12, ULTEM) nylon variants based on the bulk material properties and printed properties at room temperature. Tensile tests were performed on five samples of each material while immersed in liquid nitrogen at approximately 77 Kelvin. Samples were tested in XY and, where available, Z printing directions to determine influence on material properties. Results show typical SLS and FDM nylon ultimate strength retention at 77 K, when compared to (extruded or molded) nylon ultimate strength.

  6. An in vitro comparison of tensile bond strengths of noble and base metal alloys to enamel.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Roya Zand; Goldstein, Gary R; Barrack, Gerald M; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-08-01

    Many different surface treatments have been used to increase the bond strength of noble and base metal alloys to enamel, but only a few have been studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tensile bond strength of a tin-plated noble alloy, an Alloy Primer-treated noble alloy, and an airborne particle-abraded base metal alloy, all bonded to enamel with a phosphate-methacrylate resin luting agent. Seventy noncarious molar teeth were extracted, cleaned, and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin with the buccal surface of the teeth exposed. Seventy wax patterns (4-mm diameter x 2-mm thickness) were waxed, invested, and cast-50 with a noble alloy (Argedent 52) and 20 with a base metal alloy (Argeloy N.P.). Twenty of the noble alloy specimens were tin-plated (TP), 20 noble alloy specimens were treated with Alloy Primer (AP), and 20 base metal alloy specimens were airborne particle abraded (AA). All specimens were luted with a phosphate-methacrylate resin luting agent (Panavia F) and stored in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C, half for 24 hours and half for 7 days. Ten noble alloy specimens were tin-plated and stored in water for 48 hours (aged) before cementation and then stored in water for 24 hours after cementation. These specimens were used to test whether there is an advantage to aging the tin-plated surface in water before cementation. All specimens were thermocycled (5 degrees to 55 degrees C) for 500 cycles and then tested for tensile bond strength (TBS), measured in MPa, with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. Various castings (n=6 per test group) were randomly selected from each group and inspected under a scanning electronic microscope to determine mode of failure. The mean values and standard deviations of all specimens were calculated for each group. A 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, and multiple pairwise comparisons were then completed with post hoc Tukey test (alpha=.05). The TBS of the

  7. Comparative evaluation of impact and flexural strength of four commercially available flexible denture base materials: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abhay, Pande Neelam; Karishma, Shori

    2013-12-01

    Poly-methyl methacrylate is a rigid material. It is generally observed that the impact and flexural strength of this material is not satisfactory and that is reflected in the continuous efforts to improve these mechanical properties. Hence there was a serious need to make another material which could overcome the limitations of the existing materials and could have better properties, like thermoplastic materials. The study was aimed to evaluate and compare the impact strength and the flexural strength of four different flexible denture base materials (thermoplastic denture base resins) with the conventional denture base material (high impact polymethyl-methacrylate). Two, machine made master moulds of metal blocks according to the size of sample holder of the equipment were prepared to test the impact and flexural strength. Total 40 samples, 10 for each group of flexible denture base materials namely: De-flex (Deflex, United Kingdom), Lucitone FRS (Densply, Germany), Valplast (Novoblast, USA), and Bre-flex (Bredent, Germany) in specially designed flask by injection molded process. For different flexible materials, the time, temperature and pressure for injecting the materials were followed as per the manufacturer's instructions. Total 20 samples for control (Trevelon denture base materials) were prepared by compression moulded process, for each test. ANOVA test was applied to calculate p value. Unpaired t test was applied to calculate t-value. Tukey-Kramer multiple test was provided for comparison between the groups for flexural and impact strength. From the statistical analysis, it was found that, the impact strength of Group III (Valplast) was found to be the highest than all other groups and nearer to the control group. Whereas Group IV (Bre-flex) had the maximum flexural strength. The flexural strength of Group I (De-flex) was lowest than all other groups and nearer to control group. The values were found to be statistically significant but clinically non

  8. Development of a Model and Localization Algorithm for Received Signal Strength-Based Geolocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of this research to the community include new models for RSS and two novel algorithms used to localize RSS measurements. These contributions also...applications such as Facebook, Four Square and Instagram , users may choose to tag their locations in status updates or photos. These applications...loss exponent,” IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 1, pp. 34 –37, Feb. 2012. [9] T. Rappaport, Wireless Communications -Principles and Practice

  9. The efficacy of home based progressive strength training in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baker, K R; Nelson, M E; Felson, D T; Layne, J E; Sarno, R; Roubenoff, R

    2001-07-01

    To test the effects of a high intensity home-based progressive strength training program on the clinical signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Forty-six community dwelling patients, aged 55 years or older with knee pain and radiographic evidence of knee OA, were randomized to a 4 month home based progressive strength training program or a nutrition education program (attention control). Thirty-eight patients completed the trial with an adherence of 84% to the intervention and 65% to the attention control. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index pain and physical function subscales. Secondary outcomes included clinical knee examination, muscle strength, physical performance measures, and questionnaires to measure quality of life variables. Patients in the strength training group who completed the trial had a 71% improvement in knee extension strength in the leg reported as most painful versus a 3% improvement in the control group (p < 0.01). In a modified intent to treat analysis, self-reported pain improved by 36% and physical function by 38% in the strength training group versus 11 and 21%, respectively, in the control group (p = 0.01 for between group comparison). In addition, those patients in the strength training group who completed the trial had a 43% mean reduction in pain (p = 0.01 vs controls), a 44% mean improvement in self-reported physical function (p < 0.01 vs controls), and improvements in physical performance, quality of life, and self-efficacy when compared to the control group. High intensity, home based strength training can produce substantial improvements in strength, pain, physical function and quality of life in patients with knee OA.

  10. FPGA-Based Filterbank Implementation for Parallel Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Stephan; DeLeon, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    One approach to parallel digital signal processing decomposes a high bandwidth signal into multiple lower bandwidth (rate) signals by an analysis bank. After processing, the subband signals are recombined into a fullband output signal by a synthesis bank. This paper describes an implementation of the analysis and synthesis banks using (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) FPGAs.

  11. On the Relation of Setting and Early-Age Strength Development to Porosity and Hydration in Cement-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Lootens, Didier; Bentz, Dale P

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a linear relationship between compressive strength (mortar cubes and concrete cylinders) and cumulative heat release normalized per unit volume of (mixing) water for a wide variety of cement-based mixtures at ages of 1 d and beyond. This paper utilizes concurrent ultrasonic reflection and calorimetry measurements to further explore this relationship from the time of specimen casting to 3 d. The ultrasonic measurements permit a continuous evaluation of thickening, setting, and strength development during this time period for comparison with the ongoing chemical reactions, as characterized by isothermal calorimetry measurements. Initially, the ultrasonic strength-heat release relation depends strongly on water-to-cement ratio, as well as admixture additions, with no universal behavior. Still, each individual strength-heat release curve is consistent with a percolation-based view of the cement setting process. However, beyond about 8 h for the systems investigated in the present study, the various strength-heat release curves merge towards a single relationship that broadly characterizes the development of strength as a function of heat released (fractional space filled), demonstrating that mortar and/or concrete strength at early ages can be effectively monitored using either ultrasonic or calorimetry measurements on small paste or mortar specimens.

  12. On the Relation of Setting and Early-Age Strength Development to Porosity and Hydration in Cement-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Lootens, Didier; Bentz, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a linear relationship between compressive strength (mortar cubes and concrete cylinders) and cumulative heat release normalized per unit volume of (mixing) water for a wide variety of cement-based mixtures at ages of 1 d and beyond. This paper utilizes concurrent ultrasonic reflection and calorimetry measurements to further explore this relationship from the time of specimen casting to 3 d. The ultrasonic measurements permit a continuous evaluation of thickening, setting, and strength development during this time period for comparison with the ongoing chemical reactions, as characterized by isothermal calorimetry measurements. Initially, the ultrasonic strength-heat release relation depends strongly on water-to-cement ratio, as well as admixture additions, with no universal behavior. Still, each individual strength-heat release curve is consistent with a percolation-based view of the cement setting process. However, beyond about 8 h for the systems investigated in the present study, the various strength-heat release curves merge towards a single relationship that broadly characterizes the development of strength as a function of heat released (fr