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Sample records for signals statistical mapping

  1. The Statistical Value of Raw Fluorescence Signal in Luminex xMAP Based Multiplex Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Edmond J.; Tan, Woei; Khan, Alamgir

    2016-01-01

    Tissue samples (plasma, saliva, serum or urine) from 169 patients classified as either normal or having one of seven possible diseases are analysed across three 96-well plates for the presences of 37 analytes using cytokine inflammation multiplexed immunoassay panels. Censoring for concentration data caused problems for analysis of the low abundant analytes. Using fluorescence analysis over concentration based analysis allowed analysis of these low abundant analytes. Mixed-effects analysis on the resulting fluorescence and concentration responses reveals a combination of censoring and mapping the fluorescence responses to concentration values, through a 5PL curve, changed observed analyte concentrations. Simulation verifies this, by showing a dependence on the mean florescence response and its distribution on the observed analyte concentration levels. Differences from normality, in the fluorescence responses, can lead to differences in concentration estimates and unreliable probabilities for treatment effects. It is seen that when fluorescence responses are normally distributed, probabilities of treatment effects for fluorescence based t-tests has greater statistical power than the same probabilities from concentration based t-tests. We add evidence that the fluorescence response, unlike concentration values, doesn’t require censoring and we show with respect to differential analysis on the fluorescence responses that background correction is not required. PMID:27243383

  2. Plague Maps and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...

  3. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  4. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, David O.

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  5. Applications of statistics to thematic mapping.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Melley, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two statistical problems occurring in the effort to analyze thematic maps and mapping are determining the accuracy of thematic content and comparing factors studied in thematic mapping. Statistical procedures applicable to thematic mapping involve sampling, determining accuracy, and comparing factors. A sampling procedure using an unaligned pattern within a square grid network is applicable for use with thematic maps. Sample size may be determined using the binomial distribution based upon the confidence interval to define the true mean of the population within certain limits. The confidence interval may also be used to define the upper and lower limits of the accuracy of the thematic map. - from Authors

  6. Statistical and computational challenges in physical mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.O.; Speed, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like Huntington`s disease, cystic fibrosis, and myotonic dystrophy. Instrumental in these efforts has been the construction of so-called {open_quotes}physical maps{close_quotes} of large regions of human chromosomes. Constructing a physical map of a chromosome presents a number of interesting challenges to the computational statistician. In addition to the general ill-posedness of the problem, complications include the size of the data sets, computational complexity, and the pervasiveness of experimental error. The nature of the problem and the presence of many levels of experimental uncertainty make statistical approaches to map construction appealing. Simultaneously, however, the size and combinatorial complexity of the problem make such approaches computationally demanding. In this paper we discuss what physical maps are and describe three different kinds of physical maps, outlining issues which arise in constructing them. In addition, we describe our experience with powerful, interactive statistical computing environments. We found that the ability to create high-level specifications of proposed algorithms which could then be directly executed provided a flexible rapid prototyping facility for developing new statistical models and methods. The ability to check the implementation of an algorithm by comparing its results to that of an executable specification enabled us to rapidly debug both specification and implementation in an environment of changing needs.

  7. Multivariate Statistical Mapping of Spectroscopic Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Young, K.; Govind, V.; Sharma, K.; Studholme, C.; Maudsley, A.A; Schuff, N.

    2010-01-01

    For magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) studies of the brain it is important to measure the distribution of metabolites in a regionally unbiased way - that is without restrictions to apriori defined regions of interest (ROI). Since MRSI provides measures of multiple metabolites simultaneously at each voxel, there is furthermore great interest in utilizing the multidimensional nature of MRSI for gains in statistical power. Voxelwise multivariate statistical mapping is expected to address both of these issues but it has not been previously employed for SI studies of brain. The aims of this study were to: 1) develop and validate multivariate voxel based statistical mapping for MRSI and 2) demonstrate that multivariate tests can be more powerful than univariate tests in identifying patterns of altered brain metabolism. Specifically, we compared multivariate to univariate tests in identifying known regional patterns in simulated data and regional patterns of metabolite alterations due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a devastating brain disease of the motor neurons. PMID:19953514

  8. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  9. Statistical mapping of count survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Scott, J. Michael; Heglund, Patricia J.; Morrison, Michael L.; Haufler, Jonathan B.; Wall, William A.

    2002-01-01

    We apply a Poisson mixed model to the problem of mapping (or predicting) bird relative abundance from counts collected from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). The model expresses the logarithm of the Poisson mean as a sum of a fixed term (which may depend on habitat variables) and a random effect which accounts for remaining unexplained variation. The random effect is assumed to be spatially correlated, thus providing a more general model than the traditional Poisson regression approach. Consequently, the model is capable of improved prediction when data are autocorrelated. Moreover, formulation of the mapping problem in terms of a statistical model facilitates a wide variety of inference problems which are cumbersome or even impossible using standard methods of mapping. For example, assessment of prediction uncertainty, including the formal comparison of predictions at different locations, or through time, using the model-based prediction variance is straightforward under the Poisson model (not so with many nominally model-free methods). Also, ecologists may generally be interested in quantifying the response of a species to particular habitat covariates or other landscape attributes. Proper accounting for the uncertainty in these estimated effects is crucially dependent on specification of a meaningful statistical model. Finally, the model may be used to aid in sampling design, by modifying the existing sampling plan in a manner which minimizes some variance-based criterion. Model fitting under this model is carried out using a simulation technique known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. Application of the model is illustrated using Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) counts from Pennsylvania BBS routes. We produce both a model-based map depicting relative abundance, and the corresponding map of prediction uncertainty. We briefly address the issue of spatial sampling design under this model. Finally, we close with some discussion of mapping in relation to

  10. Model for neural signaling leap statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Martine; Oriá, Marcos

    2011-03-01

    We present a simple model for neural signaling leaps in the brain considering only the thermodynamic (Nernst) potential in neuron cells and brain temperature. We numerically simulated connections between arbitrarily localized neurons and analyzed the frequency distribution of the distances reached. We observed qualitative change between Normal statistics (with T = 37.5°C, awaken regime) and Lévy statistics (T = 35.5°C, sleeping period), characterized by rare events of long range connections.

  11. Apparatus for statistical time-series analysis of electrical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, C. H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for performing statistical time-series analysis of complex electrical signal waveforms, permitting prompt and accurate determination of statistical characteristics of the signal is presented.

  12. Maximally Informative Statistics for Localization and Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for localization and mapping for a mobile robot using monocular vision and odometry as its means of sensing. The approach uses the Variable State Dimension filtering (VSDF) framework to combine aspects of Extended Kalman filtering and nonlinear batch optimization. This paper describes two primary improvements to the VSDF. The first is to use an interpolation scheme based on Gaussian quadrature to linearize measurements rather than relying on analytic Jacobians. The second is to replace the inverse covariance matrix in the VSDF with its Cholesky factor to improve the computational complexity. Results of applying the filter to the problem of localization and mapping with omnidirectional vision are presented.

  13. Geometry of basic statistical physics mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelelli, Mario; Konopelchenko, Boris

    2016-09-01

    The geometry of hypersurfaces defined by the relation which generalizes the classical formula for free energy in terms of microstates is studied. The induced metric, the Riemann curvature tensor, the Gauss-Kronecker curvature and its associated entropy are calculated. A special class of ideal statistical hypersurfaces is analyzed in detail. Non-ideal hypersurfaces and singularities similar to those of the phase transitions are considered. The tropical limit of the statistical hypersurfaces and the double scaling tropical limit are discussed too.

  14. A Statistical Approach for Ambiguous Sequence Mappings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When attempting to map RNA sequences to a reference genome, high percentages of short sequence reads are often assigned to multiple genomic locations. One approach to handling these “ambiguous mappings” has been to discard them. This results in a loss of data, which can sometimes be as much as 45% o...

  15. Statistical mechanics and visual signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potters, Marc; Bialek, William

    1994-11-01

    We show how to use the language of statistical field theory to address and solve problems in which one must estimate some aspect of the environnent from the data in an array of sensors. In the field theory formulation the optimal estimator can be written as an expectation value in an ensemble where the input data act as external field. Problems at low signal-to-noise ratio can be solved in perturbation theory, while high signal-to-noise ratios are treated with a saddle-point approximation. These ideas are illustrated in detail by an example of visual motion estimation which is chosen to model a problem solved by the fly's brain. The optimal estimator bas a rich structure, adapting to various parameters of the environnent such as the mean-square contrast and the corrélation time of contrast fluctuations. This structure is in qualitative accord with existing measurements on motion sensitive neurons in the fly's brain, and the adaptive properties of the optimal estimator may help resolve conficts among different interpretations of these data. Finally we propose some crucial direct tests of the adaptive behavior. Nous montrons comment employer le langage de la théorie statistique des champs pour poser et résoudre des problèmes où l'on doit estimer une caractéristique de l'environnement à l'aide de données provenant d'un ensemble de détecteurs. Dans ce formalisme, l'estimateur optimal peut être écrit comme la valeur moyenne d'un opérateur, l'ensemble des données d'entrée agissant comme un champ externe. Les problèmes à faible rapport signal-bruit sont résolus par la théorie des perturbations. La méthode du col est employée pour ceux à haut rapport signal-bruit. Ces idées sont illustrées en détails sur un modèle d'estimation visuelle du mouvement basé sur un problème résolu par la mouche. L'estimateur optimal a une structure très riche, s'adaptant à divers paramètres de l'environnement tels la variance du contraste et le temps de corr

  16. Statistical Characterization of the Medical Ultrasound Echo Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Runqiu

    2016-12-01

    Medical ultrasound echo signals provide the basic information for obtaining the ultrasonic image in medical ultrasound technology. The statistics of the ultrasound echo signals reveals the systematic structure of the medical ultrasonic image via analyzing the corresponding statistical distributions. A novel statistical distribution, the ascending order K distribution, was proposed here to model the medical ultrasound echo signals. The ascending order K distribution was developed in light of the statistical analysis of the sequential waveforms in the echo signals. Comparison with the previous statistical distributions was made to verify the superiority of the ascending order K distribution. Further discussion showed the determination of the statistical principles for the ultrasound signals can enhance our understanding of the statistical principles of the ultrasound imaging, and thus, facilitate the optimization of the ultrasound image and the tissue identification in the ultrasound diagnosis.

  17. Statistical Characterization of the Medical Ultrasound Echo Signals

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Runqiu

    2016-01-01

    Medical ultrasound echo signals provide the basic information for obtaining the ultrasonic image in medical ultrasound technology. The statistics of the ultrasound echo signals reveals the systematic structure of the medical ultrasonic image via analyzing the corresponding statistical distributions. A novel statistical distribution, the ascending order K distribution, was proposed here to model the medical ultrasound echo signals. The ascending order K distribution was developed in light of the statistical analysis of the sequential waveforms in the echo signals. Comparison with the previous statistical distributions was made to verify the superiority of the ascending order K distribution. Further discussion showed the determination of the statistical principles for the ultrasound signals can enhance our understanding of the statistical principles of the ultrasound imaging, and thus, facilitate the optimization of the ultrasound image and the tissue identification in the ultrasound diagnosis. PMID:27991564

  18. Efficient statistical mapping of avian count data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Wikle, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a spatial modeling framework for count data that is efficient to implement in high-dimensional prediction problems. We consider spectral parameterizations for the spatially varying mean of a Poisson model. The spectral parameterization of the spatial process is very computationally efficient, enabling effective estimation and prediction in large problems using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We apply this model to creating avian relative abundance maps from North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Variation in the ability of observers to count birds is modeled as spatially independent noise, resulting in over-dispersion relative to the Poisson assumption. This approach represents an improvement over existing approaches used for spatial modeling of BBS data which are either inefficient for continental scale modeling and prediction or fail to accommodate important distributional features of count data thus leading to inaccurate accounting of prediction uncertainty.

  19. Tissue Characterization on Ultrasound Harmonic Signals using Nakagami Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fanglue; Cristea, Anca; Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) imaging provides a way to characterize biological tissue. The QUS estimates can be obtained from the envelope statistics. Previous studies are mainly based on the whole backscattered signals analysis. However, the ultrasound propagation is a nonlinear process and the harmonic signals can therefore reveal the nonlinear nature of a biological medium. The present study investigates the statistics of harmonic signal envelopes to relate the distribution parameters to the nonlinear coefficients. The main results demonstrate that the distributions exhibit a different behavior for fundamental and harmonic signals and that media with different nonlinearities can be distinguished, when using Nakagami statistics on the harmonic signal envelopes.

  20. Analysis of the chaotic maps generating different statistical distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawnik, M.

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of the chaotic maps, enabling the derivation of numbers from given statistical distributions was presented. The analyzed chaotic maps are in the form xk+1 = F-1(U(F(xk))), where F is the cumulative distribution function, U is the skew tent map and F-1 is the inverse function of F. The analysis was presented on the example of chaotic map with the standard normal distribution in view of his computational efficiency and accuracy. On the grounds of the conducted analysis, it should be indicated that the method not always allows to generate the values from the given distribution.

  1. Statistical Analysis of Molecular Signal Recording

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Moffitt, Jeffrey R.; Tyo, Keith; Boyden, Edward S.; Church, George; Kording, Konrad P.

    2013-01-01

    A molecular device that records time-varying signals would enable new approaches in neuroscience. We have recently proposed such a device, termed a “molecular ticker tape”, in which an engineered DNA polymerase (DNAP) writes time-varying signals into DNA in the form of nucleotide misincorporation patterns. Here, we define a theoretical framework quantifying the expected capabilities of molecular ticker tapes as a function of experimental parameters. We present a decoding algorithm for estimating time-dependent input signals, and DNAP kinetic parameters, directly from misincorporation rates as determined by sequencing. We explore the requirements for accurate signal decoding, particularly the constraints on (1) the polymerase biochemical parameters, and (2) the amplitude, temporal resolution, and duration of the time-varying input signals. Our results suggest that molecular recording devices with kinetic properties similar to natural polymerases could be used to perform experiments in which neural activity is compared across several experimental conditions, and that devices engineered by combining favorable biochemical properties from multiple known polymerases could potentially measure faster phenomena such as slow synchronization of neuronal oscillations. Sophisticated engineering of DNAPs is likely required to achieve molecular recording of neuronal activity with single-spike temporal resolution over experimentally relevant timescales. PMID:23874187

  2. The standard map: From Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics to Tsallis statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2016-03-01

    As well known, Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is the correct way of thermostatistically approaching ergodic systems. On the other hand, nontrivial ergodicity breakdown and strong correlations typically drag the system into out-of-equilibrium states where Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics fails. For a wide class of such systems, it has been shown in recent years that the correct approach is to use Tsallis statistics instead. Here we show how the dynamics of the paradigmatic conservative (area-preserving) stan-dard map exhibits, in an exceptionally clear manner, the crossing from one statistics to the other. Our results unambiguously illustrate the domains of validity of both Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis statistical distributions. Since various important physical systems from particle confinement in magnetic traps to autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, through particle dynamics in accelerators and comet dynamics, can be reduced to the standard map, our results are expected to enlighten and enable an improved interpretation of diverse experimental and observational results.

  3. The standard map: From Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics to Tsallis statistics.

    PubMed

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P

    2016-03-23

    As well known, Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is the correct way of thermostatistically approaching ergodic systems. On the other hand, nontrivial ergodicity breakdown and strong correlations typically drag the system into out-of-equilibrium states where Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics fails. For a wide class of such systems, it has been shown in recent years that the correct approach is to use Tsallis statistics instead. Here we show how the dynamics of the paradigmatic conservative (area-preserving) stan-dard map exhibits, in an exceptionally clear manner, the crossing from one statistics to the other. Our results unambiguously illustrate the domains of validity of both Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis statistical distributions. Since various important physical systems from particle confinement in magnetic traps to autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, through particle dynamics in accelerators and comet dynamics, can be reduced to the standard map, our results are expected to enlighten and enable an improved interpretation of diverse experimental and observational results.

  4. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg{sup 2} map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 mum; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 mum, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 mum, over the range approx0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  5. Fault Tolerant Statistical Signal Processing Algorithms for Parallel Architectures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AD-fi57 393 FAULT TOLERANT STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS i/i FOR PARALLEL ARCH U) JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD DEPT OF ELECTRICAL...COVERED * ’ Fault Tolerant Statistical Signal Processing Technical A l g o r i t h m s f o r P a r a l l e l A r c h i t e c t u r e s a ._ P E R F O R M I...Identify by block number) , Fault Tolerance, Signal Processing, Parallel Architecture 0 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reveree side It neceseary and identify by

  6. Map of isotachs - statistical approach and meteorological information transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, A.A.; da Silva, J.I.; Coutinho, C.E.O.

    1985-09-01

    This report gives a statistical treatment of available wind data from airports in Brazil and provides a map of isotachs for extreme yearly wind velocities. A comparison between the statistical models of Frechet and Gumbel is carried out, leading to the adoption of the latter. The low density of meteorological stations used in this approach restricts the knowledge of wind activity. This fact was accounted for in the analytical method for spatial transfer of climatic data. Recommendations are given on how to enlarge the amount of available data.

  7. The standard map: From Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics to Tsallis statistics

    PubMed Central

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2016-01-01

    As well known, Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics is the correct way of thermostatistically approaching ergodic systems. On the other hand, nontrivial ergodicity breakdown and strong correlations typically drag the system into out-of-equilibrium states where Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics fails. For a wide class of such systems, it has been shown in recent years that the correct approach is to use Tsallis statistics instead. Here we show how the dynamics of the paradigmatic conservative (area-preserving) stan-dard map exhibits, in an exceptionally clear manner, the crossing from one statistics to the other. Our results unambiguously illustrate the domains of validity of both Boltzmann-Gibbs and Tsallis statistical distributions. Since various important physical systems from particle confinement in magnetic traps to autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, through particle dynamics in accelerators and comet dynamics, can be reduced to the standard map, our results are expected to enlighten and enable an improved interpretation of diverse experimental and observational results. PMID:27004989

  8. Diffusion-based population statistics using tract probability maps.

    PubMed

    Wassermann, Demian; Kanterakis, Efstathios; Gur, Ruben C; Deriche, Rachid; Verma, Ragini

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel technique for the tract-based statistical analysis of diffusion imaging data. In our technique, we represent each white matter (WM) tract as a tract probability map (TPM): a function mapping a point to its probability of belonging to the tract. We start by automatically clustering the tracts identified in the brain via tractography into TPMs using a novel Gaussian process framework. Then, each tract is modeled by the skeleton of its TPM, a medial representation with a tubular or sheet-like geometry. The appropriate geometry for each tract is implicitly inferred from the data instead of being selected a priori, as is done by current tract-specific approaches. The TPM representation makes it possible to average diffusion imaging based features along directions locally perpendicular to the skeleton of each WM tract, increasing the sensitivity and specificity of statistical analyses on the WM. Our framework therefore facilitates the automated analysis of WM tract bundles, and enables the quantification and visualization of tract-based statistical differences between groups. We have demonstrated the applicability of our framework by studying WM differences between 34 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy controls.

  9. Detection of Doppler Microembolic Signals Using High Order Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Geryes, Maroun; Hassan, Walid; Mcheick, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Robust detection of the smallest circulating cerebral microemboli is an efficient way of preventing strokes, which is second cause of mortality worldwide. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is widely considered the most convenient system for the detection of microemboli. The most common standard detection is achieved through the Doppler energy signal and depends on an empirically set constant threshold. On the other hand, in the past few years, higher order statistics have been an extensive field of research as they represent descriptive statistics that can be used to detect signal outliers. In this study, we propose new types of microembolic detectors based on the windowed calculation of the third moment skewness and fourth moment kurtosis of the energy signal. During energy embolus-free periods the distribution of the energy is not altered and the skewness and kurtosis signals do not exhibit any peak values. In the presence of emboli, the energy distribution is distorted and the skewness and kurtosis signals exhibit peaks, corresponding to the latter emboli. Applied on real signals, the detection of microemboli through the skewness and kurtosis signals outperformed the detection through standard methods. The sensitivities and specificities reached 78% and 91% and 80% and 90% for the skewness and kurtosis detectors, respectively. PMID:28096889

  10. Statistical optimisation techniques in fatigue signal editing problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nopiah, Z. M.; Osman, M. H.; Baharin, N.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-02-03

    Success in fatigue signal editing is determined by the level of length reduction without compromising statistical constraints. A great reduction rate can be achieved by removing small amplitude cycles from the recorded signal. The long recorded signal sometimes renders the cycle-to-cycle editing process daunting. This has encouraged researchers to focus on the segment-based approach. This paper discusses joint application of the Running Damage Extraction (RDE) technique and single constrained Genetic Algorithm (GA) in fatigue signal editing optimisation.. In the first section, the RDE technique is used to restructure and summarise the fatigue strain. This technique combines the overlapping window and fatigue strain-life models. It is designed to identify and isolate the fatigue events that exist in the variable amplitude strain data into different segments whereby the retention of statistical parameters and the vibration energy are considered. In the second section, the fatigue data editing problem is formulated as a constrained single optimisation problem that can be solved using GA method. The GA produces the shortest edited fatigue signal by selecting appropriate segments from a pool of labelling segments. Challenges arise due to constraints on the segment selection by deviation level over three signal properties, namely cumulative fatigue damage, root mean square and kurtosis values. Experimental results over several case studies show that the idea of solving fatigue signal editing within a framework of optimisation is effective and automatic, and that the GA is robust for constrained segment selection.

  11. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping in Python.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a topological methodology for detecting field changes in smooth n-dimensional continua. Many classes of biomechanical data are smooth and contained within discrete bounds and as such are well suited to SPM analyses. The current paper accompanies release of 'SPM1D', a free and open-source Python package for conducting SPM analyses on a set of registered 1D curves. Three example applications are presented: (i) kinematics, (ii) ground reaction forces and (iii) contact pressure distribution in probabilistic finite element modelling. In addition to offering a high-level interface to a variety of common statistical tests like t tests, regression and ANOVA, SPM1D also emphasises fundamental concepts of SPM theory through stand-alone example scripts. Source code and documentation are available at: www.tpataky.net/spm1d/.

  12. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  13. Significance probability mapping: the final touch in t-statistic mapping.

    PubMed

    Hassainia, F; Petit, D; Montplaisir, J

    1994-01-01

    Significance Probability Mapping (SPM), based on Student's t-statistic, is widely used for comparing mean brain topography maps of two groups. The map resulting from this process represents the distribution of t-values over the entire scalp. However, t-values by themselves cannot reveal whether or not group differences are significant. Significance levels associated with a few t-values are therefore commonly indicated on map legends to give the reader an idea of the significance levels of t-values. Nevertheless, a precise significance level topography cannot be achieved with these few significance values. We introduce a new kind of map which directly displays significance level topography in order to relieve the reader from converting multiple t-values to their corresponding significance probabilities, and to obtain a good quantification and a better localization of regions with significant differences between groups. As an illustration of this type of map, we present a comparison of EEG activity in Alzheimer's patients and age-matched control subjects for both wakefulness and REM sleep.

  14. Optimum Receiver Structure for PPM Signals with Avalanche Photodiode Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The maximum likelihood decision statistic for detection of pulse-position modulated signals with an avalanche photodiode is derived, using the more accurate Webb density rather than Poisson or Gaussian approximations for the distribution of avalanche photodiode output electrons. It is shown that for Webb-distributed output electtrons, the maximum likelihood rule is to choose the PPM word corresponding to the slot with the maximum electron count.

  15. Statistical quality indicators for electron-density maps.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Ian J

    2012-04-01

    The commonly used validation metrics for the local agreement of a structure model with the observed electron density, namely the real-space R (RSR) and the real-space correlation coefficient (RSCC), are reviewed. It is argued that the primary goal of all validation techniques is to verify the accuracy of the model, since precision is an inherent property of the crystal and the data. It is demonstrated that the principal weakness of both of the above metrics is their inability to distinguish the accuracy of the model from its precision. Furthermore, neither of these metrics in their usual implementation indicate the statistical significance of the result. The statistical properties of electron-density maps are reviewed and an improved alternative likelihood-based metric is suggested. This leads naturally to a χ(2) significance test of the difference density using the real-space difference density Z score (RSZD). This is a metric purely of the local model accuracy, as required for effective model validation and structure optimization by practising crystallographers prior to submission of a structure model to the PDB. A new real-space observed density Z score (RSZO) is also proposed; this is a metric purely of the model precision, as a substitute for other precision metrics such as the B factor.

  16. Statistical quality indicators for electron-density maps

    SciTech Connect

    Tickle, Ian J.

    2012-04-01

    A likelihood-based metric for scoring the local agreement of a structure model with the observed electron density is described. The commonly used validation metrics for the local agreement of a structure model with the observed electron density, namely the real-space R (RSR) and the real-space correlation coefficient (RSCC), are reviewed. It is argued that the primary goal of all validation techniques is to verify the accuracy of the model, since precision is an inherent property of the crystal and the data. It is demonstrated that the principal weakness of both of the above metrics is their inability to distinguish the accuracy of the model from its precision. Furthermore, neither of these metrics in their usual implementation indicate the statistical significance of the result. The statistical properties of electron-density maps are reviewed and an improved alternative likelihood-based metric is suggested. This leads naturally to a χ{sup 2} significance test of the difference density using the real-space difference density Z score (RSZD). This is a metric purely of the local model accuracy, as required for effective model validation and structure optimization by practising crystallographers prior to submission of a structure model to the PDB. A new real-space observed density Z score (RSZO) is also proposed; this is a metric purely of the model precision, as a substitute for other precision metrics such as the B factor.

  17. The statistics of local motion signals in naturalistic movies

    PubMed Central

    Nitzany, Eyal I.; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of motion from visual input plays an important role in many visual tasks, such as separation of figure from ground and navigation through space. Several kinds of local motion signals have been distinguished based on mathematical and computational considerations (e.g., motion based on spatiotemporal correlation of luminance, and motion based on spatiotemporal correlation of flicker), but little is known about the prevalence of these different kinds of signals in the real world. To address this question, we first note that different kinds of local motion signals (e.g., Fourier, non-Fourier, and glider) are characterized by second- and higher-order correlations in slanted spatiotemporal regions. The prevalence of local motion signals in natural scenes can thus be estimated by measuring the extent to which each of these correlations are present in space-time patches and whether they are coherent across spatiotemporal scales. We apply this technique to several popular movies. The results show that all three kinds of local motion signals are present in natural movies. While the balance of the different kinds of motion signals varies from segment to segment during the course of each movie, the overall pattern of prevalence of the different kinds of motion and their subtypes, and the correlations between them, is strikingly similar across movies (but is absent from white noise movies). In sum, naturalistic movies contain a diversity of local motion signals that occur with a consistent prevalence and pattern of covariation, indicating a substantial regularity of their high-order spatiotemporal image statistics. PMID:24732243

  18. The statistics of local motion signals in naturalistic movies.

    PubMed

    Nitzany, Eyal I; Victor, Jonathan D

    2014-04-14

    Extraction of motion from visual input plays an important role in many visual tasks, such as separation of figure from ground and navigation through space. Several kinds of local motion signals have been distinguished based on mathematical and computational considerations (e.g., motion based on spatiotemporal correlation of luminance, and motion based on spatiotemporal correlation of flicker), but little is known about the prevalence of these different kinds of signals in the real world. To address this question, we first note that different kinds of local motion signals (e.g., Fourier, non-Fourier, and glider) are characterized by second- and higher-order correlations in slanted spatiotemporal regions. The prevalence of local motion signals in natural scenes can thus be estimated by measuring the extent to which each of these correlations are present in space-time patches and whether they are coherent across spatiotemporal scales. We apply this technique to several popular movies. The results show that all three kinds of local motion signals are present in natural movies. While the balance of the different kinds of motion signals varies from segment to segment during the course of each movie, the overall pattern of prevalence of the different kinds of motion and their subtypes, and the correlations between them, is strikingly similar across movies (but is absent from white noise movies). In sum, naturalistic movies contain a diversity of local motion signals that occur with a consistent prevalence and pattern of covariation, indicating a substantial regularity of their high-order spatiotemporal image statistics.

  19. How Service Choreography Statistics Reduce the Ontology Mapping Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana, Paolo; Robertson, Dave

    In open and distributed environments ontology mapping provides interoperability between interacting actors. However, conventional mapping systems focus on acquiring static information, and on mapping whole ontologies, which is infeasible in open systems. This paper shows that the interactions themselves between the actors can be used to predict mappings, simplifying dynamic ontology mapping. The intuitive idea is that similar interactions follow similar conventions and patterns, which can be analysed. The computed model can be used to suggest the possible mappings for the exchanged messages in new interactions. The suggestions can be evaluate by any standard ontology matcher: if they are accurate, the matchers avoid evaluating mappings unrelated to the interaction.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.

    2005-06-04

    The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.

  1. Linear System Models for Ultrasonic Imaging: Application to Signal Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Roger J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Linear equations for modeling echo signals from shift-variant systems forming ultrasonic B-mode, Doppler, and strain images are analyzed and extended. The approach is based on a solution to the homogeneous wave equation for random inhomogeneous media. When the system is shift-variant, the spatial sensitivity function—defined as a spatial weighting function that determines the scattering volume for a fixed point of time—has advantages over the point-spread function traditionally used to analyze ultrasound systems. Spatial sensitivity functions are necessary for determining statistical moments in the context of rigorous image quality assessment, and they are time-reversed copies of point-spread functions for shift variant systems. A criterion is proposed to assess the validity of a local shift-invariance assumption. The analysis reveals realistic situations in which in-phase signals are correlated to the corresponding quadrature signals, which has strong implications for assessing lesion detectability. Also revealed is an opportunity to enhance near- and far-field spatial resolution by matched filtering unfocused beams. The analysis connects several well-known approaches to modeling ultrasonic echo signals. PMID:12839176

  2. Carrier recovery systems for arbitrarily mapped APK signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Y.; Namiki, J.

    1982-10-01

    This paper introduces new carrier recovery techniques for general amplitude-phase keying (APK) modulation signals. The APK's include not only normal QAM but also arbitrarily mapped APK's, including an unsymmetrical APK. Difficulty in phase error detection due to signal mapping complexity, undesirable stable-lock point existence, and the contradiction between a fast acquisition and an accurate steady state performance can be overcome. For that purpose, an acquisition mode and a steady-state mode are used. Furthermore, read-only memories (ROM) are used for recognizing various system states. Random sampling controlled PLL noise performance and acquisition mode carrier recovery circuit pull-in performance with hysteresis property was obtained.

  3. Reconstruction of Thermographic Signals to Map Perforator Vessels in Humans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Min; Maivelett, Jordan; Kato, Gregory J; Taylor, James G; Yang, Wen-Chin; Liu, Yun-Chung; Yang, You-Gang; Gorbach, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Thermal representations on the surface of a human forearm of underlying perforator vessels have previously been mapped via recovery-enhanced infrared imaging, which is performed as skin blood flow recovers to baseline levels following cooling of the forearm. We noted that the same vessels could also be observed during reactive hyperaemia tests after complete 5-min occlusion of the forearm by an inflatable cuff. However, not all subjects showed vessels with acceptable contrast. Therefore, we applied a thermographic signal reconstruction algorithm to reactive hyperaemia testing, which substantially enhanced signal-to-noise ratios between perforator vessels and their surroundings, thereby enabling their mapping with higher accuracy and a shorter occlusion period.

  4. Natural scene statistics and the structure of orientation maps in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jonathan J; Giacomantonio, Clare E; Tang, Huajin; Mortimer, Duncan; Jaffer, Sajjida; Vorobyov, Vasily; Ericksson, Geoffery; Sengpiel, Frank; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2009-08-01

    Visual activity after eye-opening influences feature map structure in primary visual cortex (V1). For instance, rearing cats in an environment of stripes of one orientation yields an over-representation of that orientation in V1. However, whether such changes also affect the higher-order statistics of orientation maps is unknown. A statistical bias of orientation maps in normally raised animals is that the probability of the angular difference in orientation preference between each pair of points in the cortex depends on the angle of the line joining those points relative to a fixed but arbitrary set of axes. Natural images show an analogous statistical bias; however, whether this drives the development of comparable structure in V1 is unknown. We examined these statistics for normal, stripe-reared and dark-reared cats, and found that the biases present were not consistently related to those present in the input, or to genetic relationships. We compared these results with two computational models of orientation map development, an analytical model and a Hebbian model. The analytical model failed to reproduce the experimentally observed statistics. In the Hebbian model, while orientation difference statistics could be strongly driven by the input, statistics similar to those seen in experimental maps arose only when symmetry breaking was allowed to occur spontaneously. These results suggest that these statistical biases of orientation maps arise primarily spontaneously, rather than being governed by either input statistics or genetic mechanisms.

  5. LOCALIZING NATIONAL FRAGMENTATION STATISTICS WITH FOREST TYPE MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fragmmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003...

  6. From blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals to brain temperature maps.

    PubMed

    Sotero, Roberto C; Iturria-Medina, Yasser

    2011-11-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for converting Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) images to brain temperature maps, based on the idea that disproportional local changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as compared with cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO₂) during functional brain activity, lead to both brain temperature changes and the BOLD effect. Using an oxygen limitation model and a BOLD signal model, we obtain a transcendental equation relating CBF and CMRO₂ changes with the corresponding BOLD signal, which is solved in terms of the Lambert W function. Inserting this result in the dynamic bioheat equation describing the rate of temperature changes in the brain, we obtain a nonautonomous ordinary differential equation that depends on the BOLD response, which is solved numerically for each brain voxel. Temperature maps obtained from a real BOLD dataset registered in an attention to visual motion experiment were calculated, obtaining temperature variations in the range: (-0.15, 0.1) which is consistent with experimental results. The statistical analysis revealed that significant temperature activations have a similar distribution pattern than BOLD activations. An interesting difference was the activation of the precuneus in temperature maps, a region involved in visuospatial processing, an effect that was not observed on BOLD maps. Furthermore, temperature maps were more localized to gray matter regions than the original BOLD maps, showing less activated voxels in white matter and cerebrospinal fluid.

  7. A Statistical Analysis of the Output Signals of an Acousto-Optic Spectrum Analyzer for CW (Continuous-Wave) Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    A statistical analysis on the output signals of an acousto - optic spectrum analyzer (AOSA) is performed for the case when the input signal is a...processing, Electronic warfare, Radar countermeasures, Acousto - optic , Spectrum analyzer, Statistical analysis, Detection, Estimation, Canada, Modelling.

  8. PEDSTATS: descriptive statistics, graphics and quality assessment for gene mapping data.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Janis E; Abecasis, Gonçalo R

    2005-08-15

    We describe a tool that produces summary statistics and basic quality assessments for gene-mapping data, accommodating either pedigree or case-control datasets. Our tool can also produce graphic output in the PDF format.

  9. Effects of Concept Mapping Strategy on Learning Performance in Business and Economics Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chei-Chang

    2009-01-01

    A concept map (CM) is a hierarchically arranged, graphic representation of the relationships among concepts. Concept mapping (CMING) is the process of constructing a CM. This paper examines whether a CMING strategy can be useful in helping students to improve their learning performance in a business and economics statistics course. A single…

  10. Interfacing US Census map files with statistical graphics software: Application and use in epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzardi, M.; Mohr, M.S.; Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . School of Public Health)

    1993-03-01

    In 1990, the United States Bureau of the Census released detailed geographic map files known as TIGER/Line (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing). The TIGER files, accessible through purchase or Federal repository libraries, contain 24 billion characters of data describing various geographic features including coastlines, hydrography, transportation networks, political boundaries, etc. covering the entire United States. Many of these physical features are of potential interest in epidemiological case studies. Unfortunately, the TIGER database only provides raw alphanumeric data; no utility software, graphical or otherwise, is included. Recently, the S statistical software package has been extended to include a map display function. The map function augments S's high-level approach toward statistical analysis and graphical display of data. Coupling this statistical software with the map database developed for US Census data collection will facilitate epidemiological research. We discuss the technical background necessary to utilize the TIGER database for mapping with S. Two types of S maps, segment-based and polygon-based, are discussed along with methods to construct them from TIGER data. Polygon-based maps are useful for displaying regional statistical data; e.g., disease rates or incidence at the census tract level. Segment-based maps are easier to assemble and appropriate if the data are not regionalized. Census tract data of AIDS incidence in San Francisco (CA) and lung cancer case locations relative to petrochemical refinery sites in Contra Costa County (CA) are used to illustrate the methods and potential uses of interfacing the TIGER database with S.

  11. Statistical Signal Processing Methods in Scattering and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano Nunez, Maytee

    This Ph.D. dissertation project addresses two related topics in wave-based signal processing: 1) Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) analysis of scattering systems formed by pointlike scatterers in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) spaces. 2) Compressive optical coherent imaging, based on the incorporation of sparsity priors in the reconstructions. The first topic addresses for wave scattering systems in 1D and 3D spaces the information content about scattering parameters, in particular, the targets' positions and strengths, and derived quantities, that is contained in scattering data corresponding to reflective, transmissive, and more general sensing modalities. This part of the dissertation derives the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for the estimation of parameters of scalar wave scattering systems formed by point scatterers. The results shed light on the fundamental difference between the approximate Born approximation model for weak scatterers and the more general multiple scattering model, and facilitate the identification of regions in parameter space where multiple scattering facilitates or obstructs the estimation of parameters from scattering data, as well as of sensing configurations giving maximal or minimal information about the parameters. The derived results are illustrated with numerical examples, with particular emphasis on the imaging resolution which we quantify via a relative resolution index borrowed from a previous paper. Additionally, this work investigates fundamental limits of estimation performance for the localization of the targets and the inverse scattering problem. The second topic of the effort describes a novel compressive-sensing-based technique for optical imaging with a coherent single-detector system. This hybrid opto-micro-electromechanical, coherent single-detector imaging system applies the latest developments in the nascent field of compressive sensing to the problem of computational imaging of wavefield intensity from a small number

  12. Statistics of cellular signal transduction as a race to the nucleus by multiple random walkers in compartment/phosphorylation space.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Shen, Tongye; Zong, Chenghang; Hasty, Jeff; Wolynes, Peter G

    2006-11-07

    Cellular signal transduction often involves a reaction network of phosphorylation and transport events arranged with a ladder topology. If we keep track of the location of the phosphate groups describing an abstract state space, a simple model of signal transduction involving enzymes can be mapped on to a problem of how multiple biased random walkers compete to reach their target in the nucleus yielding a signal. Here, the first passage time probability and the survival probability for multiple walkers can be used to characterize the response of the network. The statistics of the first passage through the network has an asymmetric distribution with a long tail arising from the hierarchical structure of the network. This distribution implies a significant difference between the mean and the most probable signal transduction time. The response patterns for various external inputs generated by our model agree with recent experiments. In addition, the model predicts that there is an optimal phosphorylation enzyme concentration for rapid signal transduction.

  13. Visual Map Development: Bidirectional Signaling, Bifunctional Guidance Molecules, and Competition

    PubMed Central

    Feldheim, David A.; O’Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Topographic maps are a two-dimensional representation of one neural structure within another and serve as the main strategy to organize sensory information. The retina’s projection via axons of retinal ganglion cells to midbrain visual centers, the optic tectum/superior colliculus, is the leading model to elucidate mechanisms of topographic map formation. Each axis of the retina is mapped independently using different mechanisms and sets of axon guidance molecules expressed in gradients to achieve the goal of representing a point in the retina onto a point within the target. An axon’s termination along the temporal-nasal mapping axis is determined by opposing gradients of EphAs and ephrin-As that act through their forward and reverse signaling, respectively, within the projecting axons, each of which inhibits interstitial branching, cooperating with a branch-promoting activity, to generate topographic specific branching along the shaft of the parent axons that overshoot their correct termination zone along the anterior-posterior axis of the target. The dorsal-ventral termination position is then determined using a gradient of ephrin-B that can act as a repellent or attractant depending on the ephrin-B concentration relative to EphB levels on the interstitial branches to guide them along the medial-lateral axis of the target to their correct termination zone, where they arborize. In both cases, axon-axon competition results in axon mapping based on relative rather than absolute levels of repellent or attractant activity. The map is subsequently refined through large-scale pruning driven in large part by patterned retinal activity. PMID:20880989

  14. A network map of Interleukin-10 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Verma, Renu; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Sharma, Kusum; Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Advani, Jayshree; Gowda, Harsha; Tripathy, Srikanth Prasad; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Pandey, Akhilesh; Gandotra, Sheetal; Prasad, T S Keshava; Shankar, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions. It is primarily secreted by antigen-presenting cells such as activated T-cells, monocytes, B-cells and macrophages. In biologically functional form, it exists as a homodimer that binds to tetrameric heterodimer IL-10 receptor and induces downstream signaling. IL-10 is associated with survival, proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities of various cancers such as Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma and non-small scell lung cancer. In addition, it plays a central role in survival and persistence of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania donovani, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Trypanosoma cruzi inside the host. The signaling mechanisms of IL-10 cytokine are not well explored and a well annotated pathway map has been lacking. To this end, we developed a pathway resource by manually annotating the IL-10 induced signaling molecules derived from literature. The reactions were categorized under molecular associations, activation/inhibition, catalysis, transport and gene regulation. In all, 37 molecules and 76 reactions were annotated. The IL-10 signaling pathway can be freely accessed through NetPath, a resource of signal transduction pathways previously developed by our group.

  15. Develop Advanced Nonlinear Signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1997-01-01

    During the development of the SSME, a hierarchy of advanced signal analysis techniques for mechanical signature analysis has been developed by NASA and AI Signal Research Inc. (ASRI) to improve the safety and reliability for Space Shuttle operations. These techniques can process and identify intelligent information hidden in a measured signal which is often unidentifiable using conventional signal analysis methods. Currently, due to the highly interactive processing requirements and the volume of dynamic data involved, detailed diagnostic analysis is being performed manually which requires immense man-hours with extensive human interface. To overcome this manual process, NASA implemented this program to develop an Advanced nonlinear signal Analysis Topographical Mapping System (ATMS) to provide automatic/unsupervised engine diagnostic capabilities. The ATMS will utilize a rule-based Clips expert system to supervise a hierarchy of diagnostic signature analysis techniques in the Advanced Signal Analysis Library (ASAL). ASAL will perform automatic signal processing, archiving, and anomaly detection/identification tasks in order to provide an intelligent and fully automated engine diagnostic capability. The ATMS has been successfully developed under this contract. In summary, the program objectives to design, develop, test and conduct performance evaluation for an automated engine diagnostic system have been successfully achieved. Software implementation of the entire ATMS system on MSFC's OISPS computer has been completed. The significance of the ATMS developed under this program is attributed to the fully automated coherence analysis capability for anomaly detection and identification which can greatly enhance the power and reliability of engine diagnostic evaluation. The results have demonstrated that ATMS can significantly save time and man-hours in performing engine test/flight data analysis and performance evaluation of large volumes of dynamic test data.

  16. Sharing brain mapping statistical results with the neuroimaging data model

    PubMed Central

    Maumet, Camille; Auer, Tibor; Bowring, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Das, Samir; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit; Glatard, Tristan; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Helmer, Karl G.; Jenkinson, Mark; Keator, David B.; Nichols, B. Nolan; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Reynolds, Richard; Sochat, Vanessa; Turner, Jessica; Nichols, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Only a tiny fraction of the data and metadata produced by an fMRI study is finally conveyed to the community. This lack of transparency not only hinders the reproducibility of neuroimaging results but also impairs future meta-analyses. In this work we introduce NIDM-Results, a format specification providing a machine-readable description of neuroimaging statistical results along with key image data summarising the experiment. NIDM-Results provides a unified representation of mass univariate analyses including a level of detail consistent with available best practices. This standardized representation allows authors to relay methods and results in a platform-independent regularized format that is not tied to a particular neuroimaging software package. Tools are available to export NIDM-Result graphs and associated files from the widely used SPM and FSL software packages, and the NeuroVault repository can import NIDM-Results archives. The specification is publically available at: http://nidm.nidash.org/specs/nidm-results.html. PMID:27922621

  17. Sharing brain mapping statistical results with the neuroimaging data model.

    PubMed

    Maumet, Camille; Auer, Tibor; Bowring, Alexander; Chen, Gang; Das, Samir; Flandin, Guillaume; Ghosh, Satrajit; Glatard, Tristan; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Helmer, Karl G; Jenkinson, Mark; Keator, David B; Nichols, B Nolan; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Reynolds, Richard; Sochat, Vanessa; Turner, Jessica; Nichols, Thomas E

    2016-12-06

    Only a tiny fraction of the data and metadata produced by an fMRI study is finally conveyed to the community. This lack of transparency not only hinders the reproducibility of neuroimaging results but also impairs future meta-analyses. In this work we introduce NIDM-Results, a format specification providing a machine-readable description of neuroimaging statistical results along with key image data summarising the experiment. NIDM-Results provides a unified representation of mass univariate analyses including a level of detail consistent with available best practices. This standardized representation allows authors to relay methods and results in a platform-independent regularized format that is not tied to a particular neuroimaging software package. Tools are available to export NIDM-Result graphs and associated files from the widely used SPM and FSL software packages, and the NeuroVault repository can import NIDM-Results archives. The specification is publically available at: http://nidm.nidash.org/specs/nidm-results.html.

  18. Statistics for ionospherically diffracted VHF/UHF signals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Fremouw, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    In this paper, a general characterization of the statistics for an ionospherically diffracted, monochromatic plane wave is presented. The main results are restricted to weak scatter, although two possible extensions that accommodate large phase perturbations and multiple scatter are discussed. A detailed discussion of the first-order statistics of amplitude is given. The general Gaussian distribution is discussed together with its Nakagami-distribution approximation and the log-normal distribution. By using a segment of ATS-3 satellite data recorded at Lima, Peru, we show equally good fits to Gaussian and log-normal distributions at least for the limited dynamic range available. The Nakagami distribution provides only a poor approximation.

  19. Statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation for two dimensional amplitude and time-of-flight mapping of guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenn Chong, See; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yik Park, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Conventional threshold crossing technique generally encounters the difficulty in setting a common threshold level in the extraction of the respective time-of-flights (ToFs) and amplitudes from the guided waves obtained at many different points by spatial scanning. Therefore, we propose a statistical threshold determination method through noise map generation to automatically process numerous guided waves having different propagation distances. First, a two-dimensional (2-D) noise map is generated using one-dimensional (1-D) WT magnitudes at time zero of the acquired waves. Then, the probability density functions (PDFs) of Gamma distribution, Weibull distribution and exponential distribution are used to model the measured 2-D noise map. Graphical goodness-of-fit measurements are used to find the best fit among the three theoretical distributions. Then, the threshold level is automatically determined by selecting the desired confidence level of the noise rejection in the cumulative distribution function of the best fit PDF. Based on this threshold level, the amplitudes and ToFs are extracted and mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. The threshold level determined by the noise statistics may cross the noise signal after time zero. These crossings are represented as salt-and-pepper noise in the ToF and amplitude maps but finally removed by the 1-D median filter. This proposed method was verified in a thick stainless steel hollow cylinder where guided waves were acquired in an area of 180 mm×126 mm of the cylinder by using a laser ultrasonic scanning system and an ultrasonic sensor. The Gamma distribution was estimated as the best fit to the verification experimental data by the proposed algorithm. The statistical parameters of the Gamma distribution were used to determine the threshold level appropriate for most of the guided waves. The ToFs and amplitudes of the first arrival mode were mapped into a 2-D matrix array form. Each map included 447 noisy points out of 90

  20. Statistical Signal Models and Algorithms for Image Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-25

    In this report, two-dimensional stochastic linear models are used in developing algorithms for image analysis such as classification, segmentation, and object detection in images characterized by textured backgrounds. These models generate two-dimensional random processes as outputs to which statistical inference procedures can naturally be applied. A common thread throughout our algorithms is the interpretation of the inference procedures in terms of linear prediction

  1. Interfacing U.S. census map files with statistical graphics software: application and use in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Rizzardi, M; Mohr, M S; Merrill, D W; Selvin, S

    1993-10-01

    In 1990, the United States Bureau of the Census released detailed geographic map files known as TIGER/Line (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing). The TIGER files, accessible through purchase or federal repository libraries, contain 24 billion characters of data describing various geographic features including coastlines, hydrography, transportation networks, political boundaries, etc. for the entire United States. Many of these physical features are of potential interest in epidemiological case studies. Unfortunately, the TIGER data base only provides raw alphanumeric data; no utility software, graphical or otherwise, is included. Recently, the S statistical software package has been extended to include a map display function. The map function augments S's high-level approach towards statistical analysis and graphical display of data. Coupling this statistical software with the map data base developed for U.S. Census data collection will facilitate epidemiological research. We discuss the technical background necessary to utilize the TIGER data base for mapping with S. Two types of S maps, segment-based and polygon-based, are discussed along with methods to construct them from TIGER data. Polygon-based maps are useful for displaying regional statistical data, such as disease rates or incidence at the census tract level. Segment-based maps are easier to assemble and are appropriate when the data are not regionalized. Census tract data of AIDS incidence in San Francisco and lung cancer case locations relative to petrochemical refinery sites in Contra Costa County are used to illustrate the methods and potential uses of interfacing the TIGER data base with S.

  2. Interfacing US Census map files with statistical graphics software: Application and use in epidemiology. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzardi, M.; Mohr, M.S.; Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S. |

    1993-03-01

    In 1990, the United States Bureau of the Census released detailed geographic map files known as TIGER/Line (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing). The TIGER files, accessible through purchase or Federal repository libraries, contain 24 billion characters of data describing various geographic features including coastlines, hydrography, transportation networks, political boundaries, etc. covering the entire United States. Many of these physical features are of potential interest in epidemiological case studies. Unfortunately, the TIGER database only provides raw alphanumeric data; no utility software, graphical or otherwise, is included. Recently, the S statistical software package has been extended to include a map display function. The map function augments S`s high-level approach toward statistical analysis and graphical display of data. Coupling this statistical software with the map database developed for US Census data collection will facilitate epidemiological research. We discuss the technical background necessary to utilize the TIGER database for mapping with S. Two types of S maps, segment-based and polygon-based, are discussed along with methods to construct them from TIGER data. Polygon-based maps are useful for displaying regional statistical data; e.g., disease rates or incidence at the census tract level. Segment-based maps are easier to assemble and appropriate if the data are not regionalized. Census tract data of AIDS incidence in San Francisco (CA) and lung cancer case locations relative to petrochemical refinery sites in Contra Costa County (CA) are used to illustrate the methods and potential uses of interfacing the TIGER database with S.

  3. Fine Mapping Causal Variants with an Approximate Bayesian Method Using Marginal Test Statistics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenan; Larrabee, Beth R; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Haralambieva, Iana H; Poland, Gregory A; Schaid, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Two recently developed fine-mapping methods, CAVIAR and PAINTOR, demonstrate better performance over other fine-mapping methods. They also have the advantage of using only the marginal test statistics and the correlation among SNPs. Both methods leverage the fact that the marginal test statistics asymptotically follow a multivariate normal distribution and are likelihood based. However, their relationship with Bayesian fine mapping, such as BIMBAM, is not clear. In this study, we first show that CAVIAR and BIMBAM are actually approximately equivalent to each other. This leads to a fine-mapping method using marginal test statistics in the Bayesian framework, which we call CAVIAR Bayes factor (CAVIARBF). Another advantage of the Bayesian framework is that it can answer both association and fine-mapping questions. We also used simulations to compare CAVIARBF with other methods under different numbers of causal variants. The results showed that both CAVIARBF and BIMBAM have better performance than PAINTOR and other methods. Compared to BIMBAM, CAVIARBF has the advantage of using only marginal test statistics and takes about one-quarter to one-fifth of the running time. We applied different methods on two independent cohorts of the same phenotype. Results showed that CAVIARBF, BIMBAM, and PAINTOR selected the same top 3 SNPs; however, CAVIARBF and BIMBAM had better consistency in selecting the top 10 ranked SNPs between the two cohorts. Software is available at https://bitbucket.org/Wenan/caviarbf.

  4. Statistical and signal-processing concepts in surface metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a simple two-scale model of surface roughness for testing and specifying the topographic figure and finish of synchrotron-radiation mirrors. In this approach the effects of figure and finish are described in terms of their slope distribution and power spectrum, respectively, which are then combined with the system point spread function to produce a composite image. The result can be used to predict mirror performance or to translate design requirements into manufacturing specifications. Pacing problems in this approach are the development of a practical long-trace slope-profiling instrument and realistic statistical models for figure and finish errors.

  5. Statistical properties of Jacobian maps and the realization of unbiased large-deformation nonlinear image registration.

    PubMed

    Leow, Alex D; Yanovsky, Igor; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Lee, Agatha D; Klunder, Andrea D; Lu, Allen; Becker, James T; Davis, Simon W; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-06-01

    Maps of local tissue compression or expansion are often computed by comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using nonlinear image registration. The resulting changes are commonly analyzed using tensor-based morphometry to make inferences about anatomical differences, often based on the Jacobian map, which estimates local tissue gain or loss. Here, we provide rigorous mathematical analyses of the Jacobian maps, and use themto motivate a new numerical method to construct unbiased nonlinear image registration. First, we argue that logarithmic transformation is crucial for analyzing Jacobian values representing morphometric differences. We then examine the statistical distributions of log-Jacobian maps by defining the Kullback-Leibler (KL) distance on material density functions arising in continuum-mechanical models. With this framework, unbiased image registration can be constructed by quantifying the symmetric KL-distance between the identity map and the resulting deformation. Implementation details, addressing the proposed unbiased registration as well as the minimization of symmetric image matching functionals, are then discussed and shown to be applicable to other registration methods, such as inverse consistent registration. In the results section, we test the proposed framework, as well as present an illustrative application mapping detailed 3-D brain changes in sequential magnetic resonance imaging scans of a patient diagnosed with semantic dementia. Using permutation tests, we show that the symmetrization of image registration statistically reduces skewness in the log-Jacobian map.

  6. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung

    2015-06-22

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. As a result, simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  7. Statistical measures of Planck scale signal correlations in interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Craig J.; Kwon, Ohkyung

    2017-04-01

    A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parameterized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. Simple projections of sensitivity for realistic experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.

  8. Statistical mapping of sheet aiquile SE-20-9 (national map) making use of ERTS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrez, J. G.; Brockman, C. E.; Castro, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    New possibilities of remote sensing by means of satellites to do research on natural resources are reported. These images make it possible to carry out integrated studies of natural resources in the shortest time possible and with small investments. Various maps and a complete description of each are included. With the use of these satellites, scientists can hopefully plan development projects at the national level.

  9. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping for analyzing the magnetoencephalographic epileptiform activity in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Hideaki; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Knake, Susanne; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Sudo, Akira; Asahina, Naoko; Egawa, Kiyoshi; Hatanaka, Keisaku; Kohsaka, Shinobu; Saitoh, Shinji; Grant, P Ellen; Dale, Anders M; Halgren, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Our current purpose is to evaluate the applicability of dynamic statistical parametric mapping, a novel method for localizing epileptiform activity recorded with magnetoencephalography in patients with epilepsy. We report four pediatric patients with focal epilepsies. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected with a 306-channel whole-head helmet-shaped sensor array. We calculated equivalent current dipoles and dynamic statistical parametric mapping movies of the interictal epileptiform discharges that were based in the minimum-L2 norm estimate, minimizing the square sum of the dipole element amplitudes. The dynamic statistical parametric mapping analysis of interictal epileptiform discharges can demonstrate the rapid change and propagation of interical epileptiform discharges. According to these findings, specific epileptogenic lesion-focal cortical dysplasia could be found and patients could be operated on successfully. The presurgical analysis of interictal epileptiform discharges using dynamic statistical parametric mapping seems to be promising in patients with a possible underlying focal cortical dysplasia and might help to guide the placement of invasive electrodes.

  10. How Narrative Focus and a Statistical Map Shape Health Policy Support Among State Legislators.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.

  11. Development of PowerMap: a software package for statistical power calculation in neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Karen E; Hayasaka, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    Although there are a number of statistical software tools for voxel-based massively univariate analysis of neuroimaging data, such as fMRI (functional MRI), PET (positron emission tomography), and VBM (voxel-based morphometry), very few software tools exist for power and sample size calculation for neuroimaging studies. Unlike typical biomedical studies, outcomes from neuroimaging studies are 3D images of correlated voxels, requiring a correction for massive multiple comparisons. Thus, a specialized power calculation tool is needed for planning neuroimaging studies. To facilitate this process, we developed a software tool specifically designed for neuroimaging data. The software tool, called PowerMap, implements theoretical power calculation algorithms based on non-central random field theory. It can also calculate power for statistical analyses with FDR (false discovery rate) corrections. This GUI (graphical user interface)-based tool enables neuroimaging researchers without advanced knowledge in imaging statistics to calculate power and sample size in the form of 3D images. In this paper, we provide an overview of the statistical framework behind the PowerMap tool. Three worked examples are also provided, a regression analysis, an ANOVA (analysis of variance), and a two-sample T-test, in order to demonstrate the study planning process with PowerMap. We envision that PowerMap will be a great aide for future neuroimaging research.

  12. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jong, Jen-Yi

    1993-01-01

    The SSME has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) Develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system. (2) Develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amounts of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. A high compression ratio can be achieved to allow the minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities. (3) Integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for a quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate

  13. Develop advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has been undergoing extensive flight certification and developmental testing, which involves some 250 health monitoring measurements. Under the severe temperature, pressure, and dynamic environments sustained during operation, numerous major component failures have occurred, resulting in extensive engine hardware damage and scheduling losses. To enhance SSME safety and reliability, detailed analysis and evaluation of the measurements signal are mandatory to assess its dynamic characteristics and operational condition. Efficient and reliable signal detection techniques will reduce catastrophic system failure risks and expedite the evaluation of both flight and ground test data, and thereby reduce launch turn-around time. The basic objective of this contract are threefold: (1) develop and validate a hierarchy of innovative signal analysis techniques for nonlinear and nonstationary time-frequency analysis. Performance evaluation will be carried out through detailed analysis of extensive SSME static firing and flight data. These techniques will be incorporated into a fully automated system; (2) develop an advanced nonlinear signal analysis topographical mapping system (ATMS) to generate a Compressed SSME TOPO Data Base (CSTDB). This ATMS system will convert tremendous amount of complex vibration signals from the entire SSME test history into a bank of succinct image-like patterns while retaining all respective phase information. High compression ratio can be achieved to allow minimal storage requirement, while providing fast signature retrieval, pattern comparison, and identification capabilities; and (3) integrate the nonlinear correlation techniques into the CSTDB data base with compatible TOPO input data format. Such integrated ATMS system will provide the large test archives necessary for quick signature comparison. This study will provide timely assessment of SSME component operational status, identify probable causes of

  14. A comparison of anisotropic statistical properties of CMB maps based on the WMAP and planck space mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Naiden, Ya. V.

    2016-10-01

    We compare the anisotropic properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps constructed based on the data of NASA's WMAP (9th year of observations) and ESA's Planck (2015 release) space missions. In our analysis, we use two two-dimensional estimators of the scatter of the signal on a sphere, which amount to algorithms of mapping the ratio of the scatter in the Northern and Southern hemispheres depending on the method of dividing (specifically, rotating and cutting) the sky into hemispheres. The scatter is computed either as a standard deviation σ, or as the difference between the minimum and maximum values on a given hemisphere. Applying both estimators to the CMB anisotropy datameasured by two spacemissions, Planck and WMAP, we compared the variations of the background at different angular scales.Maps with a resolution of l ≤ 100 show that the division into regions with different levels of statistical anisotropy lies close to the ecliptic plane, and after preliminary removal of the l ≤ 20 harmonics from the CMB data, the anisotropic signal related to the Galaxy begins to dominate.

  15. When a Map is Worth One-Thousand Anovas: Applications of Statistical Cartography in Special Education Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lee Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the methods and procedures of computerized statistical cartography, the production of statistical maps, and provides suggestions for its application in special education research and planning. (Author/CL)

  16. Nodal Domain Statistics for Quantum Maps, Percolation, and Stochastic Loewner Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, J. P.; Marklof, J.; Williams, I. G.

    2006-07-21

    We develop a percolation model for nodal domains in the eigenvectors of quantum chaotic torus maps. Our model follows directly from the assumption that the quantum maps are described by random matrix theory. Its accuracy in predicting statistical properties of the nodal domains is demonstrated for perturbed cat maps and supports the use of percolation theory to describe the wave functions of general Hamiltonian systems. We also demonstrate that the nodal domains of the perturbed cat maps obey the Cardy crossing formula and find evidence that the boundaries of the nodal domains are described by stochastic Loewner evolution with diffusion constant {kappa} close to the expected value of 6, suggesting that quantum chaotic wave functions may exhibit conformal invariance in the semiclassical limit.

  17. Statistics of attenuation by rain of 13 GHz signals on Earth-space paths in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, R. V.; Strickland, J. I.; Schlesak, J. J.

    1986-04-01

    To accommodate the increased number of users of radio signals, communication systems are being designed more and more to operate at microwave frequencies that were hitherto unused. A major difficulty with frequencies above 10 GHz is that they are attenuated by rain. Attenuation statistics and fade rate statistics from six locations, all in Canada, are presented for 13 GHz signals on Earth-space paths. These statistics are based on a total of 15.7 station-years of attenuation measurements with the operating time of the individual stations ranging from 1.68 to 4.91 years.

  18. Tables of square-law signal detection statistics for Hann spectra with 50 percent overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Stanley R.; Cullers, D. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, currently being planned by NASA, will require that an enormous amount of data be analyzed in real time by special purpose hardware. It is expected that overlapped Hann data windows will play an important role in this analysis. In order to understand the statistical implication of this approach, it has been necessary to compute detection statistics for overlapped Hann spectra. Tables of signal detection statistics are given for false alarm rates from 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -1) and signal detection probabilities from 0.50 to 0.99; the number of computed spectra ranges from 4 to 2000.

  19. Description and comparison of geologic maps with FRAGSTATS - A spatial statistics program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    FRAGSTATS is a public-domain GIS implementation of a set of spatial statistics that address a fundamental problem in GIS applications, description and comparison of maps. The spatial statistics from the 1:2,500,000-scale United States geologic map of Nevada, the central United States, and the northeastern United States quantify the differences in complexity and variability between these three geologic terranes. Nevada is defined by a large number of patches of small size and low size variability, whereas the Central area has a small number of patches with smaller relative size variability. All three areas have similar map-unit shape complexity with Nevada having the lowest. Based on the density of edges, the areas can be ranked from highest to lowest, as Nevada, Central, and Northeast. The Shannon diversity index ranks the areas from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Nevada, and Central, but the Shannon evenness index ranks them from highest to lowest, as Northeast, Central, and Nevada. These rankings may reflect the influence of folding in the Northeast and Central areas as opposed to basin and range extension in Nevada. The core areas statistic ranks the areas for spatial accuracy from highest to lowest, as Central, Northeast, and Nevada, with Northeast and Nevada being similar. For a scale comparison, the FRAGSTATS statistics quantify the increased complexity and spatial accuracy that is inherent in going from small- to larger-scale maps. For example for 1:2,500,000-1:500,000-scale maps of Nevada, respectively, the area weighted fractal dimension increase from 1.1 to 1.18, and the total core areas index almost doubles from 39.09 to 63.38. In addition, the fractal dimensions discriminate gross lithology and tectonic terranes. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical nature of non-Gaussianity from cubic order primordial perturbations: CMB map simulations and genus statistic

    SciTech Connect

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2009-12-01

    We simulate CMB maps including non-Gaussianity arising from cubic order perturbations of the primordial gravitational potential, characterized by the non-linearity parameter g{sub NL}. The maps are used to study the characteristic nature of the resulting non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations. We measure the genus and investigate how it deviates from Gaussian shape as a function of g{sub NL} and smoothing scale. We find that the deviation of the non-Gaussian genus curve from the Gaussian one has an antisymmetric, sine function like shape, implying more hot and more cold spots for g{sub NL} > 0 and less of both for g{sub NL} < 0. The deviation increases linearly with g{sub NL} and also exhibits mild increase as the smoothing scale increases. We further study other statistics derived from the genus, namely, the number of hot spots, the number of cold spots, combined number of hot and cold spots and the slope of the genus curve at mean temperature fluctuation. We find that these observables carry signatures of g{sub NL} that are clearly distinct from the quadratic order perturbations, encoded in the parameter f{sub NL}. Hence they can be very useful tools for distinguishing not only between non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations and Gaussian ones but also between g{sub NL} and f{sub NL} type non-Gaussianities.

  1. Comments on the statistical analysis of excess variance in the COBE differential microwave radiometer maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Tenorio, L.; Lineweaver, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Lubin, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic anisotrophy produces an excess variance sq sigma(sub sky) in the Delta maps produced by the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) on cosmic background explorer (COBE) that is over and above the instrument noise. After smoothing to an effective resolution of 10 deg, this excess sigma(sub sky)(10 deg), provides an estimate for the amplitude of the primordial density perturbation power spectrum with a cosmic uncertainty of only 12%. We employ detailed Monte Carlo techniques to express the amplitude derived from this statistic in terms of the universal root mean square (rms) quadrupole amplitude, (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5). The effects of monopole and dipole subtraction and the non-Gaussian shape of the DMR beam cause the derived (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5) to be 5%-10% larger than would be derived using simplified analytic approximations. We also investigate the properties of two other map statistics: the actual quadrupole and the Boughn-Cottingham statistic. Both the sigma(sub sky)(10 deg) statistic and the Boughn-Cottingham statistic are consistent with the (Q sq/RMS)(exp 0.5) = 17 +/- 5 micro K reported by Smoot et al. (1992) and Wright et al. (1992).

  2. Application of higher order statistics/spectra in biomedical signals--a review.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kuang Chua; Chandran, Vinod; Acharya, U Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-09-01

    For many decades correlation and power spectrum have been primary tools for digital signal processing applications in the biomedical area. The information contained in the power spectrum is essentially that of the autocorrelation sequence; which is sufficient for complete statistical descriptions of Gaussian signals of known means. However, there are practical situations where one needs to look beyond autocorrelation of a signal to extract information regarding deviation from Gaussianity and the presence of phase relations. Higher order spectra, also known as polyspectra, are spectral representations of higher order statistics, i.e. moments and cumulants of third order and beyond. HOS (higher order statistics or higher order spectra) can detect deviations from linearity, stationarity or Gaussianity in the signal. Most of the biomedical signals are non-linear, non-stationary and non-Gaussian in nature and therefore it can be more advantageous to analyze them with HOS compared to the use of second-order correlations and power spectra. In this paper we have discussed the application of HOS for different bio-signals. HOS methods of analysis are explained using a typical heart rate variability (HRV) signal and applications to other signals are reviewed.

  3. Improved Statistical Signal Processing of Nonstationary Random Processes Using Time-Warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisdom, Scott Thomas

    A common assumption used in statistical signal processing of nonstationary random signals is that the signals are locally stationary. Using this assumption, data is segmented into short analysis frames, and processing is performed using these short frames. Short frames limit the amount of data available, which in turn limits the performance of statistical estimators. In this thesis, we propose a novel method that promises improved performance for a variety of statistical signal processing algorithms. This method proposes to estimate certain time-varying parameters of nonstationary signals and then use this estimated information to perform a time-warping of the data that compensates for the time-varying parameters. Since the time-warped data is more stationary, longer analysis frames may be used, which improves the performance of statistical estimators. We first examine the spectral statistics of two particular types of nonstationary random processes that are useful for modeling ship propeller noise and voiced speech. We examine the effect of time-varying frequency content on these spectral statistics, and in addition show that the cross-frequency spectral statistics of these signals contain significant additional information that is not usually exploited using a stationary assumption. This information, combined with our proposed method, promises improvements for a wide variety of applications in the future. We then describe and test an implementation of our time-warping method, the fan-chirp transform. We apply our method to two applications, detection of ship noise in a passive sonar application and joint denoising and dereverberation of speech. Our method yields improved results for both applications compared to conventional methods.

  4. Testing for phylogenetic signal in biological traits: the ubiquity of cross-product statistics.

    PubMed

    Pavoine, Sandrine; Ricotta, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate rates of evolution, to establish tests of correlation between two traits, or to investigate to what degree the phylogeny of a species assemblage is predictive of a trait value so-called tests for phylogenetic signal are used. Being based on different approaches, these tests are generally thought to possess quite different statistical performances. In this article, we show that the Blomberg et al. K and K*, the Abouheif index, the Moran's I, and the Mantel correlation are all based on a cross-product statistic, and are thus all related to each other when they are associated to a permutation test of phylogenetic signal. What changes is only the way phylogenetic and trait similarities (or dissimilarities) among the tips of a phylogeny are computed. The definitions of the phylogenetic and trait-based (dis)similarities among tips thus determines the performance of the tests. We shortly discuss the biological and statistical consequences (in terms of power and type I error of the tests) of the observed relatedness among the statistics that allow tests for phylogenetic signal. Blomberg et al. K* statistic appears as one on the most efficient approaches to test for phylogenetic signal. When branch lengths are not available or not accurate, Abouheif's Cmean statistic is a powerful alternative to K*.

  5. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning. PMID:25898919

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping using GIS-based statistical models and Remote sensing data in tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Himan; Hashim, Mazlan

    2015-04-22

    This research presents the results of the GIS-based statistical models for generation of landslide susceptibility mapping using geographic information system (GIS) and remote-sensing data for Cameron Highlands area in Malaysia. Ten factors including slope, aspect, soil, lithology, NDVI, land cover, distance to drainage, precipitation, distance to fault, and distance to road were extracted from SAR data, SPOT 5 and WorldView-1 images. The relationships between the detected landslide locations and these ten related factors were identified by using GIS-based statistical models including analytical hierarchy process (AHP), weighted linear combination (WLC) and spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) models. The landslide inventory map which has a total of 92 landslide locations was created based on numerous resources such as digital aerial photographs, AIRSAR data, WorldView-1 images, and field surveys. Then, 80% of the landslide inventory was used for training the statistical models and the remaining 20% was used for validation purpose. The validation results using the Relative landslide density index (R-index) and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) demonstrated that the SMCE model (accuracy is 96%) is better in prediction than AHP (accuracy is 91%) and WLC (accuracy is 89%) models. These landslide susceptibility maps would be useful for hazard mitigation purpose and regional planning.

  7. Accuracy Evaluation of a Mobile Mapping System with Advanced Statistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toschi, I.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Remondino, F.; Minto, S.; Orlandini, S.; Fuller, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses a methodology to evaluate the precision and the accuracy of a commercial Mobile Mapping System (MMS) with advanced statistical methods. So far, the metric potentialities of this emerging mapping technology have been studied in few papers, where generally the assumption that errors follow a normal distribution is made. In fact, this hypothesis should be carefully verified in advance, in order to test how well the Gaussian classic statistics can adapt to datasets that are usually affected by asymmetrical gross errors. The workflow adopted in this study relies on a Gaussian assessment, followed by an outlier filtering process. Finally, non-parametric statistical models are applied, in order to achieve a robust estimation of the error dispersion. Among the different MMSs available on the market, the latest solution provided by RIEGL is here tested, i.e. the VMX-450 Mobile Laser Scanning System. The test-area is the historic city centre of Trento (Italy), selected in order to assess the system performance in dealing with a challenging and historic urban scenario. Reference measures are derived from photogrammetric and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) surveys. All datasets show a large lack of symmetry that leads to the conclusion that the standard normal parameters are not adequate to assess this type of data. The use of non-normal statistics gives thus a more appropriate description of the data and yields results that meet the quoted a-priori errors.

  8. Report on 3 and 4-point correlation statistics in the COBE DMR anisotrophy maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary (Principal Investigator); Gorski, Krzystof M.; Banday, Anthony J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the work performed under NASA contract # NAS5-32648, we have computed the 3-point and 4-point correlation functions of the COBE-DNIR 2-year and 4-year anisotropy maps. The motivation for this study was to search for evidence of non-Gaussian statistical fluctuations in the temperature maps: skewness or asymmetry in the case of the 3-point function, kurtosis in the case of the 4-point function. Such behavior would have very significant implications for our understanding of the processes of galaxy formation, because our current models of galaxy formation predict that non-Gaussian features should not be present in the DMR maps. The results of our work showed that the 3-point correlation function is consistent with zero and that the 4-point function is not a very sensitive probe of non-Gaussian behavior in the COBE-DMR data. Our computation and analysis of 3-point correlations in the 2-year DMR maps was published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, volume 446, page L67, 1995. Our computation and analysis of 3-point correlations in the 4-year DMR maps will be published, together with some additional tests, in the June 10, 1996 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Copies of both of these papers are attached as an appendix to this report.

  9. PROBING THE DARK FLOW SIGNAL IN WMAP 9 -YEAR AND PLANCK COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.; Ebeling, H.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kocevski, D. E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov E-mail: Dale.Fixsen@nasa.gov

    2015-09-10

    The “dark flow” dipole is a statistically significant dipole found at the position of galaxy clusters in filtered maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The dipole measured in WMAP 3-, 5-, and 7- year data releases was (1) mutually consistent, (2) roughly aligned with the all-sky CMB dipole, and (3) correlated with clusters’ X-ray luminosities. We analyzed WMAP 9 -year and Planck 1st- year data releases using a catalog of 980 clusters outside of the Kp0 mask to test our earlier findings. The dipoles measured on these new data sets are fully compatible with our earlier estimates, are similar in amplitude and direction to our previous results, and are in disagreement with the results of an earlier study by the Planck Collaboration. Furthermore, in the Planck data sets dipoles are found to be independent of frequency, ruling out the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich as the source of the effect. In the data of both WMAP and Planck we find a clear correlation between the dipole measured at the cluster location in filtered maps and the average anisotropy on the original maps, further proving that the dipole is associated with clusters. The dipole signal is dominated by the most massive clusters, with a statistical significance that is better than 99%, slightly larger than in WMAP. Since both data sets differ in foreground contributions, instrumental noise, and other systematics, the agreement between the WMAP and Planck dipoles argues against them being due to systematic effects in either of the experiments.

  10. Study of statistical properties of random signals in multirate filter banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Leu-Shing

    1995-04-01

    Previous works on subband-related signal processing were mainly dedicated to the applications of subband systems and to the formulation of multirate filter banks. Only very limited results can be found that treat statistical properties of random signals inside a multirate filter bank. In this paper, such a theoretical study is performed from the statistical viewpoint. Our main interest lies in how a multirate structure interacts with a random signal. The key statistical properties examined are stationarity, autocorrelation, cross-correlation, power spectral density, and spectral flatness measure. Exact explicit expressions are obtained. These results have their counterparts in a fullband system; however, inside a multirate structure or a subband system, the aliasing effect caused by decimation should be taken into account. In a multirate system, stationarity is not preserved when an upsampling (or expanding) operation is encountered. Furthermore the equivalent filtering operation is nonlinear. A test example of an AR-1 process is included for demonstration. From this example, an interesting phenomenon is observed. When the correlation coefficient of the AR-1 process is close to 1, the lowpassed signal is not, in any sense, a rough replica of the source. This example justifies the significance and necessity of a theoretical analysis of subband systems from a statistical viewpoint. We believe that stochastic signal processing applications of a subband structure such as estimation, detection, recognition, etc. will benefit from study of this nature.

  11. Statistical analysis of surrogate signals to incorporate respiratory motion variability into radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilms, Matthias; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Marx, Mirko; Handels, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory motion and its variability lead to location uncertainties in radiation therapy (RT) of thoracic and abdominal tumors. Current approaches for motion compensation in RT are usually driven by respiratory surrogate signals, e.g., spirometry. In this contribution, we present an approach for statistical analysis, modeling and subsequent simulation of surrogate signals on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The simulated signals represent typical patient-specific variations of, e.g., breathing amplitude and cycle period. For the underlying statistical analysis, all breathing cycles of an observed signal are consistently parameterized using approximating B-spline curves. Statistics on breathing cycles are then performed by using the parameters of the B-spline approximations. Assuming that these parameters follow a multivariate Gaussian distribution, realistic time-continuous surrogate signals of arbitrary length can be generated and used to simulate the internal motion of tumors and organs based on a patient-specific diffeomorphic correspondence model. As an example, we show how this approach can be employed in RT treatment planning to calculate tumor appearance probabilities and to statistically assess the impact of respiratory motion and its variability on planned dose distributions.

  12. Exploring discrepancies between quantitative validation results and the geomorphic plausibility of statistical landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Brenning, Alexander; Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Glade, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Empirical models are frequently applied to produce landslide susceptibility maps for large areas. Subsequent quantitative validation results are routinely used as the primary criteria to infer the validity and applicability of the final maps or to select one of several models. This study hypothesizes that such direct deductions can be misleading. The main objective was to explore discrepancies between the predictive performance of a landslide susceptibility model and the geomorphic plausibility of subsequent landslide susceptibility maps while a particular emphasis was placed on the influence of incomplete landslide inventories on modelling and validation results. The study was conducted within the Flysch Zone of Lower Austria (1,354 km2) which is known to be highly susceptible to landslides of the slide-type movement. Sixteen susceptibility models were generated by applying two statistical classifiers (logistic regression and generalized additive model) and two machine learning techniques (random forest and support vector machine) separately for two landslide inventories of differing completeness and two predictor sets. The results were validated quantitatively by estimating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with single holdout and spatial cross-validation technique. The heuristic evaluation of the geomorphic plausibility of the final results was supported by findings of an exploratory data analysis, an estimation of odds ratios and an evaluation of the spatial structure of the final maps. The results showed that maps generated by different inventories, classifiers and predictors appeared differently while holdout validation revealed similar high predictive performances. Spatial cross-validation proved useful to expose spatially varying inconsistencies of the modelling results while additionally providing evidence for slightly overfitted machine learning-based models. However, the highest predictive performances were obtained for

  13. Incorporating Functional Annotations for Fine-Mapping Causal Variants in a Bayesian Framework Using Summary Statistics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenan; McDonnell, Shannon K; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Tillmans, Lori S; Schaid, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Functional annotations have been shown to improve both the discovery power and fine-mapping accuracy in genome-wide association studies. However, the optimal strategy to incorporate the large number of existing annotations is still not clear. In this study, we propose a Bayesian framework to incorporate functional annotations in a systematic manner. We compute the maximum a posteriori solution and use cross validation to find the optimal penalty parameters. By extending our previous fine-mapping method CAVIARBF into this framework, we require only summary statistics as input. We also derived an exact calculation of Bayes factors using summary statistics for quantitative traits, which is necessary when a large proportion of trait variance is explained by the variants of interest, such as in fine mapping expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). We compared the proposed method with PAINTOR using different strategies to combine annotations. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves the best accuracy in identifying causal variants among the different strategies and methods compared. We also find that for annotations with moderate effects from a large annotation pool, screening annotations individually and then combining the top annotations can produce overly optimistic results. We applied these methods on two real data sets: a meta-analysis result of lipid traits and a cis-eQTL study of normal prostate tissues. For the eQTL data, incorporating annotations significantly increased the number of potential causal variants with high probabilities.

  14. Quantification of Liver Tumors Using Statistical Characteristics of Ultrasonic RF Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chono, Tomoaki; Ito, Masayasu

    We propose a method for quantification of liver tumors using statistical characteristics of ultrasonic RF signals. Parameters of K distribution show the characteristics of a soft tissue. The proposed method of chi-square test(CST) can estimate the most appropriate parameters of K distribution, which are fitted to an observed amplitude distribution. Method of moment(MOM), method combining maximum likelihood and MOM(ML/MOM), and CST are compared on simulated RF signals. The CST is applied to RF signals of liver tumors including 38 hepatocellular carcinomas(malignancy) and 12 hepatic hemangiomas(benignancy). The accuracy of discriminant analysis are 78% and 50% for malignancy and benignancy, respectively.

  15. The spatial statistics formalism applied to mapping electromagnetic radiation in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesus M; Rufo, Montaña; Jimenez, Antonio; Antolin, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Determining the electromagnetic radiation levels in urban areas is a complicated task. Various approaches have been taken, including numerical simulations using different models of propagation, sampling campaigns to measure field values with which to validate theoretical models, and the formalism of spatial statistics. In the work, we present here that this latter technique was used to construct maps of electric field and its associated uncertainty from experimental data. For this purpose, a field meter and a broadband probe sensitive in the 100-kHz-3-GHz frequency range were used to take 1,020 measurements around buildings and along the perimeter of the area. The distance between sampling points was 5 m. The results were stored in a geographic information system to facilitate data handling and analysis, in particular, the application of the formalism of spatial statistical to the analysis of the distribution of the field levels over the study area. The spatial structure was analyzed using the variographic technique, with the field levels at non-sampled points being interpolated by kriging. The results indicated that, in the urban area analyzed in the present work, the linear density of sampling points could be reduced to a distance which coincides with the length of the blocks of buildings without the statistical parameters varying significantly and with the field level maps being reproduced qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Problems Associated with Statistical Pattern Recognition of Acoustic Emission Signals in a Compact Tension Fatigue Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during fatigue testing of an aluminum 2024-T4 compact tension specimen using a commercially available AE system. AE signals from crack extension were identified and separated from noise spikes, signals that reflected from the specimen edges, and signals that saturated the instrumentation. A commercially available software package was used to train a statistical pattern recognition system to classify the signals. The software trained a network to recognize signals with a 91-percent accuracy when compared with the researcher's interpretation of the data. Reasons for the discrepancies are examined and it is postulated that additional preprocessing of the AE data to focus on the extensional wave mode and eliminate other effects before training the pattern recognition system will result in increased accuracy.

  17. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalographic spikes in patients with intractable frontal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J.; von Pechmann, Deidre; Wakeman, Daniel G.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Liu, Hesheng; Madsen, Joseph R.; Bourgeois, Blaise F.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical value of spatiotemporal source analysis for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ictal MEG and simultaneous scalp EEG was recorded in five patients with medically intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. Dynamic statistical parametric maps (dSPMs) were calculated at the peak of early ictal spikes for the purpose of estimating the spatiotemporal cortical source distribution. DSPM solutions were mapped onto a cortical surface, which was derived from each patient's MRI. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) were calculated using a single-dipole model for comparison with dSPMs. In all patients, dSPMs tended to have a localized activation, consistent with the clinically-determined ictal onset zone, whereas most ECDs were considered to be inappropriate sources according to their goodness-of-fit values. Analyzing ictal MEG spikes by using dSPMs may provide useful information in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. PMID:19394198

  18. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalographic spikes in patients with intractable frontal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naoaki; Cole, Andrew J; von Pechmann, Deidre; Wakeman, Daniel G; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Liu, Hesheng; Madsen, Joseph R; Bourgeois, Blaise F; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the clinical value of spatiotemporal source analysis for analyzing ictal magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ictal MEG and simultaneous scalp EEG was recorded in five patients with medically intractable frontal lobe epilepsy. Dynamic statistical parametric maps (dSPMs) were calculated at the peak of early ictal spikes for the purpose of estimating the spatiotemporal cortical source distribution. DSPM solutions were mapped onto a cortical surface, which was derived from each patient's MRI. Equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) were calculated using a single-dipole model for comparison with dSPMs. In all patients, dSPMs tended to have a localized activation, consistent with the clinically determined ictal onset zone, whereas most ECDs were considered to be inappropriate sources according to their goodness-of-fit values. Analyzing ictal MEG spikes by using dSPMs may provide useful information in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy.

  19. The Effect of Kinetic Properties on Statistical Variations of Ultrasound Signals Backscattered from Flowing Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2009-02-01

    Yet very little is known about the effect of “black hole” (BH) phenomenon on backscattering signal statistics under the laminar flow. To further explore this issue, measurements were performed from the porcine blood (with hematocrits of 20 and 50%) circulating in a mock flow loop under various steady flows at velocities ranged from 15 to 122 mm/s using a 10 MHz ultrasonic transducer. Results showed that the BH was apparent for the 50% blood flowing at a low velocity. The BH tended to be decreased with the increase of flow velocity and that it was hardly observed from the 20% blood. The probability density function of signals backscattered from blood tended to distribute as pre-Rayleigh statistics and the Nakagami parameter was less than 1. The spatial distribution of red cell aggregation in the flow tube is a predominant factor leading to statistical variations of ultrasonic backscattering in the flowing blood.

  20. The Kullback-Leibler divergence as an estimator of the statistical properties of CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-David, Assaf; Jackson, Andrew D.; Liu, Hao E-mail: liuhao@nbi.dk

    2015-06-01

    The identification of unsubtracted foreground residuals in the cosmic microwave background maps on large scales is of crucial importance for the analysis of polarization signals. These residuals add a non-Gaussian contribution to the data. We propose the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence as an effective, non-parametric test on the one-point probability distribution function of the data. With motivation in information theory, the KL divergence takes into account the entire range of the distribution and is highly non-local. We demonstrate its use by analyzing the large scales of the Planck 2013 SMICA temperature fluctuation map and find it consistent with the expected distribution at a level of 6%. Comparing the results to those obtained using the more popular Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find the two methods to be in general agreement.

  1. Mapping signaling pathway cross-talk in Drosophila cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammeux, Noemie; Housden, Benjamin E.; Georgiadis, Andrew; Hu, Yanhui; Perrimon, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    During development and homeostasis, cells integrate multiple signals originating either from neighboring cells or systemically. In turn, responding cells can produce signals that act in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine manner. Although the nature of the signals and pathways used in cell–cell communication are well characterized, we lack, in most cases, an integrative view of signaling describing the spatial and temporal interactions between pathways (e.g., whether the signals are processed sequentially or concomitantly when two pathways are required for a specific outcome). To address the extent of cross-talk between the major metazoan signaling pathways, we characterized immediate transcriptional responses to either single- or multiple pathway stimulations in homogeneous Drosophila cell lines. Our study, focusing on seven core pathways, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Jun kinase (JNK), JAK/STAT, Notch, Insulin, and Wnt, revealed that many ligands and receptors are primary targets of signaling pathways, highlighting that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding pathway components is a major level of signaling cross-talk. In addition, we found that ligands and receptors can integrate multiple pathway activities and adjust their transcriptional responses accordingly. PMID:27528688

  2. Mapping irrigated lands at 250-m scale by merging MODIS data and National Agricultural Statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US), identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  3. Noncosmological signal contributions to the COBE DMR anisotropy maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Loewenstein, K.; Cheng, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    We examine the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) data for evidence of noncosmological source contributions. The DMR maps are cross-correlated with maps of rich clusters, extragalactic IRAS sources, HEAO 1 A-2 X-ray emission, and 5 GHz radio sources. We limit the rms contributions from these sources on a 7 deg angular scale to less than 10 micro-K (95 percent confidence level) in the DMR maps, although the LMC probably contributes about 50 micro-K to a limited region of the sky. Thus, our previous interpretation that the fluctuations in the COBE DMR data are most likely due to cosmic fluctuations at the surface of last scattering remains intact. The Comptonization parameter for hot electrons traced by rich clusters is limited to delta(y) less than 2 x 10 exp -6 (95 percent confidence level) averaged over the 7 deg DMR beam.

  4. A Comprehensive Statistical Model for Cell Signaling and Protein Activity Inference

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Erdem; Ochs, Michael F.; Geman, Donald; Younes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Protein signaling networks play a central role in transcriptional regulation and the etiology of many diseases. Statistical methods, particularly Bayesian networks, have been widely used to model cell signaling, mostly for model organisms and with focus on uncovering connectivity rather than inferring aberrations. Extensions to mammalian systems have not yielded compelling results, due likely to greatly increased complexity and limited proteomic measurements in vivo. In this study, we propose a comprehensive statistical model that is anchored to a predefined core topology, has a limited complexity due to parameter sharing and uses micorarray data of mRNA transcripts as the only observable components of signaling. Specifically, we account for cell heterogeneity and a multi-level process, representing signaling as a Bayesian network at the cell level, modeling measurements as ensemble averages at the tissue level and incorporating patient-to-patient differences at the population level. Motivated by the goal of identifying individual protein abnormalities as potential therapeutical targets, we applied our method to the RAS-RAF network using a breast cancer study with 118 patients. We demonstrated rigorous statistical inference, established reproducibility through simulations and the ability to recover receptor status from available microarray data. PMID:20855924

  5. Signal digitizing system and method based on amplitude-to-time optical mapping

    DOEpatents

    Chou, Jason; Bennett, Corey V; Hernandez, Vince

    2015-01-13

    A signal digitizing system and method based on analog-to-time optical mapping, optically maps amplitude information of an analog signal of interest first into wavelength information using an amplitude tunable filter (ATF) to impress spectral changes induced by the amplitude of the analog signal onto a carrier signal, i.e. a train of optical pulses, and next from wavelength information to temporal information using a dispersive element so that temporal information representing the amplitude information is encoded in the time domain in the carrier signal. Optical-to-electrical conversion of the optical pulses into voltage waveforms and subsequently digitizing the voltage waveforms into a digital image enables the temporal information to be resolved and quantized in the time domain. The digital image may them be digital signal processed to digitally reconstruct the analog signal based on the temporal information with high fidelity.

  6. Mapping vegetation communities using statistical data fusion in the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chastain, R.A.; Struckhoff, M.A.; He, H.S.; Larsen, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    A vegetation community map was produced for the Ozark National Scenic Riverways consistent with the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System. Vegetation communities were differentiated using a large array of variables derived from remote sensing and topographic data, which were fused into independent mathematical functions using a discriminant analysis classification approach. Remote sensing data provided variables that discriminated vegetation communities based on differences in color, spectral reflectance, greenness, brightness, and texture. Topographic data facilitated differentiation of vegetation communities based on indirect gradients (e.g., landform position, slope, aspect), which relate to variations in resource and disturbance gradients. Variables derived from these data sources represent both actual and potential vegetation community patterns on the landscape. A hybrid combination of statistical and photointerpretation methods was used to obtain an overall accuracy of 63 percent for a map with 49 vegetation community and land-cover classes, and 78 percent for a 33-class map of the study area. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  7. Limitations to mapping habitat-use areas in changing landscapes using the Mahalanobis distance statistic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    We tested the potential of a GIS mapping technique, using a resource selection model developed for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and based on the Mahalanobis distance statistic, to track changes in shrubsteppe habitats in southwestern Idaho. If successful, the technique could be used to predict animal use areas, or those undergoing change, in different regions from the same selection function and variables without additional sampling. We determined the multivariate mean vector of 7 GIS variables that described habitats used by jackrabbits. We then ranked the similarity of all cells in the GIS coverage from their Mahalanobis distance to the mean habitat vector. The resulting map accurately depicted areas where we sighted jackrabbits on verification surveys. We then simulated an increase in shrublands (which are important habitats). Contrary to expectation, the new configurations were classified as lower similarity relative to the original mean habitat vector. Because the selection function is based on a unimodal mean, any deviation, even if biologically positive, creates larger Malanobis distances and lower similarity values. We recommend the Mahalanobis distance technique for mapping animal use areas when animals are distributed optimally, the landscape is well-sampled to determine the mean habitat vector, and distributions of the habitat variables does not change.

  8. Statistical mapping of speckle autocorrelation for visualization of hyperaemic responses to cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Paul, Joseph S; Al Nashash, Hasan; Luft, Andreas R; Le, Thinh M

    2006-07-01

    Statistically mapped speckle autocorrelation images (SAR) were used to track the hemodynamically active perfusion regions in the rat cortex during and following DC current stimulation with high transverse spatial resolution (38 um). The SAR images provided a spatio-temporal information about the net activation patterns of Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) changes over a period of time as against those changes for each frame interval estimated using spatial contrasts derived from the first order spatial statistics. Thus the information about the relative maxima of perfusion during a Transient Hyperaemic Episode (THE) across different regions in the imaging window could be identified without the need for actually having to estimate the spatial contrast maps of the imaged region for each frame contained in the time window of observation. With the application of DC stimulation, the regions with a high correlation in the temporal fluctuations were representative of the areas that underwent least changes in activation. By varying the intensity of stimulation, THEs were observed for stimulation current densities in the range 0.1-3.8 mA/mm2 using both the derived speckle contrast maps and concurrently on a Laser Doppler Flow meter, with its probe positioned 1 mm from the site of stimulation. For current densities below the lower threshold of stimulation, the SAR images revealed an unprecedented reduction in the surge amplitude at sites distal to the region of stimulation. This was accompanied by an increase in pixel areas representing minimally active regions of perfusion ("perfusion islets") with no identifiable peak in the hemodynamic responses estimated from speckle contrast variations. The SAR images can be a useful tool for visualization of slow wave perfusion dynamics during cortical stimulation.

  9. Signal analysis applications of nonlinear dynamics and higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solinsky, James C.; Feeney, John J.

    1994-03-01

    The use of higher-order statistics (HOS) in acoustic, and financial signal analysis applications is outlined in theory and followed with specific data examples. HOS analysis is used to identify data regions of interest, and nonlinear dynamics (ND) analysis is used in a 4D embedded space to show structural density changes resulting from the HOS regions. A second-order statistical comparison is made with the same data processed to have random Fourier phase, since the HOS information is contained in this nonrandom phase. These empirical results indicate that HOS data regions are structural distortions to a second-order planar disk in the 4D ND analysis space.

  10. Simulated performance of an order statistic threshold strategy for detection of narrowband signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, E.; Brady, R.; Deich, W.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E.

    1988-01-01

    The application of order statistics to signal detection is becoming an increasingly active area of research. This is due to the inherent robustness of rank estimators in the presence of large outliers that would significantly degrade more conventional mean-level-based detection systems. A detection strategy is presented in which the threshold estimate is obtained using order statistics. The performance of this algorithm in the presence of simulated interference and broadband noise is evaluated. In this way, the robustness of the proposed strategy in the presence of the interference can be fully assessed as a function of the interference, noise, and detector parameters.

  11. Identification of Statistical Invariance for Anodic Signals of Mk-IV Electrorefiner

    SciTech Connect

    Supathorn Phongikaroon; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2007-09-01

    A statistical invariance technique is proposed for an analysis of anodic signals from the Mk-IV electrorefiner (ER) currently used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. Voltage and applied current signals obtained from the Data Archival Software System (DASS) were used in this study. In general, the plots of these signals from different experimental runs present complex patterns to analyze—the currents were adjusted and shut-off due to limited ampere-hr or cut-off cell voltage; the voltage would increase showing a sign that uranium in the fuel elements had been depleted. Rather than directly analyzing these sets of time-series signals, a simple nonlinear function of these signal sequences and division were observed, which returned resistance series information. The primary idea deriving the methodology presented in this paper is that “anodic resistance time series should show intrinsic kinetic progress of anodic ER process.” A simple histogram-based analysis reveals notable statistical information, which may be invariant under ideal ER operating conditions. For instance, the results suggest that mostly uranium dissolution would be preferentially transferred around 0.00217 - 0.00354 ohm and other minor distribution peaks may possibly represent other transfers of fission species in the system.

  12. Signal waveform detection with statistical automaton for internet and web service streaming.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Ji, Yuzhu; Liu, Yiming; Huang, Nai-Lun; Zeng, Fufu; Lin, Fang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been suggested for Internet and web streaming detection. In this paper, we propose an approach to signal waveform detection for Internet and web streaming, with novel statistical automatons. The system records network connections over a period of time to form a signal waveform and compute suspicious characteristics of the waveform. Network streaming according to these selected waveform features by our newly designed Aho-Corasick (AC) automatons can be classified. We developed two versions, that is, basic AC and advanced AC-histogram waveform automata, and conducted comprehensive experimentation. The results confirm that our approach is feasible and suitable for deployment.

  13. A dynamic scanning method based on signal-statistics for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Timischl, F

    2014-01-01

    A novel dynamic scanning method for noise reduction in scanning electron microscopy and related applications is presented. The scanning method dynamically adjusts the scanning speed of the electron beam depending on the statistical behavior of the detector signal and gives SEM images with uniform and predefined standard deviation, independent of the signal value itself. In the case of partially saturated images, the proposed method decreases image acquisition time without sacrificing image quality. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown and compared to the conventional scanning method and median filtering using numerical simulations.

  14. Signal Waveform Detection with Statistical Automaton for Internet and Web Service Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Huang, Nai-Lun; Zeng, Fufu; Lin, Fang-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been suggested for Internet and web streaming detection. In this paper, we propose an approach to signal waveform detection for Internet and web streaming, with novel statistical automatons. The system records network connections over a period of time to form a signal waveform and compute suspicious characteristics of the waveform. Network streaming according to these selected waveform features by our newly designed Aho-Corasick (AC) automatons can be classified. We developed two versions, that is, basic AC and advanced AC-histogram waveform automata, and conducted comprehensive experimentation. The results confirm that our approach is feasible and suitable for deployment. PMID:25032231

  15. Mapping paths: new approaches to dissect eukaryotic signaling circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Nebibe; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are precisely “wired” to coordinate changes in external and intracellular signals with corresponding adjustments in the output of complex and often interconnected signaling pathways. These pathways are critical in understanding cellular growth and function, and several experimental trends are emerging with applicability toward more fully describing the composition and topology of eukaryotic signaling networks. In particular, recent studies have implemented CRISPR/Cas-based screens in mouse and human cell lines for genes involved in various cell growth and disease phenotypes. Proteomic methods using mass spectrometry have enabled quantitative and dynamic profiling of protein interactions, revealing previously undiscovered complexes and allele-specific protein interactions. Methods for the single-cell study of protein localization and gene expression have been integrated with computational analyses to provide insight into cell signaling in yeast and metazoans. In this review, we present an overview of exemplary studies using the above approaches, relevant for the analysis of cell signaling and indeed, more broadly, for many modern biological applications. PMID:27540473

  16. Detection and Discrimination at the Intersection of Statistical Signal Processing and Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    Superresolution ”, Invited paper, The Computer Journal, April 2007; doi: 10.1093/comjnl/bxm007 4 8. M. Elad, P. Milanfar, R. Rubinstein, “Analysis versus...Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Video-to-Video Dynamic Superresolution for Grayscale and Color Sequences ”, EURASIP Journal of Applied Signal Processing...Special Issue on Superresolution Imaging, Volume 2006, Article ID 61859, Pages 1-15. 12. M. Shahram, and P. Milanfar, “Statistical and Information

  17. Statistics

    Cancer.gov

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  18. Effect of image compression for model and human observers in signal-known-statistically tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh; Abbey, Craig K.

    2002-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that model observers can be used for automated evaluation and optimization of image compression with respect to human visual performance in a task where the signal does not vary and is known a priori by the observer (signal known exactly, SKE). Here, we extend previous work to two tasks that are intended to more realistically represent the day-to-day visual diagnostic decision in the clinical setting. In the signal known exactly but variable task (SKEV), the signal varies from trial to trial (e.g., size, shape, etc) but is known to the observer. In the signal known statistically task (SKS) the signal varies from trial to trial and the observer does not have knowledge of which signal is present in that trial. We compare SKEV/SKS human and model observer performance detecting simulated arterial filling defects embedded in real coronary angiographic backgrounds in images that have undergone different amounts of JPEG and JPEG 2000 image compression. Our results show that both human and model performance at low compression ratios is better for the JPEG algorithm than the JPEG 2000 algorithm. Metrics of image quality such as the root mean square error (or the related peak signal to noise ratio) incorrectly predict a JPEG 2000 superiority. Results also show that although model and to a lesser extent human performance improves with the trial to trial knowledge of the signal present (SKEV vs. SKS task), conclusions about which compression algorithm is better (JPEG vs. JPEG 2000) for the current task would not change whether one used an SKEV or SKS task. These findings might suggest that the computationally more tractable SKEV models could be used as a good first approximation for automated evaluation of the more clinically realistic SKS task.

  19. Systematic Mapping and Statistical Analyses of Valley Landform and Vegetation Asymmetries Across Hydroclimatic Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Terrain aspect alters the spatial distribution of insolation across topography, driving eco-pedo-hydro-geomorphic feedbacks that can alter landform evolution and result in valley asymmetries for a suite of land surface characteristics (e.g. slope length and steepness, vegetation, soil properties, and drainage development). Asymmetric valleys serve as natural laboratories for studying how landscapes respond to climate perturbation. In the semi-arid montane granodioritic terrain of the Idaho batholith, Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, prior works indicate that reduced insolation on northern (pole-facing) aspects prolongs snow pack persistence, and is associated with thicker, finer-grained soils, that retain more water, prolong the growing season, support coniferous forest rather than sagebrush steppe ecosystems, stabilize slopes at steeper angles, and produce sparser drainage networks. We hypothesize that the primary drivers of valley asymmetry development are changes in the pedon-scale water-balance that coalesce to alter catchment-scale runoff and drainage development, and ultimately cause the divide between north and south-facing land surfaces to migrate northward. We explore this conceptual framework by coupling land surface analyses with statistical modeling to assess relationships and the relative importance of land surface characteristics. Throughout the Idaho batholith, we systematically mapped and tabulated various statistical measures of landforms, land cover, and hydroclimate within discrete valley segments (n=~10,000). We developed a random forest based statistical model to predict valley slope asymmetry based upon numerous measures (n>300) of landscape asymmetries. Preliminary results suggest that drainages are tightly coupled with hillslopes throughout the region, with drainage-network slope being one of the strongest predictors of land-surface-averaged slope asymmetry. When slope-related statistics are excluded, due to possible autocorrelation, valley

  20. Mapping toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) with FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bosong; Zhao, Liang; Liao, Huan; Cheng, Jie; Lian, Shanshan; Li, Xuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system. Studies on TLR signaling pathway genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) have mainly focused on sequence analysis and expression profiling, no research has been carried out on their localization. The chromosomal position of TLR signaling pathway genes can be valuable for assemblying scallop genome and analysizing gene regulatory networks. In the present study, five key TLR signaling pathway genes ( CfTLR, CfMyd88, CfTRAF6, CfNFκB, and CfIκB) containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were isolated and physically mapped through fluorescence in situ hybridization on five non-homologous chromosome pairs, showing a similar distribution to another five model species. The isolation and mapping of these key immune genes of C. farreri will aid to the research on innate immunity, assignment of interested genes to chromosomes, and integration of physical, linkage and cytogenetic maps of this species.

  1. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the R7 photoreceptor cell. Components of the signal transduction pathway activated by Sev in the R7 precursor include proteins encoded by the gap1, drk, Sos, ras1 and raf loci. In this report we present evidence that a Drosophila MAP kinase, ERK-A, is encoded by the rolled locus and is required downstream of raf in the Sev signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:8157002

  2. Comparison of Probabilistic Coastal Inundation Maps Based on Historical Storms and Statistically Modeled Storm Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Sheng, Y.; Condon, A. J.; Paramygin, V. A.; Hall, T.

    2012-12-01

    A cost effective method, JPM-OS (Joint Probability Method with Optimal Sampling), for determining storm response and inundation return frequencies was developed and applied to quantify the hazard of hurricane storm surges and inundation along the Southwest FL,US coast (Condon and Sheng 2012). The JPM-OS uses piecewise multivariate regression splines coupled with dimension adaptive sparse grids to enable the generation of a base flood elevation (BFE) map. Storms are characterized by their landfall characteristics (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, forward speed, heading, and landfall location) and a sparse grid algorithm determines the optimal set of storm parameter combinations so that the inundation from any other storm parameter combination can be determined. The end result is a sample of a few hundred (197 for SW FL) optimal storms which are simulated using a dynamically coupled storm surge / wave modeling system CH3D-SSMS (Sheng et al. 2010). The limited historical climatology (1940 - 2009) is explored to develop probabilistic characterizations of the five storm parameters. The probability distributions are discretized and the inundation response of all parameter combinations is determined by the interpolation in five-dimensional space of the optimal storms. The surge response and the associated joint probability of the parameter combination is used to determine the flood elevation with a 1% annual probability of occurrence. The limited historical data constrains the accuracy of the PDFs of the hurricane characteristics, which in turn affect the accuracy of the BFE maps calculated. To offset the deficiency of limited historical dataset, this study presents a different method for producing coastal inundation maps. Instead of using the historical storm data, here we adopt 33,731 tracks that can represent the storm climatology in North Atlantic basin and SW Florida coasts. This large quantity of hurricane tracks is generated from a new statistical model

  3. Photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fiber with weak signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan-Nan, Liu; Yu-Hong, Liu; Jia-Min, Li; Xiao-Ying, Li

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fibers with weak coherent signal injection by measuring the intensity correlation functions of individual signal and idler fields. The experimental results show that the intensity correlation function of individual signal (idler) field decreases with the intensity of signal injection. After applying narrow band filter in signal (idler) band, the value of decreases from 1.9 ± 0.02 (1.9 ± 0.02) to 1.03 ± 0.02 (1.05 ± 0.02) when the intensity of signal injection varies from 0 to 120 photons/pulse. The results indicate that the photon statistics changes from Bose-Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution. We calculate the intensity correlation functions by using the multi-mode theory of four-wave mixing in fibers. The theoretical curves well fit the experimental results. Our investigation will be useful for mitigating the crosstalk between quantum and classical channels in a dense wavelength division multiplexing network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11527808), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032110055), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC02300), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China, and the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B07014).

  4. An Efficient Resampling Method for Assessing Genome-Wide Statistical Significance in Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fei; Fine, Jason P.; Hu, Jianhua; Lin, D. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Assessing genome-wide statistical significance is an important and difficult problem in multipoint linkage analysis. Due to multiple tests on the same genome, the usual pointwise significance level based on the chi-square approximation is inappropriate. Permutation is widely used to determine genome-wide significance. Theoretical approximations are available for simple experimental crosses. In this article, we propose a resampling procedure to assess the significance of genome-wide QTL mapping for experimental crosses. The proposed method is computationally much less intensive than the permutation procedure (in the order of 102 or higher) and is applicable to complex breeding designs and sophisticated genetic models that cannot be handled by the permutation and theoretical methods. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation studies and an application to a Drosophila backcross. PMID:15611194

  5. Spatial-Temporal Change Detection in NDVI Data Through Statistical Parametric Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, S. A.; Yadav, V.; Gutierrez, K.

    2011-12-01

    Detection of significant changes in vegetation patterns provides a quantitative means of defining phenological response to changing climate. These changes may be indicative of long-term trends or shorter-duration conditions. In either case, quantifying the significance of the change patterns is critical in order to better understand the underlying processes. Spatial and temporal correlation within imaged data sets complicates change detection and must be taken into account. We apply a novel approach, Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM), to change detection in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. SPM has been developed for identification of regions of anomalous activation in human brain imaging given functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Here, we adapt SPM to work on identifying anomalous regions of vegetation density within 30 years of weekly NDVI imagery. Significant change in any given image pixel is defined as a deviation from the expected value. Expected values are calculated using sinusoidal regression models fit to previous data at that location. The amount of deviation of an observation from the expected value is calculated using a modified t-test that accounts for temporal correlation in the regression data. The t-tests are applied independently to each pixel to create a t-statistic map for every time step. For a given time step, the probability that the maximum t-value exceeds a given threshold can be calculated to determine times with significant deviations, but standard techniques are not applicable due to the large number of pixels searched to find the maximum. SPM takes into account the spatial correlation of the t-statistic map to determine the significance of the maximum observed t-value. Theory developed for truncated Gaussian fields as part of SPM provides the expected number and size of regions within the t-statistic map that exceed a given threshold. The significance of the excursion regions can be assessed and then

  6. Infants rapidly learn word-referent mappings via cross-situational statistics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    First word learning should be difficult because any pairing of a word and scene presents the learner with an infinite number of possible referents. Accordingly, theorists of children’s rapid word learning have sought constraints on word-referent mappings. These constraints are thought to work by enabling learners to resolve the ambiguity inherent in any labeled scene to determine the speaker’s intended referent at that moment. The present study shows that 12- and 14-month old infants can resolve the uncertainty problem in another way, not by unambiguously deciding the referent in a single word-scene pairing, but by rapidly evaluating the statistical evidence across many individually ambiguous words and scenes. PMID:17692305

  7. Mapping character types onto space: the urban-rural distinction in early statistical writings.

    PubMed

    Bayatrizi, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of urban/rural binary distinctions in 18th- and 19th-century social scientific literature, and in particular in the writings of the statistical societies in England. The 18th-century writers were primarily concerned with the spread of luxury, vice, and effeminacy among the upper social strata in large cities. Later on, statisticians began to focus on moral hazards among the urban working poor. These writings are significant in several respects: they contributed to the spatial mapping of moral character, played a role in the development of quantitative social scientific techniques, and foreshadowed later sociological debates over the nature and consequences of social evolution from simpler to more complex societies.

  8. Statistical properties of chaos demonstrated in a class of one-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csordás, András; Györgyi, Géza; Szépfalusy, Péter; Tél, Tamás

    1993-01-01

    One-dimensional maps with complete grammar are investigated in both permanent and transient chaotic cases. The discussion focuses on statistical characteristics such as Lyapunov exponent, generalized entropies and dimensions, free energies, and their finite size corrections. Our approach is based on the eigenvalue problem of generalized Frobenius-Perron operators, which are treated numerically as well as by perturbative and other analytical methods. The examples include the universal chaos function relevant near the period doubling threshold. Special emphasis is put on the entropies and their decay rates because of their invariance under the most general class of coordinate changes. Phase-transition-like phenomena at the border state of chaos due to intermittency and super instability are presented.

  9. Mapping permeability in low-resolution micro-CT images: A multiscale statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botha, Pieter W. S. K.; Sheppard, Adrian P.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the possibility of predicting permeability in low-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (µCT). Lower-resolution whole core images give greater sample coverage and are therefore more representative of heterogeneous systems; however, the lower resolution causes connecting pore throats to be represented by intermediate gray scale values and limits information on pore system geometry, rendering such images inadequate for direct permeability simulation. We present an imaging and computation workflow aimed at predicting absolute permeability for sample volumes that are too large to allow direct computation. The workflow involves computing permeability from high-resolution µCT images, along with a series of rock characteristics (notably open pore fraction, pore size, and formation factor) from spatially registered low-resolution images. Multiple linear regression models correlating permeability to rock characteristics provide a means of predicting and mapping permeability variations in larger scale low-resolution images. Results show excellent agreement between permeability predictions made from 16 and 64 µm/voxel images of 25 mm diameter 80 mm tall core samples of heterogeneous sandstone for which 5 µm/voxel resolution is required to compute permeability directly. The statistical model used at the lowest resolution of 64 µm/voxel (similar to typical whole core image resolutions) includes open pore fraction and formation factor as predictor characteristics. Although binarized images at this resolution do not completely capture the pore system, we infer that these characteristics implicitly contain information about the critical fluid flow pathways. Three-dimensional permeability mapping in larger-scale lower resolution images by means of statistical predictions provides input data for subsequent permeability upscaling and the computation of effective permeability at the core scale.

  10. Structural mapping in statistical word problems: A relational reasoning approach to Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet

    2016-09-27

    Presenting natural frequencies facilitates Bayesian inferences relative to using percentages. Nevertheless, many people, including highly educated and skilled reasoners, still fail to provide Bayesian responses to these computationally simple problems. We show that the complexity of relational reasoning (e.g., the structural mapping between the presented and requested relations) can help explain the remaining difficulties. With a non-Bayesian inference that required identical arithmetic but afforded a more direct structural mapping, performance was universally high. Furthermore, reducing the relational demands of the task through questions that directed reasoners to use the presented statistics, as compared with questions that prompted the representation of a second, similar sample, also significantly improved reasoning. Distinct error patterns were also observed between these presented- and similar-sample scenarios, which suggested differences in relational-reasoning strategies. On the other hand, while higher numeracy was associated with better Bayesian reasoning, higher-numerate reasoners were not immune to the relational complexity of the task. Together, these findings validate the relational-reasoning view of Bayesian problem solving and highlight the importance of considering not only the presented task structure, but also the complexity of the structural alignment between the presented and requested relations.

  11. Stereoscopic correspondence by applying physical constraints and statistical observations to dissimilarity map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tsi Y.; Wang, Sheng-Jyh; Hang, Hsueh-Ming

    2000-05-01

    To deal with the correspondence problem in stereo imaging, a new approach is presented to find the disparity information on a newly defined dissimilarity map (DSMP). Base don an image formation model of stereo images and some statistical observations, two constraints and four assumptions are adopted. In addition, a few heuristic criteria are developed to define a unique solution. All these constraints, assumptions and criteria are applied to the DSMP to find the correspondence. At first, the Epipolar Constraint, the Valid Pairing Constraint and the Lambertian Surface Assumption are applied to DSMP to locate the Low Dissimilarity Zones (LDZs). Then, the Opaque Assumption and the Minimum Occlusion Assumption are applied to LDZs to obtain the admissible LDZ sets. Finally, the Depth Smoothness Assumption and some other criteria are applied to the admissible LDZ sets to produce the final answer. The focus of this paper is to find the constraints and assumptions in the stereo correspondence problem and then properly convert these constraints and assumptions into executable procedures on the DSMP. In addition to its ability in estimating occlusion accurately, this approach works well even when the commonly used monotonic ordering assumption is violated. The simulation results show that occlusions can be properly handled and the disparity map can be calculated with a fairly high degree of accuracy.

  12. AlzPathway: a comprehensive map of signaling pathways of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly. To clarify pathogenesis of AD, thousands of reports have been accumulating. However, knowledge of signaling pathways in the field of AD has not been compiled as a database before. Description Here, we have constructed a publicly available pathway map called “AlzPathway” that comprehensively catalogs signaling pathways in the field of AD. We have collected and manually curated over 100 review articles related to AD, and have built an AD pathway map using CellDesigner. AlzPathway is currently composed of 1347 molecules and 1070 reactions in neuron, brain blood barrier, presynaptic, postsynaptic, astrocyte, and microglial cells and their cellular localizations. AlzPathway is available as both the SBML (Systems Biology Markup Language) map for CellDesigner and the high resolution image map. AlzPathway is also available as a web service (online map) based on Payao system, a community-based, collaborative web service platform for pathway model curation, enabling continuous updates by AD researchers. Conclusions AlzPathway is the first comprehensive map of intra, inter and extra cellular AD signaling pathways which can enable mechanistic deciphering of AD pathogenesis. The AlzPathway map is accessible at http://alzpathway.org/. PMID:22647208

  13. An integrated user-friendly ArcMAP tool for bivariate statistical modeling in geoscience applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebur, M. N.; Pradhan, B.; Shafri, H. Z. M.; Yusof, Z.; Tehrany, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Modeling and classification difficulties are fundamental issues in natural hazard assessment. A geographic information system (GIS) is a domain that requires users to use various tools to perform different types of spatial modeling. Bivariate statistical analysis (BSA) assists in hazard modeling. To perform this analysis, several calculations are required and the user has to transfer data from one format to another. Most researchers perform these calculations manually by using Microsoft Excel or other programs. This process is time consuming and carries a degree of uncertainty. The lack of proper tools to implement BSA in a GIS environment prompted this study. In this paper, a user-friendly tool, BSM (bivariate statistical modeler), for BSA technique is proposed. Three popular BSA techniques such as frequency ratio, weights-of-evidence, and evidential belief function models are applied in the newly proposed ArcMAP tool. This tool is programmed in Python and is created by a simple graphical user interface, which facilitates the improvement of model performance. The proposed tool implements BSA automatically, thus allowing numerous variables to be examined. To validate the capability and accuracy of this program, a pilot test area in Malaysia is selected and all three models are tested by using the proposed program. Area under curve is used to measure the success rate and prediction rate. Results demonstrate that the proposed program executes BSA with reasonable accuracy. The proposed BSA tool can be used in numerous applications, such as natural hazard, mineral potential, hydrological, and other engineering and environmental applications.

  14. Advances in statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci in outbred populations.

    PubMed

    Hoeschele, I; Uimari, P; Grignola, F E; Zhang, Q; Gage, K M

    1997-11-01

    Statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in outbred populations are reviewed, extensions and applications to human and plant genetic data are indicated, and areas for further research are identified. Simple and computationally inexpensive methods include (multiple) linear regression of phenotype on marker genotypes and regression of squared phenotypic differences among relative pairs on estimated proportions of identity-by-descent at a locus. These methods are less suited for genetic parameter estimation in outbred populations but allow the determination of test statistic distributions via simulation or data permutation; however, further inferences including confidence intervals of QTL location require the use of Monte Carlo or bootstrap sampling techniques. A method which is intermediate in computational requirements is residual maximum likelihood (REML) with a covariance matrix of random QTL effects conditional on information from multiple linked markers. Testing for the number of QTLs on a chromosome is difficult in a classical framework. The computationally most demanding methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, which take account of the distribution of multilocus marker-QTL genotypes on a pedigree and permit investigators to fit different models of variation at the QTL. The Bayesian analysis includes the number of QTLs on a chromosome as an unknown.

  15. Statistics and topology of the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year sky maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Banday, A. J.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    We use statistical and topological quantities to test the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) first-year sky maps against the hypothesis that the observed temperature fluctuations reflect Gaussian initial density perturbations with random phases. Recent papers discuss specific quantities as discriminators between Gaussian and non-Gaussian behavior, but the treatment of instrumental noise on the data is largely ignored. The presence of noise in the data biases many statistical quantities in a manner dependent on both the noise properties and the unknown cosmic microwave background temperature field. Appropriate weighting schemes can minimize this effect, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Analytic expressions are presented for these biases, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the best strategy for determining cosmologically interesting information from noisy data. The genus is a robust discriminator that can be used to estimate the power-law quadrupole-normalized amplitude, Qrms-PS, independently of the two-point correlation function. The genus of the DMR data is consistent with Gaussian initial fluctuations with Qrms-PS = (15.7 +/- 2.2) - (6.6 +/- 0.3)(n - 1) micro-K, where n is the power-law index. Fitting the rms temperature variations at various smoothing angles gives Qrms-PS = 13.2 +/- 2.5 micro-K and n = 1.7(+0.3(-0.6)). While consistent with Gaussian fluctuations, the first year data are only sufficient to rule out strongly non-Gaussian distributions of fluctuations.

  16. Advances in Statistical Methods to Map Quantitative Trait Loci in Outbred Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hoeschele, I.; Uimari, P.; Grignola, F. E.; Zhang, Q.; Gage, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in outbred populations are reviewed, extensions and applications to human and plant genetic data are indicated, and areas for further research are identified. Simple and computationally inexpensive methods include (multiple) linear regression of phenotype on marker genotypes and regression of squared phenotypic differences among relative pairs on estimated proportions of identity-by-descent at a locus. These methods are less suited for genetic parameter estimation in outbred populations but allow the determination of test statistic distributions via simulation or data permutation; however, further inferences including confidence intervals of QTL location require the use of Monte Carlo or bootstrap sampling techniques. A method which is intermediate in computational requirements is residual maximum likelihood (REML) with a covariance matrix of random QTL effects conditional on information from multiple linked markers. Testing for the number of QTLs on a chromosome is difficult in a classical framework. The computationally most demanding methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis, which take account of the distribution of multilocus marker-QTL genotypes on a pedigree and permit investigators to fit different models of variation at the QTL. The Bayesian analysis includes the number of QTLs on a chromosome as an unknown. PMID:9383084

  17. Landslide Mapping and Modeling Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Statistical Analysis of District Muzaffarabad, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Nimrah; Mushtaq, Saman

    2016-07-01

    Occurrence factors of Landslide hazard can be natural such as high slopes, geological conditions and lineaments, faults, rain, and river cutting. Man-made factors such as road cuttings, deforestation or development can also contribute to the landsliding. The focus of this study was to model those landslides susceptible prone to hazard areas which in turn can help for the development, urbanization and for setting up rules or regulations to save nature and environment of the area. The focal of the current research work was the Earthquake of October, 2005 also known as Kashmir Earthquake, the epicenter location of the earthquake 34°29'35″N 73°37'44″E at height of ~2000 from mean sea level and ~20 Km North-East from Muzaffarabad city, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, at the scale of 1:50000 Geological map of 43-F/11, tehsil Nauseri area. The techniques used in this research is based on theorem of Bayes's bivariat statistic (weight of evidence) which predicts the events geographically and on input layers and the relationship of event. A relationship between event of landslide and factors was studied and analyzed using this method. Subsequently a prediction of the occurrence of the spatial location of the landslide event was established successfully. The relationship of distribution of landslide and factors layers was calculated using the statistical methods which enabled to predict the landslides zones in different areas. The methodology applied proved that the success rate was 80% landslide occurred in 18% area and prediction rate was 70% of landslides occurred in 70% of area. The use satellite remote sensing data, and GIS with the integration of statistical method are definitely an effective tool for predicting the future landslide prone areas.

  18. Effect of experimental parameters and resulting analytical signal statistics in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Prochazka, David; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide detailed study of statistical behavior of different types of analytical signals in typical of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The main goal of this work is to justify usage of arithmetic mean and standard deviation as statistical estimates of expected value of selected analytical signal. In contrary to the general assumption that LIBS data show Gaussian distribution, this paper deals with the hypothesis that the data rather demonstrate Generalized Extreme Value Distribution. The study is realized on 10 selected lines measured on NIST glass standard. In order to cover wide range of possible applications three different spectra internal standardization techniques and their influence on distribution were studied. Finally, assuming that the data comes from a single distribution and the central limit theorem is valid, the influence of accumulations on the line distribution is examined and discussed. Statistical tools used and described in this paper can be utilized by other researchers to confirm their hypotheses and verify utilization of Gaussian distribution or even novel data processing methods.

  19. Statistical Power of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci for Mapping of Complex Trait Loci in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schliekelman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A number of recent genomewide surveys have found numerous QTL for gene expression, often with intermediate to high heritability values. As a result, there is currently a great deal of interest in genetical genomics—that is, the combination of genomewide expression data and molecular marker data to elucidate the genetics of complex traits. To date, most genetical genomics studies have focused on generating candidate genes for previously known trait loci or have otherwise leveraged existing knowledge about trait-related genes. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for genetical genomics approaches in the context of genomewide scans for complex trait loci. I explore the expected strength of association between expression-level traits and a clinical trait, as a function of the underlying genetic model in natural populations. I give calculations of statistical power for detecting differential expression between affected and unaffected individuals. I model both reactive and causative expression-level traits with both additive and multiplicative multilocus models for the relationship between phenotype and genotype and explore a variety of assumptions about dominance, number of segregating loci, and other parameters. There are two key results. If a transcript is causative for the disease (in the sense that disease risk depends directly on transcript level), then the power to detect association between transcript and disease is quite good. Sample sizes on the order of 100 are sufficient for 80% power. On the other hand, if the transcript is reactive to a disease locus, then the correlation between expression-level traits and disease is low unless the expression-level trait shares several causative loci with the disease—that is, the expression-level trait itself is a complex trait. Thus, there is a trade-off between the power to show association between a reactive expression-level trait and the clinical trait of interest and the power to map expression

  20. Time-REferenced data Kriging (TREK): mapping hydrological statistics given their time of reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcheron, Delphine; Leblois, Etienne; Sauquet, Eric

    2016-04-01

    A major issue in water sciences is to predict runoff parameters at ungauged sites. Estimates can be obtained by various methods. Among them, geostatistical approaches provide interpolation methods that consequently use explicit assumptions on the variable of interest. Geostatistical techniques have been applied to precipitation and temperature fields and later extended to estimate runoff features considered as basin-support variates along the river network (e.g. Gottschalk, 1993; Sauquet et al., 2000; Skoien et al., 2006; Gottschalk et al., 2011). To obtain robust estimations, the first step is to collect a relevant dataset. Sauquet et al. (2000) and Sauquet (2006) suggest including a large number of catchments with long and common observation periods to ensure both reliability and temporal consistency in runoff estimates. However most observation networks evolve with time. Several choices are thus possible to define an optimal reference period maximizing either spatial or temporal overlap. However, the constraints usually lead to discard a significant number of stations. Time-REferenced data Kriging method (TREK) has been developed to overcome this issue. Here is proposed a method of geostatistical estimation considering the temporal support over which a hydrological statistic has been estimated. This allows attenuating the loss of data previously caused by the application of a strict reference period. The time reference remains for the targeted map itself. The weights depend on the observation period of the data included in the dataset and how near this is to the target period. In this presentation, the concepts of TREK will be introduced and thereafter illustrated to map mean annual runoff in France. References Gottschalk, L., 1993, Correlation and covariance of runoff. Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics 7(2), 85-101. Sauquet, E., Gottschalk, L. and Leblois, E., 2000, Mapping average annual runoff: a hierarchical approach applying a stochastic interpolation

  1. High-Performance Signal Detection for Adverse Drug Events using MapReduce Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kai; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Xu, Linhao; Wang, Chen; Mao, Xianling; Peng, Bo; Pan, Yue

    2010-11-13

    Post-marketing pharmacovigilance is important for public health, as many Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) are unknown when those drugs were approved for marketing. However, due to the large number of reported drugs and drug combinations, detecting ADE signals by mining these reports is becoming a challenging task in terms of computational complexity. Recently, a parallel programming model, MapReduce has been introduced by Google to support large-scale data intensive applications. In this study, we proposed a MapReduce-based algorithm, for common ADE detection approach, Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), and tested it in mining spontaneous ADE reports from FDA. The purpose is to investigate the possibility of using MapReduce principle to speed up biomedical data mining tasks using this pharmacovigilance case as one specific example. The results demonstrated that MapReduce programming model could improve the performance of common signal detection algorithm for pharmacovigilance in a distributed computation environment at approximately liner speedup rates.

  2. Comparison of Signals from Gravitational Wave Detectors with Instantaneous Time-Frequency Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroeer, A.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy relies on the use of multiple detectors, so that coincident detections may distinguish real signals from instrumental artifacts, and also so that relative timing of signals can provide the sky position of sources. We show that the comparison of instantaneous time-frequency and time-amplitude maps provided by the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used effectively for relative signal timing of common signals, to discriminate between the case of identical coincident signals and random noise coincidences and to provide a classification of signals based on their time-frequency trajectories. The comparison is done with a X(sup 2) goodness-offit method which includes contributions from both the instantaneous amplitude and frequency components of the HHT to match two signals in the time domain. This approach naturally allows the analysis of waveforms with strong frequency modulation.

  3. Analysis of Bidirectional Associative Memory using Self-consistent Signal to Noise Analysis and Statistical Neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shouno, Hayaru; Kido, Shoji; Okada, Masato

    2004-09-01

    Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a kind of an artificial neural network used to memorize and retrieve heterogeneous pattern pairs. Many efforts have been made to improve BAM from the the viewpoint of computer application, and few theoretical studies have been done. We investigated the theoretical characteristics of BAM using a framework of statistical-mechanical analysis. To investigate the equilibrium state of BAM, we applied self-consistent signal to noise analysis (SCSNA) and obtained a macroscopic parameter equations and relative capacity. Moreover, to investigate not only the equilibrium state but also the retrieval process of reaching the equilibrium state, we applied statistical neurodynamics to the update rule of BAM and obtained evolution equations for the macroscopic parameters. These evolution equations are consistent with the results of SCSNA in the equilibrium state.

  4. An experimental study of the temporal statistics of radio signals scattered by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, R. W.; Hull, J. A.; Rice, P. L.; Wells, P. I.

    1973-01-01

    A fixed-beam bistatic CW experiment designed to measure the temporal statistics of the volume reflectivity produced by hydrometeors at several selected altitudes, scattering angles, and at two frequencies (3.6 and 7.8 GHz) is described. Surface rain gauge data, local meteorological data, surveillance S-band radar, and great-circle path propagation measurements were also made to describe the general weather and propagation conditions and to distinguish precipitation scatter signals from those caused by ducting and other nonhydrometeor scatter mechanisms. The data analysis procedures were designed to provide an assessment of a one-year sample of data with a time resolution of one minute. The cumulative distributions of the bistatic signals for all of the rainy minutes during this period are presented for the several path geometries.

  5. A computationally efficient order statistics based outlier detection technique for EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bapun K; Sarkar, Soumajyoti; Mazumder, Satyaki; Das, Koel

    2015-01-01

    Detecting artifacts in EEG data produced by muscle activity, eye blinks and electrical noise is a common and important problem in EEG applications. We present a novel outlier detection method based on order statistics. We propose a 2 step procedure comprising of detecting noisy EEG channels followed by detection of noisy epochs in the outlier channels. The performance of our method is tested systematically using simulated and real EEG data. Our technique produces significant improvement in detecting EEG artifacts over state-of-the-art outlier detection technique used in EEG applications. The proposed method can serve as a general outlier detection tool for different types of noisy signals.

  6. Detection method of nonlinearity errors by statistical signal analysis in heterodyne Michelson interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Juju; Hu, Haijiang; Ji, Yinghua

    2010-03-15

    Periodic nonlinearity that ranges from tens of nanometers to a few nanometers in heterodyne interferometer limits its use in high accuracy measurement. A novel method is studied to detect the nonlinearity errors based on the electrical subdivision and the analysis method of statistical signal in heterodyne Michelson interferometer. Under the movement of micropositioning platform with the uniform velocity, the method can detect the nonlinearity errors by using the regression analysis and Jackknife estimation. Based on the analysis of the simulations, the method can estimate the influence of nonlinearity errors and other noises for the dimensions measurement in heterodyne Michelson interferometer.

  7. A Complex Approach to UXO Discrimination: Combining Advanced EMI Forward Models and Statistical Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    assume that the NSMS can be approximated by a series of expansion functions F m (  ) such that (  )   m F m (  ) m1 M  (31) UXO...a receiver coil is the electromotive force given by the negative of the time derivative of the secondary magnetic flux through the coil. Since the...statistical signal processing MM-1572 Final Report Sky Research, Inc. January 2012 52 A support vector machine learns from data: when fed a series

  8. PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signaling.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Yoon, Jae Seok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo

    2008-11-01

    During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin. In the mild form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation exerts local protection against intrapancreatic damage, whereas, in the severe form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation mediates some systemic complications. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms of PAR2-mediated protective effects against intrapancreatic damage. A mild form of acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (40 microg/kg) in rats. Effects of PAR2 activation on intrapancreatic damage and on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling were assessed. Caerulein treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) within 15 min and maintained phosphorylation of ERK and JNK for 2 h in the rat pancreas. Although PAR2 activation by the pretreatment with PAR2-activating peptide (AP) itself increased ERK phosphorylation in rat pancreas, the same treatment remarkably decreased caerulein-induced activation of ERK and JNK principally by accelerating their dephosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation by the pretreatment with MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) or JNK inhibitors decreased caerulein-induced pancreatic damage that was similar to the effect induced by PAR2-AP. Notably, in caerulein-treated rats, PAR2-AP cotreatment highly increased the expression of a group of MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) that deactivate ERK and JNK. The above results imply that downregulation of MAP kinase signaling by MKP induction is a key mechanism involved in the protective effects of PAR2 activation on caerulein-induced intrapancreatic damage.

  9. Quantitative mapping and statistical evaluation of fracture minerals in the granitic bedrock at Forsmark, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Martin; Sidborn, Magnus

    2016-10-01

    This article provides quantitative data on occurrences and amounts of fracture minerals that coat discrete fractures in granitic rock at the Forsmark site in Sweden. The data are useful for retardation modelling of radionuclide and other contaminants, and for groundwater composition calculations. In a unique campaign, 2071 open fractures in groundwater conducting rock have been mapped with respect to chlorite, calcite, and pyrite. In total 767 m of drill core has been studied from very shallow rock down to ~1000 m depth. The occurrences of fracture minerals, their thicknesses, and their fractions of surface coverage have been recorded for up to eight layers for each fracture. Detection limits are, for each layer, 0.1 mm for the thickness and 1 % for the surface coverage, except for pyrite crystals where surface coverages down to 0.01 % are detectable. The abundance of data has permitted statistical treatment, using parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric fittings have been made to log-normal, truncated log-normal, and beta distributions. Chlorite, calcite, and pyrite were found in 57 %, 52 %, and 10 % of all mapped fractures, respectively. The fracture mineral thickness was 0.1 mm for calcite, 0.2 mm for chlorite, and 2 μm for pyrite, as averaged over the fracture surface area. For 50 % and 99 % of all fractures the total fracture coating thickness was less than 0.1 mm and 1 mm, respectively, which is important for diffusion resistance estimates. Average surface coverages were 18 % for calcite, 38 % for chlorite, and 0.5 % for pyrite. These data may be used for calculating the reaction capacity of flow paths.

  10. Statistical modeling and MAP estimation for body fat quantification with MRI ratio imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wilbur C. K.; Johnson, David H.; Wilson, David L.

    2008-03-01

    We are developing small animal imaging techniques to characterize the kinetics of lipid accumulation/reduction of fat depots in response to genetic/dietary factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndromes. Recently, we developed an MR ratio imaging technique that approximately yields lipid/{lipid + water}. In this work, we develop a statistical model for the ratio distribution that explicitly includes a partial volume (PV) fraction of fat and a mixture of a Rician and multiple Gaussians. Monte Carlo hypothesis testing showed that our model was valid over a wide range of coefficient of variation of the denominator distribution (c.v.: 0-0:20) and correlation coefficient among the numerator and denominator (ρ 0-0.95), which cover the typical values that we found in MRI data sets (c.v.: 0:027-0:063, ρ: 0:50-0:75). Then a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate for the fat percentage per voxel is proposed. Using a digital phantom with many PV voxels, we found that ratio values were not linearly related to PV fat content and that our method accurately described the histogram. In addition, the new method estimated the ground truth within +1.6% vs. +43% for an approach using an uncorrected ratio image, when we simply threshold the ratio image. On the six genetically obese rat data sets, the MAP estimate gave total fat volumes of 279 +/- 45mL, values 21% smaller than those from the uncorrected ratio images, principally due to the non-linear PV effect. We conclude that our algorithm can increase the accuracy of fat volume quantification even in regions having many PV voxels, e.g. ectopic fat depots.

  11. MAP1S Protein Regulates the Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Fang; Cleveland, Joseph; Wang, Fen; McKeehan, Wallace L; Li, Yu; Zhang, Dekai

    2016-01-15

    Phagocytosis is a critical cellular process for innate immune defense against microbial infection. The regulation of phagocytosis process is complex and has not been well defined. An intracellular molecule might regulate cell surface-initiated phagocytosis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood (1). In this study, we found that microtubule-associated protein 1S (MAP1S), a protein identified recently that is involved in autophagy (2), is expressed primarily in macrophages. MAP1S-deficient macrophages are impaired in the phagocytosis of bacteria. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MAP1S interacts directly with MyD88, a key adaptor of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), upon TLR activation and affects the TLR signaling pathway. Intriguingly, we also observe that, upon TLR activation, MyD88 participates in autophagy processing in a MAP1S-dependent manner by co-localizing with MAP1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3 or LC3). Therefore, we reveal that an intracellular autophagy-related molecule of MAP1S controls bacterial phagocytosis through TLR signaling.

  12. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) for alpha-based statistical analyses of multi-muscle EMG time-series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Pataky, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Multi-muscle EMG time-series are highly correlated and time dependent yet traditional statistical analysis of scalars from an EMG time-series fails to account for such dependencies. This paper promotes the use of SPM vector-field analysis for the generalised analysis of EMG time-series. We reanalysed a publicly available dataset of Young versus Adult EMG gait data to contrast scalar and SPM vector-field analysis. Independent scalar analyses of EMG data between 35% and 45% stance phase showed no statistical differences between the Young and Adult groups. SPM vector-field analysis did however identify statistical differences within this time period. As scalar analysis failed to consider the multi-muscle and time dependence of the EMG time-series it exhibited Type II error. SPM vector-field analysis on the other hand accounts for both dependencies whilst tightly controlling for Type I and Type II error making it highly applicable to EMG data analysis. Additionally SPM vector-field analysis is generalizable to linear and non-linear parametric and non-parametric statistical models, allowing its use under constraints that are common to electromyography and kinesiology.

  13. Climatic signals registered as Carbon isotopic values in Metasequoia leaf tissues: A statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Blais, B.; Perez, G.; Pagani, M.

    2006-12-01

    To examine climatic signals registered as carbon isotopic values in leaf tissues of C3 plants, we collected mature leaf tissues from sun and shade leaves of Metasequoia trees germinated from the 1947 batch of seeds from China and planted along a latitudinal gradient of the United States. Samples from 40 individual trees, along with fossilized material from the early Tertiary of the Canadian Arctic, were analyzed for C and concentration and isotopic values using EA-IRMS after the removal of free lipids. The generated datasets were then merged with climate data compiled from each tree site recorded as average values over the past thirty years (1971-2002, NOAA database). When the isotope data were cross plotted against each geographic and climatic indicator, Latitude, Mean Annual Temperature (MAT), Average Summer Mean Temperature (ASMT)(June-August), Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP), and Average Summer Mean Precipitation (ASMP) respectively correlation patterns were revealed. The best correlating trend was obtained between temperature parameters and C isotopic values, and this correlation is stronger in the northern leaf samples than the southern samples. We discovered a strong positive correlation between latitude and the offset of C isotopic values between shade and sun leaves. This investigation represents a comprehensive examination on climatic signals registered as C isotopic values on a single species that is marked by single genetic source. The results bear implications on paleoclimatic interpretations of C isotopic signals obtained from fossil plant tissues.

  14. An integrated user-friendly ArcMAP tool for bivariate statistical modelling in geoscience applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebur, M. N.; Pradhan, B.; Shafri, H. Z. M.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Tehrany, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Modelling and classification difficulties are fundamental issues in natural hazard assessment. A geographic information system (GIS) is a domain that requires users to use various tools to perform different types of spatial modelling. Bivariate statistical analysis (BSA) assists in hazard modelling. To perform this analysis, several calculations are required and the user has to transfer data from one format to another. Most researchers perform these calculations manually by using Microsoft Excel or other programs. This process is time-consuming and carries a degree of uncertainty. The lack of proper tools to implement BSA in a GIS environment prompted this study. In this paper, a user-friendly tool, bivariate statistical modeler (BSM), for BSA technique is proposed. Three popular BSA techniques, such as frequency ratio, weight-of-evidence (WoE), and evidential belief function (EBF) models, are applied in the newly proposed ArcMAP tool. This tool is programmed in Python and created by a simple graphical user interface (GUI), which facilitates the improvement of model performance. The proposed tool implements BSA automatically, thus allowing numerous variables to be examined. To validate the capability and accuracy of this program, a pilot test area in Malaysia is selected and all three models are tested by using the proposed program. Area under curve (AUC) is used to measure the success rate and prediction rate. Results demonstrate that the proposed program executes BSA with reasonable accuracy. The proposed BSA tool can be used in numerous applications, such as natural hazard, mineral potential, hydrological, and other engineering and environmental applications.

  15. Statistics and topology of the COBE differential microwave radiometer first-year sky maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Tenorio, L.; Banday, A. J.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    We use statistical and topological quantities to test the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) first-year sky maps against the hypothesis that the observed temperature fluctuations reflect Gaussian initial density perturbations with random phases. Recent papers discuss specific quantities as discriminators between Gaussian and non-Gaussian behavior, but the treatment of instrumental noise on the data is largely ignored. The presence of noise in the data biases many statistical quantities in a manner dependent on both the noise properties and the unknown cosmic microwave background temperature field. Appropriate weighting schemes can minimize this effect, but it cannot be completely eliminated. Analytic expressions are presented for these biases, and Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the best strategy for determining cosmologically interesting information from noisy data. The genus is a robust discriminator that can be used to estimate the power-law quadrupole-normalized amplitude, Q(sub rms-PS), independently of the two-point correlation function. The genus of the DMR data is consistent with Gaussian initial fluctuations with Q(sub rms-PS) = (15.7 +/- 2.2) - (6.6 +/- 0.3)(n - 1) micro-K, where n is the power-law index. Fitting the rms temperature variations at various smoothing angles gives Q(sub rms-PS) = 13.2 +/- 2.5 micro-K and n = 1.7(sup (+0.3) sub (-0.6)). While consistent with Gaussian fluctuations, the first year data are only sufficient to rule out strongly non-Gaussian distributions of fluctuations.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Photopyroelectric Signals using Histogram and Kernel Density Estimation for differentiation of Maize Seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Lima, J. E.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Cruz-Orea, A.

    2016-09-01

    Considering the necessity of photothermal alternative approaches for characterizing nonhomogeneous materials like maize seeds, the objective of this research work was to analyze statistically the amplitude variations of photopyroelectric signals, by means of nonparametric techniques such as the histogram and the kernel density estimator, and the probability density function of the amplitude variations of two genotypes of maize seeds with different pigmentations and structural components: crystalline and floury. To determine if the probability density function had a known parametric form, the histogram was determined which did not present a known parametric form, so the kernel density estimator using the Gaussian kernel, with an efficiency of 95 % in density estimation, was used to obtain the probability density function. The results obtained indicated that maize seeds could be differentiated in terms of the statistical values for floury and crystalline seeds such as the mean (93.11, 159.21), variance (1.64× 103, 1.48× 103), and standard deviation (40.54, 38.47) obtained from the amplitude variations of photopyroelectric signals in the case of the histogram approach. For the case of the kernel density estimator, seeds can be differentiated in terms of kernel bandwidth or smoothing constant h of 9.85 and 6.09 for floury and crystalline seeds, respectively.

  17. SeqGL Identifies Context-Dependent Binding Signals in Genome-Wide Regulatory Element Maps.

    PubMed

    Setty, Manu; Leslie, Christina S

    2015-05-01

    Genome-wide maps of transcription factor (TF) occupancy and regions of open chromatin implicitly contain DNA sequence signals for multiple factors. We present SeqGL, a novel de novo motif discovery algorithm to identify multiple TF sequence signals from ChIP-, DNase-, and ATAC-seq profiles. SeqGL trains a discriminative model using a k-mer feature representation together with group lasso regularization to extract a collection of sequence signals that distinguish peak sequences from flanking regions. Benchmarked on over 100 ChIP-seq experiments, SeqGL outperformed traditional motif discovery tools in discriminative accuracy. Furthermore, SeqGL can be naturally used with multitask learning to identify genomic and cell-type context determinants of TF binding. SeqGL successfully scales to the large multiplicity of sequence signals in DNase- or ATAC-seq maps. In particular, SeqGL was able to identify a number of ChIP-seq validated sequence signals that were not found by traditional motif discovery algorithms. Thus compared to widely used motif discovery algorithms, SeqGL demonstrates both greater discriminative accuracy and higher sensitivity for detecting the DNA sequence signals underlying regulatory element maps. SeqGL is available at http://cbio.mskcc.org/public/Leslie/SeqGL/.

  18. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coisson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  19. Global Statistical Maps of Extreme-Event Magnetic Observatory 1 Min First Differences in Horizontal Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity (delta)Bh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold(nTmin) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site,proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1(sigma), lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500,[350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nTmin. At 40deg, we estimate once-per-century (delta)Bh, S, and R exceedances and1(sigma) values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nTmin.

  20. Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for brain disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze data from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients with brain disorders and to assess its potential utility for analyzing brain function. DTI was obtained by performing 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), and the data were analyzed using Matlab-based SPM software. The two-sample t-test was used for error analysis of the location of the activated pixels. We compared regions of white matter where the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were low and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were increased. In the AD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right sub-lobar insula, and right occipital lingual gyrus whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. In the VD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right limbic cingulate gyrus, and right sub-lobar caudate tail whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the left lateral globus pallidus and left medial globus pallidus. In conclusion by using DTI and SPM analysis, we were able to not only determine the structural state of the regions affected by brain disorders but also quantitatively analyze and assess brain function.

  1. Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Signal Path Loss in Underwater Acoustic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Llor, Jesús; Malumbres, Manuel Perez

    2013-01-01

    In an underwater acoustic channel, the propagation conditions are known to vary in time, causing the deviation of the received signal strength from the nominal value predicted by a deterministic propagation model. To facilitate a large-scale system design in such conditions (e.g., power allocation), we have developed a statistical propagation model in which the transmission loss is treated as a random variable. By applying repetitive computation to the acoustic field, using ray tracing for a set of varying environmental conditions (surface height, wave activity, small node displacements around nominal locations, etc.), an ensemble of transmission losses is compiled and later used to infer the statistical model parameters. A reasonable agreement is found with log-normal distribution, whose mean obeys a log-distance increases, and whose variance appears to be constant for a certain range of inter-node distances in a given deployment location. The statistical model is deemed useful for higher-level system planning, where simulation is needed to assess the performance of candidate network protocols under various resource allocation policies, i.e., to determine the transmit power and bandwidth allocation necessary to achieve a desired level of performance (connectivity, throughput, reliability, etc.). PMID:23396190

  2. Intensity invariance properties of auditory neurons compared to the statistics of relevant natural signals in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Jan; Weschke, Gerroth; Vogel, Astrid; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    The temporal pattern of amplitude modulations (AM) is often used to recognize acoustic objects. To identify objects reliably, intensity invariant representations have to be formed. We approached this problem within the auditory pathway of grasshoppers. We presented AM patterns modulated at different time scales and intensities. Metric space analysis of neuronal responses allowed us to determine how well, how invariantly, and at which time scales AM frequency is encoded. We find that in some neurons spike-count cues contribute substantially (20-60%) to the decoding of AM frequency at a single intensity. However, such cues are not robust when intensity varies. The general intensity invariance of the system is poor. However, there exists a range of AM frequencies around 83 Hz where intensity invariance of local interneurons is relatively high. In this range, natural communication signals exhibit much variation between species, suggesting an important behavioral role for this frequency band. We hypothesize, just as has been proposed for human speech, that the communication signals might have evolved to match the processing properties of the receivers. This contrasts with optimal coding theory, which postulates that neuronal systems are adapted to the statistics of the relevant signals.

  3. Moment-to-moment brain signal variability: A next frontier in human brain mapping?

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Lindenberger, Ulman; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists have long observed that brain activity is naturally variable from moment-to-moment, but neuroimaging research has largely ignored the potential importance of this phenomenon. An emerging research focus on within-person brain signal variability is providing novel insights, and offering highly predictive, complementary, and even orthogonal views of brain function in relation to human life-span development, cognitive performance, and various clinical conditions. As a result, brain signal variability is evolving as a bona fide signal of interest, and should no longer be dismissed as meaningless noise when mapping the human brain. PMID:23458776

  4. Moment-to-moment brain signal variability: a next frontier in human brain mapping?

    PubMed

    Garrett, Douglas D; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Lindenberger, Ulman; McIntosh, Anthony R; Grady, Cheryl L

    2013-05-01

    Neuroscientists have long observed that brain activity is naturally variable from moment-to-moment, but neuroimaging research has largely ignored the potential importance of this phenomenon. An emerging research focus on within-person brain signal variability is providing novel insights, and offering highly predictive, complementary, and even orthogonal views of brain function in relation to human lifespan development, cognitive performance, and various clinical conditions. As a result, brain signal variability is evolving as a bona fide signal of interest, and should no longer be dismissed as meaningless noise when mapping the human brain.

  5. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard, and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  6. Signal to noise ratio in water balance maps with different resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ziqi; Gottschalk, Lars; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-12-01

    What is the best resolution of annual water balance maps for a correct balance between the basic spatial signal in the observations of precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and runoff across a larger drainage basin and the error in estimates for grid cells in the map to avoid giving a false impression of accuracy? To answer this question an approach based a signal to noise ratio is proposed, which allows finding the optimal resolution maximizing the signal in the map. The approach is demonstrated on gauge data in the Huai River Basin, China. Stochastic interpolation methods were applied to create grid maps of long-term mean values, as well as for estimating variances of the three water balance components in a range of scales from 5 × 5 km to 200 × 200 km2 grid cells. Interpolation algorithms using covariances of long-term means of data with different spatial support were developed. The identified optimal resolutions by the signal to noise ratio appeared to be very different - 10 × 10, 50 × 50, and 30 × 30 km2 for precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, and runoff, respectively. These values are directly linked to the observation network densities. The magnitude of the signal to noise ratio shows similar strong differences with values 34, 3.7, and 5.4, respectively. It gives a direct indication of the reliability of the map, which can be considered as satisfactory only for precipitation for the data available for the present study. The critical factors for this magnitude are parameters characterising the spatial covariance in data and the network density.

  7. Mapping Cosmic Structure Using 21-cm Hydrogen Signal at Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; GBT 21-cm Intensity Mapping Group

    2011-05-01

    We are using the Green Bank Telescope to make 21-cm intensity maps of cosmic structure in a 0.15 Gpc^3 box at redshift of z 1. The intensity mapping technique combines the flux from many galaxies in each pixel, allowing much greater mapping speed than the traditional redshift survey. Measurement is being made at z 1 to take advantage of a window in frequency around 700 MHz where terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI) is currently at a minimum. This minimum is due to a reallocation of this frequency band from analog television to wide area wireless internet and public service usage. We will report progress of our attempt to detect autocorrelation of the 21-cm signal. The ultimate goal of this mapping is to use Baryon Acoustic Oscillations to provide more precise constraints to dark energy models.

  8. How Can We Evaluate the Accuracy of Small Stream Maps? -Focusing on Sampling Method and Statistical Analysis -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.

    2010-12-01

    statistics such as stream length or stream order. In this study, we suggest linear transactional sampling method and, practically, a stream and road crossing points KHAT- based sampling method to collect field stream position. We also review existing estimation methods and feasibility of the application of the error matrix, and Z-statistics for stream maps, which have not been previously inspected. We find that the visual inspection, hydrological statistics, and headwater-based estimation methods provide insufficient information on the positional accuracy and that the error matrix and KHAT-statistics are effective in evaluating stream network positions by pairing a remote sensing data product with a field reference data, but Z-statistics still has limitation in comparing the two different remote sensing data-based stream map products since the variance converges to zero. In order to compare two stream maps, we develop a new statistical approach which is based on the McNemar test.

  9. Identifying fault heterogeneity through mapping spatial anomalies in acoustic emission statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Becker, T. W.; Schorlemmer, D.; Stanchits, S.; Sammis, C. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    Seismicity clusters within fault zones are likely connected to the structure, geometric complexity and size of asperities which perturb and intensify the stress field in their periphery. To gain further insight into fault mechanical processes, we study stick-slip sequences in an analog, laboratory setting. Analysis of small scale fracture processes expressed by acoustic emissions (AEs) provide the possibility to investigate how microseismicity is linked to fault heterogeneities and the occurrence of dynamic slip events. We investigated if geometrical fault heterogeneities and asperities identified from post-experimental X-ray computer tomography (CT) scans can be linked to AE statistics. We conducted triaxial compression experiments on intact and notched Westerly granite samples and recorded mechanical and seismic data throughout each experiment. Initially samples were fractured at 75 MPa confining pressure. We then locked the fractured surface by increasing the confinement up to 150 MPa and reactivated the fault by resuming the axial load. The introduction of notches lead to the formation of a localized fault toward the middle of the specimen. We were able to observe up to six slip events with variable stress drops between 130-180 MPa during an individual experiment, allowing to monitor the changes in AE event patterns in connection to ongoing asperity fracture with successive slip events. The present study connects spatial b-value (slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution), seismic moment release and event density maps with CT scans of faulted rock samples. We performed a detailed spatial analysis of event clusters before and after stick slips. AE hypocenter distributions showed a high degree of spatial clustering close to low b-value regions. Slip events and the connected acoustic emission "aftershocks" nucleated within or at the periphery of areas of low b. Aftershock rates could be described by the modified Omori law. To identify larger scale geometric

  10. Statistical synthesis of radiometric imaging formation in scanning radiometers with signal weight processing by Kravchenko windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volosyuk, V. K.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2014-05-01

    Statistical optimization of the radiometric images (RMIs) algorithms formation in scanning radiometers with weight correction of the antenna amplitude-phase distribution and synchronous sliding strobing of the received noise-like signal by a function describing the antenna pattern corrected by temporal Kravchenko windows is performed for the first time. The ambiguity function (AF) of the scanning radiometer, which determines the RMI quality, is found. It is established that the AF shape substantially depends on the amplitude field distribution (AFD) in the antenna. It is shown that the use of the AFD in the antenna in the form of weight functions (classic and Kravchenko) makes it possible to correct the AF shape and to increase the RMI quality. A simulation of the RMI formation algorithm is performed. It follows from the analysis of simulation data that the use of the weight Kravchenko functions provides higher accuracy of the RMI restoration compared with classic weight functions.

  11. Statistical characteristics of suction pressure signals for a centrifugal pump under cavitating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Benxu; Ji, Yucheng; Lu, Jiaxin; Yuan, Shouqi

    2017-02-01

    Centrifugal pumps are often used in operating conditions where they can be susceptible to premature failure. The cavitation phenomenon is a common fault in centrifugal pumps and is associated with undesired effects. Among the numerous cavitation detection methods, the measurement of suction pressure fluctuation is one of the most used methods to detect or diagnose the degree of cavitation in a centrifugal pump. In this paper, a closed loop was established to investigate the pump cavitation phenomenon, the statistical parameters for PDF (Probability Density Function), Variance and RMS (Root Mean Square) were used to analyze the relationship between the cavitation performance and the suction pressure signals during the development of cavitation. It is found that the statistical parameters used in this research are able to capture critical cavitation condition and cavitation breakdown condition, whereas difficult for the detection of incipient cavitation in the pump. At part-load conditions, the pressure fluctuations at the impeller inlet show more complexity than the best efficiency point (BEP). Amplitude of PDF values of suction pressure increased steeply when the flow rate dropped to 40 m3/h (the design flow rate was 60 m3/h). One possible reason is that the flow structure in the impeller channel promotes an increase of the cavitation intensity when the flow rate is reduced to a certain degree. This shows that it is necessary to find the relationship between the cavitation instabilities and flow instabilities when centrifugal pumps operate under part-load flow rates.

  12. Mathematical and Statistical Techniques for Systems Medicine: The Wnt Signaling Pathway as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Adam L; Harrington, Heather A; Stumpf, Michael P H; Byrne, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen an explosion in models that describe phenomena in systems medicine. Such models are especially useful for studying signaling pathways, such as the Wnt pathway. In this chapter we use the Wnt pathway to showcase current mathematical and statistical techniques that enable modelers to gain insight into (models of) gene regulation and generate testable predictions. We introduce a range of modeling frameworks, but focus on ordinary differential equation (ODE) models since they remain the most widely used approach in systems biology and medicine and continue to offer great potential. We present methods for the analysis of a single model, comprising applications of standard dynamical systems approaches such as nondimensionalization, steady state, asymptotic and sensitivity analysis, and more recent statistical and algebraic approaches to compare models with data. We present parameter estimation and model comparison techniques, focusing on Bayesian analysis and coplanarity via algebraic geometry. Our intention is that this (non-exhaustive) review may serve as a useful starting point for the analysis of models in systems medicine.

  13. A statistical model for brain networks inferred from large-scale electrophysiological signals.

    PubMed

    Obando, Catalina; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio

    2017-03-01

    Network science has been extensively developed to characterize the structural properties of complex systems, including brain networks inferred from neuroimaging data. As a result of the inference process, networks estimated from experimentally obtained biological data represent one instance of a larger number of realizations with similar intrinsic topology. A modelling approach is therefore needed to support statistical inference on the bottom-up local connectivity mechanisms influencing the formation of the estimated brain networks. Here, we adopted a statistical model based on exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce brain networks, or connectomes, estimated by spectral coherence between high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. ERGMs are made up by different local graph metrics, whereas the parameters weight the respective contribution in explaining the observed network. We validated this approach in a dataset of N = 108 healthy subjects during eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) resting-state conditions. Results showed that the tendency to form triangles and stars, reflecting clustering and node centrality, better explained the global properties of the EEG connectomes than other combinations of graph metrics. In particular, the synthetic networks generated by this model configuration replicated the characteristic differences found in real brain networks, with EO eliciting significantly higher segregation in the alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz) than EC. Furthermore, the fitted ERGM parameter values provided complementary information showing that clustering connections are significantly more represented from EC to EO in the alpha range, but also in the beta band (14-29 Hz), which is known to play a crucial role in cortical processing of visual input and externally oriented attention. Taken together, these findings support the current view of the functional segregation and integration of the brain in terms of modules and hubs, and provide a

  14. From Enormous 3D Maps of the Universe to Astrophysical and Cosmological Constraints: Statistical Tools for Realizing the Promise of 21 cm Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Joshua S.; Tegmark, Max

    2015-01-01

    21 cm cosmology promises to provide an exquisite probe of astrophysics and cosmology during the cosmic dark ages and the epoch of reionization. An enormous volume of the universe, previously inaccessible, can be directly mapped by looking for the faint signal from hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen. One day, 21 cm tomography could even eclipse the CMB as the most precise test of our cosmological models. Realizing that promise, however, has proven extremely challenging. We're looking for a small signal buried under foregrounds orders of magnitude stronger. We know that we're going to need very sensitive, and thus very large, low frequency interferometers. Those large interferometers produce vast quantities data, which must be carefully analyzed. In talk, I will present my Ph.D. work at MIT on the development and application of rigorous, fast, and robust statistical tools for extracting that cosmological signal while maintaining a thorough understanding of the error properties of those measurements. These tools reduce vast quanities of interferometric data into the statistics like the power spectrum that can be directly compared with theory and simulation, all while minimizing the amount of cosmological information lost. I will also present results from applying those techniques to data from the the Murchison Widefield Array and will discuss the exciting science they will enable with the upcoming Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array.

  15. Signal processing and statistical descriptive reanalysis of steady state chute-flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    truong, hoan; eckert, nicolas; keylock, chris; naaim, mohamed; bellot, hervé

    2014-05-01

    An accurate knowledge of snow rheology is needed for the mitigation against avalanche hazard. Indeed snow avalanches have a significant impact on the livelihoods and economies of alpine communities. To do so, 60 small-scale in-situ flow experiments were performed with various slopes, temperatures and flow depths. The investigation of these data previously seemed to show the dense flow of dry snow may be composed of two layers; a sheared basal layer made of single snow grains and a less sheared upper layer made of large aggregates. These outcomes were mainly based on the mean velocity profile of the flow and on interpretation in terms of rheological behavior of granular materials and snow microstructure [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007]. Here, the main objective remains the same, but the rheological and physical viewpoints are put aside to extract as much information contained in the data as possible various using signal processing methods and descriptive statistics methods as the maximum overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT), transfer entropy (TE) and maximum cross-correlation (MCC). Specifically, we aim at the improving the velocity estimations as function of the depth particularly the velocity fluctuations around the mean profile to better document the behavior of dense dry snow flows during a steady and uniform chute regime. The data are composed of pairs of voltage signals (right and left), which makes that the velocity is known indirectly only. The MCC method is classically used to determine the time lag between both signals. Previously, the MCC method that showed the mean velocity profile may be fitted by a simple bilinear function [Pierre G. Rognon et al., 2007], but no interesting temporal dynamics could be highlighted. Hence, a new process method was developed to provide velocity series with much better temporal resolution. The process is mainly made of a MODWT-based denoising method and the choice of window size for correlation. The results prove to be

  16. Universal renormalization-group dynamics at the onset of chaos in logistic maps and nonextensive statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin, F.; Robledo, A.

    2002-10-01

    We uncover the dynamics at the chaos threshold μ∞ of the logistic map and find that it consists of trajectories made of intertwined power laws that reproduce the entire period-doubling cascade that occurs for μ<μ∞. We corroborate this structure analytically via the Feigenbaum renormalization-group (RG) transformation and find that the sensitivity to initial conditions has precisely the form of a q exponential, of which we determine the q index and the q-generalized Lyapunov coefficient λq. Our results are an unequivocal validation of the applicability of the nonextensive generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics to critical points of nonlinear maps.

  17. The Potential for Signal Integration and Processing in Interacting Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, John H.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular response to environmental stimuli requires biochemical information processing through which sensory inputs and cellular status are integrated and translated into appropriate responses by way of interacting networks of enzymes. One such network, the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade is a highly conserved signal transduction module that propagates signals from cell surface receptors to various cytosolic and nuclear targets by way of a phosphorylation cascade. We have investigated the potential for signal processing within a network of interacting feed-forward kinase cascades typified by the MAP kinase cascade. A genetic algorithm was used to search for sets of kinetic parameters demonstrating representative key input-output patterns of interest. We discuss two of the networks identified in our study, one implementing the exclusive-or function (XOR) and another implementing what we refer to as an in-band detector (IBD) or two-sided threshold. These examples confirm the potential for logic and amplitude-dependent signal processing in interacting MAP kinase cascades demonstrating limited cross-talk. Specifically, the XOR function allows the network to respond to either one, but not both signals simultaneously, while the IBD permits the network to respond exclusively to signals within a given range of strength, and to suppress signals below as well as above this range. The solution to the XOR problem is interesting in that it requires only two interacting pathways, crosstalk at only one layer, and no feedback or explicit inhibition. These types of responses are not only biologically relevant but constitute signal processing modules that can be combined to create other logical functions and that, in contrast to amplification, cannot be achieved with a single cascade or with two non-interacting cascades. Our computational results revealed surprising similarities between experimental data describing the JNK/MKK4/MKK7 pathway and the solution for

  18. Diffusion-Based Density-Equalizing Maps: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Visualizing Homicide Rates and Other Georeferenced Statistical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitello, Karina I.; Candia, Julián

    2012-12-01

    In every country, public and private agencies allocate extensive funding to collect large-scale statistical data, which in turn are studied and analyzed in order to determine local, regional, national, and international policies regarding all aspects relevant to the welfare of society. One important aspect of that process is the visualization of statistical data with embedded geographical information, which most often relies on archaic methods such as maps colored according to graded scales. In this work, we apply nonstandard visualization techniques based on physical principles. We illustrate the method with recent statistics on homicide rates in Brazil and their correlation to other publicly available data. This physics-based approach provides a novel tool that can be used by interdisciplinary teams investigating statistics and model projections in a variety of fields such as economics and gross domestic product research, public health and epidemiology, sociodemographics, political science, business and marketing, and many others.

  19. Systematic interactome mapping and genetic perturbation analysis of a C. elegans TGF-beta signaling network.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Muneesh; Hu, Patrick J; Ahn, Jin Sook; Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Nono; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Li, Siming; Milstein, Stuart; Armstrong, Chris M; Boxem, Mike; Butler, Maurice D; Busiguina, Svetlana; Rual, Jean-François; Ibarrola, Nieves; Chaklos, Sabrina T; Bertin, Nicolas; Vaglio, Philippe; Edgley, Mark L; King, Kevin V; Albert, Patrice S; Vandenhaute, Jean; Pandey, Akhilesh; Riddle, Donald L; Ruvkun, Gary; Vidal, Marc

    2004-02-27

    To initiate a system-level analysis of C. elegans DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling, we combined interactome mapping with single and double genetic perturbations. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens starting with known DAF-7/TGF-beta pathway components defined a network of 71 interactions among 59 proteins. Coaffinity purification (co-AP) assays in mammalian cells confirmed the overall quality of this network. Systematic perturbations of the network using RNAi, both in wild-type and daf-7/TGF-beta pathway mutant animals, identified nine DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling modifiers, seven of which are conserved in humans. We show that one of these has functional homology to human SNO/SKI oncoproteins and that mutations at the corresponding genetic locus daf-5 confer defects in DAF-7/TGF-beta signaling. Our results reveal substantial molecular complexity in DAF-7/TGF-beta signal transduction. Integrating interactome maps with systematic genetic perturbations may be useful for developing a systems biology approach to this and other signaling modules.

  20. Enhancing Local Climate Projections of Precipitation: Assets and Limitations of Quantile Mapping Techniques for Statistical Downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Martin; Kotlarski, Sven; Schär, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss CH2011 scenarios provide a portfolio of climate change scenarios for the region of Switzerland, specifically tailored for use in climate impact research. Although widely applied by a variety of end-users, these scenarios are subject to several limitations related to the underlying delta change methodology. Examples are difficulties to appropriately account for changes in the spatio-temporal variability of meteorological fields and for changes in extreme events. The recently launched ELAPSE project (Enhancing local and regional climate change projections for Switzerland) is connected to the EU COST Action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) and aims at complementing CH2011 by further scenario products, including a bias-corrected version of daily scenarios at the site scale. For this purpose the well-established empirical quantile mapping (QM) methodology is employed. Here, daily temperature and precipitation output of 15 GCM-RCM model chains of the ENSEMBLES project is downscaled and bias-corrected to match observations at weather stations in Switzerland. We consider established QM techniques based on all empirical quantiles or linear interpolation between the empirical percentiles. In an attempt to improve the downscaling of extreme precipitation events, we also apply a parametric approximation of the daily precipitation distribution by a dynamically weighted mixture of a Gamma distribution for the bulk and a Pareto distribution for the right tail for the first time in the context of QM. All techniques are evaluated and intercompared in a cross-validation framework. The statistical downscaling substantially improves virtually all considered distributional and temporal characteristics as well as their spatial distribution. The empirical methods have in general very similar performances. The parametric method does not show an improvement over the empirical ones. Critical sites and seasons are highlighted and discussed. Special emphasis is placed on investigating the

  1. The Statistical Meaning of Kurtosis and Its New Application to Identification of Persons Based on Seismic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jianming; Zhao, Junyu; Liu, Haitao; Li, Baoqing; Shen, Jie; Zheng, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm making use of kurtosis, which is a statistical parameter, to distinguish the seismic signal generated by a person's footsteps from other signals. It is adaptive to any environment and needs no machine study or training. As persons or other targets moving on the ground generate continuous signals in the form of seismic waves, we can separate different targets based on the seismic waves they generate. The parameter of kurtosis is sensitive to impulsive signals, so it's much more sensitive to the signal generated by person footsteps than other signals generated by vehicles, winds, noise, etc. The parameter of kurtosis is usually employed in the financial analysis, but rarely used in other fields. In this paper, we make use of kurtosis to distinguish person from other targets based on its different sensitivity to different signals. Simulation and application results show that this algorithm is very effective in distinguishing person from other targets. PMID:27873804

  2. The Statistical Meaning of Kurtosis and Its New Application to Identification of Persons Based on Seismic Signals.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jianming; Zhao, Junyu; Liu, Haitao; Li, Baoqing; Shen, Jie; Zheng, Chunlei

    2008-08-27

    This paper presents a new algorithm making use of kurtosis, which is a statistical parameter, to distinguish the seismic signal generated by a person's footsteps from other signals. It is adaptive to any environment and needs no machine study or training. As persons or other targets moving on the ground generate continuous signals in the form of seismic waves, we can separate different targets based on the seismic waves they generate. The parameter of kurtosis is sensitive to impulsive signals, so it's much more sensitive to the signal generated by person footsteps than other signals generated by vehicles, winds, noise, etc. The parameter of kurtosis is usually employed in the financial analysis, but rarely used in other fields. In this paper, we make use of kurtosis to distinguish person from other targets based on its different sensitivity to different signals. Simulation and application results show that this algorithm is very effective in distinguishing person from other targets.

  3. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  4. A signal processing view of strip-mapping synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, David C., Jr.; Visentin, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors derive the fundamental strip-mapping SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging equations from first principles. They show that the resolution mechanism relies on the geometry of the imaging situation rather than on the Doppler effect. Both the airborne and spaceborne cases are considered. Range processing is discussed by presenting an analysis of pulse compression and formulating a mathematical model of the radar return signal. This formulation is used to obtain the airborne SAR model. The authors study the resolution mechanism and derive the signal processing relations needed to produce a high-resolution image. They introduce spotlight-mode SAR and briefly indicate how polar-format spotlight processing can be used in strip-mapping SAR. They discuss a number of current and future research directions in SAR imaging.

  5. Application of Polynomial and Radial Basis Function Maps to Signal Masking

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, B.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and demonstrate a technique for encrypting information by using a masking signal that closely approximates local ambient noise. Signal masking techniques developed to date have used nonlinear differential equations, spread spectrum, and various modulation schemes to encode information. While these techniques can effectively hide a signal, the resulting masks may not appear as ambient noise to an observer. The advantage of the proposed technique over commonly used masking methods is that the transmitted signal will appear as normal background noise, thus greatly reducing the probability of detection and exploitation. A promising near-term application of this technology presents itself in the area of clandestine minefield reconnaissance in shallow water areas. Shallow water mine-counter-mine (SWMCM) activity is essential for minefield avoidance, efficient minefield clearance, and effective selection of transit lanes within minefields. A key technology area for SWMCM is the development of special sonar waveforms with low probability of exploitation/intercept (LPE/LPI) attributes. In addition to LPE/LPI sonar, this technology has the potential to enable significant improvements in underwater acoustic communications. For SWMCM, the chaotic waveform research provides a mechanism for encrypted communications between a submarine (SSN) and an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) via an acoustic channel. Acoustic SSN/UUV communications would eliminate the need for a fiberoptic link between the two vessels, thus increasing the robustness of SWMCM. Similar applications may exist in the areas of radar masking and secure communications. The original approach called for the use of polynomial maps to generate a masking signal. Because polynomial maps were found to have highly restrictive stability criteria, the approach was modified to use radial basis function (RBF) maps. they have shown that stable RBF maps that closely approximate an

  6. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Lloyd A.; Paresol, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  7. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  8. Chemical Genetics Approach Reveals Importance of cAMP and MAP Kinase Signaling to Lipid and Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-E; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Hwang, Hyemin; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to understand signaling pathways behind lipid biosynthesis by employing a chemical genetics approach based on small molecule inhibitors. Specific signaling inhibitors of MAP kinase or modulators of cAMP signaling were selected to evaluate the functional roles of each of the key signaling pathways in three different microalgal species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Haematococcus pluvialis. Our results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are indeed positively associated with microalgal lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, MAP kinase pathways in three microalgal species are all negatively implicated in both lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis.

  9. Mapping the functional versatility and fragility of Ras GTPase signaling circuits through in vitro network reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Scott M; Lim, Wendell A

    2016-01-01

    The Ras-superfamily GTPases are central controllers of cell proliferation and morphology. Ras signaling is mediated by a system of interacting molecules: upstream enzymes (GEF/GAP) regulate Ras’s ability to recruit multiple competing downstream effectors. We developed a multiplexed, multi-turnover assay for measuring the dynamic signaling behavior of in vitro reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems. By including both upstream regulators and downstream effectors, we can systematically map how different network configurations shape the dynamic system response. The concentration and identity of both upstream and downstream signaling components strongly impacted the timing, duration, shape, and amplitude of effector outputs. The distorted output of oncogenic alleles of Ras was highly dependent on the balance of positive (GAP) and negative (GEF) regulators in the system. We found that different effectors interpreted the same inputs with distinct output dynamics, enabling a Ras system to encode multiple unique temporal outputs in response to a single input. We also found that different Ras-to-GEF positive feedback mechanisms could reshape output dynamics in distinct ways, such as signal amplification or overshoot minimization. Mapping of the space of output behaviors accessible to Ras provides a design manual for programming Ras circuits, and reveals how these systems are readily adapted to produce an array of dynamic signaling behaviors. Nonetheless, this versatility comes with a trade-off of fragility, as there exist numerous paths to altered signaling behaviors that could cause disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12435.001 PMID:26765565

  10. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans.

    PubMed

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Dadaev, Tokhir; Hazelett, Dennis J; Li, Qiuyan; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward J; Stephens, Sarah; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Whitmore, Ian; Benlloch Garcia, Sara; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Mcdonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A; Freedman, Mathew; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region.

  11. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Dadaev, Tokhir; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Li, Qiuyan; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward J.; Stephens, Sarah; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Whitmore, Ian; Benlloch Garcia, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Mcdonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A.; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A.; Freedman, Mathew; Conti, David V.; Easton, Douglas; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region. PMID:26025378

  12. A scalable neuroinformatics data flow for electrophysiological signals using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Jayapandian, Catherine; Wei, Annan; Ramesh, Priya; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D; Loparo, Kenneth; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sahoo, Satya S

    2015-01-01

    Data-driven neuroscience research is providing new insights in progression of neurological disorders and supporting the development of improved treatment approaches. However, the volume, velocity, and variety of neuroscience data generated from sophisticated recording instruments and acquisition methods have exacerbated the limited scalability of existing neuroinformatics tools. This makes it difficult for neuroscience researchers to effectively leverage the growing multi-modal neuroscience data to advance research in serious neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. We describe the development of the Cloudwave data flow that uses new data partitioning techniques to store and analyze electrophysiological signal in distributed computing infrastructure. The Cloudwave data flow uses MapReduce parallel programming algorithm to implement an integrated signal data processing pipeline that scales with large volume of data generated at high velocity. Using an epilepsy domain ontology together with an epilepsy focused extensible data representation format called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF), the data flow addresses the challenge of data heterogeneity and is interoperable with existing neuroinformatics data representation formats, such as HDF5. The scalability of the Cloudwave data flow is evaluated using a 30-node cluster installed with the open source Hadoop software stack. The results demonstrate that the Cloudwave data flow can process increasing volume of signal data by leveraging Hadoop Data Nodes to reduce the total data processing time. The Cloudwave data flow is a template for developing highly scalable neuroscience data processing pipelines using MapReduce algorithms to support a variety of user applications.

  13. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping using a bivariate statistical model in a tropical hilly area of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, J. P. C.; DA Silva, L. M.; Dourado, F. A. D.; Fernandes, N.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides are the most damaging natural hazard in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, responsible for thousands of deaths and important financial and environmental losses. However, this region has currently few landslide susceptibility maps implemented on an adequate scale. Identification of landslide susceptibility areas is fundamental in successful land use planning and management practices to reduce risk. This paper applied the Bayes' theorem based on weight of evidence (WoE) using 8 landslide-related factors in a geographic information system (GIS) for landslide susceptibility mapping. 378 landslide locations were identified and mapped on a selected basin in the city of Nova Friburgo, triggered by the January 2011 rainfall event. The landslide scars were divided into two subsets: training and validation subsets. The 8 landslide-related factors weighted by WoE were performed using chi-square test to indicate which variables are conditionally independent of each other to be used in the final map. Finally, the maps of weighted factors were summed up to construct the landslide susceptibility map and validated by the validation landslide subset. According to the results, slope, aspect and contribution area showed the higher positive spatial correlation with landslides. In the landslide susceptibility map, 21% of the area presented very low and low susceptibilities with 3% of the validation scars, 41% presented medium susceptibility with 22% of the validation scars and 38% presented high and very high susceptibilities with 75% of the validation scars. The very high susceptibility class stands for 16% of the basin area and has 54% of the all scars. The approach used in this study can be considered very useful since 75% of the area affected by landslides was included in the high and very high susceptibility classes.

  15. Signal-to-noise analysis of cerebral blood volume maps from dynamic NMR imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Boxerman, J L; Rosen, B R; Weisskoff, R M

    1997-01-01

    The use of cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps generated from dynamic MRI studies tracking the bolus passage of paramagnetic contrast agents strongly depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the maps. The authors present a semianalytic model for the noise in CBV maps and introduce analytic and Monte Carlo techniques for determining the effect of experimental parameters and processing strategies upon CBV-SNR. CBV-SNR increases as more points are used to estimate the baseline signal level. For typical injections, maps made with 10 baseline points have 34% more noise than those made with 50 baseline points. For a given peak percentage signal drop, an optimum TE can be chosen that, in general, is less than the baseline T2. However, because CBV-SNR is relatively insensitive to TE around this optimum value, choosing TE approximately equal to T2 does not sacrifice much SNR for typical doses of contrast agent. The TR that maximizes spin-echo CBV-SNR satisfies TR/T1 approximately equal to 1.26, whereas as short a TR as possible should be used to maximize gradient-echo CBV-SNR. In general, CBV-SNR is maximized for a given dose of contrast agent by selecting as short an input bolus duration as possible. For image SNR exceeding 20-30, the gamma-fitting procedure adds little extra noise compared with simple numeric integration. However, for noisier input images, can be the case for high resolution echo-planar images, the covarying parameters of the gamma-variate fit broaden the distribution of the CBV estimate and thereby decrease CBV-SNR. The authors compared the analytic noise predicted by their model with that of actual patient data and found that the analytic model accounts for roughly 70% of the measured variability of CBV within white matter regions of interest.

  16. Statistical-mechanical analysis of self-organization and pattern formation during the development of visual maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermayer, K.; Blasdel, G. G.; Schulten, K.

    1992-05-01

    We report a detailed analytical and numerical model study of pattern formation during the development of visual maps, namely, the formation of topographic maps and orientation and ocular dominance columns in the striate cortex. Pattern formation is described by a stimulus-driven Markovian process, the self-organizing feature map. This algorithm generates topologically correct maps between a space of (visual) input signals and an array of formal ``neurons,'' which in our model represents the cortex. We define order parameters that are a function of the set of visual stimuli an animal perceives, and we demonstrate that the formation of orientation and ocular dominance columns is the result of a global instability of the retinoptic projection above a critical value of these order parameters. We characterize the spatial structure of the emerging patterns by power spectra, correlation functions, and Gabor transforms, and we compare model predictions with experimental data obtained from the striate cortex of the macaque monkey with optical imaging. Above the critical value of the order parameters the model predicts a lateral segregation of the striate cortex into (i) binocular regions with linear changes in orientation preference, where iso-orientation slabs run perpendicular to the ocular dominance bands, and (ii) monocular regions with low orientation specificity, which contain the singularities of the orientation map. Some of these predictions have already been verified by experiments.

  17. Definition of an Enhanced Map-Matching Algorithm for Urban Environments with Poor GNSS Signal Quality.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Felipe; Monzón, Sergio; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio

    2016-02-04

    Vehicle positioning is a key factor for numerous information and assistance applications that are included in vehicles and for which satellite positioning is mainly used. However, this positioning process can result in errors and lead to measurement uncertainties. These errors come mainly from two sources: errors and simplifications of digital maps and errors in locating the vehicle. From that inaccurate data, the task of assigning the vehicle's location to a link on the digital map at every instant is carried out by map-matching algorithms. These algorithms have been developed to fulfil that need and attempt to amend these errors to offer the user a suitable positioning. In this research; an algorithm is developed that attempts to solve the errors in positioning when the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal reception is frequently lost. The algorithm has been tested with satisfactory results in a complex urban environment of narrow streets and tall buildings where errors and signal reception losses of the GPS receiver are frequent.

  18. Definition of an Enhanced Map-Matching Algorithm for Urban Environments with Poor GNSS Signal Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Felipe; Monzón, Sergio; Naranjo, Jose Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle positioning is a key factor for numerous information and assistance applications that are included in vehicles and for which satellite positioning is mainly used. However, this positioning process can result in errors and lead to measurement uncertainties. These errors come mainly from two sources: errors and simplifications of digital maps and errors in locating the vehicle. From that inaccurate data, the task of assigning the vehicle’s location to a link on the digital map at every instant is carried out by map-matching algorithms. These algorithms have been developed to fulfil that need and attempt to amend these errors to offer the user a suitable positioning. In this research; an algorithm is developed that attempts to solve the errors in positioning when the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal reception is frequently lost. The algorithm has been tested with satisfactory results in a complex urban environment of narrow streets and tall buildings where errors and signal reception losses of the GPS receiver are frequent. PMID:26861320

  19. The Statistical Analysis of Global Oxygen ENAs Sky Maps from IBEX-Lo: Implication on the ENA sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kucharek, H.; Moebius, E.; Bochsler, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) created in the interstellar medium and heliospheric interface have been observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) orbiting the Earth on a highly elliptical trajectory since 2008. The science payload on this small spacecraft consists of two highly sensitive single-pixel ENA cameras: the IBEX-Lo sensor covering the energy ranges from 0.01 to 2 keV and the IBEX-Hi sensor covering the energy ranges from 0.3 to 6 keV. In order to measure the incident ENAs, the IBEX-Lo sensor uses a conversion surface to convert neutrals to negative ions. After passing an electrostatic analyzer, they are separated by species (H and heavier species) via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. All-sky H ENA maps over three years were completed and show two significant features: the interstellar H and He neutral flow is shown at the low energy ranges (0.01 to 0.11 keV) and the ribbon appears at the higher energies (0.21 to 1.35 keV). Like in the hydrogen sky maps, the interstellar O+Ne neutral flow appears in all-sky O ENA maps at the energy ranges from 0.21 to 0.87 keV The distributed heliospheric Oxygen ENAs over the entire energy ranges is determined from very low counting statistics. In this study, we therefore apply the Cash's C statistics (Cash, 1979) and determine the upper and lower confidence limits (Gehrels, 1986) for the statistical significance among all events in all-sky O ENA maps. These newly created sky maps specifically show the distributed heliospheric O ENA flux surrounding the interstellar O+Ne neutral flow. This enhancement distributed ENA flux will provide us new insights into the ion population creation the ENA emission. It seems that there is no signature of ribbon in all-sky O ENA maps. If one assumes that the generation mechanism of the ribbon is the same for hydrogen and oxygen, the location of source ion population may be closer to the heliosheath. In this poster we will discuss all the results of this study and their

  20. A MAP OF THE INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE SIGNAL FROM LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Granett, Benjamin R.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-08-10

    We construct a map of the time derivative of the gravitational potential traced by Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The potential decays on large scales due to cosmic acceleration, leaving an imprint on cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. With a template fit, we directly measure this signature on the CMB at a 2{sigma} confidence level. The measurement is consistent with the cross-correlation statistic, strengthening the claim that dark energy is indeed the cause of the correlation. This new approach potentially simplifies the cosmological interpretation. Our constructed linear ISW map shows no evidence for degree-scale cold and hot spots associated with supervoid and supercluster structures. This suggests that the linear ISW effect in a concordance {lambda}CDM cosmology is insufficient to explain the strong CMB imprints from these structures that we previously reported.

  1. The Research of Feature Extraction Method of Liver Pathological Image Based on Multispatial Mapping and Statistical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiling; Xia, Bingbing; Yi, Dehui

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new feature extraction method of liver pathological image based on multispatial mapping and statistical properties. For liver pathological images of Hematein Eosin staining, the image of R and B channels can reflect the sensitivity of liver pathological images better, while the entropy space and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) space can reflect the texture features of the image better. To obtain the more comprehensive information, we map liver pathological images to the entropy space, LBP space, R space, and B space. The traditional Higher Order Local Autocorrelation Coefficients (HLAC) cannot reflect the overall information of the image, so we propose an average correction HLAC feature. We calculate the statistical properties and the average gray value of pathological images and then update the current pixel value as the absolute value of the difference between the current pixel gray value and the average gray value, which can be more sensitive to the gray value changes of pathological images. Lastly the HLAC template is used to calculate the features of the updated image. The experiment results show that the improved features of the multispatial mapping have the better classification performance for the liver cancer. PMID:27022407

  2. The Research of Feature Extraction Method of Liver Pathological Image Based on Multispatial Mapping and Statistical Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiling; Jiang, Huiyan; Xia, Bingbing; Yi, Dehui

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new feature extraction method of liver pathological image based on multispatial mapping and statistical properties. For liver pathological images of Hematein Eosin staining, the image of R and B channels can reflect the sensitivity of liver pathological images better, while the entropy space and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) space can reflect the texture features of the image better. To obtain the more comprehensive information, we map liver pathological images to the entropy space, LBP space, R space, and B space. The traditional Higher Order Local Autocorrelation Coefficients (HLAC) cannot reflect the overall information of the image, so we propose an average correction HLAC feature. We calculate the statistical properties and the average gray value of pathological images and then update the current pixel value as the absolute value of the difference between the current pixel gray value and the average gray value, which can be more sensitive to the gray value changes of pathological images. Lastly the HLAC template is used to calculate the features of the updated image. The experiment results show that the improved features of the multispatial mapping have the better classification performance for the liver cancer.

  3. A statistical model for QTL mapping in polysomic autotetraploids underlying double reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: As a group of economically important species, linkage mapping of polysomic autotetraploids, including potato, sugarcane and rose, is difficult to conduct due to their unique meiotic property of double reduction that allows sister chromatids to enter into the same gamete. We desc...

  4. Mapping the signal-to-noise-ratios of cortical sources in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Goldenholz, Daniel M; Ahlfors, Seppo P; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Sharon, Dahlia; Ishitobi, Mamiko; Vaina, Lucia M; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2009-04-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been available for decades, their relative merits are still debated. We examined regional differences in signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) of cortical sources in MEG and EEG. Data from four subjects were used to simulate focal and extended sources located on the cortical surface reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images. The SNR maps for MEG and EEG were found to be complementary. The SNR of deep sources was larger in EEG than in MEG, whereas the opposite was typically the case for superficial sources. Overall, the SNR maps were more uniform for EEG than for MEG. When using a noise model based on uniformly distributed random sources on the cortex, the SNR in MEG was found to be underestimated, compared with the maps obtained with noise estimated from actual recorded MEG and EEG data. With extended sources, the total area of cortex in which the SNR was higher in EEG than in MEG was larger than with focal sources. Clinically, SNR maps in a patient explained differential sensitivity of MEG and EEG in detecting epileptic activity. Our results emphasize the benefits of recording MEG and EEG simultaneously.

  5. Mapping the Signal-To-Noise-Ratios of Cortical Sources in Magnetoencephalography and Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Goldenholz, Daniel M.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Sharon, Dahlia; Ishitobi, Mamiko; Vaina, Lucia M.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been available for decades, their relative merits are still debated. We examined regional differences in signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) of cortical sources in MEG and EEG. Data from four subjects were used to simulate focal and extended sources located on the cortical surface reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images. The SNR maps for MEG and EEG were found to be complementary. The SNR of deep sources was larger in EEG than in MEG, whereas the opposite was typically the case for superficial sources. Overall, the SNR maps were more uniform for EEG than for MEG. When using a noise model based on uniformly distributed random sources on the cortex, the SNR in MEG was found to be underestimated, compared with the maps obtained with noise estimated from actual recorded MEG and EEG data. With extended sources, the total area of cortex in which the SNR was higher in EEG than in MEG was larger than with focal sources. Clinically, SNR maps in a patient explained differential sensitivity of MEG and EEG in detecting epileptic activity. Our results emphasize the benefits of recording MEG and EEG simultaneously. PMID:18465745

  6. Statistical analysis of North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) signal trains in Cape Cod Bay, spring 2012.

    PubMed

    Urazghildiiev, Ildar R

    2014-11-01

    Statistical characteristics of signal trains produced by North Atlantic right whales (NARW) during the winter and early spring in Cape Cod Bay, MA are described. Data analysis was based on four days of acoustic recordings that were obtained with synchronized hydrophones. Based on temporal and geographical clustering of detected signals, 7264 NARW sounds were identified and associated with 559 signal trains. The detected signals were assigned to four classes of narrowband tonal calls--upcalls, downcalls, complex, and high frequency, and two classes of wideband sounds--gunshots and complex. Empirical distributions of the number of signals in trains, total duration of trains, the positions of NARW, and signal classes are presented. Results indicate that 68.9% of all signal trains consisted of 10 or fewer signals. Low and high frequency tonals that lacked wideband sounds formed 69.1% of trains; 5.0% of trains lacked tonals. Trains consisting of only upcalls comprised 44.2% of all detected trains. Because 18.3% of trains contained no upcalls, using detectors that identify all signal classes would improve right whale detection.

  7. Statistical approaches to human brain mapping by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lange, N

    1996-02-28

    Proper use of functional neuro-imaging through effective experimental design and modern statistical analysis provides new insights in current brain research. This tutorial has two aims: to describe aspects of this technology to applied statisticians and to provide some statistical ideas to neuroscientists unfamiliar with quantitative analytic methods that accommodate randomness. Introductory background material and ample references to current literature on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging, Fourier methods for image reconstruction and measures of image quality are included. Two of the statistical approaches mentioned here are extensions of established methods for longitudinal data analysis to the frequency domain. A recent case study provides real-world instances of approaches, problems and open questions encountered in current functional neuro-imaging research and an introduction to the analysis of spatial time series in this context.

  8. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  9. Statistical analysis of polarizing maps of blood plasma laser images for the diagnostics of malignant formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  10. Report on 3- and 4-Point Correlation Statistics in COBE DMR Anisotropy Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Gorski, Krzystof M.; Bennett, Charles L.; Banday, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the work performed under this contract, we have computed the 3- and 4-point correlation functions of the COBE-DMR 2-year and 4-year anisotropy maps. The results of our work showed that the 3-point correlation function is consistent with zero and that the 4-point function is not a very sensitive probe of non-Gaussian behavior in the COBE-DMR data.

  11. Novel Resampling Improves Statistical Power for Multiple-Trait QTL Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Riyan; Doerge, R. W.; Borevitz, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-trait analysis typically employs models that associate a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with all of the traits. As a result, statistical power for QTL detection may not be optimal if the QTL contributes to the phenotypic variation in only a small proportion of the traits. Excluding QTL effects that contribute little to the test statistic can improve statistical power. In this article, we show that an optimal power can be achieved when the number of QTL effects is best estimated, and that a stringent criterion for QTL effect selection may improve power when the number of QTL effects is small but can reduce power otherwise. We investigate strategies for excluding trivial QTL effects, and propose a method that improves statistical power when the number of QTL effects is relatively small, and fairly maintains the power when the number of QTL effects is large. The proposed method first uses resampling techniques to determine the number of nontrivial QTL effects, and then selects QTL effects by the backward elimination procedure for significance test. We also propose a method for testing QTL-trait associations that are desired for biological interpretation in applications. We validate our methods using simulations and Arabidopsis thaliana transcript data. PMID:28064191

  12. Gaussian statistics of the cosmic microwave background: Correlation of temperature extrema in the COBE DMR two-year sky maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Banday, A. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Lubin, P. M.; Smoot, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    We use the two-point correlation function of the extrema points (peaks and valleys) in the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) 2 year sky maps as a test for non-Gaussian temperature distribution in the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A maximum-likelihood analysis compares the DMR data to n = 1 toy models whose random-phase spherical harmonic components a(sub lm) are drawn from either Gaussian, chi-square, or log-normal parent populations. The likelihood of the 53 GHz (A+B)/2 data is greatest for the exact Gaussian model. There is less than 10% chance that the non-Gaussian models tested describe the DMR data, limited primarily by type II errors in the statistical inference. The extrema correlation function is a stronger test for this class of non-Gaussian models than topological statistics such as the genus.

  13. Comprehensive gene expression atlas for the Arabidopsis MAP kinase signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Menges, Margit; Dóczi, Róbert; Okrész, László; Morandini, Piero; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Murray, James A H; Bögre, László

    2008-01-01

    * Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are signal transduction modules with layers of protein kinases having c. 120 genes in Arabidopsis, but only a few have been linked experimentally to functions. * We analysed microarray expression data for 114 MAPK signalling genes represented on the ATH1 Affymetrix arrays; determined their expression patterns during development, and in a wide range of time-course microarray experiments for their signal-dependent transcriptional regulation and their coregulation with other signalling components and transcription factors. * Global expression correlation of the MAPK genes with each of the represented 21 692 Arabidopsis genes was determined by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients. To group MAPK signalling genes based on similarities in global regulation, we performed hierarchical clustering on the pairwise correlation values. This should allow inferring functional information from well-studied MAPK components to functionally uncharacterized ones. Statistical overrepresentation of specific gene ontology (GO) categories in the gene lists showing high expression correlation values with each of the MAPK components predicted biological themes for the gene functions. * The combination of these methods provides functional information for many uncharacterized MAPK genes, and a framework for complementary future experimental dissection of the function of this complex family.

  14. Statistical Parametric Mapping to Identify Differences between Consensus-Based Joint Patterns during Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Eirini; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; De Laet, Tinne

    2017-01-01

    Experts recently identified 49 joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy during a Delphi consensus study. Pattern definitions were therefore the result of subjective expert opinion. The present study aims to provide objective, quantitative data supporting the identification of these consensus-based patterns. To do so, statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the mean kinematic waveforms of 154 trials of typically developing children (n = 56) to the mean kinematic waveforms of 1719 trials of children with cerebral palsy (n = 356), which were classified following the classification rules of the Delphi study. Three hypotheses stated that: (a) joint motion patterns with ‘no or minor gait deviations’ (n = 11 patterns) do not differ significantly from the gait pattern of typically developing children; (b) all other pathological joint motion patterns (n = 38 patterns) differ from typically developing gait and the locations of difference within the gait cycle, highlighted by statistical parametric mapping, concur with the consensus-based classification rules. (c) all joint motion patterns at the level of each joint (n = 49 patterns) differ from each other during at least one phase of the gait cycle. Results showed that: (a) ten patterns with ‘no or minor gait deviations’ differed somewhat unexpectedly from typically developing gait, but these differences were generally small (≤3°); (b) all other joint motion patterns (n = 38) differed from typically developing gait and the significant locations within the gait cycle that were indicated by the statistical analyses, coincided well with the classification rules; (c) joint motion patterns at the level of each joint significantly differed from each other, apart from two sagittal plane pelvic patterns. In addition to these results, for several joints, statistical analyses indicated other significant areas during the gait cycle that were not included in the pattern definitions of the consensus

  15. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Panchapakesan, G.; Lin, Wenzhi; Sales, Brian C.; Sefat, Athena Safa; Jesse, Stephen; Pan, Minghu; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-02

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe0.55Se0.45 (Tc = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe1 x Sex structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signature and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces.

  16. Statistical methods for mapping quantitative trait loci from a dense set of markers.

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, J; Siegmund, D

    1999-01-01

    Lander and Botstein introduced statistical methods for searching an entire genome for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in experimental organisms, with emphasis on a backcross design and QTL having only additive effects. We extend their results to intercross and other designs, and we compare the power of the resulting test as a function of the magnitude of the additive and dominance effects, the sample size and intermarker distances. We also compare three methods for constructing confidence regions for a QTL: likelihood regions, Bayesian credible sets, and support regions. We show that with an appropriate evaluation of the coverage probability a support region is approximately a confidence region, and we provide a theroretical explanation of the empirical observation that the size of the support region is proportional to the sample size, not the square root of the sample size, as one might expect from standard statistical theory. PMID:9872974

  17. Mapping and correction of vascular hemodynamic latency in the BOLD signal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catie; Thomason, Moriah E; Glover, Gary H

    2008-10-15

    Correlation and causality metrics can be applied to blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal time series in order to infer neural synchrony and directions of information flow from fMRI data. However, the BOLD signal reflects both the underlying neural activity and the vascular response, the latter of which is governed by local vasomotor physiology. The presence of potential vascular latency differences thus poses a confound in the detection of neural synchrony as well as inferences about the causality of neural processes. In the present study, we investigate the use of a breath holding (BH) task for characterizing and correcting for voxel-wise neurovascular latency differences across the whole brain. We demonstrate that BH yields reliable measurements of relative timing differences between voxels, and further show that a BH-derived latency correction can impact both functional connectivity maps of the resting-state default-mode network and activation maps of an event-related working memory (WM) task.

  18. Modeling the effects of distortion, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio on stereophotogrammetric range mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Deen, Robert G.; Huffman, William C.; Willson, Reginald G.

    2016-09-01

    Stereophotogrammetry typically employs a pair of cameras, or a single moving camera, to acquire pairs of images from different camera positions, in order to create a three dimensional `range map' of the area being observed. Applications of this technique for building three-dimensional shape models include aerial surveying, remote sensing, machine vision, and robotics. Factors that would be expected to affect the quality of the range maps include the projection function (distortion) of the lenses and the contrast (modulation) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the acquired image pairs. Basic models of the precision with which the range can be measured assume a pinhole-camera model of the geometry, i.e. that the lenses provide perspective projection with zero distortion. Very-wide-angle or `fisheye' lenses, however (for e.g. those used by robotic vehicles) typically exhibit projection functions that differ significantly from this assumption. To predict the stereophotogrammetric range precision for such applications, we extend the model to the case of an equidistant lens projection function suitable for a very-wide-angle lens. To predict the effects of contrast and SNR on range precision, we perform numerical simulations using stereo image pairs acquired by a stereo camera pair on NASA's Mars rover Curiosity. Contrast is degraded and noise is added to these data in a controlled fashion and the effects on the quality of the resulting range maps are assessed.

  19. Glial and neuronal Semaphorin signaling instruct the development of a functional myotopic map for Drosophila walking

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Durafshan Sakeena; Gowda, Swetha B.M.; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, K

    2016-01-01

    Motoneurons developmentally acquire appropriate cellular architectures that ensure connections with postsynaptic muscles and presynaptic neurons. In Drosophila, leg motoneurons are organized as a myotopic map, where their dendritic domains represent the muscle field. Here, we investigate mechanisms underlying development of aspects of this myotopic map, required for walking. A behavioral screen identified roles for Semaphorins (Sema) and Plexins (Plex) in walking behavior. Deciphering this phenotype, we show that PlexA/Sema1a mediates motoneuron axon branching in ways that differ in the proximal femur and distal tibia, based on motoneuronal birth order. Importantly, we show a novel role for glia in positioning dendrites of specific motoneurons; PlexB/Sema2a is required for dendritic positioning of late-born motoneurons but not early-born motoneurons. These findings indicate that communication within motoneurons and between glia and motoneurons, mediated by the combined action of different Plexin/Semaphorin signaling systems, are required for the formation of a functional myotopic map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11572.001 PMID:26926907

  20. Probing the statistics of transport in the Hénon Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alus, O.; Fishman, S.; Meiss, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    The phase space of an area-preserving map typically contains infinitely many elliptic islands embedded in a chaotic sea. Orbits near the boundary of a chaotic region have been observed to stick for long times, strongly influencing their transport properties. The boundary is composed of invariant "boundary circles." We briefly report recent results of the distribution of rotation numbers of boundary circles for the Hénon quadratic map and show that the probability of occurrence of small integer entries of their continued fraction expansions is larger than would be expected for a number chosen at random. However, large integer entries occur with probabilities distributed proportionally to the random case. The probability distributions of ratios of fluxes through island chains is reported as well. These island chains are neighbours in the sense of the Meiss-Ott Markov-tree model. Two distinct universality families are found. The distributions of the ratio between the flux and orbital period are also presented. All of these results have implications for models of transport in mixed phase space.

  1. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  2. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  3. Statistical mechanics of learning multiple orthogonal signals: asymptotic theory and fluctuation effects.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, D C; Rattray, M

    2007-01-01

    The learning of signal directions in high-dimensional data through orthogonal decomposition or principal component analysis (PCA) has many important applications in physics and engineering disciplines, e.g., wireless communication, information theory, and econophysics. The accuracy of the orthogonal decomposition can be studied using mean-field theory. Previous analysis of data produced from a model with a single signal direction has predicted a retarded learning phase transition below which learning is not possible, i.e., if the signal is too weak or the data set is too small then it is impossible to learn anything about the signal direction or magnitude. In this contribution we show that the result can be generalized to the case where there are multiple signal directions. Each nondegenerate signal is associated with a retarded learning transition. However, fluctuations around the mean-field solution lead to large finite size effects unless the signal strengths are very well separated. We evaluate the one-loop contribution to the mean-field theory, which shows that signal directions are indistinguishable from one another if their corresponding population eigenvalues are separated by O(N(-tau)) with exponent tau>1/3, where N is the data dimension. Numerical simulations are consistent with the analysis and show that finite size effects can persist even for very large data sets.

  4. The characterisation of blood rotation in a human heart chamber based on statistical analysis of vorticity maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Kelso, Richard M.; Worthley, Stephen G.; Sanders, Prashanthan; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Abbott, Derek

    2008-12-01

    Modelling of non-stationary cardiac structures is complicated by the complexity of their intrinsic and extrinsic motion. The first known study of haemodynamics due to the beating of heart was made by Leonardo Da Vinci, giving the idea of fluid-solid interaction by describing how vortices develop during cardiac structural interaction with the blood. Heart morphology affects in changes of cardio dynamics during the systolic and diastolic phrases. In a chamber of the heart, vortices are discovered to exist as the result of the unique morphological changes of the cardiac chamber wall by using flow-imaging techniques such as phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The first part of this paper attempts to quantify vortex characteristics by means of calculating vorticity numerically and devising two dimensional vortical flow maps. The technique relies on determining the properties of vorticity using a statistical quantification of the flow maps and comparison of these quantities based on different scenarios. As the characteristics of our vorticity maps vary depending on the phase of a cardiac cycle, there is a need for robust quantification method to analyse vorticity. In the second part of the paper, the approach is then utilised for examining vortices within the human right atrium. Our study has shown that a proper quantification of vorticity for the flow field can indicate the strength and number of vortices within a heart chamber.

  5. Mapping of Planetary Surface Age Based on Crater Statistics Obtained by AN Automatic Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, A. L.; Mühlbauer, M.; Grumpe, A.; Pasckert, J. H.; Wöhler, C.; Hiesinger, H.

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) is a well-established approach to the determination of the age of planetary surfaces. Classically, estimation of the CSFD is achieved by manual crater counting and size determination in spacecraft images, which, however, becomes very time-consuming for large surface areas and/or high image resolution. With increasing availability of high-resolution (nearly) global image mosaics of planetary surfaces, a variety of automated methods for the detection of craters based on image data and/or topographic data have been developed. In this contribution a template-based crater detection algorithm is used which analyses image data acquired under known illumination conditions. Its results are used to establish the CSFD for the examined area, which is then used to estimate the absolute model age of the surface. The detection threshold of the automatic crater detection algorithm is calibrated based on a region with available manually determined CSFD such that the age inferred from the manual crater counts corresponds to the age inferred from the automatic crater detection results. With this detection threshold, the automatic crater detection algorithm can be applied to a much larger surface region around the calibration area. The proposed age estimation method is demonstrated for a Kaguya Terrain Camera image mosaic of 7.4 m per pixel resolution of the floor region of the lunar crater Tsiolkovsky, which consists of dark and flat mare basalt and has an area of nearly 10,000 km2. The region used for calibration, for which manual crater counts are available, has an area of 100 km2. In order to obtain a spatially resolved age map, CSFDs and surface ages are computed for overlapping quadratic regions of about 4.4 x 4.4 km2 size offset by a step width of 74 m. Our constructed surface age map of the floor of Tsiolkovsky shows age values of typically 3.2-3.3 Ga, while for small regions lower (down to 2.9 Ga) and higher

  6. Mapping and predicting malaria transmission in the People's Republic of China, using integrated biology-driven and statistical models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Gao, Qi; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Malone, John B; McCarroll, Jennifer C; Tanner, Marcel; Vounatsou, Penelope; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission patterns in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China). An integrated modeling approach was employed, combining biological and statistical models. A Delphi approach was used to determine environmental factors that govern malaria transmission. Key factors identified (i.e. temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) were utilized for subsequent mapping and modeling purposes. Yearly growing degree days, annual rainfall and effective yearly relative humidity were extracted from a 15-year time series (1981-1995) of daily environmental data readily available for 676 locations in P.R. China. A suite of eight multinomial regression models, ranging from the null model to a fully saturated one were constructed. Two different information criteria were used for model ranking, namely the corrected Akaike's information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. Mapping was based on model output data, facilitated by using ArcGIS software. Temperature was found to be the most important environmental factor, followed by rainfall and relative humidity in the Delphi evaluation. However, relative humidity was found to be more important than rainfall and temperature in the ranking list according to the three single environmental factor regression models. We conclude that the distribution of the mosquito vector is mainly related to relative humidity, which thus determines the extent of malaria transmission. However, in regions with relative humidity >60%, temperature is the major driver of malaria transmission intensity. By integrating biology-driven models with statistical regression models, reliable risk maps indicating the distribution of transmission and the intensity can be produced. In a next step, we propose to integrate social and health systems factors into our modeling approach, which should provide a platform for rigorous surveillance and monitoring progress towards P

  7. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, Fernando L.

    2002-09-01

    Low probability of intercept (LPI) is that property of an emitter that because of its low power, wide bandwidth, frequency variability, or other design attributes, makes it difficult to be detected or identified by means of passive intercept devices such as radar warning, electronic support and electronic intelligence receivers. In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required. This thesis first develops a MATLAB toolbox to generate important types of LPI waveforms based on frequency and phase modulation. The power spectral density and the periodic ambiguity function are examined for each waveforms. These signals are then used to test a novel signal processing technique that detects the waveforms parameters and classifies the intercepted signal in various degrees of noise. The technique is based on the use of parallel filter (sub-band) arrays and higher order statistics (third-order cumulant estimator). Each sub-band signal is treated individually and is followed by the third-order estimator in order to suppress any symmetrical noise that might be present. The significance of this technique is that it separates the LPI waveforms in small frequency bands, providing a detailed time-frequency description of the unknown signal. Finally, the resulting output matrix is processed by a feature extraction routine to detect the waveforms parameters. Identification of the signal is based on the modulation parameters detected.

  8. Mapping sea ice using reflected GNSS signals in a bistatic radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Zuffada, Cinzia; Shah, Rashmi; Mannucci, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be used as a kind of bistatic radar, with receivers opportunistically recording ground-reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS satellites themselves. This technique, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), has primarily been explored using receivers flown on aircraft or balloons, or in modeling studies. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land and ocean surface. Here, we examine the ability of reflected GNSS signals to estimate sea ice extent and sea ice age, as well as comment on the possibility of using GNSS-R to detect leads and polynyas within the ice. In particular, we quantify how the peak power of Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs) generated within the GNSS receiver responds as the satellite flies over the Polar Regions. To compute the effective peak power of each DDM, we first normalize the peak power of the DDM by the noise floor. We also correct for antenna gain, range, and incidence angle. Once these corrections are made, the effective peak power across DDMs may be used as a proxy for changes in surface permittivity and surface roughness. We compare our calculations of reflected power to existing sea ice remote sensing products such as data from the SSMI/S as well as Landsat imagery. Our analysis shows that GNSS reflections are extremely sensitive to the sea ice edge, with increases in reflected power of more than 10 dB relative to reflected power over the open ocean. As the sea ice ages, it thickens and roughens, and reflected power decreases, though it does not decrease below the power over the open ocean. Given the observed sensitivity of GNSS reflections to small features over land and the sensitivity to the sea ice edge, we hypothesize that reflection data could help map the temporal evolution of leads and polynyas.

  9. Mobility statistics and automated hazard mapping for debris flows and rock avalanches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griswold, Julia P.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Power-law equations that are physically motivated and statistically tested and calibrated provide a basis for forecasting areas likely to be inundated by debris flows, rock avalanches, and lahars with diverse volumes. The equations A=α1V2/3 and B=α2V2/3 are based on the postulate that the maximum valley cross-sectional area (A) and total valley planimetric area (B) likely to be inundated by a flow depend only on its volume (V) and the topography of the flow path. Testing of these equations involves determining whether or not they fit data for documented flows satisfactorily, and calibration entails determining best-fit values of the coefficients α1 and α2 for debris flows, rock avalanches, and lahars. This report describes statistical testing and calibration of the equations by using field data compiled from many sources, and it describes application of the equations to delineation of debris-flow hazard zones. Statistical results show that for each type of flow (debris flows, rock avalanches, and lahars), the dependence of A and B on V is described well by power laws with exponents equal to 2/3. This value of the exponent produces fits that are effectively indistinguishable from the best fits obtained by using adjustable power-law exponents. Statistically calibrated values of the coefficients α1 and α2 provide scale-invariant indices of the relative mobilities of rock avalanches (α1 = 0.2, α2 = 20), nonvolcanic debris flows (α1 = 0.1, α2 = 20), and lahars (α1 = 0.05, α2 = 200). These values show, for example, that a lahar of specified volume can be expected to inundate a planimetric area ten times larger than that inundated by a rock avalanche or nonvolcanic debris flow of the same volume. The utility of the calibrated debris-flow inundation equations A=0.1V2/3 and B=20V2/3 is demonstrated by using them within the GIS program LAHARZ to delineate nested hazard zones for future debris flows in an area bordering the Umpqua River in the south-central Oregon

  10. The ElderSmile TimeMap: Benefits of Connecting Statistics With Time and Place.

    PubMed

    Kum, Susan S; Wang, Hua; Wang, Peng; Jin, Zhu; De La Cruz, Leydis; Northridge, Mary E; Kunzel, Carol; Marshall, Stephen E; Metcalf, Sara S

    2015-09-01

    Community-based programs are critical for locally targeted public health education and accessible service delivery. Deriving useful information from such programs is important for their own evaluation and improvement and may facilitate research collaboration with partners and experts. Here we present an interactive Web-based application designed for a community-based oral health outreach program called ElderSmile to demonstrate how data can be summarized, filtered, compared, and visualized by time and place to inform program planning, evaluation, and research. The ElderSmile TimeMap ( http://www.acsu.buffalo.edu/∼smetcalf/resources/timemap.html ) is an emergent product of a US National Institutes of Health-funded collaboration of knowledge sharing among multidisciplinary team members at the University at Buffalo, Columbia University, and New York University.

  11. Map showing locations and statistical parameters of beach and offshore sand samples, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingler, J.R.; Carlson, D.V.; Sallenger, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, sand samples were collected from many of the beaches on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, and in July 1985, three bays were surveyed using side-scan sonar and shallow seismic profiling. During that second trip, scuba divers collected sand samples from the surveyed areas. Dingler and others (1986) describes the study; this report presents the grain-size and composition data for the onshore and offshore sand samples. Locations of the onshore samples are plotted on the map of the island, which is reproduced from Normark and others (1985); locations of most of the offshore samples and side-scan sonar interpretations made during the study are plotted on enlargements (A and B, respectively) of Fagaitua and Nua-seetaga Bays. Lam Yuen (1981), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (1980), and Sea Engineering Services Inc. (1980) provide additional information pertaining to the island's beaches.

  12. Mapping Transient Hyperventilation Induced Alterations with Estimates of the Multi-Scale Dynamics of BOLD Signal

    PubMed Central

    Kiviniemi, Vesa; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Haapea, Marianne; Silven, Olli; Tervonen, Osmo

    2009-01-01

    Temporal blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast signals in functional MRI during rest may be characterized by power spectral distribution (PSD) trends of the form 1/fα. Trends with 1/f characteristics comprise fractal properties with repeating oscillation patterns in multiple time scales. Estimates of the fractal properties enable the quantification of phenomena that may otherwise be difficult to measure, such as transient, non-linear changes. In this study it was hypothesized that the fractal metrics of 1/f BOLD signal trends can map changes related to dynamic, multi-scale alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after a transient hyperventilation challenge. Twenty-three normal adults were imaged in a resting-state before and after hyperventilation. Different variables (1/f trend constant α, fractal dimension Df, and, Hurst exponent H) characterizing the trends were measured from BOLD signals. The results show that fractal metrics of the BOLD signal follow the fractional Gaussian noise model, even during the dynamic CBF change that follows hyperventilation. The most dominant effect on the fractal metrics was detected in grey matter, in line with previous hyperventilation vaso-reactivity studies. The α was able to differentiate also blood vessels from grey matter changes. Df was most sensitive to grey matter. H correlated with default mode network areas before hyperventilation but this pattern vanished after hyperventilation due to a global increase in H. In the future, resting-state fMRI combined with fractal metrics of the BOLD signal may be used for analyzing multi-scale alterations of cerebral blood flow. PMID:19636388

  13. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Belianinov, Alex; Panchapakesan, G.; Lin, Wenzhi; ...

    2014-12-02

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe0.55Se0.45 (Tc = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe1 x Sex structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signaturemore » and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces.« less

  14. Research Update: Spatially resolved mapping of electronic structure on atomic level by multivariate statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Lin, Wenzhi; Jesse, Stephen; Pan, Minghu; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sales, Brian C.; Sefat, Athena S.

    2014-12-01

    Atomic level spatial variability of electronic structure in Fe-based superconductor FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} (T{sub c} = 15 K) is explored using current-imaging tunneling-spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data differentiates regions of dissimilar electronic behavior that can be identified with the segregation of chalcogen atoms, as well as boundaries between terminations and near neighbor interactions. Subsequent clustering analysis allows identification of the spatial localization of these dissimilar regions. Similar statistical analysis of modeled calculated density of states of chemically inhomogeneous FeTe{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} structures further confirms that the two types of chalcogens, i.e., Te and Se, can be identified by their electronic signature and differentiated by their local chemical environment. This approach allows detailed chemical discrimination of the scanning tunneling microscopy data including separation of atomic identities, proximity, and local configuration effects and can be universally applicable to chemically and electronically inhomogeneous surfaces.

  15. Blind SNR estimation for QAM constellations based on the signal magnitude statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Stefanos; Spatharakis, Christos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Lazarou, Ioannis; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel non-data-aided algorithm that uses only the magnitude of the received signal for accurate estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in M-QAM optical coherent digital receivers. The Koay inversion method that only works with constant-modulus signals, is extended through analytically exact expressions so as to allow application to any multi-level, complex modulation scheme. Performance is evaluated via simulation for formats up to 64-QAM and is shown to be superior than the decision-directed error vector magnitude (EVM) method at low SNR, while outperforming schemes based on the method of moments at high SNR.

  16. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  17. Mapping brain injury with symmetrical-channels' EEG signal analysis--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Liu, Xiao-ping; Ling, Xian-hong; Li, Jing-qi; Yang, Wen-wei; Zhang, Dan-ke; Li, Li-hua; Yang, Yong

    2014-05-21

    A technique for detecting brain injury at the bedside has great clinical value, but conventional imaging techniques (such as computed tomography [CT] and magnetic resonance imaging) are impractical. In this study, a novel method-the symmetrical channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signal analysis-was developed for this purpose. The study population consisted of 45 traumatic brain injury patients and 10 healthy controls. EEG signals in resting and stimulus states were acquired, and approximate entropy (ApEn) and slow-wave coefficient were extracted to calculate the ratio values of ApEn and SWC for injured and uninjured areas. Statistical analyses showed that the ratio values for both ApEn and SWC between injured and uninjured brain areas differed significantly (P<0.05) for both resting and name call stimulus states. A set of criteria (range of ratio values) to determine whether a brain area is injured or uninjured was proposed and its reliability was verified by statistical analyses and CT images.

  18. Identifying fault heterogeneity through mapping spatial anomalies in acoustic emission statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Becker, T. W.; Schorlemmer, D.; Stanchits, S.; Sammis, C.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.

    2012-03-01

    Seismicity clusters within fault zones can be connected to the structure, geometric complexity and size of asperities which perturb and intensify the stress field in their periphery. To gain further insight into fault mechanical processes, we study stick-slip sequences in an analog, laboratory setting. Analysis of small scale fracture processes expressed by acoustic emissions (AEs) provide the possibility to investigate how microseismicity is linked to fault heterogeneities and the occurrence of dynamic slip events. The present work connects X-ray computer tomography (CT) scans of faulted rock samples with spatial maps of b values (slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution), seismic moments and event densities. Our current experimental setup facilitates the creation of a series of stick-slips on one fault plane thus allowing us to document how individual stick-slips can change the characteristics of AE event populations in connection to the evolution of the fault structure. We found that geometric asperities identified in CT scan images were connected to regions of low b values, increased event densities and moment release over multiple stick-slip cycles. Our experiments underline several parallels between laboratory findings and studies of crustal seismicity, for example, that asperity regions in lab and field are connected to spatial b value anomalies. These regions appear to play an important role in controlling the nucleation spots of dynamic slip events and crustal earthquakes.

  19. A Self-Organizing Map-Based Approach to Generating Reduced-Size, Statistically Similar Climate Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabell, R.; Delle Monache, L.; Alessandrini, S.; Rodriguez, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate-based studies require large amounts of data in order to produce accurate and reliable results. Many of these studies have used 30-plus year data sets in order to produce stable and high-quality results, and as a result, many such data sets are available, generally in the form of global reanalyses. While the analysis of these data lead to high-fidelity results, its processing can be very computationally expensive. This computational burden prevents the utilization of these data sets for certain applications, e.g., when rapid response is needed in crisis management and disaster planning scenarios resulting from release of toxic material in the atmosphere. We have developed a methodology to reduce large climate datasets to more manageable sizes while retaining statistically similar results when used to produce ensembles of possible outcomes. We do this by employing a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm to analyze general patterns of meteorological fields over a regional domain of interest to produce a small set of "typical days" with which to generate the model ensemble. The SOM algorithm takes as input a set of vectors and generates a 2D map of representative vectors deemed most similar to the input set and to each other. Input predictors are selected that are correlated with the model output, which in our case is an Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion (T&D) model that is highly dependent on surface winds and boundary layer depth. To choose a subset of "typical days," each input day is assigned to its closest SOM map node vector and then ranked by distance. Each node vector is treated as a distribution and days are sampled from them by percentile. Using a 30-node SOM, with sampling every 20th percentile, we have been able to reduce 30 years of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data for the month of October to 150 "typical days." To estimate the skill of this approach, the "Measure of Effectiveness" (MOE) metric is used to compare area and overlap

  20. Probabilistic storm surge inundation maps for Metro Manila based on Philippine public storm warning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-03-01

    A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline

  1. TU-C-12A-02: Development of a Multiparametric Statistical Response Map for Quantitative Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, R; Mahajan, A; Brown, PD; Stafford, RJ; Johnson, VE; Dong, L; Jackson, EF

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIB) are becoming increasingly utilized in early phase clinical trials as a means of non-invasively assessing treatment response and associated response heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to develop a flexible multiparametric statistical framework to predict voxel-by-voxel response of several potential MRI QIBs. Methods: Patients with histologically proven glioblastomas (n=11) were treated with chemoradiation (with/without bevacizumab) and underwent one baseline and two mid-treatment (3–4wks) MRIs. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (3D FSPGR, 6.3sec/phase, 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), dynamic susceptibility contrast (2D GRE-EPI, 1.5sec/phase, 0.2mmol/kg Gd-DTPA), and diffusion tensor (2D DW-EPI, b=0, 1200 s/mm{sup 2}, 27 directions) imaging acquisitions were obtained during each study. Mid-treatment and pre-treatment images were rigidly aligned, and regions of partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) were contoured in consensus by two experienced radiation oncologists. Voxels in these categories were used to train ordinal (PRstatistical framework for incorporating longitudinal multiparametric

  2. Mapping Individual Brain Networks Using Statistical Similarity in Regional Morphology from MRI.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-zhen; Liu, Zhaoguo; Huang, Lijie; Wang, Xu; Yang, Zetian; Zhou, Guangfu; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of 'isolated' structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions. This implementation allows nodes in the brain network to be functionally/anatomically homogeneous but different with respect to shape and size. We first demonstrated the new network framework in a healthy sample. Thereafter, we studied the graph-theoretical properties of the networks obtained and compared the results with previous morphological, anatomical, and functional networks. The robustness of the method was assessed via measurement of the reliability of the network metrics using a test-retest dataset. Finally, to illustrate potential applications, the networks were used to measure age-related changes in commonly used network metrics. Results suggest that the proposed method could provide a concise description of brain organization at a network level and be used to investigate interindividual variability in brain morphology from the perspective of complex networks. Furthermore, the method could open a new window into modeling the complexly distributed brain and facilitate the emerging field of human connectomics.

  3. A method for modelling peak signal statistics on a mobile satellite transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilodeau, Andre; Lecours, Michel; Pelletier, Marcel; Delisle, Gilles Y.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation method is proposed. The simulation was developed to model the peak duration and energy content of signal peaks in a mobile communication satellite operating in a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) mode and presents an estimate of those power peaks for a system where the channels are modeled as band limited Gaussian noise, which is taken as a reasonable representation for Amplitude Commanded Single Sideband (ACSSB), Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), or Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated signals. The simulation results show that, under this hypothesis, the level of the signal power peaks for 10 percent, 1 percent, and 0.1 percent of the time are well described by a Rayleigh law and that their duration is extremely short and inversely proportional to the total FDM system bandwidth.

  4. Image informative maps for component-wise estimating parameters of signal-dependent noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uss, Mykhail L.; Vozel, Benoit; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-01-01

    We deal with the problem of blind parameter estimation of signal-dependent noise from mono-component image data. Multispectral or color images can be processed in a component-wise manner. The main results obtained rest on the assumption that the image texture and noise parameters estimation problems are interdependent. A two-dimensional fractal Brownian motion (fBm) model is used for locally describing image texture. A polynomial model is assumed for the purpose of describing the signal-dependent noise variance dependence on image intensity. Using the maximum likelihood approach, estimates of both fBm-model and noise parameters are obtained. It is demonstrated that Fisher information (FI) on noise parameters contained in an image is distributed nonuniformly over intensity coordinates (an image intensity range). It is also shown how to find the most informative intensities and the corresponding image areas for a given noisy image. The proposed estimator benefits from these detected areas to improve the estimation accuracy of signal-dependent noise parameters. Finally, the potential estimation accuracy (Cramér-Rao Lower Bound, or CRLB) of noise parameters is derived, providing confidence intervals of these estimates for a given image. In the experiment, the proposed and existing state-of-the-art noise variance estimators are compared for a large image database using CRLB-based statistical efficiency criteria.

  5. A Critical Examination of the Statistic Used for Processing Speech Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Keith

    This paper assesses certain properties of human mental processes by focusing on the tactics utilized in perceiving speech signals. Topics discussed in the paper include the power spectrum approach to fluctuations and noise, with particular reference to biological structures; "l/f-like" fluctuations in speech and music and the functioning of a…

  6. Distinguishing transient signals and instrumental disturbances in semi-coherent searches for continuous gravitational waves with line-robust statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, David

    2016-05-01

    Non-axisymmetries in rotating neutron stars emit quasi-monochromatic gravitational waves. These long-duration ‘continuous wave’ signals are among the main search targets of ground-based interferometric detectors. However, standard detection methods are susceptible to false alarms from instrumental artefacts that resemble a continuous-wave signal. Past work [Keitel, Prix, Papa, Leaci and Siddiqi 2014, Phys. Rev. D 89 064023] showed that a Bayesian approach, based on an explicit model of persistent single-detector disturbances, improves robustness against such artefacts. Since many strong outliers in semi-coherent searches of LIGO data are caused by transient disturbances that last only a few hours or days, I describe in a recent paper [Keitel D 2015, LIGO-P1500159] how to extend this approach to cover transient disturbances, and demonstrate increased sensitivity in realistic simulated data. Additionally, neutron stars could emit transient signals which, for a limited time, also follow the continuous-wave signal model. As a pragmatic alternative to specialized transient searches, I demonstrate how to make standard semi-coherent continuous-wave searches more sensitive to transient signals. Focusing on the time-scale of a single segment in the semi-coherent search, Bayesian model selection yields a simple detection statistic without a significant increase in computational cost. This proceedings contribution gives a brief overview of both works.

  7. Real time moving object detection using motor signal and depth map for robot car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hao; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2013-12-01

    Moving object detection from a moving camera is a fundamental task in many applications. For the moving robot car vision, the background movement is 3D motion structure in nature. In this situation, the conventional moving object detection algorithm cannot be use to handle the 3D background modeling effectively and efficiently. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed by utilizing the motor control signal and depth map obtained from a stereo camera to model the perspective transform matrix between different frames under a moving camera. In our approach, the coordinate relationship between frames during camera moving is modeled by a perspective transform matrix which is obtained by using current motor control signals and the pixel depth value. Hence, the relationship between a static background pixel and the moving foreground corresponding to the camera motion can be related by a perspective matrix. To enhance the robustness of classification, we allowed a tolerance range during the perspective transform matrix prediction and used multi-reference frames to classify the pixel on current frame. The proposed scheme has been found to be able to detect moving objects for our moving robot car efficiently. Different from conventional approaches, our method can model the moving background in 3D structure, without online model training. More importantly, the computational complexity and memory requirement are low making it possible to implement this scheme in real-time, which is even valuable for a robot vision system.

  8. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Kornak, John; Harris, Tamara; Keyak, Joyce; Li, Caixia; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Lang, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We identified regions inside the proximal femur that are most strongly associated with hip fracture. Bone densitometry based on such fracture-critical regions showed improved power in discriminating fracture patients from controls. Introduction Hip fractures typically occur in lateral falls, with focal mechanical failure of the sub-volumes of tissue in which the applied stress exceeds the strength. In this study, we describe a new methodology to identify proximal femoral tissue elements with highest association with hip fracture. We hypothesize that bone mineral density (BMD) measured in such sub-volumes discriminates hip fracture risk better than BMD in standard anatomic regions such as the femoral neck and trochanter. Materials and Methods We employed inter-subject registration to transform hip QCT images of 37 patients with hip fractures and 38 age-matched controls into a voxel-based statistical atlas. Within voxels, we performed t-tests between the two groups to identify the regions which differed most. We then randomly divided the 75 scans into a training set and a test set. From the training set, we derived a fracture-driven region of interest (ROI) based on association with fracture. In the test set, we measured BMD in this ROI to determine fracture discrimination efficacy using ROC analysis. Additionally, we compared the BMD distribution differences between the 29 patients with neck fractures and the 8 patients with trochanteric fractures. Results By evaluating fracture discrimination power based on ROC analysis, the fracture-driven ROI had an AUC (area under curve) of 0.92, while anatomic ROIs (including the entire proximal femur, the femoral neck, trochanter and their cortical and trabecular compartments) had AUC values between 0.78 and 0.87. We also observed that the neck fracture patients had lower BMD (p=0.014) in a small region near the femoral neck and the femoral head, and patients with trochanteric fractures had lower BMD in trochanteric regions

  9. Statistical significance estimation of a signal within the GooFit framework on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristella, Leonardo; Di Florio, Adriano; Pompili, Alexis

    2017-03-01

    In order to test the computing capabilities of GPUs with respect to traditional CPU cores a high-statistics toy Monte Carlo technique has been implemented both in ROOT/RooFit and GooFit frameworks with the purpose to estimate the statistical significance of the structure observed by CMS close to the kinematical boundary of the J/ψϕ invariant mass in the three-body decay B+ → J/ψϕK+. GooFit is a data analysis open tool under development that interfaces ROOT/RooFit to CUDA platform on nVidia GPU. The optimized GooFit application running on GPUs hosted by servers in the Bari Tier2 provides striking speed-up performances with respect to the RooFit application parallelised on multiple CPUs by means of PROOF-Lite tool. The considerable resulting speed-up, evident when comparing concurrent GooFit processes allowed by CUDA Multi Process Service and a RooFit/PROOF-Lite process with multiple CPU workers, is presented and discussed in detail. By means of GooFit it has also been possible to explore the behaviour of a likelihood ratio test statistic in different situations in which the Wilks Theorem may or may not apply because its regularity conditions are not satisfied.

  10. The Rician inverse Gaussian distribution: a new model for non-Rayleigh signal amplitude statistics.

    PubMed

    Eltoft, Torbjørn

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new statistical distribution for modeling non-Rayleigh amplitude statistics, which we have called the Rician inverse Gaussian (RiIG) distribution. It is a mixture of the Rice distribution and the inverse Gaussian distribution. The probability density function (pdf) is given in closed form as a function of three parameters. This makes the pdf very flexible in the sense that it may be fitted to a variety of shapes, ranging from the Rayleigh-shaped pdf to a noncentral chi2-shaped pdf. The theoretical basis of the new model is quite thoroughly discussed, and we also give two iterative algorithms for estimating its parameters from data. Finally, we include some modeling examples, where we have tested the ability of the distribution to represent locale amplitude histograms of linear medical ultrasound data and single-look synthetic aperture radar data. We compare the goodness of fit of the RiIG model with that of the K model, and, in most cases, the new model turns out as a better statistical model for the data. We also include a series of log-likelihood tests to evaluate the predictive performance of the proposed model.

  11. Predicting the intensity mapping signal for multi-J CO lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham; Sternberg, Amiel E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to estimating the intensity mapping signal of any CO rotational line emitted during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Our approach is based on large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling, a radiative transfer modeling technique that generates the full CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) for a specified gas kinetic temperature, volume density, velocity gradient, molecular abundance, and column density. These parameters, which drive the physics of CO transitions and ultimately dictate the shape and amplitude of the CO SLED, can be linked to the global properties of the host galaxy, mainly the star formation rate (SFR) and the SFR surface density. By further employing an empirically derived SFR−M relation for high redshift galaxies, we can express the LVG parameters, and thus the specific intensity of any CO rotational transition, as functions of the host halo mass M and redshift z. Integrating over the range of halo masses expected to host CO-luminous galaxies, we predict a mean CO(1-0) brightness temperature ranging from ∼ 0.6 μK at z = 6 to ∼ 0.03 μK at z = 10 with brightness temperature fluctuations of Δ{sub CO}{sup 2} ∼ 0.1 and 0.005 μK respectively, at k = 0.1 Mpc{sup −1}. In this model, the CO emission signal remains strong for higher rotational levels at z = 6, with ( T{sub CO} ) ∼ 0.3 and 0.05 μK for the CO J = 6arrow5 and CO J = 10arrow9 transitions respectively. Including the effects of CO photodissociation in these molecular clouds, especially at low metallicities, results in the overall reduction in the amplitude of the CO signal, with the low- and high-J lines weakening by 2–20% and 10–45%, respectively, over the redshift range 4 < z < 10.

  12. Signal statistics obtained from a LMSS experiment in Europe with the MARECS satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benarroch, Ana

    1994-02-01

    A land mobile satellite system (LMSS) propagation experiment at 1.5 GHz has been carried out in Europe in the framework of ESA's PROSAT program using the MARECS satellite as the signal source. Rural, suburban and urban environments were investigated in Spain, France and Sweden in order to analyze the propagation factors responsible for degradations in LMSS. A second series of tests were performed in Spain using a locomotive as mobile platform. The results obtained show that shadowing is the main impairment in LMSS, achieving availabilities of 80-90% for the unfaded signal which decrease to 30% for the extreme cases of urban environments, dense woods, or suburban environments in low elevation angles, or railroads with a large number of tunnels.

  13. Detection of signal transients based on wavelet and statistics for machine fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z. K.; Yan, Ruqiang; Luo, Liheng; Feng, Z. H.; Kong, F. R.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a transient detection method that combines continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test for machine fault diagnosis. According to this method, the CWT represents the signal in the time-scale plane, and the proposed "step-by-step detection" based on K-S test identifies the transient coefficients. Simulation study shows that the transient feature can be effectively identified in the time-scale plane with the K-S test. Moreover, the transients can be further transformed back into the time domain through the inverse CWT. The proposed method is then utilized in the gearbox vibration transient detection for fault diagnosis, and the results show that the transient features both expressed in the time-scale plane and re-constructed in the time domain characterize the gearbox condition and fault severity development more clearly than the original time domain signal. The proposed method is also applied to the vibration signals of cone bearings with the localized fault in the inner race, outer race and the rolling elements, respectively. The detected transients indicate not only the existence of the bearing faults, but also the information about the fault severity to a certain degree.

  14. Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network: a systems biology resource for integrative analysis of cancer data with Google Maps

    PubMed Central

    Kuperstein, I; Bonnet, E; Nguyen, H-A; Cohen, D; Viara, E; Grieco, L; Fourquet, S; Calzone, L; Russo, C; Kondratova, M; Dutreix, M; Barillot, E; Zinovyev, A

    2015-01-01

    Cancerogenesis is driven by mutations leading to aberrant functioning of a complex network of molecular interactions and simultaneously affecting multiple cellular functions. Therefore, the successful application of bioinformatics and systems biology methods for analysis of high-throughput data in cancer research heavily depends on availability of global and detailed reconstructions of signalling networks amenable for computational analysis. We present here the Atlas of Cancer Signalling Network (ACSN), an interactive and comprehensive map of molecular mechanisms implicated in cancer. The resource includes tools for map navigation, visualization and analysis of molecular data in the context of signalling network maps. Constructing and updating ACSN involves careful manual curation of molecular biology literature and participation of experts in the corresponding fields. The cancer-oriented content of ACSN is completely original and covers major mechanisms involved in cancer progression, including DNA repair, cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle, EMT and cell motility. Cell signalling mechanisms are depicted in detail, together creating a seamless ‘geographic-like' map of molecular interactions frequently deregulated in cancer. The map is browsable using NaviCell web interface using the Google Maps engine and semantic zooming principle. The associated web-blog provides a forum for commenting and curating the ACSN content. ACSN allows uploading heterogeneous omics data from users on top of the maps for visualization and performing functional analyses. We suggest several scenarios for ACSN application in cancer research, particularly for visualizing high-throughput data, starting from small interfering RNA-based screening results or mutation frequencies to innovative ways of exploring transcriptomes and phosphoproteomes. Integration and analysis of these data in the context of ACSN may help interpret their biological significance and formulate mechanistic hypotheses

  15. Fatigue-life prediction by an order statistics treatment of acoustic-emission signals

    SciTech Connect

    Baram, J. )

    1993-09-01

    A formal relationship is shown to exist between AE amplitudes and fatigue-crack propagation rates, during low-cycle/low-stress cyclic loading, for Al-2024-T3 and Al-7075-T6 alloy sheeting. An analysis of the statistical distribution of external peak amplitudes allows predictions to be made of the number of cycles left until failure within a faint scatter interval and at good confidence level. Such analyses can be conducted nondestructively, by continuous AE monitoring of components and structures, in real time. 30 refs.

  16. Military Vehicle Classification via Acoustic and Seismic Signals Using Statistical Learning Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hanguang; Cai, Congzhong; Chen, Yuzong

    It is a difficult and important task to classify the types of military vehicles using the acoustic and seismic signals generated by military vehicles. For improving the classification accuracy and reducing the computing time and memory size, we investigated different pre-processing technology, feature extraction and selection methods. Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) was employed for feature extraction. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used for feature selection and extraction further. A new feature vector construction method was proposed by uniting PCA and another feature selection method. K-Nearest Neighbor Classifier (KNN) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used for classification. The experimental results showed the accuracies of KNN and SVM were affected obviously by the window size which was used to frame the time series of the acoustic and seismic signals. The classification results indicated the performance of SVM was superior to that of KNN. The comparison of the four feature selection and extraction methods showed the proposed method is a simple, none time-consuming, and reliable technique for feature selection and helps the classifier SVM to achieve more better results than solely using PCA, GA, or combination.

  17. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  18. fMRI bold signal analysis using a novel nonparametric statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Mazière, Patrick A.; Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2007-03-01

    We present in this article a novel analytical method that enables the application of nonparametric rank-order statistics to fMRI data analysis, since it takes the omnipresent serial correlations (temporal autocorrelations) properly into account. Comparative simulations, using the common General Linear Model and the permutation test, confirm the validity and usefulness of our approach. Our simulations, which are performed with both synthetic and real fMRI data, show that our method requires significantly less computation time than permutation-based methods, while offering the same order of robustness and returning more information about the evoked response when combined with/compared to the results obtained with the common General Lineal Model approach.

  19. Cortical sensory map rearrangement after spinal cord injury: fMRI responses linked to Nogo signalling.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toshiki; Spenger, Christian; Tominaga, Teiji; Brené, Stefan; Olson, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Cortical sensory maps can reorganize in the adult brain in an experience-dependent manner. We monitored somatosensory cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in rats subjected to complete transection of the mid-thoracic spinal cord. Cortical representation in response to spared forelimb stimulation was observed to enlarge and invade adjacent sensory-deprived hind limb territory in the primary somatosensory cortex as early as 3 days after injury. Functional MRI also demonstrated long-term cortical plasticity accompanied by increased thalamic activation. To support the notion that alterations of cortical neuronal circuitry after spinal cord injury may underlie the fMRI changes, we quantified transcriptional activities of several genes related to cortical plasticity including the Nogo receptor (NgR), its co-receptor LINGO-1 and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), using in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that NgR and LINGO-1 are down-regulated specifically in cortical areas deprived of sensory input and in adjacent cortex from 1 day after injury, while BDNF is up-regulated. Our results demonstrate that cortical neurons react to sensory deprivation by decreasing transcriptional activities of genes encoding the Nogo receptor components in the sensory deprived and the anatomically adjacent non-deprived area. Combined with the BDNF up-regulation, these changes presumably allow structural changes in the neuropil. Our observations therefore suggest an involvement of Nogo signalling in cortical activity-dependent plasticity in the somatosensory system. In spinal cord injury, cortical reorganization as shown here can become a disadvantage, much like the situation in amblyopia or phantom sensation. Successful strategies to repair sensory pathways at the spinal cord level may not lead to proper reestablishment of cortical connections, once deprived hind limb cortical areas have been reallocated to forelimb

  20. A PSAM-based estimator of noise and fading statistics for optimum receivers of free space optics signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Hassan; Refai, Hazem H.; LoPresti, Peter G.; Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    2010-02-01

    Incoherent receivers of Free Space Optical (FSO) signals have no knowledge of instantaneous channel state. Thus, the receiver requires some information about the noise and fading statistics for a maximum likelihood (ML)-based optimal detection. Using pilot-aided symbols, we develop a simple multi slot averaging (MSA) estimation technique to approximate the values of parameters required at the incoherent detector. No channel state information (CSI) is available at the receiver side and this work will not be also trying to estimate it. But the estimation of noise and fading statistics will be practically investigated. We evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance of FSO links with MSA estimation over both Gaussian and lognormal atmospheric turbulence fading (scintillation) channels. Numerical simulation will be completed to evaluate the estimation error of the MSA estimator. We will see that at signal to noise ratio (SNR)=13dB, the performance loss of the Gaussian estimator improves from 3dB to 0.4dB when we increase the number of pilot symbols from 16 to 64. This paper also presents the hardware design of the estimator using Xilinx system generator.

  1. Joint learning of ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques using intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sheet, Debdoot; Karamalis, Athanasios; Eslami, Abouzar; Noël, Peter; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Ray, Ajoy K; Laine, Andrew F; Carlier, Stephane G; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) is a predominant imaging modality in interventional cardiology. It provides real-time cross-sectional images of arteries and assists clinicians to infer about atherosclerotic plaques composition. These plaques are heterogeneous in nature and constitute fibrous tissue, lipid deposits and calcifications. Each of these tissues backscatter ultrasonic pulses and are associated with a characteristic intensity in B-mode IVUS image. However, clinicians are challenged when colocated heterogeneous tissue backscatter mixed signals appearing as non-unique intensity patterns in B-mode IVUS image. Tissue characterization algorithms have been developed to assist clinicians to identify such heterogeneous tissues and assess plaque vulnerability. In this paper, we propose a novel technique coined as Stochastic Driven Histology (SDH) that is able to provide information about co-located heterogeneous tissues. It employs learning of tissue specific ultrasonic backscattering statistical physics and signal confidence primal from labeled data for predicting heterogeneous tissue composition in plaques. We employ a random forest for the purpose of learning such a primal using sparsely labeled and noisy samples. In clinical deployment, the posterior prediction of different lesions constituting the plaque is estimated. Folded cross-validation experiments have been performed with 53 plaques indicating high concurrence with traditional tissue histology. On the wider horizon, this framework enables learning of tissue-energy interaction statistical physics and can be leveraged for promising clinical applications requiring tissue characterization beyond the application demonstrated in this paper.

  2. A MAP4 kinase related to Ste20 is a nutrient-sensitive regulator of mTOR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Greg M.; Yan, Lijun; Procter, Julia; Mieulet, Virginie; Lamb, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is a key regulator of cell growth and is controlled by growth factors and nutrients such as amino acids. Although signalling pathways from growth factor receptors to mTOR have been elucidated, the pathways mediating signalling by nutrients are poorly characterized. Through a screen for protein kinases active in the mTOR signalling pathway in Drosophila we have identified a Ste20 family member (MAP4K3) that is required for maximal S6K (S6 kinase)/4E-BP1 [eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E)-binding protein 1] phosphorylation and regulates cell growth. Importantly, MAP4K3 activity is regulated by amino acids, but not the growth factor insulin and is not regulated by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Our results therefore suggest a model whereby nutrients signal to mTORC1 via activation of MAP4K3. PMID:17253963

  3. Statistical Parametric Mapping of Brain Morphology: Sensitivity is Dramatically Increased by Using Brain-Extracted Images as Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk; Di Sclafani, Victoria; Shumway, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A major attraction of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is that it allows researchers to explore large datasets with minimal human intervention. However, the validity and sensitivity of the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) approach to VBM is the subject of considerable debate. We visually inspected the SPM2 gray matter segmentations for 101 research participants and found a gross inclusion of non-brain tissue surrounding the entire brain as gray matter in five subjects, and focal areas bordering the brain in which non-brain tissue was classified as gray matter in many other subjects. We also found many areas in which the cortical grey matter was incorrectly excluded from the segmentation of the brain. The major source of these errors was the misregistration of individual brain images with the reference T1-weighted brain template. These errors could be eliminated if SPM2 operated on images from which non-brain tissues (scalp, skull, and meninges) are removed (brain-extracted images). We developed a modified SPM2 processing pipeline that used brain-extracted images as inputs to test this hypothesis. We describe the modifications to the SPM2 pipeline that allow analysis of brain-extracted inputs. Using brain-extracted inputs eliminated the non-brain matter inclusions and the cortical gray matter exclusions noted above, reducing the residual mean square errors (RMSEs, the error term of the SPM2 statistical analyses) by over thirty percent. We show how this reduction in the RMSEs profoundly affects power analyses. SPM2 analyses of brain-extracted images may require sample sizes only half as great as analyses of non-brain extracted images. PMID:16442817

  4. Statistical parametric mapping of brain morphology: sensitivity is dramatically increased by using brain-extracted images as inputs.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk; Di Sclafani, Victoria; Shumway, Robert

    2006-05-01

    A major attraction of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is that it allows researchers to explore large datasets with minimal human intervention. However, the validity and sensitivity of the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) approach to VBM are the subject of considerable debate. We visually inspected the SPM2 gray matter segmentations for 101 research participants and found a gross inclusion of non-brain tissue surrounding the entire brain as gray matter in five subjects and focal areas bordering the brain in which non-brain tissue was classified as gray matter in many other subjects. We also found many areas in which the cortical gray matter was incorrectly excluded from the segmentation of the brain. The major source of these errors was the misregistration of individual brain images with the reference T1-weighted brain template. These errors could be eliminated if SPM2 operated on images from which non-brain tissues (scalp, skull, and meninges) are removed (brain-extracted images). We developed a modified SPM2 processing pipeline that used brain-extracted images as inputs to test this hypothesis. We describe the modifications to the SPM2 pipeline that allow analysis of brain-extracted inputs. Using brain-extracted inputs eliminated the non-brain matter inclusions and the cortical gray matter exclusions noted above, reducing the residual mean square errors (RMSEs, the error term of the SPM2 statistical analyses) by over 30%. We show how this reduction in the RMSEs profoundly affects power analyses. SPM2 analyses of brain-extracted images may require sample sizes only half as great as analyses of non-brain-extracted images.

  5. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Andrusiak, Matthew G.; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans was developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics of C. elegans in combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components in C. elegans. PMID:26907690

  6. Statistical mechanics of tuned cell signalling: sensitive collective response by synthetic biological circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voliotis, M.; Liverpool, T. B.

    2017-03-01

    Living cells sense and process environmental cues through noisy biochemical mechanisms. This apparatus limits the scope of engineering cells as viable sensors. Here, we highlight a mechanism that enables robust, population-wide responses to external stimulation based on cellular communication, known as quorum sensing. We propose a synthetic circuit consisting of two mutually repressing quorum sensing modules. At low cell densities the system behaves like a genetic toggle switch, while at higher cell densities the behaviour of nearby cells is coupled via diffusible quorum sensing molecules. We show by systematic coarse graining that at large length and timescales that the system can be described using the Ising model of a ferromagnet. Thus, in analogy with magnetic systems, the sensitivity of the population-wide response, or its ‘susceptibility’ to a change in the external signal, is highly enhanced for a narrow range of cell–cell coupling close to a critical value. We expect that our approach will be used to enhance the sensitivity of synthetic bio-sensing networks.

  7. Processes affecting Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infestation and abundance: inference through statistical modeling and risk maps in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Garelli, F M; Espinosa, M O; Gürtler, R E

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the processes that affect Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) may serve as a starting point to create and/or improve vector control strategies. For this purpose, we performed statistical modeling of three entomological surveys conducted in Clorinda City, northern Argentina. Previous 'basic' models of presence or absence of larvae and/or pupae (infestation) and the number of pupae in infested containers (productivity), mainly based on physical characteristics of containers, were expanded to include variables selected a priori reflecting water use practices, vector-related context factors, the history of chemical control, and climate. Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion. In total, 5,431 water-holding containers were inspected and 12,369 Ae. aegypti pupae collected from 963 positive containers. Large tanks were the most productive container type. Variables reflecting every putative process considered, except for history of chemical control, were selected in the best models obtained for infestation and productivity. The associations found were very strong, particularly in the case of infestation. Water use practices and vector-related context factors were the most important ones, as evidenced by their impact on Akaike's Information Criterion scores of the infestation model. Risk maps based on empirical data and model predictions showed a heterogeneous distribution of entomological risk. An integrated vector control strategy is recommended, aiming at community participation for healthier water use practices and targeting large tanks for key elements such as lid status, water addition frequency and water use.

  8. Automatic detection of motion blur in intravital video microscopy image sequences via directional statistics of log-Gabor energy maps.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ricardo J; Pinto, Carlos H Villa; da Silva, Bruno C Gregório; Bernardes, Danielle; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana

    2015-02-01

    Intravital microscopy is an important experimental tool for the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms of the leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the microcirculation of various tissues and in different inflammatory conditions of in vivo specimens. However, due to the limited control over the conditions of the image acquisition, motion blur and artifacts, resulting mainly from the heartbeat and respiratory movements of the in vivo specimen, will very often be present. This problem can significantly undermine the results of either visual or computerized analysis of the acquired video images. Since only a fraction of the total number of images are usually corrupted by severe motion blur, it is necessary to have a procedure to automatically identify such images in the video for either further restoration or removal. This paper proposes a new technique for the detection of motion blur in intravital video microscopy based on directional statistics of local energy maps computed using a bank of 2D log-Gabor filters. Quantitative assessment using both artificially corrupted images and real microscopy data were conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.95 (AUC = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.93-0.97) when tested on 329 video images visually ranked by four observers.

  9. Distinct laterality alterations distinguish mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: statistical parametric mapping with high resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lijuan; Liao, Weiqi; Jiang, Chunxiang; Qiu, Bensheng

    2013-12-01

    Laterality of human brain varies under healthy aging and diseased conditions. The alterations in hemispheric asymmetry may embed distinct biomarkers linked to the disease dynamics. Statistical parametric mapping based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and image processing techniques have allowed automated characterization of morphological features across the entire brain. In this study, 149 subjects grouped in healthy young, healthy elderly, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were investigated using multivariate analysis for regional cerebral laterality indexed by surface area, curvature index, cortical thickness, and subjacent white matter volume measured on high-resolution MR images. Asymmetry alteration of MCI and AD were characterized by marked region-specific reduction, while healthy elderly featured a distinct laterality shift in the limbic system in addition to regional asymmetry loss. Lack of the laterality shift in limbic system and early loss of asymmetry in entorhinal cortex may be biomarkers to identify preclinical AD among other dementia. Multivariate analysis of hemispheric asymmetry may provide information helpful for monitoring the disease progress and improving the management of MCI and AD.

  10. Map Analysis and Spatial Statistic: Assessment of Spatial Variability of Agriculture Land Conversion at Urban Fringe Area of Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, Bowo

    2016-11-01

    Urban development has brought various effects, one of which was the marginalization of the agricultural sector. Agricultural land is gradually converted to other type of land uses which considered more profitable. Conversion of agricultural land cannot be avoided but it should be controlled. Early identification on spatial distribution and intensity of agricultural land conversion as well as its related factor is necessary. Objective of the research were (1) to assess the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion, (2) to identify factors that affecting the spatial variability of agricultural land conversion. Research was conducted at urban fringe area of Yogyakarta. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion was analysed using an index called Relative Conversion Index (RCI). Combined of map analysis and spatial statistical were used to determine the center of agricultural land conversion. Simple regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the conversion of agricultural land. The result shows that intensity of agricultural land conversion in the study area varies spatially as well as temporally. Intensity of agricultural land conversion in the period 1993-2000, involves three categories which are high, moderate and low. In the period of 2000-2007, the intensity of agricultural land conversion involves two categories which are high and low. Spatial variability of agricultural land conversion in the study area has a significant correlation with three factors: population growth, fragmentation of agricultural land and distance of agricultural land to the city

  11. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  12. Using ultrasound backscattering signals and Nakagami statistical distribution to assess regional cataract hardness.

    PubMed

    Caixinha, Miguel; Jesus, Danilo A; Velte, Elena; Santos, Mário J; Santos, Jaime B

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the protein aggregates spatial distribution for different cataract degrees, and correlate this information with the lens acoustical parameters and by this way, assess the cataract regional hardness. Different cataract degrees were induced ex vivo in porcine lenses. A 25 MHz ultrasonic transducer was used to obtain the acoustical parameters (velocity, attenuation, and backscattering signals). B-scan and Nakagami images were constructed. Also, lenses with different cataract degrees were sliced in two regions (nucleus and cortex), for fibers and collagen detection. A significant increase with cataract formation was found for the velocity, attenuation, and brightness intensity of the B-scan images and Nakagami m parameter ( ). The acoustical parameters showed a good to moderate correlation with the m parameter for the different stages of cataract formation. A strong correlation was found between the protein aggregates in the cortex and the m parameter. Lenses without cataract are characterized using a classification and regression tree, by a mean brightness intensity ≤0.351, a variance of the B-scan brightness intensity ≤0.070, a velocity ≤1625 m/s, and an attenuation ≤0.415 dB/mm·MHz (sensitivity: 100% and specificity: 72.6%). To characterize different cataract degrees, the m parameter should be considered. Initial stages of cataract are characterized by a mean brightness intensity >0.351 and a variance of the m parameter >0.110. Advanced stages of cataract are characterized by a mean brightness intensity >0.351, a variance of the m parameter ≤0.110, and a mean m parameter >0.374. For initial and advanced stages of cataract, a sensitivity of 78.4% and a specificity of 86.5% are obtained.

  13. PRIMAL: Page Rank-Based Indoor Mapping and Localization Using Gene-Sequenced Unlabeled WLAN Received Signal Strength

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mu; Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Kunjie; Tian, Zengshan; Wang, Yanmeng; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Due to the wide deployment of wireless local area networks (WLAN), received signal strength (RSS)-based indoor WLAN localization has attracted considerable attention in both academia and industry. In this paper, we propose a novel page rank-based indoor mapping and localization (PRIMAL) by using the gene-sequenced unlabeled WLAN RSS for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Specifically, first of all, based on the observation of the motion patterns of the people in the target environment, we use the Allen logic to construct the mobility graph to characterize the connectivity among different areas of interest. Second, the concept of gene sequencing is utilized to assemble the sporadically-collected RSS sequences into a signal graph based on the transition relations among different RSS sequences. Third, we apply the graph drawing approach to exhibit both the mobility graph and signal graph in a more readable manner. Finally, the page rank (PR) algorithm is proposed to construct the mapping from the signal graph into the mobility graph. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory localization accuracy and meanwhile avoids the intensive time and labor cost involved in the conventional location fingerprinting-based indoor WLAN localization. PMID:26404274

  14. Regional patterns of cropland and pasture burning: Statistical separation of signals from remote sensing products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, S. S.; Pacala, S. W.; Magi, B. I.; Shevliakova, E.

    2013-12-01

    The use of fire in agriculture--to manage crop residues and pastoral grasses, and for clearing land--has consequences worldwide for air quality, human health, and climate. Airborne particulate matter from such burning aggravates respiratory ailments and can influence regional precipitation, while associated greenhouse gases and aerosols affect global climate. Little research, however, has focused on understanding patterns of cropland and pasture fire use with an eye towards simulation at global scales. Previous work by these authors showed that the separate seasonal trends of agricultural and non-agricultural fire could be extracted from large-scale fire observation and land use datasets. This study builds on that research, describing the derivation and application of a statistical method to estimate both the seasonality and amount of cropland, pasture, and other fire based on observations from satellite-based remote sensing products. We demonstrate that our approach is flexible enough to allow the incorporation of alternative high-quality observations of fire and/or land use that might be available only for certain regions. Results for a number of large regions around the world show that these two kinds of agricultural fire often differ in their extent and seasonality from each other and from burning on other land in ways that reflect known management practices. For example, we find that pasture in north-central sub-Saharan Africa tends to burn earlier than non-agricultural land; this can be attributed to pastoralists preventively burning their land early in the dry season so as to avoid severe, uncontrolled burns under more dangerous fire conditions later. Both the timing and extent of agricultural fires prove to be regionally specific; our method allows these geographically distinct patterns to be fully appreciated. The local and global differences in seasonality and amount of fire between different land-use types suggest that dynamic global vegetation models

  15. Map of Pseudo-F-statistics of seismic noise parameters as an indicator of current seismic danger in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubushin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    The problem of estimate of current seismic danger based on monitoring of seismic noise properties from broadband seismic network F-net in Japan (84 stations) is considered. Variations of the following seismic noise parameters are analyzed: multifractal singularity spectrum support width, generalized Hurst exponent, minimum Hölder-Lipschitz exponent and minimum normalized entropy of squared orthogonal wavelet coefficients. These parameters are estimated within adjacent time windows of the length 1 day for seismic noise waveforms from each station. Calculating daily median values of these parameters by all stations provides 4-dimensional time series which describes integral properties of the seismic noise in the region covered by the network. Cluster analysis is applied to the sequence of clouds of 4-dimensional vectors within moving time window of the length 365 days with mutual shift 3 days starting from the beginning of 1997 up to the current time. The purpose of the cluster analysis is to find the best number of clusters (BNC) from probe numbers which are varying from 1 up to the maximum value 40. The BNC is found from the maximum of pseudo-F-statistics (PFS). A 2D map could be created which presents dependence of PFS on the tested probe number of clusters and the right-hand end of moving time window which is rather similar to usual spectral time-frequency diagrams. In the paper [1] it was shown that the BNC before Tohoku mega-earthquake on March 11, 2011, has strongly chaotic regime with jumps from minimum up to maximum values in the time interval 1 year before the event and this time intervals was characterized by high PFS values. The PFS-map is proposed as the method for extracting time intervals with high current seismic danger. The next danger time interval after Tohoku mega-EQ began at the end of 2012 and was finished at the middle of 2013. Starting from middle of 2015 the high PFS values and chaotic regime of BNC variations were returned. This could be

  16. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  17. Performance mapping of the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine using a statistical design of experiments method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, M. A.; Rawlinson, K. S.

    A kinetic Stirling cycle engine, the Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) STM4-120, was tested at the Sandia National Laboratories Engine Test Facility (ETF) from March 1989-August 1992. Sandia is interested in determining this engine's potential for solar-thermal-electric applications. The last round of testing was conducted from July-August 1992 using Sandia-designed gas-fired heat pipe evaporators as the heat input system to the engine. The STM4-120 was performance mapped over a range of sodium vapor temperatures, cooling water temperatures, and cycle pressures. The resulting shaft power output levels ranged from 5-9 kW. The engine demonstrated high conversion efficiency (24-31%) even though the power output level was less than 40% of the rated output of 25 kW. The engine had been previously derated from 25 kW to 10 kW shaft power due to mechanical limitations that were identified by STM during parallel testing at their facility in Ann Arbor, MI. A statistical method was used to design the experiment, to choose the experimental points, and to generate correlation equations describing the engine performance given the operating parameters. The testing was truncated due to a failure of the heat pipe system caused by entrainment of liquid sodium in the condenser section of the heat pipes. Enough data was gathered to generate the correlations and to demonstrate the experimental technique. The correlation is accurate in the experimental space and is simple enough for use in hand calculations and spreadsheet-based system models. Use of this method can simplify the construction of accurate performance and economic models of systems in which the engine is a component. The purpose of this paper is to present the method used to design the experiments and to analyze the performance data.

  18. Center of pressure and center of mass behavior during gait initiation on inclined surfaces: A statistical parametric mapping analysis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcus Fraga; de Brito, Ademir Alves; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Rodrigues, Fábio Barbosa

    2017-02-27

    This study analyzed gait initiation (GI) on inclined surfaces with 68 young adult subjects of both sexes. Ground reaction forces and moments were collected using two AMTI force platforms, of which one was in a horizontal position and the other was inclined by 8% in relation to the horizontal plane. Departing from a standing position, each participant executed three trials in the following conditions: horizontal position (HOR), inclined position at ankle dorsi-flexion (UP), and inclined position at ankle plantar-flexion (DOWN). Statistical parametric mapping analysis was performed over the entire center of pressure (COP) and center of mass (COM) time series. COP excursion did not show significant differences in the medial-lateral (ML) direction in both inclined conditions, but it was greater in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction for both inclined conditions. COP velocities are smaller in discrete portions of GI for the UP and DOWN conditions. COM displacement was greater in the ML direction during anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) in the UP condition, and COM moves faster in the ML direction during APA in the UP condition but slower at the end of GI for both the UP and the DOWN conditions. The COP-COM vector showed a greater angle in the DOWN condition. We observed changes for COP and COM in GI in both the UP and the DOWN conditions, with the latter showing changes for a great extent of the task. Both the UP and the DOWN conditions showed increased COM displacement and velocity. The predominant characteristic during GI on inclined surfaces, including APA, appears to be the displacement of the COM.

  19. Statistical Evaluation of Efficiency and Possibility of Earthquake Predictions with Gravity Field Variation and its Analytic Signal in Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shi; Jiang, Changsheng; Zhuang, Jiancang

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed at assessing gravity variations as precursors for earthquake prediction in the Tibet (Xizang)-Qinghai-Xinjiang-Sichuan Region, western China. We here take a statistical approach to evaluate efficiency and possibility of earthquake prediction. We used the most recent spatiotemporal gravity field variation datasets of 2002-2008 for the region that were provided by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC). The datasets were space sparse and time discrete. In 2007-2010, 13 earthquakes (> M s 6.0) occurred in the region. The observed gravity variations have a statistical correlation with the occurrence of these earthquakes through the Molchan error diagram tests that lead to alarms over a good fraction of space-time. The results show that the prediction efficiency of amplitude of analytic signal of gravity variations is better than seismicity rate model and THD and absolute value of gravity variation, implying that gravity variations before earthquake may include precursory information of future large earthquakes.

  20. Optimized statistical parametric mapping for partial-volume-corrected amyloid positron emission tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Chae, Sun Young; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Seung Jun; Cha, Seung Nam; Chang, Ho-Jong; Lee, Chong Sik; Lee, Jae Hong

    2017-03-01

    We present an optimized voxelwise statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of partial-volume (PV)-corrected positron emission tomography (PET) of 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), incorporating the anatomical precision of magnetic resonance image (MRI) and amyloid β (A β) burden-specificity of PiB PET. First, we applied region-based partial-volume correction (PVC), termed the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method, to PiB PET, creating MRI-based lobar parcels filled with mean PiB uptakes. Then, we conducted a voxelwise PVC by multiplying the original PET by the ratio of a GTM-based PV-corrected PET to a 6-mm-smoothed PV-corrected PET. Finally, we conducted spatial normalizations of the PV-corrected PETs onto the study-specific template. As such, we increased the accuracy of the SPM normalization and the tissue specificity of SPM results. Moreover, lobar smoothing (instead of whole-brain smoothing) was applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the image without degrading the tissue specificity. Thereby, we could optimize a voxelwise group comparison between subjects with high and normal A β burdens (from 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 30 patients with Lewy body dementia, and 9 normal controls). Our SPM framework outperformed than the conventional one in terms of the accuracy of the spatial normalization (85% of maximum likelihood tissue classification volume) and the tissue specificity (larger gray matter, and smaller cerebrospinal fluid volume fraction from the SPM results). Our SPM framework optimized the SPM of a PV-corrected A β PET in terms of anatomical precision, normalization accuracy, and tissue specificity, resulting in better detection and localization of A β burdens in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia.

  1. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  2. The Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7: A crosstalk point between Auxin signaling and defense responses?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogen interaction induces a complex host response that coordinates various signaling pathways through multiple signal molecules. Besides the well-documented signal molecules salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and jasmonic acid, auxin is emerging as an important player in this response. We recent...

  3. On the optimality of the MAP estimation loop for carrier phase tracking BPSK and QPSK signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Starting with MAP estimation theory as a basis for optimally estimating carrier phase of BPSK and QPSK modulations, it is shown in this paper that the closed loop phase trackers, which are motivated by this approach, are indeed closed loop optimum in the minimum mean-square phase tracking jitter sense. The corresponding squaring loss performance of these so-called MAP estimation loops is compared with that of more practical implementations wherein the hyperbolic tangent nonlinearity is approximated by simpler functions.

  4. Decision support system for ultrasound inspection of fiber metal laminates using statistical signal processing and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Simas Filho, Eduardo F; Souza, Yure N; Lopes, Juliana L S; Farias, Cláudia T T; Albuquerque, Maria C S

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the aerospace industry has motivated the development of alternative materials. The fiber-metal laminate composites (FML) may replace the monolithic aluminum alloys in aircrafts structure as they present some advantages, such as higher stiffness, lower density and longer lifetime. However, a great variety of deformation modes can lead to failures in these composites and the degradation mechanisms are hard to detect in early stages through regular ultrasonic inspection. This paper aims at the automatic detection of defects (such as fiber fracture and delamination) in fiber-metal laminates composites through ultrasonic testing in the immersion pulse-echo configuration. For this, a neural network based decision support system was designed. The preprocessing stage (feature extraction) comprises Fourier transform and statistical signal processing techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component Analysis) aiming at extracting discriminant information and reduce redundancy in the set of features. Through the proposed system, classification efficiencies of ~99% were achieved and the misclassification of signatures corresponding to defects was almost eliminated.

  5. Mapping Neuronal Activation and the Influence of Adrenergic Signaling during Contextual Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei-Ping; Guzowski, John F.; Thomas, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a critical role for adrenergic signaling in the hippocampus during contextual and spatial memory retrieval. To determine which neurons are activated by contextual memory retrieval and its sequelae in the presence and absence of adrenergic signaling, transcriptional imaging for the immediate-early gene "Arc" was used in…

  6. Noncosmological signal contributions to the COBE DMR anisotropy maps. [Differential Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A.; Kogut, A.; Wright, E. L.; Loewenstein, K.; Cheng, E. S.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) data for evidence of noncosmological source contributions. The DMR maps are cross-correlated with maps of rich clusters, extragalactic IRAS sources, HEAO 1 A-2 X-ray emission, and 5 GHz radio sources. We limit the rms contributions from these sources on a 7 deg angular scale to less than 10 micro-K (95 percent confidence level) in the DMR maps, although the LMC probably contributes about 50 micro-K to a limited region of the sky. Thus, our previous interpretation that the fluctuations in the COBE DMR data are most likely due to cosmic fluctuations at the surface of last scattering remains intact. The Comptonization parameter for hot electrons traced by rich clusters is limited to delta(y) less than 2 x 10 exp -6 (95 percent confidence level) averaged over the 7 deg DMR beam.

  7. Noncosmological Signal Contributions to the COBE DMR 4 Year Sky Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Bennett, C. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.

    1996-09-01

    We limit the possible contributions from noncosmological sources to the COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) 4 year sky maps. The DMR data are cross-correlated with maps of rich clusters, extragalactic IRAS sources, HEAO 1 A-2 X-ray emission, and 5 GHz radio sources using a Fourier space technique. There is no evidence of significant contamination by such sources at an rms level of ~8 mu K [95% confidence level (c.l.) at 7 deg resolution] in the most sensitive 53 GHz sky map. This level is consistent with previous limits set by analysis of earlier DMR data and by simple extrapolations from existing source models. We place a limit on the rms Comptonization parameter averaged over the high-latitude sky of delta y < 1 x 10-6 (95% c.l.). Extragalactic sources have an insignificant effect on the cosmic microwave background power spectrum parameterizations determined from the DMR data.

  8. The Design and Use of an Optical Mapping System for the Study of Intracardiac Electrical Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastav, Maneesh; Ghai, Megan B; Singal, Ashish; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent optical mapping of electrically active cardiac tissues provides a unique method to examine the excitation wave dynamics of underlying action potentials. Such mapping can be viewed as a bridge between cellular level and organ systems physiology, e.g., by facilitating the development of advanced theoretical concepts of arrhythmia. We present the design and use of a high-speed, high-resolution optical mapping system composed entirely of "off the shelf" components. The electrical design integrates a 256 element photodiode array with a 16 bit data acquisition system. Proper grounding and shielding at various stages of the design reduce electromagnetic interference. Our mechanical design provides flexibility in terms of mounting positions and applications (use for whole heart or tissue preparations), while maintaining precise alignment between all optical components. The system software incorporates a user friendly graphical user interface, e.g., spatially recorded action potentials can be represented as intensity graphs or in strip chart format. Thus, this system is capable of displaying cardiac action potentials with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results from cardiac action potential mapping with intact mouse hearts are provided. It should be noted that this system could be readily configured to study isolated myocardial biopsies (e.g., isolated ventricular trabeculae). We describe the details of a versatile, user-friendly system that could be employed for a magnitude of study protocols. PMID:22912535

  9. Hail statistic in Western Europe based on a hyrid cell-tracking algorithm combining radar signals with hailstone observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Elody

    2015-04-01

    Hail statistic in Western Europe based on a hybrid cell-tracking algorithm combining radar signals with hailstone observations Elody Fluck¹, Michael Kunz¹ , Peter Geissbühler², Stefan P. Ritz² With hail damage estimated over Billions of Euros for a single event (e.g., hailstorm Andreas on 27/28 July 2013), hail constitute one of the major atmospheric risks in various parts of Europe. The project HAMLET (Hail Model for Europe) in cooperation with the insurance company Tokio Millennium Re aims at estimating hail probability, hail hazard and, combined with vulnerability, hail risk for several European countries (Germany, Switzerland, France, Netherlands, Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg). Hail signals are obtained from radar reflectivity since this proxy is available with a high temporal and spatial resolution using several hail proxies, especially radar data. The focus in the first step is on Germany and France for the periods 2005- 2013 and 1999 - 2013, respectively. In the next step, the methods will be transferred and extended to other regions. A cell-tracking algorithm TRACE2D was adjusted and applied to two dimensional radar reflectivity data from different radars operated by European weather services such as German weather service (DWD) and French weather service (Météo-France). Strong convective cells are detected by considering 3 connected pixels over 45 dBZ (Reflectivity Cores RCs) in a radar scan. Afterwards, the algorithm tries to find the same RCs in the next 5 minute radar scan and, thus, track the RCs centers over time and space. Additional information about hailstone diameters provided by ESWD (European Severe Weather Database) is used to determine hail intensity of the detected hail swaths. Maximum hailstone diameters are interpolated along and close to the individual hail tracks giving an estimation of mean diameters for the detected hail swaths. Furthermore, a stochastic event set is created by randomizing the parameters obtained from the

  10. Non extensive statistical physics applied in fracture-induced electric signals during triaxial deformation of Carrara marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright-Taylor, Alexis; Vallianatos, Filippos; Sammonds, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We have conducted room-temperature, triaxial compression experiments on samples of Carrara marble, recording concurrently acoustic and electric current signals emitted during the deformation process as well as mechanical loading information and ultrasonic wave velocities. Our results reveal that in a dry non-piezoelectric rock under simulated crustal pressure conditions, a measurable electric current (nA) is generated within the stressed sample. The current is detected only in the region beyond (quasi-)linear elastic deformation; i.e. in the region of permanent deformation beyond the yield point of the material and in the presence of microcracking. Our results extend to shallow crustal conditions previous observations of electric current signals in quartz-free rocks undergoing uniaxial deformation and support the idea of a universal electrification mechanism related to deformation. Confining pressure conditions of our slow strain rate (10-6 s-1) experiments range from the purely brittle regime (10 MPa) to the semi-brittle transition (30-100MPa) where cataclastic flow is the dominant deformation mechanism. Electric current is generated under all confining pressures,implying the existence of a current-producing mechanism during both microfracture and frictional sliding. Some differences are seen in the current evolution between these two regimes, possibly related to crack localisation. In all cases, the measured electric current exhibits episodes of strong fluctuations over short timescales; calm periods punctuated by bursts of strong activity. For the analysis, we adopt an entropy-based statistical physics approach (Tsallis, 1988), particularly suited to the study of fracture related phenomena. We find that the probability distribution of normalised electric current fluctuations over short time intervals (0.5 s) can be well described by a q-Gaussian distribution of a form similar to that which describes turbulent flows. This approach yields different entropic

  11. Arkansas StreamStats: a U.S. Geological Survey web map application for basin characteristics and streamflow statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.

    2014-01-01

    Users of streamflow information often require streamflow statistics and basin characteristics at various locations along a stream. The USGS periodically calculates and publishes streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamflowgaging stations and partial-record stations, but these data commonly are scattered among many reports that may or may not be readily available to the public. The USGS also provides and periodically updates regional analyses of streamflow statistics that include regression equations and other prediction methods for estimating statistics for ungaged and unregulated streams across the State. Use of these regional predictions for a stream can be complex and often requires the user to determine a number of basin characteristics that may require interpretation. Basin characteristics may include drainage area, classifiers for physical properties, climatic characteristics, and other inputs. Obtaining these input values for gaged and ungaged locations traditionally has been time consuming, subjective, and can lead to inconsistent results.

  12. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  13. Statistical parametric mapping of stimuli-evoked changes in quantitative blood flow using extended-focus optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Paul J.; Bouwens, Arno; Shamaei, Vincent; Nguyen, David; Extermann, Jerome; Bolmont, Tristan; Lasser, Theo

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging has revolutionised our understanding of brain function through its ability to image human cerebral structures non-invasively over the entire brain. By exploiting the different magnetic properties of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, functional MRI can indirectly map areas undergoing neural activation. Alongside the development of fMRI, powerful statistical tools have been developed in an effort to shed light on the neural pathways involved in processing of sensory and cognitive information. In spite of the major improvements made in fMRI technology, the obtained spatial resolution of hundreds of microns prevents MRI in resolving and monitoring processes occurring at the cellular level. In this regard, Optical Coherence Microscopy is an ideal instrumentation as it can image at high spatio-temporal resolution. Moreover, by measuring the mean and the width of the Doppler spectra of light scattered by moving particles, OCM allows extracting the axial and lateral velocity components of red blood cells. The ability to assess quantitatively total blood velocity, as opposed to classical axial velocity Doppler OCM, is of paramount importance in brain imaging as a large proportion of cortical vascular is oriented perpendicularly to the optical axis. We combine here quantitative blood flow imaging with extended-focus Optical Coherence Microscopy and Statistical Parametric Mapping tools to generate maps of stimuli-evoked cortical hemodynamics at the capillary level.

  14. Two-step intermediate fine mapping with likelihood ratio test statistics: applications to Problems 2 and 3 data of GAW15.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ritwik; Luo, Yuqun

    2007-01-01

    Construction of precise confidence sets of disease gene locations after initial identification of linked regions can improve the efficiency of the ensuing fine mapping effort. We took the confidence set inference, a framework proposed and implemented using the Mean test statistic (CSI-Mean) and improved the efficiency substantially by using a likelihood ratio test statistic (CSI-MLS). The CSI framework requires knowledge of some disease-model-related parameters. In the absence of prior knowledge of these parameters, a two-step procedure may be employed: 1) the parameters are estimated using a coarse map of markers; 2) CSI-Mean or CSI-MLS are applied to construct the confidence sets of the disease gene locations using a finer map of markers, assuming the estimates from Step 1 for the required parameters. In this article we show that the advantages of CSI-MLS over CSI-Mean, previously demonstrated when the required parameters are known, are preserved in this two-step procedure, using both the simulated and real data contributed to Problems 2 and 3 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 15. In addition, our result suggests that microsatellite data, when available, should be used in Step 1. Also explored in detail is the effect of the absence of parental genotypes on the performance of CSI-MLS.

  15. Detection and Classification of Low Probability of Intercept Radar Signals Using Parallel Filter Arrays and Higher Order Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Resulting Plots for Different LPI Radar Signals (1) FMCW Table 9 shows a FMCW signal with carrier frequency equal to 1 KHz, sampling frequency equal to...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Detection and Classification of LPI Radar Signals using Parallel Filter...In order to detect LPI radar waveforms new signal processing techniques are required. This thesis first develops a MATLAB® toolbox to generate

  16. Global map of oxytocin/vasopressin-like neuropeptide signalling in insects.

    PubMed

    Liutkeviciute, Zita; Koehbach, Johannes; Eder, Thomas; Gil-Mansilla, Esther; Gruber, Christian W

    2016-12-13

    Oxytocin and vasopressin mediate a range of physiological functions that are important for osmoregulation, reproduction, social behaviour, memory and learning. The origin of this signalling system is thought to date back ~600 million years. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides have been identified in several invertebrate species and they appear to be functionally related across the entire animal kingdom. There is little information available about the biology of this peptide G protein-coupled receptor signalling system in insects. Recently over 200 insect genome/transcriptome datasets were released allowing investigation of the molecular structure and phylogenetic distribution of the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue - inotocin peptides and their receptors. The signalling system is present in early arthropods and representatives of some early-diverging lineages. However, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Siphonaptera, Mecoptera and Diptera, lack the presence of inotocin genes, which suggests the peptide-receptor system was probably lost in their common ancestor ~280 million-years-ago. In addition we detected several losses of the inotocin signalling system in Hemiptera (white flies, scale insects and aphids), and the complete absence in spiders (Chelicerata). This unique insight into evolutionarily patterns and sequence diversity of neuroendocrine hormones will provide opportunities to elucidate the physiology of the inotocin signalling system in one of the largest group of animals.

  17. Global map of oxytocin/vasopressin-like neuropeptide signalling in insects

    PubMed Central

    Liutkeviciute, Zita; Koehbach, Johannes; Eder, Thomas; Gil-Mansilla, Esther; Gruber, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin and vasopressin mediate a range of physiological functions that are important for osmoregulation, reproduction, social behaviour, memory and learning. The origin of this signalling system is thought to date back ~600 million years. Oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptides have been identified in several invertebrate species and they appear to be functionally related across the entire animal kingdom. There is little information available about the biology of this peptide G protein-coupled receptor signalling system in insects. Recently over 200 insect genome/transcriptome datasets were released allowing investigation of the molecular structure and phylogenetic distribution of the insect oxytocin/vasopressin orthologue – inotocin peptides and their receptors. The signalling system is present in early arthropods and representatives of some early-diverging lineages. However, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Siphonaptera, Mecoptera and Diptera, lack the presence of inotocin genes, which suggests the peptide-receptor system was probably lost in their common ancestor ~280 million-years-ago. In addition we detected several losses of the inotocin signalling system in Hemiptera (white flies, scale insects and aphids), and the complete absence in spiders (Chelicerata). This unique insight into evolutionarily patterns and sequence diversity of neuroendocrine hormones will provide opportunities to elucidate the physiology of the inotocin signalling system in one of the largest group of animals. PMID:27958372

  18. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  19. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  20. Maps of context-dependent putative regulatory regions and genomic signal interactions.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Klev; Umer, Husen M; Kruczyk, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Michał J; Cavalli, Marco; Wadelius, Claes; Komorowski, Jan

    2016-11-02

    Gene transcription is regulated mainly by transcription factors (TFs). ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics provide global binding profiles of TFs, which can be used to identify regulatory regions. To this end we implemented a method to systematically construct cell-type and species-specific maps of regulatory regions and TF-TF interactions. We illustrated the approach by developing maps for five human cell-lines and two other species. We detected ∼144k putative regulatory regions among the human cell-lines, with the majority of them being ∼300 bp. We found ∼20k putative regulatory elements in the ENCODE heterochromatic domains suggesting a large regulatory potential in the regions presumed transcriptionally silent. Among the most significant TF interactions identified in the heterochromatic regions were CTCF and the cohesin complex, which is in agreement with previous reports. Finally, we investigated the enrichment of the obtained putative regulatory regions in the 3D chromatin domains. More than 90% of the regions were discovered in the 3D contacting domains. We found a significant enrichment of GWAS SNPs in the putative regulatory regions. These significant enrichments provide evidence that the regulatory regions play a crucial role in the genomic structural stability. Additionally, we generated maps of putative regulatory regions for prostate and colorectal cancer human cell-lines.

  1. Recording human electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for neuroscientific research and real-time functional cortical mapping.

    PubMed

    Hill, N Jeremy; Gupta, Disha; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Adamo, Matthew A; Ritaccio, Anthony; Schalk, Gerwin

    2012-06-26

    methods for collecting recording ECoG, and demonstrate how to use these signals for important real-time applications such as clinical mapping and brain-computer interfacing. Our example uses the BCI2000 software platform and the SIGFRIED method, an application for real-time mapping of brain functions. This procedure yields information that clinicians can subsequently use to guide the complex and laborious process of functional mapping by electrical stimulation. PREREQUISITES AND PLANNING: Patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy may be candidates for resective surgery of an epileptic focus to minimize the frequency of seizures. Prior to resection, the patients undergo monitoring using subdural electrodes for two purposes: first, to localize the epileptic focus, and second, to identify nearby critical brain areas (i.e., eloquent cortex) where resection could result in long-term functional deficits. To implant electrodes, a craniotomy is performed to open the skull. Then, electrode grids and/or strips are placed on the cortex, usually beneath the dura. A typical grid has a set of 8 x 8 platinum-iridium electrodes of 4 mm diameter (2.3 mm exposed surface) embedded in silicon with an inter-electrode distance of 1cm. A strip typically contains 4 or 6 such electrodes in a single line. The locations for these grids/strips are planned by a team of neurologists and neurosurgeons, and are based on previous EEG monitoring, on a structural MRI of the patient's brain, and on relevant factors of the patient's history. Continuous recording over a period of 5-12 days serves to localize epileptic foci, and electrical stimulation via the implanted electrodes allows clinicians to map eloquent cortex. At the end of the monitoring period, explantation of the electrodes and therapeutic resection are performed together in one procedure. In addition to its primary clinical purpose, invasive monitoring also provides a unique opportunity to acquire human ECoG data for neuroscientific research

  2. Flash flood susceptibility analysis and its mapping using different bivariate models in Iran: a comparison between Shannon(')s entropy, statistical index, and weighting factor models.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Khabat; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Chapi, Kamran; Bahri, Masoumeh

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common worldwide natural hazard causing large-scale casualties every year; Iran is not immune to this thread as well. Comprehensive flood susceptibility mapping is very important to reduce losses of lives and properties. Thus, the aim of this study is to map susceptibility to flooding by different bivariate statistical methods including Shannon's entropy (SE), statistical index (SI), and weighting factor (Wf). In this regard, model performance evaluation is also carried out in Haraz Watershed, Mazandaran Province, Iran. In the first step, 211 flood locations were identified by the documentary sources and field inventories, of which 70% (151 positions) were used for flood susceptibility modeling and 30% (60 positions) for evaluation and verification of the model. In the second step, ten influential factors in flooding were chosen, namely slope angle, plan curvature, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), distance from river, rainfall, geology, land use, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the next step, flood susceptibility maps were prepared by these four methods in ArcGIS. As the last step, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for quantitative assessment of each model. The results showed that the best model to estimate the susceptibility to flooding in Haraz Watershed was SI model with the prediction and success rates of 99.71 and 98.72%, respectively, followed by Wf and SE models with the AUC values of 98.1 and 96.57% for the success rate, and 97.6 and 92.42% for the prediction rate, respectively. In the SI and Wf models, the highest and lowest important parameters were the distance from river and geology. Flood susceptibility maps are informative for managers and decision makers in Haraz Watershed in order to contemplate measures to reduce human and financial losses.

  3. Swath Mapping of the New Jersey and Northern California Margins and Statistical Characterization of the Shelf and Slope Bathymetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    Contours are in meters. Illuminati on is from the top of the image. Center of image is at ap proximately 39•25’ N, 73•oo·w. Figure 1 b. Conditional simulation of above image, using statistical model derived from the data.

  4. Valproate inhibits MAP kinase signalling and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Desfossés-Baron, Kristelle; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Simoneau, Antoine; Sellam, Adnane; Roberts, Stephen; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of action of valproate (VPA), a widely prescribed short chain fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anticancer properties, remains poorly understood. Here, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model to investigate the biological consequences of VPA exposure. We found that low pH strongly potentiates VPA-induced growth inhibition. Transcriptional profiling revealed that under these conditions, VPA modulates the expression of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, cell wall organisation, sexual reproduction, and cell cycle progression. We further investigated the impact of VPA on selected processes and found that this drug: i) activates markers of the unfolded protein stress response such as Hac1 mRNA splicing; ii) modulates the cell wall integrity pathway by inhibiting the activation of the Slt2 MAP kinase, and synergizes with cell wall stressors such as micafungin and calcofluor white in preventing yeast growth; iii) prevents activation of the Kss1 and Fus3 MAP kinases of the mating pheromone pathway, which in turn abolishes cellular responses to alpha factor; and iv) blocks cell cycle progression and DNA replication. Overall, our data identify heretofore unknown biological responses to VPA in budding yeast, and highlight the broad spectrum of cellular pathways influenced by this chemical in eukaryotes. PMID:27782169

  5. Mapping transverse capillary flow speed using time-varying OCT speckle signals (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    We present an optical coherence tomography (OCT) based method for mapping transverse red blood cell (RBC) flow speed at capillary. This OCT velocimetry utilizes a quantitative laser speckle temporal contrast analysis that estimates reliable speckle decorrelation time from the observed speckle contrast, which is related to microcirculatory flow velocity. For capillary speed measurement, we employ a home-built 1.3 µm MHz swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system that can acquire OCT B-frames at a rate of 1.7 kHz. From the multiple B-frames obtained at the same location, intensity profiles with time-varying OCT speckle contrast are extracted at single capillaries using a capillary binary mask and then the transverse flow speed is calculated by adapting the profiles to the speckle contrast analytic model. Finally, a 3D speed map can be achieved for OCT volume imaging. To validate this method, we perform a systematic study using both phantom and in vivo rodent models. Result shows that our method is effective to measure transverse capillary flow speed.

  6. Role played by Disabled-2 in albumin induced MAP Kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy Pearson, Alexander L.; Colville-Nash, Paul; Baines, Deborah L.; Dockrell, Mark E.C.

    2008-02-15

    Albumin has been shown to activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in proximal tubular cells (PTECs) of the kidney. Megalin, the putative receptor for albumin has potential signalling properties. However, the mechanisms by which megalin signals are unclear. The adaptor phosphoprotein Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of megalin and may be involved in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling. In this study, we investigated the role of Dab2 in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling and further studied the role of Dab2 in albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion, a MAPK dependent event. We used RNA interference to knockdown Dab2 protein abundance in HKC-8 cells a model of human PTECs. Albumin activated ERK1,2 and Elk-1 in a MEK-1 dependent manner and resulted in secretion of TGF{beta}-1. In the absence of albumin, knockdown of Dab2 resulted in a trend towards increase in pERK1,2 consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However albumin-induced ERK1,2 activation was completely abolished by Dab2 knockdown. Dab2 knockdown did not however result in inhibition of albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion. These results suggest that Dab2 is a ligand dependent bi-directional regulator of ERK1,2 activity by demonstrating that in addition to its more traditional role as an inhibitor of ERK1,2 it may also activate ERK1,2.

  7. Global prediction of abyssal hill roughness statistics for use in ocean models from digital maps of paleo-spreading rate, paleo-ridge orientation, and sediment thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.; Arbic, Brian K.

    Abyssal hills are the dominant small-scale roughness fabric over much of the ocean floor. Created at mid-ocean ridges by combined volcanic and tectonic processes, they are rafted away by plate spreading and modified through time by mass wasting and sedimentation. Abyssal hills are morphological indicators of spreading rate and direction: they are lineated parallel to the ridge at the time of formation, and their heights and widths are inversely correlated to spreading rate. Knowledge of abyssal hill roughness statistics is important for high-resolution models, including models of internal wave generation and mixing driven by tidal and low-frequency flows over the rough bottom. In this paper we present a prediction of abyssal hill roughness statistical parameters world-wide via relationships for the average statistical properties of abyssal hills as a function of spreading rate and direction, and for the modification to these roughness parameters as a function of sediment thickness. These relationships are constrained by new publicly-available digital maps of paleo-spreading rate and direction, and sediment thickness. We also develop a new method for generating synthetic topography with variable statistical properties over a grid, and present an example of synthetic abyssal hill roughness generated for the North Atlantic on a 1/2-min grid.

  8. Non-linear signal response functions and their effects on the statistical and noise cancellation properties of isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, W.

    2013-07-01

    A nebulizer-centric response function model of the analytical inductively coupled argon plasma ion source was used to investigate the statistical frequency distributions and noise reduction factors of simultaneously measured flicker noise limited isotope ion signals and their ratios. The response function model was extended by assuming i) a single gaussian distributed random noise source (nebulizer gas pressure fluctuations) and ii) the isotope ion signal response is a parabolic function of the nebulizer gas pressure. Model calculations of ion signal and signal ratio histograms were obtained by applying the statistical method of translation to the non-linear response function model of the plasma. Histograms of Ni, Cu, Pr, Tl and Pb isotope ion signals measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer were, without exception, negative skew. Histograms of the corresponding isotope ratios of Ni, Cu, Tl and Pb were either positive or negative skew. There was a complete agreement between the measured and model calculated histogram skew properties. The nebulizer-centric response function model was also used to investigate the effect of non-linear response functions on the effectiveness of noise cancellation by signal division. An alternative noise correction procedure suitable for parabolic signal response functions was derived and applied to measurements of isotope ratios of Cu, Ni, Pb and Tl. The largest noise reduction factors were always obtained when the non-linearity of the response functions was taken into account by the isotope ratio calculation. Possible applications of the nebulizer-centric response function model to other types of analytical instrumentation, large amplitude signal noise sources (e.g., lasers, pumped nebulizers) and analytical error in isotope ratio measurements by multi-collector plasma mass spectrometry are discussed.

  9. Textural analysis by statistical parameters and its application to the mapping of flow-structures in wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieczorek, U.

    1977-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977 the application of remote sensing methods in coastal areas and tidal bays and estuaries was investigated on the German coast of the North Sea. Aerial photographs were taken using different films; (1) color, (2) color infrared, and (3) black and white films. Scanner recordings were taken by an 11 channel scanner. Ground truth measurements of radiation and measurements of meteorological elements were carried out. For mapping the morphology in mudflat areas a digital texture analysis was developed, by which measurement of the change of image structures cased by distributing factors, such as changing illumination, is possible.

  10. Mapping grassland leaf area index with airborne hyperspectral imagery: A comparison study of statistical approaches and inversion of radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Atzberger, Clement; Skidmore, Andrew; Schlerf, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Statistical and physical models have seldom been compared in studying grasslands. In this paper, both modeling approaches are investigated for mapping leaf area index (LAI) in a Mediterranean grassland (Majella National Park, Italy) using HyMap airborne hyperspectral images. We compared inversion of the PROSAIL radiative transfer model with narrow band vegetation indices (NDVI-like and SAVI2-like) and partial least squares regression (PLS). To assess the performance of the investigated models, the normalized RMSE (nRMSE) and R2 between in situ measurements of leaf area index and estimated parameter values are reported. The results of the study demonstrate that LAI can be estimated through PROSAIL inversion with accuracies comparable to those of statistical approaches ( R2 = 0.89, nRMSE = 0.22). The accuracy of the radiative transfer model inversion was further increased by using only a spectral subset of the data ( R2 = 0.91, nRMSE = 0.18). For the feature selection wavebands not well simulated by PROSAIL were sequentially discarded until all bands fulfilled the imposed accuracy requirements.

  11. Opposing actions of TGF{beta} and MAP kinase signaling in undifferentiated hen granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Haugen, Morgan J.; Johnson, A.L. . E-mail: johnson.128@nd.edu

    2005-10-21

    The present studies were conducted to establish interactions between transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, TGF{alpha} and betacellulin (BTC), relative to proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells in hen ovarian follicles. Results presented demonstrate expression of TGF{beta} isoforms, plus TGF{alpha}, BTC, and ErbB receptors in prehierarchal follicles, thus establishing the potential for autocrine/paracrine signaling and cross-talk within granulosa cells at the onset of differentiation. Treatment with TGF{alpha} or BTC increases levels of TGF{beta}1 mRNA in undifferentiated granulosa cells, while the selective inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, U0126, reverses these effects. Moreover, TGF{beta}1 attenuates c-myc mRNA expression and granulosa cell proliferation, while TGF{alpha} blocks both these inhibitory effects. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EGF family ligands regulate both the expression and biological actions of TGF{beta}1 in hen granulosa cells, and indicate that the timely interaction of these opposing factors is an important modulator of both granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation.

  12. An Association Map on the Effect of Flavonoids on the Signaling Pathways in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koosha, Sanaz; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Looi, Chung Yeng; Seyedan, Atefehalsadat; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer in the world, causing thousands of deaths annually. Although chemotherapy is known to be an effective treatment to combat colon cancer, it produces severe side effects. Natural products, on the other hand, appear to generate fewer side effects than do chemotherapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in various fruits and vegetables known to possess antioxidant activities, and the literature shows that several of these flavonoids have anti-CRC propertiesFlavonoids are classified into five main subclasses: flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavan-3-ols, and flavanonols. Of these subclasses, the flavanonols have a minimum effect against CRC, whereas the flavones play an important role. The main targets for the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on CRC signaling pathways are caspase; nuclear factor kappa B; mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9; p53; β-catenin; cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4; and cyclins A, B, D, and E. In this review article, we summarize the in vitro and in vivo studies that have been performed since 2000 on the anti-CRC properties of flavonoids. We also describe the signaling pathways affected by flavonoids that have been found to be involved in CRC. Some flavonoids have the potential to be an effective alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of colon cancer; well-controlled clinical studies should, however, be conducted to support this proposal. PMID:27226778

  13. BMP-TAK1 (MAP3K7) Induces Adipocyte Differentiation Through PPARγ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongchun; O'Keefe, Regis J; Jonason, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    BMPs have been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation through SMAD-dependent signaling. However, the role of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in non-canonical BMP signaling in adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that TAK1 inhibition decreases lipid accumulation in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced to differentiate into adipocytes. TAK1 knockdown by siRNA further confirms that TAK1 is required for adipocyte commitment of MSCs. Additionally, TAK1 knockdown inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating that TAK1 is not only needed for adipocyte commitment, but also required for adipocyte terminal differentiation. Furthermore, TAK1 ablation specifically in adipocytes reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that TAK1 is required for PPARγ transactivation and promotes PPARγ transcriptional activity synergistically with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1). Collectively, our results demonstrate that TAK1 plays a critical role in BMP-mediated adipocyte differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 204-210, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. MST50 Is Involved in Multiple MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Guotian; Zhang, Xue; Tian, Huan; Choi, Yoon-E; Andy Tao, W; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-02-28

    Appressorium formation plays a critical role in Magnaporthe oryzae. Mst50 is an adapter protein of the Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 cascade that is essential for appressorium formation. To further characterize its functions, affinity purification was used to identify Mst50-interacting proteins (MIPs) in this study. Two of the MIPs are Mst11 and Mst7 that are known to interact with Mst50 for Pmk1 activation. Surprisingly, two other MIPs are Mck1 and Mkk2 that are the upstream kinases of the Mps1 pathway. Domain deletion analysis showed that the sterile alpha-motif of Mst50 but not the Ras-association domain was important for its interaction with Mck1 and responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses. The mst50 mutant was reduced in Mps1 activation under stress conditions. MIP11 encodes a RACK1 protein that also interacted with Mck1. Deletion of MIP11 resulted in defects in cell wall integrity, Mps1 phosphorylation, and plant infection. Furthermore, Mst50 interacted with histidine kinase Hik1, and the mst50 mutant was reduced in Osm1 phosphorylation. These results indicated that Mst50 is involved in all three MAPK pathways in M. oryzae although its functions differ in each pathway. Several MIPs are conserved hypothetical proteins and may be involved in responses to various signals and crosstalk among signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical parametric mapping of stimuli evoked changes in total blood flow velocity in the mouse cortex obtained with extended-focus optical coherence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Paul J.; Bouwens, Arno; Bolmont, Tristan; Shamaei, Vincent K.; Nguyen, David; Szlag, Daniel; Extermann, Jérôme; Lasser, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging is the current gold-standard in neuroimaging. fMRI exploits local changes in blood oxygenation to map neuronal activity over the entire brain. However, its spatial resolution is currently limited to a few hundreds of microns. Here we use extended-focus optical coherence microscopy (xfOCM) to quantitatively measure changes in blood flow velocity during functional hyperaemia at high spatio-temporal resolution in the somatosensory cortex of mice. As optical coherence microscopy acquires hundreds of depth slices simultaneously, blood flow velocity measurements can be performed over several vessels in parallel. We present the proof-of-principle of an optimised statistical parametric mapping framework to analyse quantitative blood flow timetraces acquired with xfOCM using the general linear model. We demonstrate the feasibility of generating maps of cortical hemodynamic reactivity at the capillary level with optical coherence microscopy. To validate our method, we exploited 3 stimulation paradigms, covering different temporal dynamics and stimulated limbs, and demonstrated its repeatability over 2 trials, separated by a week. PMID:28101397

  16. Effects of deformable registration algorithms on the creation of statistical maps for preoperative targeting in deep brain stimulation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; D'Haese, Pierre-Francois; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation, which is used to treat various neurological disorders, involves implanting a permanent electrode into precise targets deep in the brain. Accurate pre-operative localization of the targets on pre-operative MRI sequence is challenging as these are typically located in homogenous regions with poor contrast. Population-based statistical atlases can assist with this process. Such atlases are created by acquiring the location of efficacious regions from numerous subjects and projecting them onto a common reference image volume using some normalization method. In previous work, we presented results concluding that non-rigid registration provided the best result for such normalization. However, this process could be biased by the choice of the reference image and/or registration approach. In this paper, we have qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of six recognized deformable registration methods at normalizing such data in poor contrasted regions onto three different reference volumes using a unique set of data from 100 patients. We study various metrics designed to measure the centroid, spread, and shape of the normalized data. This study leads to a total of 1800 deformable registrations and results show that statistical atlases constructed using different deformable registration methods share comparable centroids and spreads with marginal differences in their shape. Among the six methods being studied, Diffeomorphic Demons produces the largest spreads and centroids that are the furthest apart from the others in general. Among the three atlases, one atlas consistently outperforms the other two with smaller spreads for each algorithm. However, none of the differences in the spreads were found to be statistically significant, across different algorithms or across different atlases.

  17. STEAM - Statistical Template Estimation for Abnormality Mapping: A personalized DTI analysis technique with applications to the screening of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brian G; Miller, Steven P; Brown, Colin J; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Chau, Vann; Grunau, Ruth E; Synnes, Anne R; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-15

    We introduce the STEAM DTI analysis engine: a whole brain voxel-based analysis technique for the examination of diffusion tensor images (DTIs). Our STEAM analysis technique consists of two parts. First, we introduce a collection of statistical templates that represent the distribution of DTIs for a normative population. These templates include various diffusion measures from the full tensor, to fractional anisotropy, to 12 other tensor features. Second, we propose a voxel-based analysis (VBA) pipeline that is reliable enough to identify areas in individual DTI scans that differ significantly from the normative group represented in the STEAM statistical templates. We identify and justify choices in the VBA pipeline relating to multiple comparison correction, image smoothing, and dealing with non-normally distributed data. Finally, we provide a proof of concept for the utility of STEAM on a cohort of 134 very preterm infants. We generated templates from scans of 55 very preterm infants whose T1 MRI scans show no abnormalities and who have normal neurodevelopmental outcome. The remaining 79 infants were then compared to the templates using our VBA technique. We show: (a) that our statistical templates display the white matter development expected over the modeled time period, and (b) that our VBA results detect abnormalities in the diffusion measurements that relate significantly with both the presence of white matter lesions and with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18months. Most notably, we show that STEAM produces personalized results while also being able to highlight abnormalities across the whole brain and at the scale of individual voxels. While we show the value of STEAM on DTI scans from a preterm infant cohort, STEAM can be equally applied to other cohorts as well. To facilitate this whole-brain personalized DTI analysis, we made STEAM publicly available at http://www.sfu.ca/bgb2/steam.

  18. Linking the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem, essential HOPF maps and membrane solitons with exotic spin and statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung . Dept. of Physics)

    1989-01-01

    By way of the Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem, we present a higher dimensional extension of Polyakov's regularization of Wilson loops of point solitons. Spacetime paths of extended objects become hyper-ribbons with self-linking, twisting and writhing numbers. specifically we discuss the exotic spin and statistical phase entanglements of geometric n-membrane solitons of D-dimensional KP{sub 1} {sigma}-models with an added Hopf-Chern-Simons term where (n, D, K) = (0, 3, C), (2, 7, H), (6, 15, {Omega}). They are uniquely linked to the complex and quaternion and octonion division algebras. 22 refs.

  19. Mapping cell populations in flow cytometry data for cross‐sample comparison using the Friedman–Rafsky test statistic as a distance measure

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chiaowen; Liu, Mengya; Stanton, Rick; McGee, Monnie; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fluorescence‐based single‐cell experimental technology that is routinely applied in biomedical research for identifying cellular biomarkers of normal physiological responses and abnormal disease states. While many computational methods have been developed that focus on identifying cell populations in individual FCM samples, very few have addressed how the identified cell populations can be matched across samples for comparative analysis. This article presents FlowMap‐FR, a novel method for cell population mapping across FCM samples. FlowMap‐FR is based on the Friedman–Rafsky nonparametric test statistic (FR statistic), which quantifies the equivalence of multivariate distributions. As applied to FCM data by FlowMap‐FR, the FR statistic objectively quantifies the similarity between cell populations based on the shapes, sizes, and positions of fluorescence data distributions in the multidimensional feature space. To test and evaluate the performance of FlowMap‐FR, we simulated the kinds of biological and technical sample variations that are commonly observed in FCM data. The results show that FlowMap‐FR is able to effectively identify equivalent cell populations between samples under scenarios of proportion differences and modest position shifts. As a statistical test, FlowMap‐FR can be used to determine whether the expression of a cellular marker is statistically different between two cell populations, suggesting candidates for new cellular phenotypes by providing an objective statistical measure. In addition, FlowMap‐FR can indicate situations in which inappropriate splitting or merging of cell populations has occurred during gating procedures. We compared the FR statistic with the symmetric version of Kullback–Leibler divergence measure used in a previous population matching method with both simulated and real data. The FR statistic outperforms the symmetric version of KL‐distance in distinguishing

  20. Primitive-path statistics of entangled polymers: mapping multi-chain simulations onto single-chain mean-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenbakkers, Rudi J. A.; Tzoumanekas, Christos; Li, Ying; Liu, Wing Kam; Kröger, Martin; Schieber, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to map the full equilibrium distribution of the primitive-path (PP) length, obtained from multi-chain simulations of polymer melts, onto a single-chain mean-field ‘target’ model. Most previous works used the Doi-Edwards tube model as a target. However, the average number of monomers per PP segment, obtained from multi-chain PP networks, has consistently shown a discrepancy of a factor of two with respect to tube-model estimates. Part of the problem is that the tube model neglects fluctuations in the lengths of PP segments, the number of entanglements per chain and the distribution of monomers among PP segments, while all these fluctuations are observed in multi-chain simulations. Here we use a recently proposed slip-link model, which includes fluctuations in all these variables as well as in the spatial positions of the entanglements. This turns out to be essential to obtain qualitative and quantitative agreement with the equilibrium PP-length distribution obtained from multi-chain simulations. By fitting this distribution, we are able to determine two of the three parameters of the model, which govern its equilibrium properties. This mapping is executed for four different linear polymers and for different molecular weights. The two parameters are found to depend on chemistry, but not on molecular weight. The model predicts a constant plateau modulus minus a correction inversely proportional to molecular weight. The value for well-entangled chains, with the parameters determined ab initio, lies in the range of experimental data for the materials investigated.

  1. Statistical parametric mapping with 18F-dopa PET shows bilaterally reduced striatal and nigral dopaminergic function in early Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Morrish, P; Rakshi, J; Uema, T; Ashburner, J; Bailey, D; Friston, K; Brooks, D

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To apply statistical parametric mapping to 18F-dopa PET data sets, to examine the regional distribution of changes in dopaminergic metabolism in early asymmetric Parkinson's disease.
METHODS—Thirteen normal volunteers (age 57.7 (SD 16.5) years; four women, nine men ) and six patients (age 50.3 (SD 13.5) years; three women, three men) with asymmetric (right sided) Parkinson's disease were studied. Images from each dynamic dopa PET dataset were aligned and parametric images of 18F-dopa influx (Ki) were created for each subject. The Ki images were transformed into standard stereotactic space. The Ki values of the caudate and putamen on spatially normalised images were compared with the Ki values before normalisation. The application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) allowed statistical comparison of regional Ki values on a voxel by voxel basis between healthy volunteers and patients with Parkinson's disease.
RESULTS—There was a strong correlation between the Ki values before and after spatial normalisation (r=0.898, p=0.0001). Significant decreases in the Ki values were found for the Parkinson's desease group throughout the entire left putamen (p< 0.001) and focally in the dorsal right putamen (p< 0.001). Decreased Ki values were also shown bilaterally in the substantia nigra (p< 0.01).
CONCLUSION—Using (SPM) and 18F-dopa PET, reductions in both striatal and nigral brain dopaminergic function could be demonstrated in early Parkinson's disease.

 PMID:10329749

  2. A preliminary study on atrial epicardial mapping signals based on Graph Theory.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liqian; Yang, Cuiwei; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Ying; Wu, Zhong; Shao, Jun

    2014-07-01

    In order to get a better understanding of atrial fibrillation, we introduced a method based on Graph Theory to interpret the relations of different parts of the atria. Atrial electrograms under sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation were collected from eight living mongrel dogs with cholinergic AF model. These epicardial signals were acquired from 95 unipolar electrodes attached to the surface of the atria and four pulmonary veins. Then, we analyzed the electrode correlations using Graph Theory. The topology, the connectivity and the parameters of graphs during different rhythms were studied. Our results showed that the connectivity of graphs varied from sinus rhythm to atrial fibrillation and there were parameter gradients in various parts of the atria. The results provide spatial insight into the interaction between different parts of the atria and the method may have its potential for studying atrial fibrillation.

  3. Non-Gaussian statistics and temporal variations of the ultrasound signal backscattered by blood at frequencies between 10 and 58 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutier, Guy; Daronat, Michel; Savéry, David; Garcia, Damien; Durand, Louis-Gilles; Foster, F. Stuart

    2004-07-01

    Very little is known about the blood backscattering behavior and signal statistics following flow stoppage at frequencies higher than 10 MHz. Measurements of the radio frequency (rf) signals backscattered by normal human blood (hematocrit=40%, temperature=37 °C) were performed in a tube flow model at mean frequencies varying between 10 and 58 MHz. The range of increase of the backscattered power during red blood cell (RBC) rouleau formation was close to 15 dB at 10 and 36 MHz, and dropped, for the same blood samples, below 8 dB at 58 MHz. Increasing the frequency from 10 to 58 MHz raised the slope of the power changes at the beginning of the kinetics of aggregation, and could emphasize the non-Gaussian behavior of the rf signals interpreted in terms of the K and Nakagami statistical models. At 36 and 58 MHz, significant increases of the kurtosis coefficient, and significant reductions of the Nakagami parameter were noted during the first 30 s of flow stoppage. In conclusion, increasing the transducer frequency reduced the magnitude of the backscattered power changes attributed to the phenomenon of RBC aggregation, but improved the detection of rapid growth in aggregate sizes and non-Gaussian statistical behavior.

  4. Automated diagnosis of congestive heart failure using dual tree complex wavelet transform and statistical features extracted from 2s of ECG signals.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Vidya K; Acharya, U Rajendra; Oh, Shu Lih; Adam, Muhammad; Tan, Jen Hong; Chua, Chua Kuang; Chua, Kok Poo; Tan, Ru San

    2017-04-01

    Identification of alarming features in the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is extremely significant for the prediction of congestive heart failure (CHF). ECG signal analysis carried out using computer-aided techniques can speed up the diagnosis process and aid in the proper management of CHF patients. Therefore, in this work, dual tree complex wavelets transform (DTCWT)-based methodology is proposed for an automated identification of ECG signals exhibiting CHF from normal. In the experiment, we have performed a DTCWT on ECG segments of 2s duration up to six levels to obtain the coefficients. From these DTCWT coefficients, statistical features are extracted and ranked using Bhattacharyya, entropy, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR), receiver-operating characteristics (ROC), Wilcoxon, t-test and reliefF methods. Ranked features are subjected to k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and decision tree (DT) classifiers for automated differentiation of CHF and normal ECG signals. We have achieved 99.86% accuracy, 99.78% sensitivity and 99.94% specificity in the identification of CHF affected ECG signals using 45 features. The proposed method is able to detect CHF patients accurately using only 2s of ECG signal length and hence providing sufficient time for the clinicians to further investigate on the severity of CHF and treatments.

  5. A high performance biometric signal and image processing method to reveal blood perfusion towards 3D oxygen saturation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imms, Ryan; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Trico, Michaël.; Summers, Ron

    2014-03-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) is a recent development in the field of physiological data acquisition, currently undergoing a large amount of research to characterize and define the range of its capabilities. Contact-based PPG techniques have been broadly used in clinical scenarios for a number of years to obtain direct information about the degree of oxygen saturation for patients. With the advent of imaging techniques, there is strong potential to enable access to additional information such as multi-dimensional blood perfusion and saturation mapping. The further development of effective opto-physiological monitoring techniques is dependent upon novel modelling techniques coupled with improved sensor design and effective signal processing methodologies. The biometric signal and imaging processing platform (bSIPP) provides a comprehensive set of features for extraction and analysis of recorded iPPG data, enabling direct comparison with other biomedical diagnostic tools such as ECG and EEG. Additionally, utilizing information about the nature of tissue structure has enabled the generation of an engineering model describing the behaviour of light during its travel through the biological tissue. This enables the estimation of the relative oxygen saturation and blood perfusion in different layers of the tissue to be calculated, which has the potential to be a useful diagnostic tool.

  6. Statistical mapping of ULF Pc3 velocity fluctuations in the Earth's dayside magnetosheath as a function of solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, A. P.; Nykyri, K.; Osmane, A.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a statistical study of Pc3 velocity fluctuations in the Earth's dayside magnetosheath. There exists a notable dawn-dusk asymmetry, such that velocity fluctuations generally exhibit enhanced spectral power in the magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The fluctuations in the central magnetosheath and close to bow shock tend to dampen with increasing tail-ward distance while the opposite trend is observed close to the magnetopause. This strongly suggests that velocity shear driven processes such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability drive Pc3 flow variations close to the magnetopause as the velocity shear increases with increasing tail-ward distance. We also show strong evidence that Pc3 velocity fluctuations are significantly enhanced during intervals of faster solar wind speeds. We see negligible differences between data collected during northward and southward IMF orientations, but in general, a dawn-favoured asymmetry persists.

  7. VOXEL-LEVEL MAPPING OF TRACER KINETICS IN PET STUDIES: A STATISTICAL APPROACH EMPHASIZING TISSUE LIFE TABLES1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Muzi, Mark; Mankoff, David A.; Eary, Janet F.; Spence, Alexander M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Most radiotracers used in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scanning act in a linear time-invariant fashion so that the measured time-course data are a convolution between the time course of the tracer in the arterial supply and the local tissue impulse response, known as the tissue residue function. In statistical terms the residue is a life table for the transit time of injected radiotracer atoms. The residue provides a description of the tracer kinetic information measurable by a dynamic PET scan. Decomposition of the residue function allows separation of rapid vascular kinetics from slower blood-tissue exchanges and tissue retention. For voxel-level analysis, we propose that residues be modeled by mixtures of nonparametrically derived basis residues obtained by segmentation of the full data volume. Spatial and temporal aspects of diagnostics associated with voxel-level model fitting are emphasized. Illustrative examples, some involving cancer imaging studies, are presented. Data from cerebral PET scanning with 18F fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 15O water (H2O) in normal subjects is used to evaluate the approach. Cross-validation is used to make regional comparisons between residues estimated using adaptive mixture models with more conventional compartmental modeling techniques. Simulations studies are used to theoretically examine mean square error performance and to explore the benefit of voxel-level analysis when the primary interest is a statistical summary of regional kinetics. The work highlights the contribution that multivariate analysis tools and life-table concepts can make in the recovery of local metabolic information from dynamic PET studies, particularly ones in which the assumptions of compartmental-like models, with residues that are sums of exponentials, might not be certain. PMID:25392718

  8. Mapping the Dark Matter From UV Light at High Redshift: An Empirical Approach to Understand Galaxy Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Urry, Claudia M.; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.

    2009-08-03

    We present a simple formalism to interpret the observations of two galaxy statistics, the UV luminosity function (LF) and two-point correlation functions for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4, 5 and 6 in the context of {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Both statistics are the result of how star formation takes place in dark matter halos, and thus are used to constrain how UV light depends on halo properties, in particular halo mass. The two physical quantities we explore are the star formation duty cycle, and the range of UV luminosity that a halo of mass M can have (mean and variance). The former directly addresses the typical duration of star formation activity in halos while the latter addresses the averaged star formation history and regularity of gas inflow into these systems. In the context of this formalism, we explore various physical models consistent with all the available observational data, and find the following: (1) the typical duration of star formation observed in the data is {approx}< 0.4 Gyr (1{sigma}), (2) the inferred scaling law between the observed L{sub UV} and halo mass M from the observed faint-end slope of the luminosity functions is roughly linear out to M {approx} 10{sup 11.5} - 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} at all redshifts probed in this work, and (3) the observed L{sub UV} for a fixed halo mass M decreases with time, implying that the star formation efficiency (after dust extinction) is higher at earlier times. We explore several different physical scenarios relating star formation to halo mass, but find that these scenarios are indistinguishable due to the limited range of halo mass probed by our data. In order to discriminate between different scenarios, we discuss the possibility of using the bright-faint galaxy cross-correlation functions and more robust determination of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias for future surveys.

  9. Neuroanatomical mapping of juvenile rat brain regions with prominent basal signal in [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Niina; Palomäki, Ville A B; Lecklin, Anne; Laitinen, Jarmo T

    2008-03-01

    [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiography represents a powerful functional approach to detect receptor-dependent G(i/o) protein activity in anatomically defined brain structures. Inherent to this technique, however, is the notable basal signal evident in several brain regions in the absence of receptor stimulation by exogenously added agonist. In the rat brain, much of this basal labelling derives from tonic activation of adenosine A(1) and lysophosphatidic acid LPA(1) receptors in the gray and white matter regions, respectively. Despite the elimination of the two receptor activities, prominent basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling is still evident in discrete brain structures, possibly reflecting regional enrichment of G(i/o) and/or constitutive receptor activity or the presence of still unknown endogenous ligands activating their orphan receptors. Here, the anatomical distribution of the enhanced basal signal was systematically mapped in brain sections of 4-week-old male Wistar rats. Regions with prominent basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling represented neuroanatomically distinct structures, in particular various thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. For instance, the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subfornical organ were highly labelled, as were the periaqueductal gray and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Pre-treatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), an alkylating agent preventing all known receptor-driven G protein activity in cryostat sections markedly decreased the basal binding in all examined regions. In preliminary screening, selective antagonists for various brain-enriched G(i/o)-coupled receptors failed to suppress the basal signal in any of the studied regions.

  10. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  11. Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chung, Chung-En

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008–2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL. PMID:21695032

  12. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  13. Risk map for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia based on environmental factors as revealed by geographical information systems and statistics.

    PubMed

    Seid, Ahmed; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Tsegaw, Teshome; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Kebede, Asnakew; Aseffa, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with poverty. Treatment is problematic and no vaccine is available. Ethiopia has seen new outbreaks in areas previously not known to be endemic, often with co-infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with rates reaching 5.6% of the cases. The present study concerns the development of a risk model based on environmental factors using geographical information systems (GIS), statistical analysis and modelling. Odds ratio (OR) of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the relative importance of environmental factors, accepting P ≤ 0.056 as the inclusion level for the model's environmental variables. When estimating risk from the viewpoint of geographical surface, slope, elevation and annual rainfall were found to be good predictors of CL presence based on both probabilistic and weighted overlay approaches. However, when considering Ethiopia as whole, a minor difference was observed between the two methods with the probabilistic technique giving a 22.5% estimate, while that of weighted overlay approach was 19.5%. Calculating the population according to the land surface estimated by the latter method, the total Ethiopian population at risk for CL was estimated at 28,955,035, mainly including people in the highlands of the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, Tigray and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region, one of the nine ethnic divisions in Ethiopia. Our environmental risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 90.4%. The approach proposed here can be replicated for other diseases to facilitate implementation of evidence-based, integrated disease control activities.

  14. miR-625-3p regulates oxaliplatin resistance by targeting MAP2K6-p38 signalling in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mads Heilskov; Lyskjær, Iben; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa Rakownikow; Tarpgaard, Line Schmidt; Primdal-Bengtson, Bjarke; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Hansen, Tine Plato; Hansen, Flemming; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Pfeiffer, Per; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancers (CRC) is a major medical problem, and predictive markers are urgently needed. Recently, miR-625-3p was reported as a promising predictive marker. Herein, we show that miR-625-3p functionally induces oxaliplatin resistance in CRC cells, and identify the signalling networks affected by miR-625-3p. We show that the p38 MAPK activator MAP2K6 is a direct target of miR-625-3p, and, accordingly, is downregulated in non-responder patients of oxaliplatin therapy. miR-625-3p-mediated resistance is reversed by anti-miR-625-3p treatment and ectopic expression of a miR-625-3p insensitive MAP2K6 variant. In addition, reduction of p38 signalling by using siRNAs, chemical inhibitors or expression of a dominant-negative MAP2K6 protein induces resistance to oxaliplatin. Transcriptome, proteome and phosphoproteome profiles confirm inactivation of MAP2K6-p38 signalling as one likely mechanism of oxaliplatin resistance. Our study shows that miR-625-3p induces oxaliplatin resistance by abrogating MAP2K6-p38-regulated apoptosis and cell cycle control networks, and corroborates the predictive power of miR-625-3p. PMID:27526785

  15. Statistical Parametric Mapping of HR-pQCT Images: A Tool for Population-Based Local Comparisons of Micro-Scale Bone Features.

    PubMed

    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bonaretti, Serena; Kazakia, Galateia J; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila; Lang, Thomas F; Burghardt, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    HR-pQCT enables in vivo multi-parametric assessments of bone microstructure in the distal radius and distal tibia. Conventional HR-pQCT image analysis approaches summarize bone parameters into global scalars, discarding relevant spatial information. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) techniques for HR-pQCT studies, which enable population-based local comparisons of bone properties. We present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone voxel-based features, and a surface-based framework to assess cortical bone features both in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. In addition, we present tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to assess trabecular and cortical bone structural changes. The SPM techniques were evaluated based on scan-rescan HR-pQCT acquisitions with repositioning of the distal radius and distal tibia of 30 subjects. For VBM and surface-based SPM purposes, all scans were spatially normalized to common radial and tibial templates, while for TBM purposes, rescans (follow-up) were spatially normalized to their corresponding scans (baseline). VBM was evaluated based on maps of local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), homogenized volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and homogenized strain energy density (SED) derived from micro-finite element analysis; while the cortical bone framework was evaluated based on surface maps of cortical bone thickness, vBMD, and SED. Voxel-wise and vertex-wise comparisons of bone features were done between the groups of baseline and follow-up scans. TBM was evaluated based on mean square errors of determinants of Jacobians at baseline bone voxels. In both anatomical sites, voxel- and vertex-wise uni- and multi-parametric comparisons yielded non-significant differences, and TBM showed no artefactual bone loss or apposition. The presented SPM techniques demonstrated robust specificity thus warranting their application in future clinical HR

  16. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  17. Investigation of ionospheric TEC changes related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake based on statistic analysis and signal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianyong; Meng, Guojie; Wang, Min; Liao, Hua; Shen, Xuhui

    2009-10-01

    Ionospheric TEC (total electron content) time series are derived from GPS measurements at 13 stations around the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Defining anomaly bounds for a sliding window by quartile and 2-standard deviation of TEC values, this paper analyzed the characteristics of ionospheric changes before and after the destructive event. The Neyman-Pearson signal detection method is employed to compute the probabilities of TEC abnormalities. Result shows that one week before the Wenchuan earthquake, ionospheric TEC over the epicenter and its vicinities displays obvious abnormal disturbances, most of which are positive anomalies. The largest TEC abnormal changes appeared on May 9, three days prior to the seismic event. Signal detection shows that the largest possibility of TEC abnormity on May 9 is 50.74%, indicating that ionospheric abnormities three days before the main shock are likely related to the preparation process of the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake.

  18. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala; Glas, Rickard

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  19. Cardiac Fibroblast-Specific Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protects Against Heart Failure by Suppressing MAP2K3-p38 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Li, Zhenya; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Ping; Wu, Yina; Wang, Chunxiao; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xin-Liang; Du, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Background -Hypertensive ventricular remodeling is a common cause of heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ventricular remodeling remain poorly understood. Methods -We used a discovery-driven/nonbiased approach to indentify increased ATF3 expression in hypertensive heart. We employed loss/gain of function approaches to understand the role of ATF3 in heart failure. We also examine the mechanisms through transcriptome, CHIP-seq analysis and in vivo and vitro experiments. Results -ATF3 expression increased in murine hypertensive heart and human hypertrophic heart. Cardiac fibroblast cells are the primary cell type expressing high ATF3 levels in response to hypertensive stimuli. ATF3 knockout (ATF3KO) markedly exaggerated hypertensive ventricular remodeling, a state rescued by lentivirus-mediated/miRNA-aided cardiac fibroblast-selective ATF3 overexpression. Conversely, conditional cardiac fibroblast cell-specific ATF3 transgenic overexpression significantly ameliorated ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We identified Map2K3 as a novel ATF3 target. ATF3 binds with the Map2K3 promoter, recruiting HDAC1, resulting in Map2K3 gene-associated histone deacetylation, thereby inhibiting Map2K3 expression. Genetic Map2K3 knockdown rescued the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic phenotype in ATF3KO cells. Finally, we demonstrated that p38 is the downstream molecule of Map2K3 mediating the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic effects in ATF3KO animals. Inhibition of p38 signaling reduced TGF-β signaling-related pro-fibrotic and hypertrophic gene expression, and blocked exaggerated cardiac remodeling in ATF3KO cells. Conclusions -Our study provides the first evidence that ATF3 upregulation in cardiac fibroblasts in response to hypertensive stimuli protects heart by suppressing Map2K3 expression and subsequent p38-TGF-β signaling. These results suggest that positive modulation of cardiac fibroblast ATF3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach against hypertensive

  20. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  1. Statistical analysis and mapping of water levels in the Biscayne aquifer, water conservation areas, and Everglades National Park, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2000–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, Scott T.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2016-02-25

    Maps were created by importing site coordinates, summary water-level statistics, and completeness of record statistics into a geographic information system, and by interpolating between water levels at monitoring sites in the canals and water levels along the coastline. Raster surfaces were created from these data by using the triangular irregular network interpolation method. The raster surfaces were contoured by using geographic information system software. These contours were imprecise in some areas because the software could not fully evaluate the hydrology given available information; therefore, contours were manually modified where necessary. The ability to evaluate differences in water levels between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 is limited in some areas because most of the monitoring sites did not have 80 percent complete records for one or both of these periods. The quality of the analyses was limited by (1) deficiencies in spatial coverage; (2) the combination of pre- and post-construction water levels in areas where canals, levees, retention basins, detention basins, or water-control structures were installed or removed; (3) an inability to address the potential effects of the vertical hydraulic head gradient on water levels in wells of different depths; and (4) an inability to correct for the differences between daily water-level statistics. Contours are dashed in areas where the locations of contours have been approximated because of the uncertainty caused by these limitations. Although the ability of the maps to depict differences in water levels between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 was limited by missing data, results indicate that near the coast water levels were generally higher in May during 2000–2009 than during 1990–1999; and that inland water levels were generally lower during 2000–2009 than during 1990–1999. Generally, the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of water levels from all months were also higher near the coast and lower inland

  2. Focal overlap gating in velocity map imaging to achieve high signal-to-noise ratio in photo-ion pump-probe experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaram, Niranjan; Champenois, Elio G.; Cryan, James P.; Wright, Travis; Wingard, Taylor; Belkacem, Ali

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate a technique in velocity map imaging (VMI) that allows spatial gating of the laser focal overlap region in time resolved pump-probe experiments. This significantly enhances signal-to-noise ratio by eliminating background signal arising outside the region of spatial overlap of pump and probe beams. This enhancement is achieved by tilting the laser beams with respect to the surface of the VMI electrodes which creates a gradient in flight time for particles born at different points along the beam. By suitably pulsing our microchannel plate detector, we can select particles born only where the laser beams overlap. This spatial gating in velocity map imaging can benefit nearly all photo-ion pump-probe VMI experiments especially when extreme-ultraviolet light or X-rays are involved which produce large background signals on their own.

  3. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  4. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Okumura, Ayumi; Aki, Tatsuki; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Mikito; Ito, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T(2)*-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p < 0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment.

  5. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  6. Suppression of XPM and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise for RZ-DPSK signals in 40 Gbit/s WDM transmission systems with optimum dispersion mapping.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhangyuan; Xu, Anshi

    2007-12-24

    We numerically investigate XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise in both RZ-DPSK and multi-format (RZ-DPSK and RZ-OOK) WDM systems operating at 40 Gbit/s with different dispersion maps. The relative strength of XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise is discussed for both RZ-DPSK and multi-format WDM transmission. With optimum dispersion mapping, XPM and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise from neighboring channels carrying either OOK or DPSK signals can both be effectively suppressed.

  7. Mapping transmembrane residues of proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) that influence ligand-modulated calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Suen, J Y; Adams, M N; Lim, J; Madala, P K; Xu, W; Cotterell, A J; He, Y; Yau, M K; Hooper, J D; Fairlie, D P

    2017-03-01

    Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in metabolism, inflammation, and cancers. It is activated by proteolysis, which exposes a nascent N-terminal sequence that becomes a tethered agonist. Short synthetic peptides corresponding to this sequence also activate PAR2, while small organic molecules show promising PAR2 antagonism. Developing PAR2 ligands into pharmaceuticals is hindered by a lack of knowledge of how synthetic ligands interact with and differentially modulate PAR2. Guided by PAR2 homology modeling and ligand docking based on bovine rhodopsin, followed by cross-checking with newer PAR2 models based on ORL-1 and PAR1, site-directed mutagenesis of PAR2 was used to investigate the pharmacology of three agonists (two synthetic agonists and trypsin-exposed tethered ligand) and one antagonist for modulation of PAR2 signaling. Effects of 28 PAR2 mutations were examined for PAR2-mediated calcium mobilization and key mutants were selected for measuring ligand binding. Nineteen of twenty-eight PAR2 mutations reduced the potency of at least one ligand by >10-fold. Key residues mapped predominantly to a cluster in the transmembrane (TM) domains of PAR2, differentially influence intracellular Ca(2+) induced by synthetic agonists versus a native agonist, and highlight subtly different TM residues involved in receptor activation. This is the first evidence highlighting the importance of the PAR2 TM regions for receptor activation by synthetic PAR2 agonists and antagonists. The trypsin-cleaved N-terminus that activates PAR2 was unaffected by residues that affected synthetic peptides, challenging the widespread practice of substituting peptides for proteases to characterize PAR2 physiology.

  8. Quantitative estimation of Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission precipitation radar signals from ground-based polarimetric radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2003-06-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission (TRMM) is the first mission dedicated to measuring rainfall from space using radar. The precipitation radar (PR) is one of several instruments aboard the TRMM satellite that is operating in a nearly circular orbit with nominal altitude of 350 km, inclination of 35°, and period of 91.5 min. The PR is a single-frequency Ku-band instrument that is designed to yield information about the vertical storm structure so as to gain insight into the intensity and distribution of rainfall. Attenuation effects on PR measurements, however, can be significant and as high as 10-15 dB. This can seriously impair the accuracy of rain rate retrieval algorithms derived from PR signal returns. Quantitative estimation of PR attenuation is made along the PR beam via ground-based polarimetric observations to validate attenuation correction procedures used by the PR. The reflectivity (Zh) at horizontal polarization and specific differential phase (Kdp) are found along the beam from S-band ground radar measurements, and theoretical modeling is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k) along the space-Earth path at Ku-band frequency from these measurements. A theoretical k-Kdp relationship is determined for rain when Kdp ≥ 0.5°/km, and a power law relationship, k = a Zhb, is determined for light rain and other types of hydrometers encountered along the path. After alignment and resolution volume matching is made between ground and PR measurements, the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) is calculated along the PR propagation path by integrating the specific attenuation along the path. The PR reflectivity derived after removing the PIA is also compared against ground radar observations.

  9. The different varieties of the Suyama-Yamaguchi consistency relation and its violation as a signal of statistical inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Beltrán Almeida, Juan P.; Valenzuela-Toledo, César A.

    2013-04-01

    We present the different consistency relations that can be seen as variations of the well known Suyama-Yamaguchi (SY) consistency relation τNL>=((6/5)fNL)2, the latter involving the levels of non-gaussianity fNL and τNL in the primordial curvature perturbation ζ. It has been (implicitly) claimed that the following variation: τNL(k1,k3)>=((6/5))2fNL(k1)fNL(k3), which we call ``the fourth variety'', in the collapsed (for τNL) and squeezed (for fNL) limits is always satisfied independently of any physics; however, the proof depends sensitively on the assumption of scale-invariance (expressing this way the fourth variety of the SY consistency relation as τNL>=((6/5)fNL)2) which only applies for cosmological models involving Lorentz-invariant scalar fields (at least at tree level), leaving room for a strong violation of this variety of the consistency relation when non-trivial degrees of freedom, for instance vector fields, are in charge of the generation of the primordial curvature perturbation. With this in mind as a motivation, we explicitly state, in the first part of this work, under which conditions the SY consistency relation has been claimed to hold in its different varieties (implicitly) presented in the literature since its inception back in 2008; as a result, we show for the first time that the variety τNL(k1,k1)>=((6/5)fNL(k1))2, which we call ``the fifth variety'', is always satisfied even when there is strong scale-dependence and high levels of statistical anisotropy as long as statistical homogeneity holds: thus, an observed violation of this specific variety would prevent the comparison between theory and observation, shaking this way the foundations of cosmology as a science. In the second part, we concern about the existence of non-trivial degrees of freedom, concretely vector fields for which the levels of non-gaussianity have been calculated for very few models; among them, and by making use of the δN formalism at tree level, we study a class

  10. The different varieties of the Suyama-Yamaguchi consistency relation and its violation as a signal of statistical inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrán; Valenzuela-Toledo, César A. E-mail: juanpbeltran@uan.edu.co

    2013-04-01

    We present the different consistency relations that can be seen as variations of the well known Suyama-Yamaguchi (SY) consistency relation τ{sub NL}≥((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}, the latter involving the levels of non-gaussianity f{sub NL} and τ{sub NL} in the primordial curvature perturbation ζ. It has been (implicitly) claimed that the following variation: τ{sub NL}(k{sub 1},k{sub 3})≥((6/5)){sup 2}f{sub NL}(k{sub 1})f{sub NL}(k{sub 3}), which we call ''the fourth variety'', in the collapsed (for τ{sub NL}) and squeezed (for f{sub NL}) limits is always satisfied independently of any physics; however, the proof depends sensitively on the assumption of scale-invariance (expressing this way the fourth variety of the SY consistency relation as τ{sub NL}≥((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}) which only applies for cosmological models involving Lorentz-invariant scalar fields (at least at tree level), leaving room for a strong violation of this variety of the consistency relation when non-trivial degrees of freedom, for instance vector fields, are in charge of the generation of the primordial curvature perturbation. With this in mind as a motivation, we explicitly state, in the first part of this work, under which conditions the SY consistency relation has been claimed to hold in its different varieties (implicitly) presented in the literature since its inception back in 2008; as a result, we show for the first time that the variety τ{sub NL}(k{sub 1},k{sub 1})≥((6/5)f{sub NL}(k{sub 1})){sup 2}, which we call ''the fifth variety'', is always satisfied even when there is strong scale-dependence and high levels of statistical anisotropy as long as statistical homogeneity holds: thus, an observed violation of this specific variety would prevent the comparison between theory and observation, shaking this way the foundations of cosmology as a science. In the second part, we concern about the existence of non-trivial degrees of freedom, concretely vector fields for which the

  11. Statistical radii associated with amino acids to determine the contact map: fixing the structure of a type I cohesin domain in the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwastyk, Mateusz; Poma Bernaola, Adolfo; Cieplak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    We propose to improve and simplify protein refinement procedures through consideration of which pairs of amino acid residues should form native contacts. We first consider 11 330 proteins from the CATH database to determine statistical distributions of contacts associated with a given type of amino acid. The distributions are set across the distances between the α-C atoms that are in contact. Based on this data, we determine typical radii of effective spheres that can be placed on the α-C atoms in order to reconstruct the distribution of the contact lengths. This is done by checking for overlaps with enlarged van der Waals spheres associated with heavy atoms on other amino acids. The resulting contacts can be used to identify non-native contacts that may arise during the time evolution of structure-based models. Here, the radii are used to guide reconstruction of nine missing side chains in a type I cohesin domain with the Protein Data Bank code 1AOH. We first identify the likely missing contacts and then sculpt the corresponding side chains by standard refinement tools to achieve consistency with the expected contact map. One ambiguity in refinement is resolved by determining all-atom conformational energies.

  12. Statistical mapping analysis of serotonin synthesis images generated in healthy volunteers using positron-emission tomography and alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan.

    PubMed Central

    Okazawa, H; Leyton, M; Benkelfat, C; Mzengeza, S; Diksic, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the suitability of analyzing functional images of brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis with statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and to investigate further possible sex-related regional differences. DESIGN: Prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Six healthy men and 5 healthy women. INTERVENTION: Participants' brains were scanned with positron-emission tomography (PET) after intravenous injection of alpha-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan (alpha-[11C]MTrp). OUTCOME MEASURES: Tissue radioactivity images were converted into functional images using the Patlak plot approach, and analyzed with 2 methods for global normalization in the SPM program: proportional scaling and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: The data structure suggests that PET alpha-[11C]MTrp data meet the criteria for analysis with SPM, and that the proportional scaling method is more appropriate than the ANCOVA method for normalization. Regional differences in 5-HT synthesis were identified between men and women, and the significance of these findings was supported by region of interest (ROI) analyses. CONCLUSION: SPM analyses of PET alpha-[11C]MTrp data may be of value for identifying regional differences in brain 5-HT synthesis between groups, and in investigating the effects of psychotropic drugs. Since we found regional differences between male and female subjects, men and women should not be grouped for data analysis in PET alpha-[11C]MTrp studies. Images Fig. 3 PMID:11022401

  13. New model of retinocollicular mapping predicts the mechanisms of axonal competition and explains the role of reverse molecular signaling during development.

    PubMed

    Grimbert, François; Cang, Jianhua

    2012-07-11

    Precise connections in the brain result from elaborate processes during development. In the visual system, axonal projections from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) onto the superior colliculus form a precise retinotopic map. Studies have revealed that the development of retinocollicular maps involves three main factors: graded expression of molecular guidance cues such as EphAs and ephrin-As, activity-dependent processes driven by spontaneous activity in RGCs, and different forms of axonal competition. In this study, we developed a new, versatile model including these factors. We first modeled the selective arborization of RGC axons, mediated by EphA/ephrin-A signaling, without assuming that this initial process instructed the map's final topology. We also derived an integro-differential equation modeling a second, dynamic phase in which activity-dependent plasticity of axonal arbors combined with their competition for collicular resources can deeply remodel the topology of immature maps. Our model hence challenges the view that retinotopic maps are instructed by matching molecular gradients and then merely refined by activity-dependent processes. We reproduce fine features of retinotopic map development in wild-type and various transgenic mice, allowing a new understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Our model predicts that competition is not based on comparisons of axonal EphA receptor levels but rather relies on the optimization of collicular resources mediated by neurotrophic receptors such as p75(NTR). Our model finally clarifies the elusive role of reverse signaling between retinal ephrin-As and collicular EphAs by reproducing for the first time the phenotypes of two mouse genotypes in which this function is altered.

  14. Maternal marginal iodine deficiency limits dendritic growth of cerebellar purkinje cells in rat offspring by NF-κB signaling and MAP1B.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Min, Hui; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Chen, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy had an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function. It is worth noting that maternal marginal ID tends to be a common public health problem. Whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of cerebellum and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, our aim was to study the effects of marginal ID on the dendritic growth in filial cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and the underlying mechanism. In the present study, we established Wistar rat models by feeding dam rats with a diet deficient in iodine and deionized water supplemented with potassium iodide. We examined the total dendritic length using immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis was conducted to investigate the activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). Our results showed that marginal ID reduced the total dendritic length of cerebellar PCs, slightly down-regulated the activity of NF-κB signaling and decreased MAP1B in cerebellar PCs on postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14, and PN21. Our study may support the hypothesis that decreased T4 induced by marginal ID limits PCs dendritic growth, which may involve in the disturbance of NF-κB signaling and MAP1B on the cerebellum. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1241-1251, 2017.

  15. Cellular MicroRNA Let-7a Suppresses KSHV Replication through Targeting MAP4K4 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaohua; Gao, Yuan; Nan, Yulong; Zhang, Jinxia; Di, Chunhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Lian, Fuzhi; Cao, Yifei; Hu, Yu; Xu, Liangwen; Ma, Haiyan; Hong, Yu; Liu, Tingjie; Wu, Yinyin; Xu, Xianrong; Yan, Yutao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. The majority of KS tumor cells harbor latent KSHV virus but only a small percentage undergoes spontaneous lytic replication. Viral reactivation from latency is crucial for the pathogenesis and development of KS, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the switch between viral latency and replication are not well understood. Methods The level of let-7 miRNAs and MAP4K4 in KSHV infected 293T cells were quantified by real-time PCRs. Let-7 expression was silenced by the miRNA sponge technique. In let-7a transfected 293T cells, the expression of MAP4K4 was measured by real-time PCR and western blot. Luciferease expression was employed to examine the effect of let-7a on the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of the MAP4K4 gene in 293T cells. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the KSHV copy numbers in BC-3 cells in which the expression of let-7a and/or MAP4K4 were altered. Finally, ERK, JNK and p38 protein production and their phosphorylation status were detected by western blots in let-7a or MAP4K4 transfected BCBL-1 cells. Results The expression of microRNA let-7 was dramatically decreased in KSHV infected 293T cells, but that of MAP4K4 was increased significantly. Let-7a is physically associated with and targets the MAP4K4 3’UTR, and inhibits MAP4K4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. MAP4K4 stimulates KSHV reactivation from latency, whereas let-7a inhibits the function of MAP4K4 by reversing the function of MAP4K4 on JNK, phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK1/2 levels. Conclusion Our results establish that let-7a specifically suppresses MAP4K4 expression, and further inhibits KSHV reactivation by interfering with the function of MAP4K4 on the MAPK pathway, highlighting let-7a as a potential treatment for KS. PMID:26197270

  16. Statistical analysis of dust signals observed by ROSINA/COPS onboard of the Rosetta spacecraft at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Chia-Yu; altwegg, kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Calmonte, Ursina; Gasc, Sébastien; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin

    2016-10-01

    ROSINA is the in situ Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis on board of Rosetta, one of the corner stone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) to land and orbit the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. The Reflectron Time of Flight Spectrometer (RTOF) and the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) complement each other in mass and time resolution.The Comet Pressure Sensor (COPS) provides density measurements of the neutral molecules in the cometary coma of 67P. COPS has two gauges, a nude gauge that measures the total neutral density and a ram gauge that measures the dynamic pressure from the comet. Combining the two COPS is also capable of providing gas dynamic information such as gas velocity and gas temperature of the coma.While Rosetta started orbiting around 67P in August 2014, COPS observed diurnal and seasonal variations of the neutral gas density in the coma. Surprisingly, additional to these major density variation patterns, COPS occasionally observed small spikes in the density that are associated with dust. These dust signals can be interpreted as a result of cometary dust releasing volatiles while heated up near COPS. A statistical analysis of dust signals detected by COPS will be presented.

  17. Piezoelectric sensing and non-parametric statistical signal processing for health monitoring of hysteretic dampers used in seismic-resistant structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Benavent-Climent, A.; Romo-Melo, L.

    2015-08-01

    The paper proposes a new application of non-parametric statistical processing of signals recorded from vibration tests for damage detection and evaluation on I-section steel segments. The steel segments investigated constitute the energy dissipating part of a new type of hysteretic damper that is used for passive control of buildings and civil engineering structures subjected to earthquake-type dynamic loadings. Two I-section steel segments with different levels of damage were instrumented with piezoceramic sensors and subjected to controlled white noise random vibrations. The signals recorded during the tests were processed using two non-parametric methods (the power spectral density method and the frequency response function method) that had never previously been applied to hysteretic dampers. The appropriateness of these methods for quantifying the level of damage on the I-shape steel segments is validated experimentally. Based on the results of the random vibrations, the paper proposes a new index that predicts the level of damage and the proximity of failure of the hysteretic damper.

  18. Nighttime activity of moving objects, their mapping and statistic making, on the example of applying thermal imaging and advanced image processing to the research of nocturnal mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan; Zwolenik, Slawomir

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents method of acquiring a new form of statistical information about the changes at scenery, overseen by thermal imaging camera in static configuration. This type of imagers reach uniquely high efficiency during nighttime surveillance and targeting. The technical issue we have solved, resulted from the problem: how to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents, like bank voles, use common paths inside their range and that they form a common, rather stable system? Such research has been especially difficult because the mentioned mammals are secretive, move with various speed and due to low contrast to their natural surroundings - as leaves or grass - nearly impossible for other kind of observations from a few meters distance. The main advantage of the elaborated method showed to be both adequately filtered long thermal movies for manual analyses, as well as auto-creation of the synthetic images which present maps of invisible paths and activity of their usage. Additional file with logs describing objects and their dislocations as the ".txt" files allows various, more detailed studies of animal behavior. The obtained results proved that this original method delivers a new, non-invasive, powerful and dynamic concept of solving various ecological problems. Creation of networks consisted of uncooled thermal imagers - of significantly increased availability - with data transmissions to digital centers allows to investigate of moving - particularly heat generated - objects in complete darkness, much wider and much more efficiently than up today. Thus, although our system was elaborated for ecological studies, a similar one can be considered as a tool for chosen tasks in the optical security areas.

  19. A comparison of (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPET changes in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease using statistical parametric mapping.

    PubMed

    Colloby, Sean J; Fenwick, John D; Williams, E David; Paling, Sean M; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Ballard, Clive; McKeith, Ian; O'Brien, John T

    2002-05-01

    Differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and healthy volunteers were investigated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Forty-eight AD, 23 DLB and 20 age-matched control subjects participated. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired for each subject using a single-headed rotating gamma camera (IGE CamStar XR/T). The SPET images were spatially normalised and group comparison was performed by SPM99. In addition, covariate analysis was undertaken on the standardised images taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores as a variable. Applying a height threshold of P < or = 0.001 uncorrected, significant perfusion deficits in the parietal and frontal regions of the brain were observed in both AD and DLB groups compared with the control subjects. In addition, significant temporoparietal perfusion deficits were identified in the AD subjects, whereas the DLB patients had deficits in the occipital region. Comparison of dementia groups (height threshold of P < or = 0.01 uncorrected) yielded hypoperfusion in both the parietal [Brodmann area (BA) 7] and occipital (BA 17, 18) regions of the brain in DLB compared with AD. Abnormalities in these areas, which included visual cortex and several areas involved in higher visual processing and visuospatial function, may be important in understanding the visual hallucinations and visuospatial deficits which are characteristic of DLB. Covariate analysis indicated group differences between AD and DLB in terms of a positive correlation between cognitive test score and temporoparietal blood flow. In conclusion, we found evidence of frontal and parietal hypoperfusion in both AD and DLB, while temporal perfusion deficits were observed exclusively in AD and parieto-occipital deficits in DLB.

  20. Studies in Statistical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-30

    two columns of arbitrary lengths. The concept of displacement structure and its properties are more conveniently described in terms of generating...plane curves. The link connecting this topic with the work of Soviet mathematicians (Livsic, Brodskii, Krein, Potapov) on operator colligations and J...scattering medium properties from its response to a probing input. The input-response pairs are the scattering data from which the parameters of the

  1. Statistical Analysis of Physiological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, María G.; Pérez, Leticia

    2003-07-01

    In spite of two hundred years of clinical practice, Homeopathy still lacks of scientific basis. Its fundamental laws, similia principle and the activity of the denominated ultra-high dilutions are controversial issues that do not fit into the mainstream medicine or current physical-chemistry field as well. Aside its clinical efficacy, the identification of physical - chemistry parameters, as markers of the homeopathic effect, would allow to construct mathematic models [1], which in turn, could provide clues regarding the involved mechanism.

  2. Statistics of the epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal - II. The evolution of the power-spectrum error-covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Majumdar, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is expected to become highly non-Gaussian as reionization progresses. This severely affects the error-covariance of the EoR 21-cm power spectrum that is important for predicting the prospects of a detection with ongoing and future experiments. Most earlier works have assumed that the EoR 21-cm signal is a Gaussian random field where (1) the error-variance depends only on the power spectrum and the number of Fourier modes in the particular k bin, and (2) the errors in the different k bins are uncorrelated. Here, we use an ensemble of simulated 21-cm maps to analyse the error-covariance at various stages of reionization. We find that even at the very early stages of reionization (bar{x}_{H I}˜ 0.9), the error-variance significantly exceeds the Gaussian predictions at small length-scales (k > 0.5 Mpc-1) while they are consistent at larger scales. The errors in most k bins (both large and small scales) are however found to be correlated. Considering the later stages (bar{x}_{H I}=0.15), the error-variance shows an excess in all k bins within k ≥ 0.1 Mpc-1, and it is around 200 times larger than the Gaussian prediction at k ˜ 1 Mpc-1. The errors in the different k bins are all also highly correlated, barring the two smallest k bins that are anti-correlated with the other bins. Our results imply that the predictions for different 21-cm experiments based on the Gaussian assumption underestimate the errors, and it is necessary to incorporate the non-Gaussianity for more realistic predictions.

  3. Extracellular simian virus 40 induces an ERK/MAP kinase-independent signalling pathway that activates primary response genes and promotes virus entry.

    PubMed

    Dangoria, N S; Breau, W C; Anderson, H A; Cishek, D M; Norkin, L C

    1996-09-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) binding to growth-arrested cells activated an intracellular signalling pathway that induced the up-regulation of the primary response genes c-myc, c-jun and c-sis within 30 min and of JE within 90 min. The up-regulation of the primary response genes occurred in the presence of cycloheximide and when UV-inactivated SV40 was adsorbed to cells. SV40 binding did not activate Raf or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP/ERK1), or mobilize intracellular Ca2+. The SV40-induced up-regulation of c-myc and c-jun was blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, and by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C, but not by expression of the MAP kinase-specific phosphatase, MKP-1. These results suggest that the SV40-induced signalling pathway includes the activities of a tyrosine kinase and a Ca(2+)-independent isoform of PKC, but not of Raf or MAP kinase. Finally, SV40 infectious entry into cells was specifically and reversibly blocked by genistein.

  4. PAU/GNSS-R: Implementation, Performance and First Results of a Real-Time Delay-Doppler Map Reflectometer Using Global Navigation Satellite System Signals.

    PubMed

    Marchan-Hernandez, Juan Fernando; Camps, Adriano; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Nereida; Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Ramos-Perez, Isaac; Valencia, Enric

    2008-05-06

    Signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) were originally conceived for position and speed determination, but they can be used as signals of opportunity as well. The reflection process over a given surface modifies the properties of the scattered signal, and therefore, by processing the reflected signal, relevant geophysical data regarding the surface under study (land, sea, ice…) can be retrieved. In essence, a GNSS-R receiver is a multi-channel GNSS receiver that computes the received power from a given satellite at a number of different delay and Doppler bins of the incoming signal. The first approaches to build such a receiver consisted of sampling and storing the scattered signal for later post-processing. However, a real-time approach to the problem is desirable to obtain immediately useful geophysical variables and reduce the amount of data. The use of FPGA technology makes this possible, while at the same time the system can be easily reconfigured. The signal tracking and processing constraints made necessary to fully design several new blocks. The uniqueness of the implemented system described in this work is the capability to compute in real-time Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs) either for four simultaneous satellites or just one, but with a larger number of bins. The first tests have been conducted from a cliff over the sea and demonstrate the successful performance of the instrument to compute DDMs in real-time from the measured reflected GNSS/R signals. The processing of these measurements shall yield quantitative relationships between the sea state (mainly driven by the surface wind and the swell) and the overall DDM shape. The ultimate goal is to use the DDM shape to correct the sea state influence on the L-band brightness temperature to improve the retrieval of the sea surface salinity (SSS).

  5. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Waite, Lindsay L; Jackson, Anne U; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Buyske, Steven; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Carty, Cara L; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Henderson, Brian E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kim, Eric; Kinnunen, Leena; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lee, Wen-Jane; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir; Mitchell, Sabrina L; Narisu, Narisu; Robinson, Jennifer G; Schumacher, Fred; Stančáková, Alena; Sundvall, Jouko; Sung, Yun-Ju; Swift, Amy J; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wilkens, Lynne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Young, Alicia M; Adair, Linda S; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bůžková, Petra; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Francis S; Duggan, David; Feranil, Alan B; Ho, Low-Tone; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Kesäniemi, Antero Y; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, I-Te; Leppert, Mark F; Matise, Tara C; Moilanen, Leena; Njølstad, Inger; Peters, Ulrike; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rotter, Jerome I; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Boehnke, Michael; Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Yii-Der I; Kooperberg, Charles; Assimes, Themistocles L; Crawford, Dana C; Hsiung, Chao A; North, Kari E; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4) in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.

  6. Trans-Ethnic Fine-Mapping of Lipid Loci Identifies Population-Specific Signals and Allelic Heterogeneity That Increases the Trait Variance Explained

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Waite, Lindsay L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Sheu, Wayne H-H.; Buyske, Steven; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Carty, Cara L.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B.; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Henderson, Brian E.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Kim, Eric; Kinnunen, Leena; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lee, Wen-Jane; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Narisu, Narisu; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Schumacher, Fred; Stančáková, Alena; Sundvall, Jouko; Sung, Yun-Ju; Swift, Amy J.; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wilkens, Lynne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Young, Alicia M.; Adair, Linda S.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Bůžková, Petra; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Francis S.; Duggan, David; Feranil, Alan B.; Ho, Low-Tone; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Juang, Jyh-Ming J.; Kesäniemi, Antero Y.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lee, I-Te; Leppert, Mark F.; Matise, Tara C.; Moilanen, Leena; Njølstad, Inger; Peters, Ulrike; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ∼100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1×10−4 in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies. PMID:23555291

  7. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  8. Mapping the Zap-70 phosphorylation sites on LAT (linker for activation of T cells) required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Paz, P E; Wang, S; Clarke, H; Lu, X; Stokoe, D; Abo, A

    2001-01-01

    T-cell-receptor (TCR)-mediated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) phosphorylation is critical for the membrane recruitment of signalling complexes required for T-cell activation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT is required for recruitment and activation of signalling proteins, the molecular mechanism associated with this event is unclear. In the present study we reconstituted the LAT signalling pathway by demonstrating that a direct tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT with activated protein-tyrosine kinase Zap70 is necessary and sufficient for the association and activation of signalling proteins. Zap-70 efficiently phosphorylates LAT on tyrosine residues at positions 226, 191, 171, 132 and 127. By substituting these tyrosine residues in LAT with phenylalanine and by utilizing phosphorylated peptides derived from these sites, we mapped the tyrosine residues in LAT required for the direct interaction and activation of Vav, p85/p110alpha and phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1). Our results indicate that Tyr(226) and Tyr(191) are required for Vav binding, whereas Tyr(171) and Tyr(132) are necessary for association and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and PLCgamma1 respectively. Furthermore, by expression of LAT mutants in LAT-deficient T cells, we demonstrate that Tyr(191) and Tyr(171) are required for T-cell activation and Tyr(132) is required for the activation of PLCgamma1 and Ras signalling pathways. PMID:11368773

  9. A first look at the application of signal extraction techniques to the analysis of body surface potential maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, S. B.; Mcneel, M. L.; Matthews, E.; Fischmann, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Partial body surface potential maps from both normal subjects and subjects with independently diagnosed myocardial infarcts are visually compared from superimposed plots. A correlation test is devised to distinguish the two groups, with the reference waveform determined by means of a gradient-search algorithm. The results are encouraging, and suggest further investigation of these techniques as a future diagnostic tool.

  10. Physiological noise correction using ECG-derived respiratory signals for enhanced mapping of spontaneous neuronal activity with simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rodolfo; Nunes, Sandro; Leal, Alberto; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2016-08-12

    The study of spontaneous brain activity based on BOLD-fMRI may be seriously compromised by the presence of signal fluctuations of non-neuronal origin, most prominently due to cardiac and respiratory mechanisms. Methods used for modeling and correction of the so-called physiological noise usually rely on the concurrent measurement of cardiac and respiratory signals. In simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings, which are primarily aimed at the study of spontaneous brain activity, the electrocardiogram (ECG) is typically measured as part of the EEG setup but respiratory data are not generally available. Here, we propose to use the ECG-derived respiratory (EDR) signal estimated by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as a surrogate of the respiratory signal, for retrospective physiological noise correction of typical simultaneous EEG-fMRI data. A physiological noise model based on these physiological signals (P-PNM) complemented with fMRI-derived noise regressors was generated, and evaluated, for 17 simultaneous EEG-fMRI datasets acquired from a group of seven epilepsy patients imaged at 3T. The respiratory components of P-PNM were found to explain BOLD variance significantly in addition to the cardiac components, suggesting that the EDR signal was successfully extracted from the ECG, and P-PNM outperformed an image-based model (I-PNM) in terms of total BOLD variance explained. Further, the impact of the correction using P-PNM on fMRI mapping of patient-specific epileptic networks and the resting-state default mode network (DMN) was assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity and, when compared with an ICA-based procedure and a standard pre-processing pipeline, P-PNM achieved the best performance. Overall, our results support the feasibility and utility of extracting physiological noise models of the BOLD signal resorting to ECG data exclusively, with substantial impact on the simultaneous EEG-fMRI mapping of resting-state networks, and, most importantly, epileptic networks

  11. Unsupervised statistical learning applied to experimental high-energy physics and related areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas Filho, Eduardo F.; Seixas, José M.

    2016-12-01

    Unsupervised statistical learning (USL) techniques, such as self-organizing maps (SOMs), principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis explore different statistical properties to efficiently process information from multiple variables. USL algorithms have been successfully applied in experimental high-energy physics (HEP) and related areas for different purposes, such as feature extraction, signal detection, noise reduction, signal-background separation and removal of cross-interference from multiple signal sources in multisensor measurement systems. This paper presents both a review of the theoretical aspects of these signal processing methods and examples of some successful applications in HEP and related areas experiments.

  12. Stimulation of PPC Affects the Mapping between Motion and Force Signals for Stiffness Perception But Not Motion Control.

    PubMed

    Leib, Raz; Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Donchin, Opher; Rothwell, John; Nisky, Ilana; Davare, Marco

    2016-10-12

    How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control. We explain this enhancement as an additional lag in force signals. This is the first causal evidence that the PPC is not only involved in motion control, but also has an important role in perception that is disassociated from action. We provide a computational model suggesting that the PPC integrates position and force signals for perception of stiffness and that TMS alters the synchronization between the two signals causing lasting consequences on perceptual behavior.

  13. Stimulation of PPC Affects the Mapping between Motion and Force Signals for Stiffness Perception But Not Motion Control

    PubMed Central

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Donchin, Opher; Rothwell, John; Nisky, Ilana; Davare, Marco

    2016-01-01

    How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control. We explain this enhancement as an additional lag in force signals. This is the first causal evidence that the PPC is not only involved in motion control, but also has an important role in perception that is disassociated from action. We provide a computational model suggesting that the PPC integrates position and force signals for perception of stiffness and that TMS alters the synchronization between the two signals causing lasting consequences on perceptual behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT When selecting an object such as a ripe fruit or sofa, we need to assess the object's stiffness. Because we lack dedicated stiffness sensors, we rely on an as yet unknown mechanism that generates stiffness percepts by combining position and force signals. Here, we found that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) contributes to combining position and force signals for stiffness estimation. This finding challenges the classical view about the role of the PPC in regulating position signals only for motion control because we highlight a key role of the PPC in perception that is disassociated from action. Altogether this sheds light on brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between action and perception and may help in the development of better teleoperation systems and rehabilitation of patients with sensory impairments. PMID:27733607

  14. Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Watkins, Simon C.; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular-stimuli–regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is proposed to be transduced not only from the cell surface but also from endosomes, although the role of endocytosis in this signaling pathway is controversial. Ras is the only membrane-anchored component in the EGFR–ERK signaling axis, and therefore, its location determines intracellular sites of downstream signaling. Hence, we labeled endogenous H-Ras (HRas) with mVenus fluorescent protein using gene editing in HeLa cells. mVenus-HRas was primarily located at the plasma membrane, and in small amounts in tubular recycling endosomes and associated vesicles. EGF stimulation resulted in fast but transient activation of mVenus-HRas. Although EGF:EGFR complexes were rapidly accumulated in endosomes together with the Grb2 adaptor, very little, if any, mVenus-HRas was detected in these endosomes. Interestingly, the activities of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 remained high beyond the point of the physical separation of HRas from EGF:EGFR complexes and down-regulation of Ras activity. Paradoxically, this sustained MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation was dependent on the active EGFR kinase. Cell surface biotinylation and selective inactivation of surface EGFRs suggested that a small fraction of active EGFRs remaining in the plasma membrane is responsible for continuous signaling to MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. We propose that, under physiological conditions of cell stimulation, EGFR endocytosis serves to spatially separate EGFR–Grb2 complexes and Ras, thus terminating Ras-mediated signaling. However, sustained minimal activation of Ras by a small pool of active EGFRs in the plasma membrane is sufficient for extending MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities. PMID:26858456

  15. Nitric oxide affects ERK signaling through down-regulation of MAP kinase phosphatase levels during larval development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK) and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps) expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  16. Mapping physiological G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways reveals a role for receptor phosphorylation in airway contraction

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Sophie J.; Iglesias, Max Maza; Kong, Kok Choi; Butcher, Adrian J.; Plouffe, Bianca; Goupil, Eugénie; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; LeGouill, Christian; Russell, Kirsty; Laporte, Stéphane A.; König, Gabriele M.; Kostenis, Evi; Bouvier, Michel; Chung, Kian Fan; Amrani, Yassine; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to initiate a plethora of signaling pathways in vitro. However, it is unclear which of these pathways are engaged to mediate physiological responses. Here, we examine the distinct roles of Gq/11-dependent signaling and receptor phosphorylation-dependent signaling in bronchial airway contraction and lung function regulated through the M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR). By using a genetically engineered mouse expressing a G protein-biased M3-mAChR mutant, we reveal the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a role for M3-mAChR phosphorylation in bronchial smooth muscle contraction in health and in a disease state with relevance to human asthma. Furthermore, this mouse model can be used to distinguish the physiological responses that are regulated by M3-mAChR phosphorylation (which include control of lung function) from those responses that are downstream of G protein signaling. In this way, we present an approach by which to predict the physiological/therapeutic outcome of M3-mAChR–biased ligands with important implications for drug discovery. PMID:27071102

  17. Mapping physiological G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways reveals a role for receptor phosphorylation in airway contraction.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Sophie J; Wiegman, Coen H; Iglesias, Max Maza; Kong, Kok Choi; Butcher, Adrian J; Plouffe, Bianca; Goupil, Eugénie; Bourgognon, Julie-Myrtille; Macedo-Hatch, Timothy; LeGouill, Christian; Russell, Kirsty; Laporte, Stéphane A; König, Gabriele M; Kostenis, Evi; Bouvier, Michel; Chung, Kian Fan; Amrani, Yassine; Tobin, Andrew B

    2016-04-19

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to initiate a plethora of signaling pathways in vitro. However, it is unclear which of these pathways are engaged to mediate physiological responses. Here, we examine the distinct roles of Gq/11-dependent signaling and receptor phosphorylation-dependent signaling in bronchial airway contraction and lung function regulated through the M3-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3-mAChR). By using a genetically engineered mouse expressing a G protein-biased M3-mAChR mutant, we reveal the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a role for M3-mAChR phosphorylation in bronchial smooth muscle contraction in health and in a disease state with relevance to human asthma. Furthermore, this mouse model can be used to distinguish the physiological responses that are regulated by M3-mAChR phosphorylation (which include control of lung function) from those responses that are downstream of G protein signaling. In this way, we present an approach by which to predict the physiological/therapeutic outcome of M3-mAChR-biased ligands with important implications for drug discovery.

  18. Validation and optimization of statistical approaches for modeling odorant-induced fMRI signal changes in olfactory-related brain areas.

    PubMed

    Tabert, Matthias H; Steffener, Jason; Albers, Mark W; Kern, David W; Michael, Maria; Tang, Haiying; Brown, Truman R; Devanand, Davangere P

    2007-02-15

    Recent neuroimaging studies have converged to show that odorant-induced responses to prolonged stimulation in primary olfactory cortex (POC) are characterized by a rapidly habituating time course. Different statistical approaches have effectively modeled this time course. One approach explicitly modeled rapid habituation using an exponentially decaying reference waveform that decreased to baseline levels within 30 to 40 s. A second approach modeled an early transient response by simply shortening the odorant 'ON' period to be less than the actual stimulation period (i.e., 9 of 40 s). The goal of the current study was to validate, compare, and optimize these methodological approaches by applying them to an olfactory fMRI block-design dataset from 10 healthy young subjects presented with odorants for 12 s (ON), alternating with 30 s of clear air (OFF). Both approaches significantly improved sensitivity to odorant-induced signal changes in POC relative to a square-wave model based on the actual stimulation period. Our findings further demonstrate that the 'optimal' model fit to the data was achieved by shortening the odorant 'ON' period to approximately 6 s. These results suggest that sensitivity to odorant-induced POC activity in block-design experiments can be optimized by modeling an early phasic response followed by a precipitous rather than specific exponential decrease to baseline levels. Notably, whole brain voxel-wise analyses further established that modeling rapid habituation in this way is not only sensitive, but also highly specific to odorant-induced activation in a well-established network of olfactory-related brain areas.

  19. Role of EphA/ephrin-A signaling in the development of topographic maps in mouse corticothalamic projections

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Masaaki; Rakic, Pasko; Levitt, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Corticothalamic (CT) feedback outnumbers thalamocortical projections, and regulates sensory information processing at the level of the thalamus. It is well established that EphA7, a member of EphA receptor family, is involved in the topographic mapping of CT projections. The aim of the present study is to dissect the precise impact of EphA7 on each step of CT growth. We used in utero electroporation-mediated EphA7 overexpression in developing somatosensory CT axons to dissect EphA7/ephrin-A-dependent mechanisms involved in regulating both initial targeting and postnatal growth of the CT projections. Our data revealed that topographic maps of cortical afferents in the ventrobasal complex and medial part of the posterior complex in the thalamus become discernible shortly after birth and are fully established by the second postnatal week. This process starts with the direct ingrowth of the CT axons to the designated areas within target thalamic nuclei and by progressive increase of axonal processes in the terminal zones. Large-scale overproduction and elimination of exuberant widespread axonal branches outside the target zone was not observed. Each developmental event was coordinated by spatially and temporally different responsiveness of CT axons to the ephrin-A gradient in thalamic nuclei, as well as by the matching levels of EphA7 in CT axons and ephrin-As in thalamic nuclei. These results support the concept that the topographic connections between the maps in the cerebral cortex and corresponding thalamic nuclei are genetically pre-specified to a large extent, and established by precise spatio-temporal molecular mechanisms that involve the Eph family of genes. PMID:22821544

  20. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal trigger distinct signals for map family kinases and caspase activation in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Akhand, A A; Hossain, K; Mitsui, H; Kato, M; Miyata, T; Inagi, R; Du, J; Takeda, K; Kawamoto, Y; Suzuki, H; Kurokawa, K; Nakashima, I

    2001-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds with diverse carbon skeletons may be differentially related to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we compared intracellular signals delivered into cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which differ only by a methyl group. Depending on their concentrations, GO and MGO promoted phosphorylations of ERK1 and ERK2, which were blocked by the protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors herbimycin A and staurosporine, thereby being PTK-dependent. GO and MGO also induced phosphorylations of JNK, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun, either PTK-dependently (GO) or -independently (MGO). Next, we found that MGO, but not GO, induced degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as the intracellular substrate of caspase-3. Curcumin and SB203580, which inhibit JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but not herbimycin A/staurosporine, prevented the MGO-induced PARP degradation. We then found that MGO, but not GO, reduced the intracellular glutathione level, and that cysteine, but not cystine, inhibited the MGO-mediated activation of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, or c-Jun more extensively than did lysine or arginine. In addition, all the signals triggered by GO and MGO were blocked by amino guanidine (AG), which traps carbonyls. These results demonstrated that GO and MGO triggered two distinct signal cascades, one for PTK-dependent control of ERK and another for PTK-independent redox-linked activation of JNK/p38 MAPK and caspases in HUVECs, depending on the structure of the carbon skeleton of the chemicals.

  1. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.

  2. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE HEAVY NEUTRAL ATOMS MEASURED BY IBEX

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeewoo; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Galli, André; Livadiotis, George; Fuselier, Steve A.; McComas, David J.

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere by using heavy neutral maps generated with the IBEX-Lo instrument over three years from 2009 to 2011. The interstellar neutral (ISN) O and Ne gas flow was found in the first-year heavy neutral map at 601 keV and its flow direction and temperature were studied. However, due to the low counting statistics, researchers have not treated the full sky maps in detail. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the statistical significance of each pixel in the heavy neutral maps to get a better understanding of the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere. Here, we examine three statistical analysis methods: the signal-to-noise filter, the confidence limit method, and the cluster analysis method. These methods allow us to exclude background from areas where the heavy neutral signal is statistically significant. These methods also allow the consistent detection of heavy neutral atom structures. The main emission feature expands toward lower longitude and higher latitude from the observational peak of the ISN O and Ne gas flow. We call this emission the extended tail. It may be an imprint of the secondary oxygen atoms generated by charge exchange between ISN hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions in the outer heliosheath.

  3. Statistical Analysis of the Heavy Neutral Atoms Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeewoo; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Galli, André; Livadiotis, George; Fuselier, Steve A.; McComas, David J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere by using heavy neutral maps generated with the IBEX-Lo instrument over three years from 2009 to 2011. The interstellar neutral (ISN) O&Ne gas flow was found in the first-year heavy neutral map at 601 keV and its flow direction and temperature were studied. However, due to the low counting statistics, researchers have not treated the full sky maps in detail. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the statistical significance of each pixel in the heavy neutral maps to get a better understanding of the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere. Here, we examine three statistical analysis methods: the signal-to-noise filter, the confidence limit method, and the cluster analysis method. These methods allow us to exclude background from areas where the heavy neutral signal is statistically significant. These methods also allow the consistent detection of heavy neutral atom structures. The main emission feature expands toward lower longitude and higher latitude from the observational peak of the ISN O&Ne gas flow. We call this emission the extended tail. It may be an imprint of the secondary oxygen atoms generated by charge exchange between ISN hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions in the outer heliosheath.

  4. Systematic identifiability testing for unambiguous mechanistic modeling – application to JAK-STAT, MAP kinase, and NF-κB signaling pathway models

    PubMed Central

    Quaiser, Tom; Mönnigmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background When creating mechanistic mathematical models for biological signaling processes it is tempting to include as many known biochemical interactions into one large model as possible. For the JAK-STAT, MAP kinase, and NF-κB pathways a lot of biological insight is available, and as a consequence, large mathematical models have emerged. For large models the question arises whether unknown model parameters can uniquely be determined by parameter estimation from measured data. Systematic approaches to answering this question are indispensable since the uniqueness of model parameter values is essential for predictive mechanistic modeling. Results We propose an eigenvalue based method for efficiently testing identifiability of large ordinary differential models and compare this approach to three existing ones. The methods are benchmarked by applying them to models of the signaling pathways mentioned above. In all cases the eigenvalue method proposed here and the orthogonal method find the largest set of identifiable parameters, thus clearly outperforming the other approaches. The identifiability analysis shows that the pathway models are not identifiable, even under the strong assumption that all system state variables are measurable. We demonstrate how the results of the identifiability analysis can be used for model simplification. Conclusion While it has undoubtedly contributed to recent advances in systems biology, mechanistic modeling by itself does not guarantee unambiguous descriptions of biological processes. We show that some recent signal transduction pathway models have reached a level of detail that is not warranted. Rigorous identifiability tests reveal that even if highly idealized experiments could be carried out to measure all state variables of these signaling pathways, some unknown parameters could still not be estimated. The identifiability tests therefore show that the level of detail of the investigated models is too high in principle, not

  5. Archaeological applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: an example from the Coso Volcanic Field, California, using advanced statistical signal processing analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Remus, Jeremiah J.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Harmon, Russell S.; Draucker, Anne; Baron, Dirk; Yohe, Robert

    2010-05-01

    of the classifier setup considered in this study include the training/testing routine (a 27-fold leave-one-sample-out setup versus a simple split of the data into separate sets for training and evaluation), the number of latent variables used in the regression model, and whether PLSDA operating on the entire broadband LIBS spectrum is superior to that using only a selected subset of LIBS emission lines. The results point to the robustness of the PLSDA technique and suggest that LIBS analysis combined with the appropriate statistical signal processing has the potential to be a useful tool for chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts and geological specimens.

  6. Opposite effects of the p52shc/p46shc and p66shc splicing isoforms on the EGF receptor-MAP kinase-fos signalling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, E; Mele, S; Salcini, A E; Pelicci, G; Lai, K M; Superti-Furga, G; Pawson, T; Di Fiore, P P; Lanfrancone, L; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Shc proteins are targets of activated tyrosine kinases and are implicated in the transmission of activation signals to Ras. The p46shc and p52shc isoforms share a C-terminal SH2 domain, a proline- and glycine-rich region (collagen homologous region 1; CH1) and a N-terminal PTB domain. We have isolated cDNAs encoding for a third Shc isoform, p66shc. The predicted amino acid sequence of p66shc overlaps that of p52shc and contains a unique N-terminal region which is also rich in glycines and prolines (CH2). p52shc/p46shc is found in every cell type with invariant reciprocal relationship, whereas p66shc expression varies from cell type to cell type. p66shc differs from p52shc/p46shc in its inability to transform mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Like p52shc/p46shc, p66shc is tyrosine-phosphorylated upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, binds to activated EGF receptors (EGFRs) and forms stable complexes with Grb2. However, unlike p52shc/p46shc it does not increase EGF activation of MAP kinases, but inhibits fos promoter activation. The isolated CH2 domain retains the inhibitory effect of p66shc on the fos promoter. p52shc/p46shc and p66shc, therefore, appear to exert different effects on the EGFR-MAP kinase and other signalling pathways that control fos promoter activity. Regulation of p66shc expression might, therefore, influence the cellular response to growth factors. PMID:9049300

  7. The use of a novel signal analysis to identify the origin of idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract ventricular tachycardia during sinus rhythm: Simultaneous amplitude frequency electrogram transformation mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Fa-Po; Lin, Chin-Yu; Lo, Men-Tzung; Liu, Che-An; Lin, Chen; Chang, Yi-Chung; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chao, Tze-Fan; Liao, Jonan; Chang, Yao-Ting; Lin, Chung-Hsing; Hung, Yuan; Yamada, Shinya; Pan, Kuo-Li; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The signal characteristics of intracardiac bipolar electrograms at the origin of idiopathic RVOT-VT during sinus rhythm remain unclear. Objective The study sought to develop a novel real-time/online technique, simultaneous amplitude frequency electrogram transformation (SAFE-T), to quantify and localize the diseased ventricular substrate in idiopathic RVOT-VT. Methods We retrospectively investigated the intracardiac bipolar recordings in 70 consecutive patients (26% male, mean age 42±12 years) who underwent successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic RVOT-VT. We quantified the extent of the frequency fraction of ventricular potentials during sinus rhythm or ventricular pacing using a novel formula, the product of instantaneous amplitude and frequency, and showed that in a 3D geometry as an online SAFE-T map. Results The characteristics of the HHT spectra of electrograms derived from VT origins demonstrated high frequency components (>70 Hz), which were independent of the rhythm. The density of the abnormal potentials at the VT origins were higher (VT origins, 7.5±2.3 sites/cm2 vs. surrounding myocardium, 1.5±1.3 sites/cm2, p<0.001), and were significantly decreased after ablation (0.7±0.6 sites/cm2, p<0.001). A small region of abnormal potentials were observed in the VT origins (mean area of 1.5±0.8 cm2). The SAFE-T maps predicted the VT origins with 92% sensitivity, 78% specificity with optimal cut-off value of >3.0 Hz·mV. Conclusion The online SAFE-T map was feasible for quantifying the diseased ventricular substrate, irrespective of the rhythm of activation, and can be used to identify the optimal ablation targets for idiopathic RVOT-VT. We found a limited region of abnormal potentials where the RVOT-VT origins were successfully ablated. PMID:28282453

  8. Signaling through P2X7 receptor in human T cells involves p56lck, MAP kinases, and transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Brovko, Luba; Orinska, Zane; Fayad, Raja; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2003-01-17

    ATP-gated ion channel P2X receptors are expressed on the surface of most immune cells and can trigger multiple cellular responses, such as membrane permeabilization, cytokine production, and cell proliferation or apoptosis. Despite broad distribution and pleiotropic activities, signaling pathways downstream of these ionotropic receptors are still poorly understood. Here, we describe intracellular signaling events in Jurkat cells treated with millimolar concentrations of extracellular ATP. Within minutes, ATP treatment resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of p56(lck) kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not p38 kinase. These effects were wholly dependent upon the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions in the culture medium. Nevertheless, calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium and CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 both had no effect on the activation of p56(lck) and ERK, whereas a pretreatment of Jurkat cells with MAP kinase kinase inhibitor P098059 was able to abrogate phosphorylation of ERK. Further, expression of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins and activator protein (AP-1) DNA binding activity were enhanced in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B was reduced. ATP failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activation of AP-1 in the p56(lck)-deficient isogenic T cell line JCaM1, suggesting a critical role for p56(lck) kinase in downstream signaling. Regarding the biological significance of the ATP-induced signaling events we show that although extracellular ATP was able to stimulate proliferation of both Jurkat and JCaM1 cells, an increase in interleukin-2 transcription was observed only in Jurkat cells. The nucleotide selectivity and pharmacological profile data supported the evidence that the ATP-induced effects in Jurkat cells were mediated through the P2X7 receptor. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of extracellular ATP to activate

  9. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; and others

    2014-10-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE{sub 2} and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE{sub 2} production. • C3G

  10. DLK-1/p38 MAP Kinase Signaling Controls Cilium Length by Regulating RAB-5 Mediated Endocytosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    van der Vaart, Aniek; Rademakers, Suzanne; Jansen, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are sensory organelles present on almost all vertebrate cells. Cilium length is constant, but varies between cell types, indicating that cilium length is regulated. How this is achieved is unclear, but protein transport in cilia (intraflagellar transport, IFT) plays an important role. Several studies indicate that cilium length and function can be modulated by environmental cues. As a model, we study a C. elegans mutant that carries a dominant active G protein α subunit (gpa-3QL), resulting in altered IFT and short cilia. In a screen for suppressors of the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype, we identified uev-3, which encodes an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant that acts in a MAP kinase pathway. Mutation of two other components of this pathway, dual leucine zipper-bearing MAPKKK DLK-1 and p38 MAPK PMK-3, also suppress the gpa-3QL short cilium phenotype. However, this suppression seems not to be caused by changes in IFT. The DLK-1/p38 pathway regulates several processes, including microtubule stability and endocytosis. We found that reducing endocytosis by mutating rabx-5 or rme-6, RAB-5 GEFs, or the clathrin heavy chain, suppresses gpa-3QL. In addition, gpa-3QL animals showed reduced levels of two GFP-tagged proteins involved in endocytosis, RAB-5 and DPY-23, whereas pmk-3 mutant animals showed accumulation of GFP-tagged RAB-5. Together our results reveal a new role for the DLK-1/p38 MAPK pathway in control of cilium length by regulating RAB-5 mediated endocytosis. PMID:26657059

  11. BDNF/ TrkB interaction regulates migration of SVZ precursor cells via PI3-K and MAP-K signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiaramello, S; Dalmasso, G; Bezin, L; Marcel, D; Jourdan, F; Peretto, P; Fasolo, A; De Marchis, S

    2007-10-01

    Neuroblasts born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream, reaching the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local interneurons. Several extracellular factors have been suggested to control specific steps of this process. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been demonstrated to promote morphological differentiation and survival of OB interneurons. Here we show that BDNF and its receptor TrkB are expressed in vivo throughout the migratory pathway, implying that BDNF might also mediate migratory signals. By using in vitro models we demonstrate that BDNF promotes migration of SVZ neuroblasts, acting both as inducer and attractant through TrkB activation. We show that BDNF induces cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation in migrating neuroblasts via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP-K) signalling. Pharmacological blockade of these pathways on SVZ explants significantly reduces CREB activation and impairs neuronal migration. This study identifies a function of BDNF in the SVZ system, which involves multiple protein kinase pathways leading to neuroblast migration.

  12. Sevoflurane Stimulates MAP Kinase Signal transduction through the Activation of PKC α and βII in Fetal Rat Cerebral Cortex Cultured Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nagata, Hidetaka; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme that participates in various neuronal functions. PKC has also been identified as a target molecule for general anesthetic actions. Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) have been thought to be target effectors of PKC. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane on PKC/MAPK cascade signaling in cultured fetal rat cerebral ­cortex neurons, prepared from embryonic day 18 fetuses. The effects of sevoflurane on the translocation of 7 PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, γ, δ, ɛ and ζ) were observed by immunoblotting using isoform-selective antibodies to PKCs. The treatment of neurons with sevoflurane induced the translocation of PKC α and PKC βII species from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, which indicated the activation of these PKC isoforms. In contrast, there was no clear change in the distribution of other PKC isoforms. We next examined whether the specific activation of PKC α and βII by sevoflurane could stimulate the MAP kinase signaling pathway in cultured neurons. Raf phosphorylation was increased by the administration of 0.25 mM sevoflurane. The phosphorylation of Raf proteins reached a maximum at 5–10 min. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of MEK proteins was increased at 10–15 min after sevoflurane treatments. That of ERK proteins was induced at 15–60 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK induced by sevoflurane was significantly decreased by the treatment of PKC inhibitor (staurosporine) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059). On the other hand, the contents of total Raf, MEK and ERK proteins were relatively constant at all times examined. To examine the ­localization of phosphorylated-ERK protein, immunohistochemical staining of sevoflurane-treated cultured neurons was performed. The phosphorylated-ERK proteins were markedly accumulated in both the cytosol of the cell body and the neurites in the neuronal cells with time after 0

  13. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant.

    PubMed

    Plesofsky, Nora; Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies.

  14. Glucose Starvation Alters Heat Shock Response, Leading to Death of Wild Type Cells and Survival of MAP Kinase Signaling Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, LeeAnn; Markowski, Todd; Brambl, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A moderate heat shock induces Neurospora crassa to synthesize large quantities of heat shock proteins that are protective against higher, otherwise lethal temperatures. However, wild type cells do not survive when carbohydrate deprivation is added to heat shock. In contrast, a mutant strain defective in a stress-activated protein kinase does survive the combined stresses. In order to understand the basis for this difference in survival, we have determined the relative levels of detected proteins in the mutant and wild type strain during dual stress, and we have identified gene transcripts in both strains whose quantities change in response to heat shock or dual stress. These data and supportive experimental evidence point to reasons for survival of the mutant strain. By using alternative respiratory mechanisms, these cells experience less of the oxidative stress that proves damaging to wild type cells. Of central importance, mutant cells recycle limited resources during dual stress by undergoing autophagy, a process that we find utilized by both wild type and mutant cells during heat shock. Evidence points to inappropriate activation of TORC1, the central metabolic regulator, in wild type cells during dual stress, based upon behavior of an additional signaling mutant and inhibitor studies. PMID:27870869

  15. Nuclear Localization Signal and p53 Binding Site in MAP/ERK Kinase Kinase 1 (MEKK1)

    PubMed Central

    Chipps, Elizabeth; Protzman, April; Muhi, M. Zubayed; Ando, Shoko; Calvet, James P.; Islam, M. Rafiq

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Mekk1 translocates to the nucleus, interacts with tumor suppressor protein p53 and co-represses PKD1 transcription via an atypical p53 binding site on the minimal PKD1 promoter (JBC 285:38818-38831, 2010). In this study, we report the mechanisms of Mekk1 nuclear transport and p53 binding. Using GFP-linked constitutively active-Mekk1 (CA-Mekk1) and a deletion strategy, we identified a nuclear localization signal (HRDVK) located at amino acid (aa) residues 1349–1353 in the C-terminal Mekk1 catalytic domain. Deletion of this sequence in CA-Mekk1 and full-length Mekk1 significantly reduced their nuclear translocation in both HEK293T and COS-1 cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we identified an adjacent sequence (GANLID, aa 1354–1360) in Mekk1 responsible for p53 binding. Deletion of this sequence markedly reduced the interaction of Mekk1 with p53. Mekk1 does not appear to affect phosphorylation of Ser15, located in the Mdm2 interaction site, or other Ser residues in p53. However, Mekk1 mediates p53 protein stability in the presence of Mdm2 and reduces p53 ubiquitination, suggesting an interference with Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26018553

  16. Mapping Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Allosteric Site(s): Critical Molecular Determinant and Signaling Profile of GAT100, a Novel, Potent, and Irreversibly Binding Probe.

    PubMed

    Laprairie, Robert B; Kulkarni, Abhijit R; Kulkarni, Pushkar M; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane; Reggio, Patricia H; Janero, David R; Pertwee, Roger G; Stevenson, Lesley A; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M; Thakur, Ganesh A

    2016-06-15

    One of the most abundant G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in brain, the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), is a tractable therapeutic target for treating diverse psychobehavioral and somatic disorders. Adverse on-target effects associated with small-molecule CB1R orthosteric agonists and inverse agonists/antagonists have plagued their translational potential. Allosteric CB1R modulators offer a potentially safer modality through which CB1R signaling may be directed for therapeutic benefit. Rational design of candidate, druglike CB1R allosteric modulators requires greater understanding of the architecture of the CB1R allosteric endodomain(s) and the capacity of CB1R allosteric ligands to tune the receptor's information output. We have recently reported the synthesis of a focused library of rationally designed, covalent analogues of Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1, two prototypic CB1R negative allosteric modulators (NAMs). Among the novel, pharmacologically active CB1R NAMs reported, the isothiocyanate GAT100 emerged as the lead by virtue of its exceptional potency in the [(35)S]GTPγS and β-arrestin signaling assays and its ability to label CB1R as a covalent allosteric probe with significantly reduced inverse agonism in the [(35)S]GTPγS assay as compared to Org27569. We report here a comprehensive functional profiling of GAT100 across an array of important downstream cell-signaling pathways and analysis of its potential orthosteric probe-dependence and signaling bias. The results demonstrate that GAT100 is a NAM of the orthosteric CB1R agonist CP55,940 and the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide for β-arrestin1 recruitment, PLCβ3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cAMP accumulation, and CB1R internalization in HEK293A cells overexpressing CB1R and in Neuro2a and STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells endogenously expressing CB1R. Distinctively, GAT100 was a more potent and efficacious CB1R NAM than Org27569 and PSNCBAM-1 in all signaling assays and did not exhibit the inverse

  17. Molecular mapping of signals in the Qa-2 antigen required for attachment of the phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor.

    PubMed Central

    Waneck, G L; Sherman, D H; Kincade, P W; Low, M G; Flavell, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proteins anchored in the membrane by covalent linkage to phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) can be released by treatment with purified PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (Ptd-Ins-PLC). A recent survey of leukocyte antigens using flow cytometry has shown that staining of certain Qa antigens was diminished after PtdIns-PLC treatment, but staining of structurally related H-2 antigens was not affected. Therefore, in this study, the sensitivity of cell-surface Qa-2, H-2Kb, and H-2Db to hydrolysis by PtdIns-PLC was investigated biochemically by immunoprecipitation of radioiodinated molecules from cell lysates or supernatants. Qa-2, but not H-2Kb, was released from the surface of PtdIns-PLC-treated C57BL/10 mouse spleen cells and recovered in the cell supernatants. Similar analysis of thymoma cells transfected with cloned C57BL/10 genes showed that cell-surface Qa-2 molecules encoded by a Q7b cDNA and the Q7b or Q9b gene were sensitive to hydrolysis by PtdIns-PLC, whereas the H-2Kb and H-2Db gene products were resistant. Using thymoma cells transfected with hybrid genes constructed by exchanging exons between Q7b and H-2Db, the signals for PtdIns modification were localized to a defined region of Qa-2. This region differs from H-2Db most significantly by the presence of a central aspartate residue in the transmembrane segment and in the length of the cytoplasmic portion. Images PMID:3422441

  18. Cyanidin-3-Glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-Glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE2 and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25062774

  19. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm2) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicates that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25680589

  20. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin.

    PubMed

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  1. Image based cardiac acceleration map using statistical shape and 3D+t myocardial tracking models; in-vitro study on heart phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashaei, Ali; Piella, Gemma; Planes, Xavier; Duchateau, Nicolas; de Caralt, Teresa M.; Sitges, Marta; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2013-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that the acceleration signal has potential to monitor heart function and adaptively optimize Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) systems. In this paper, we propose a non-invasive method for computing myocardial acceleration from 3D echocardiographic sequences. Displacement of the myocardium was estimated using a two-step approach: (1) 3D automatic segmentation of the myocardium at end-diastole using 3D Active Shape Models (ASM); (2) propagation of this segmentation along the sequence using non-rigid 3D+t image registration (temporal di eomorphic free-form-deformation, TDFFD). Acceleration was obtained locally at each point of the myocardium from local displacement. The framework has been tested on images from a realistic physical heart phantom (DHP-01, Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies, London, ON, CA) in which the displacement of some control regions was known. Good correlation has been demonstrated between the estimated displacement function from the algorithms and the phantom setup. Due to the limited temporal resolution, the acceleration signals are sparse and highly noisy. The study suggests a non-invasive technique to measure the cardiac acceleration that may be used to improve the monitoring of cardiac mechanics and optimization of CRT.

  2. An automated normative-based fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image-analysis procedure to aid Alzheimer disease diagnosis using statistical parametric mapping and interactive image display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kewei; Ge, Xiaolin; Yao, Li; Bandy, Dan; Alexander, Gene E.; Prouty, Anita; Burns, Christine; Zhao, Xiaojie; Wen, Xiaotong; Korn, Ronald; Lawson, Michael; Reiman, Eric M.

    2006-03-01

    Having approved fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in some patients, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services suggested the need to develop and test analysis techniques to optimize diagnostic accuracy. We developed an automated computer package comparing an individual's FDG PET image to those of a group of normal volunteers. The normal control group includes FDG-PET images from 82 cognitively normal subjects, 61.89+/-5.67 years of age, who were characterized demographically, clinically, neuropsychologically, and by their apolipoprotein E genotype (known to be associated with a differential risk for AD). In addition, AD-affected brain regions functionally defined as based on a previous study (Alexander, et al, Am J Psychiatr, 2002) were also incorporated. Our computer package permits the user to optionally select control subjects, matching the individual patient for gender, age, and educational level. It is fully streamlined to require minimal user intervention. With one mouse click, the program runs automatically, normalizing the individual patient image, setting up a design matrix for comparing the single subject to a group of normal controls, performing the statistics, calculating the glucose reduction overlap index of the patient with the AD-affected brain regions, and displaying the findings in reference to the AD regions. In conclusion, the package automatically contrasts a single patient to a normal subject database using sound statistical procedures. With further validation, this computer package could be a valuable tool to assist physicians in decision making and communicating findings with patients and patient families.

  3. An Investigation of Statistical Thinking in Two Different Contexts: Detecting a Signal in a Noisy Process and Determining a Typical Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2005-01-01

    The study describes students' patterns of thinking for statistical problems set in two different contexts. Fifteen students representing a wide range of experiences with high school mathematics participated in problem-solving clinical interview sessions. At one point during the interviews, each solved a problem that involved determining the…

  4. Mapping changes in agricultural cropping frequency across Zimbabwe using cross-scale time-series remote sensing data and a novel signal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, A.; Van Den Hoek, J.; Sedano, F.; Kumar, V.; Tucker, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    A central challenge in agricultural remote sensing is the detection of changes in intra-annual cropping frequency, often necessary in monitoring crop productivity, agricultural management practices, or policy implementation. Though remote sensing imagery offers synoptic and systematic measurements relevant to monitoring crop phenology across spatial scales, broad-scale (i.e., country-wide) changes in cropping frequency have seldom been quantified due to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in phenological and climatic cycles, signal noise, and missing data resulting from cloud cover. For example, in Zimbabwe, once the breadbasket of southern Africa, large-scale changes to agricultural production followed land distribution policies introduced in the early 2000s. The diverse impacts of land reform on the agricultural economy continue to be debated yet the underlying changes in cropping frequency and pattern have never been systematically assessed. Using Zimbabwean agriculture as a case study and MODIS 16-day composite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and complementary Landsat imagery collected since 2000 across Zimbabwe, this presentation introduces a novel time-series signal decomposition and spatiotemporal clustering approach to map intra-annual cropping frequency and changes therein. MODIS-derived results indicate a massive decline in double-cropped acreage since 2000, a complete overhaul of cropping pattern with the disaggregation of large-scale commercial farms into multiple smallholder plots, and a spatial contraction of double-cropped fields to peri-urban lands, while Landsat trends capture the recent emergence of small-scale double-cropping systems unseen in MODIS data. These findings provide an independent and objective assessment of field-level changes in agricultural productivity, spatiotemporally explicit land reform effects on large-scale as well as smallholder agriculture and potential for food production, and have importance for regional water

  5. Identification of environmental parameters and risk mapping of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia by using geographical information systems and a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Tsegaw, Teshome; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Seid, Ahmed; Abera, Adugna; Teshome, Aklilu; Mulugeta, Abate; Herrero, Merce; Argaw, Daniel; Jorge, Alvar; Aseffa, Abraham

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a vector-borne disease strongly influenced by environmental factors, has (re)-emerged in Ethiopia during the last two decades and is currently of increasing public health concern. Based on VL incidence in each locality (kebele) documented from federal or regional health bureaus and/or hospital records in the country, geographical information systems (GIS), coupled with binary and multivariate logistic regression methods, were employed to develop a risk map for Ethiopia with respect to VL based on soil type, altitude, rainfall, slope and temperature. The risk model was subsequently validated in selected sites. This environmental VL risk model provided an overall prediction accuracy of 86% with mean land surface temperature and soil type found to be the best predictors of VL. The total population at risk was estimated at 3.2 million according to the national population census in 2007. The approach presented here should facilitate the identification of priority areas for intervention and the monitoring of trends as well as providing input for further epidemiological and applied research with regard to this disease in Ethiopia.

  6. Descriptive statistics.

    PubMed

    Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W

    2009-10-01

    In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications.

  7. Statistical Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callamaras, Peter

    1983-01-01

    This buyer's guide to seven major types of statistics software packages for microcomputers reviews Edu-Ware Statistics 3.0; Financial Planning; Speed Stat; Statistics with DAISY; Human Systems Dynamics package of Stats Plus, ANOVA II, and REGRESS II; Maxistat; and Moore-Barnes' MBC Test Construction and MBC Correlation. (MBR)

  8. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    As a branch of knowledge, Statistics is ubiquitous and its applications can be found in (almost) every field of human endeavour. In this article, the authors track down the possible source of the link between the "Siren song" and applications of Statistics. Answers to their previous five questions and five new questions on Statistics are presented.

  9. Tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) maps from Nimbus 7 and Earth Probe TOMS by the modified-residual method: Evaluation with sondes, ENSO signals, and trends from Atlantic regional time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.

    1999-11-01

    The modified-residual (MR) method for retrieving time-averaged stratospheric ozone and tropospheric ozone column amounts from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is applied to the 14 complete calendar years of Nimbus 7 observations (1979-1992). These are available as digital data at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/˜tropo/14y_data.d The MR method has also been used to produce real-time maps of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) from TOMS on the Earth-Probe (1996-present) and ADEOS platforms (1996-1997). Evaluation of the TTO time series for 1979-1990 and 1997-1998 is presented here; it is limited to the few tropical ozonesonde stations operational during those years (Ascension Island; Natal, Brazil; Brazzaville). The standard deviation of the differences between TTO and the sondes is ±(6-7) Dobson units (DU), depending on location. Stratospheric column ozone, which is also derived by the modified-residual method, compares favorably with sondes (to within 6-9 DU) and with stratospheric ozone inferred from other satellites (usually 8-15 DU lower than the latter). TTO time series and the magnitude of the tropospheric wave-one pattern show El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals during the period from 1979-1992. During 1997 the ENSO stands out at some stations, but not at others. Between 12°N and 12°S, zonally averaged TTO shows no significant trend from 1980-1990. Trends are also not significant during this period in localized regions, for example, from just west of South America across to southern Africa. This is consistent with the ozonesonde record at Natal, Brazil (the only tropical ozone data publicly available for the 1980s), which shows no significant trend. The lack of trend in tropospheric ozone agrees with a statistical analysis based on another method for deriving TTO from TOMS, the convective-cloud-differential approach of Ziemke et al. [1998].

  10. Hypermetabolism in the left thalamus and right inferior temporal area on positron emission tomography-statistical parametric mapping (PET-SPM) in a patient with Charles Bonnet syndrome resolving after treatment with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Won; Youn, Young Chul; Seok, Ju-Won; Ha, Sam-Yeol; Shin, Hae-Won; Ahan, Suk-Won; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Kwon, Oh-Sang

    2011-08-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by the occurrence of complex visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients who understand that what they see is unreal. The pathophysiologic mechanism of CBS is poorly understood. However, hypermetabolism of the thalamocortical pathway as a result of deafferentation was recently proposed as a possible mechanism. A 69-year-old patient with CBS presented with a 5-year history of visual hallucinations after bilateral visual impairment, which had progressed to troublesome images of many unreal people and animals. Positron emission tomography-statistical parametric mapping (PET-SPM) imaging studies initially revealed hypermetabolism in the right inferior temporal area and left thalamus, which disappeared after treatment with valproic acid. This case, using PET-SPM analysis, supports the thalamic hypermetabolism theory of CBS.

  11. Three-dimensional mapping of soil chemical characteristics at micrometric scale: Statistical prediction by combining 2D SEM-EDX data and 3D X-ray computed micro-tomographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapca, Simona

    2015-04-01

    Many soil properties and functions emerge from interactions of physical, chemical and biological processes at microscopic scales, which can be understood only by integrating techniques that traditionally are developed within separate disciplines. While recent advances in imaging techniques, such as X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), offer the possibility to reconstruct the 3D physical structure at fine resolutions, for the distribution of chemicals in soil, existing methods, based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDX), allow for characterization of the chemical composition only on 2D surfaces. At present, direct 3D measurement techniques are still lacking, sequential sectioning of soils, followed by 2D mapping of chemical elements and interpolation to 3D, being an alternative which is explored in this study. Specifically, we develop an integrated experimental and theoretical framework which combines 3D X-ray CT imaging technique with 2D SEM-EDX and use spatial statistics methods to map the chemical composition of soil in 3D. The procedure involves three stages 1) scanning a resin impregnated soil cube by X-ray CT, followed by precision cutting to produce parallel thin slices, the surfaces of which are scanned by SEM-EDX, 2) alignment of the 2D chemical maps within the internal 3D structure of the soil cube, and 3) development, of spatial statistics methods to predict the chemical composition of 3D soil based on the observed 2D chemical and 3D physical data. Specifically, three statistical models consisting of a regression tree, a regression tree kriging and cokriging model were used to predict the 3D spatial distribution of carbon, silicon, iron and oxygen in soil, these chemical elements showing a good spatial agreement between the X-ray grayscale intensities and the corresponding 2D SEM-EDX data. Due to the spatial correlation between the physical and chemical data, the regression-tree model showed a great potential

  12. Proteomic mapping of stimulus-specific signaling pathways involved in THP-1 cells exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis or its purified components.

    PubMed

    Saba, Julian A; McComb, Mark E; Potts, Donna L; Costello, Catherine E; Amar, Salomon

    2007-06-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease initiated by host-parasite interactions which contributes to connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.), a black-pigmented Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is a major pathogen in the development and progression of periodontitis. To characterize the role that P. gingivalis and its cell surface components play in disease processes, we investigated the differential expression of proteins induced by live P.g., P.g. LPS, and P.g. FimA, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry. We have tested whether, at the level of protein expression, unique signaling pathways are differentially induced by the bacterial components P.g. LPS and P.g. FimA, as compared to live P.g. We found that P.g. LPS stimulation of THP-1 up-regulated the expression of a set of proteins compared to control: deoxyribonuclease, actin, carbonic anhydrase 2, alpha enolase, adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP1), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), glucose regulated protein (grp78), and 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), whereas FimA treatment did not result in statistically significant changes to protein levels versus the control. Live P.g. stimulation resulted in 12 differentially expressed proteins: CAP1, tubulin beta-2 chain, ATP synthase beta chain, tubulin alpha-6 chain, PDI, vimentin, 60-kDa heat shock protein, and nucleolin were found to be up-regulated, while carbonic anhydrase II, beta-actin, and HSP70 were down-regulated relative to control. These differential changes by the bacteria and its components are interpreted as preferential signal pathway activation in host immune/inflammatory responses to P.g. infection.

  13. Laboratory for Engineering Man/Machine Systems (LEMS): System identification, model reduction and deconvolution filtering using Fourier based modulating signals and high order statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Jianqiang

    1992-01-01

    Several important problems in the fields of signal processing and model identification, such as system structure identification, frequency response determination, high order model reduction, high resolution frequency analysis, deconvolution filtering, and etc. Each of these topics involves a wide range of applications and has received considerable attention. Using the Fourier based sinusoidal modulating signals, it is shown that a discrete autoregressive model can be constructed for the least squares identification of continuous systems. Some identification algorithms are presented for both SISO and MIMO systems frequency response determination using only transient data. Also, several new schemes for model reduction were developed. Based upon the complex sinusoidal modulating signals, a parametric least squares algorithm for high resolution frequency estimation is proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance than the usual. Also, the problem was studied of deconvolution and parameter identification of a general noncausal nonminimum phase ARMA system driven by non-Gaussian stationary random processes. Algorithms are introduced for inverse cumulant estimation, both in the frequency domain via the FFT algorithms and in the domain via the least squares algorithm.

  14. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced glutathione depletion.

  15. Optimizing and Interpreting Insular Functional Connectivity Maps Obtained During Acute Experimental Pain: The Effects of Global Signal and Task Paradigm Regression.

    PubMed

    Ibinson, James W; Vogt, Keith M; Taylor, Kevin B; Dua, Shiv B; Becker, Christopher J; Loggia, Marco; Wasan, Ajay D

    2015-12-01

    The insula is uniquely located between the temporal and parietal cortices, making it anatomically well-positioned to act as an integrating center between the sensory and affective domains for the processing of painful stimulation. This can be studied through resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI) imaging; however, the lack of a clear methodology for the analysis of fcMRI complicates the interpretation of these data during acute pain. Detected connectivity changes may reflect actual alterations in low-frequency synchronous neuronal activity related to pain, may be due to changes in global cerebral blood flow or the superimposed task-induced neuronal activity. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effects of global signal regression (GSR) and task paradigm regression (TPR) on the changes in functional connectivity of the left (contralateral) insula in healthy subjects at rest and during acute painful electric nerve stimulation of the right hand. The use of GSR reduced the size and statistical significance of connectivity clusters and created negative correlation coefficients for some connectivity clusters. TPR with cyclic stimulation gave task versus rest connectivity differences similar to those with a constant task, suggesting that analysis which includes TPR is more accurately reflective of low-frequency neuronal activity. Both GSR and TPR have been inconsistently applied to fcMRI analysis. Based on these results, investigators need to consider the impact GSR and TPR have on connectivity during task performance when attempting to synthesize the literature.

  16. Space Weather Effects on Mid-Latitude Railways: a Statistical Study of Anomalies observed in the Operation of Signaling and Train Control Equipment on the East-Siberian Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinskii, V. V.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Lyahov, N. N.; Dorman, L. I.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.

    The end result of a long chain of space weather events beginning on the Sun is the induction of currents in ground-based long conductors as power lines pipelines and railways Intense geomagnetically induced currents GIC can hamper rail traffic by disturbing signaling and train control systems In few cases induced voltages were believed to have affected signaling equipment in Sweden Jansen et al 2000 and in the North of Russia Belov et al 2005 GIC threats have been a concern for technological systems at high-latitude locations due to disturbances driven by electrojet intensifications However other geomagnetic storm processes such as SSC and ring current enhancement can also cause GIC concerns for the technological systems Objective of this report is to continue our research Ptitsyna et al 2005 on possible influence of geomagnetic storms on mid-latitude railways and to perform a statistical research in addition to case studies This will help in providing a basis for railway companies to evaluate the risk of disruption to signaling and train control equipment and devise engineering solutions In the present report we analyzed anomalies in operation of automatic signaling and train control equipment occurred in 2004-2005 on the East-Siberian Railway located at mid-latitudes latitudes 51N-56N longitudes 96E-114E The anomalies consist mainly in unstable functioning and false operations in traffic automatic control systems rail chain switches locomotive control devices etc often resulting in false engagement of railway

  17. Comparing and combining the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE CMB maps

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica; Devlin, Mark J.; Herbig, Thomas; Miller, Amber D.; Netterfield, C. Barth; Page, Lyman

    2001-05-15

    We present a method for comparing and combining maps with different resolutions and beam shapes, and apply it to the Saskatoon, QMAP, and COBE-DMR data sets. Although the Saskatoon and QMAP maps detect signals at the 21{sigma} and 40{sigma} levels, respectively, their difference is consistent with pure noise, placing strong limits on possible systematic errors. In particular, we obtain quantitative upper limits on relative calibration and pointing errors. Splitting the combined data by frequency shows similar consistency between the Ka and Q bands, placing limits on foreground contamination. The visual agreement between the maps is equally striking. Our combined QMAP+Saskatoon map, nicknamed QMASK, is publicly available on the web together with its 6495x6495 noise covariance matrix. This thoroughly tested data set covers a large enough area (648 square degrees -- currently the largest degree-scale map available) to allow a statistical comparison with COBE-DMR, showing good agreement.

  18. Statistical Diversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…

  19. Relativistic statistical arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissner-Gross, A. D.; Freer, C. E.

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in high-frequency financial trading have made light propagation delays between geographically separated exchanges relevant. Here we show that there exist optimal locations from which to coordinate the statistical arbitrage of pairs of spacelike separated securities, and calculate a representative map of such locations on Earth. Furthermore, trading local securities along chains of such intermediate locations results in a novel econophysical effect, in which the relativistic propagation of tradable information is effectively slowed or stopped by arbitrage.

  20. Defect mapping system

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities.

  1. Defect mapping system

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-04-11

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. 20 figures.

  2. Statistics Clinic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2014-01-01

    Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.

  3. Quick Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population, or about 25 million Americans, has experienced tinnitus lasting at least five minutes in the past ... by NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program staff: (1) tinnitus prevalence was obtained from the 2008 National Health ...

  4. A statistical study of GPS loss of lock caused by ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Saito, A.; Kato, H.; Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Murata, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    Two-dimensional total electron content (TEC) maps have been derived from ground-based GPS receiver networks and applied to studies of various ionospheric disturbances since mid-1990s. For the purpose of monitoring and researching ionospheric disturbances which can degrade GNSS navigations and cause loss-of-lock on GNSS signals, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan has developed TEC maps over Japan using the dense GPS network, GEONET, which consists of more than 1,200 GPS receivers and is operated by Geophysical Survey Institute, Japan. Currently, we are providing two-dimensional maps of absolute TEC, detrended TEC with 60, 30, 15-minute window, rate of TEC change index (ROTI), and loss-of-lock (LOL) on GPS signal over Japan. These data and quick-look maps since 1997 are archived and available in the website of NICT (http://wdc.nict.go.jp/IONO/). Recently developed GPS receiver networks in North America and Europe make it possible to obtain regional TEC maps with higher spatial and temporal resolution than the global weighted mean TEC maps in the IONEX format provided by several institutes such as International GNSS Service (IGS) and another global TEC map provided by MIT Haystack observatory. Recently, we have also developed the regional TEC maps over North America and Europe. These data and quick-look maps are also available in the NICT website. In this presentation, we will show some severe ionospheric events such as high latitude storm-time plasma bubbles and storm enhanced density events observed over Japan using the GPS-TEC database. These events cause loss-of-lock of GPS signals and large GPS positioning errors. We also discuss about the statistical characteristics of LOL on the GPS signal caused by ionospheric disturbances.

  5. Statistics Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicot, Katie; Holmes, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    The use, and misuse, of statistics is commonplace, yet in the printed format data representations can be either over simplified, supposedly for impact, or so complex as to lead to boredom, supposedly for completeness and accuracy. In this article the link to the video clip shows how dynamic visual representations can enliven and enhance the…

  6. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  7. Bodily maps of emotions.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  8. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden "jewels" in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  9. Statistical Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahjahan

    Often scientific information on various data generating processes are presented in the from of numerical and categorical data. Except for some very rare occasions, generally such data represent a small part of the population, or selected outcomes of any data generating process. Although, valuable and useful information is lurking in the array of scientific data, generally, they are unavailable to the users. Appropriate statistical methods are essential to reveal the hidden “jewels” in the mess of the row data. Exploratory data analysis methods are used to uncover such valuable characteristics of the observed data. Statistical inference provides techniques to make valid conclusions about the unknown characteristics or parameters of the population from which scientifically drawn sample data are selected. Usually, statistical inference includes estimation of population parameters as well as performing test of hypotheses on the parameters. However, prediction of future responses and determining the prediction distributions are also part of statistical inference. Both Classical or Frequentists and Bayesian approaches are used in statistical inference. The commonly used Classical approach is based on the sample data alone. In contrast, increasingly popular Beyesian approach uses prior distribution on the parameters along with the sample data to make inferences. The non-parametric and robust methods are also being used in situations where commonly used model assumptions are unsupported. In this chapter,we cover the philosophical andmethodological aspects of both the Classical and Bayesian approaches.Moreover, some aspects of predictive inference are also included. In the absence of any evidence to support assumptions regarding the distribution of the underlying population, or if the variable is measured only in ordinal scale, non-parametric methods are used. Robust methods are employed to avoid any significant changes in the results due to deviations from the model

  10. Genetic Mapping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human ...

  11. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R.; Díaz Méndez, J. A.

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  12. Bayesian inference on the sphere beyond statistical isotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Wandelt, Benjamin D. E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr

    2015-10-01

    We present a general method for Bayesian inference of the underlying covariance structure of random fields on a sphere. We employ the Bipolar Spherical Harmonic (BipoSH) representation of general covariance structure on the sphere. We illustrate the efficacy of the method as a principled approach to assess violation of statistical isotropy (SI) in the sky maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) fluctuations. SI violation in observed CMB maps arise due to known physical effects such as Doppler boost and weak lensing; yet unknown theoretical possibilities like cosmic topology and subtle violations of the cosmological principle, as well as, expected observational artefacts of scanning the sky with a non-circular beam, masking, foreground residuals, anisotropic noise, etc. We explicitly demonstrate the recovery of the input SI violation signals with their full statistics in simulated CMB maps. Our formalism easily adapts to exploring parametric physical models with non-SI covariance, as we illustrate for the inference of the parameters of a Doppler boosted sky map. Our approach promises to provide a robust quantitative evaluation of the evidence for SI violation related anomalies in the CMB sky by estimating the BipoSH spectra along with their complete posterior.

  13. [EEG background activity in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type--with special reference to analysis by t-statistic significance probability mapping (SPM) in Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, T; Hagimoto, H; Saito, T; Endo, K; Ishii, M; Yamaguchi, T; Kajiwara, A; Matsushita, M

    1989-01-01

    EEG power amplitude and power ratio data obtained from 15 (3 men and 12 women) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 8 (2 men and 6 women) with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) were compared with similar data from 40 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Compared with the healthy controls, both patient groups demonstrated increased EEG background slowing, and it indicated more slower in AD than in SDAT. Moreover, both groups showed characteristic findings respectively on EEG topography and t-statistic significance probability mapping (SPM). The differences between AD and their controls indicated high slowing with reductions in alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 activity. The SPMs of power ratio in theta and alpha 2 bands showed most prominent significance in the right posterior-temporal region and delta and beta bands did in the frontal region. Severe AD indicated only frontal delta slowing compared to mild AD. The differences between SDAT and their controls indicated only mild slowing in delta and theta bands. The SPM of power amplitude showed occipital slowing, whereas the SPM of power ratio showed the slowing in the frontal region. Judging from both topographic findings, these were considered to denote diffuse slow tendency. In summary, these results presumed that in AD, cortical damages followed by EEG slowing with reductions of alpha 2 and beta bands originated rapidly and thereafter developed subcortical (non-specific area in thalamus) changes with frontal delta activity on SPM. On the other hand, in SDAT, diffuse cortico-subcortical damages with diffuse slowing on EEG topography were caused gradually.

  14. [Descriptive statistics].

    PubMed

    Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Descriptive statistics is the branch of statistics that gives recommendations on how to summarize clearly and simply research data in tables, figures, charts, or graphs. Before performing a descriptive analysis it is paramount to summarize its goal or goals, and to identify the measurement scales of the different variables recorded in the study. Tables or charts aim to provide timely information on the results of an investigation. The graphs show trends and can be histograms, pie charts, "box and whiskers" plots, line graphs, or scatter plots. Images serve as examples to reinforce concepts or facts. The choice of a chart, graph, or image must be based on the study objectives. Usually it is not recommended to use more than seven in an article, also depending on its length.

  15. Order Statistics and Nonparametric Statistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    Topics investigated include the following: Probability that a fuze will fire; moving order statistics; distribution theory and properties of the...problem posed by an Army Scientist: A fuze will fire when at least n-i (or n-2) of n detonators function within time span t. What is the probability of

  16. Statistical Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Joseph W.

    2000-07-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson The Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences Robert G. Bartle The Elements of Integration and Lebesgue Measure George E. P. Box & Norman R. Draper Evolutionary Operation: A Statistical Method for Process Improvement George E. P. Box & George C. Tiao Bayesian Inference in Statistical Analysis R. W. Carter Finite Groups of Lie Type: Conjugacy Classes and Complex Characters R. W. Carter Simple Groups of Lie Type William G. Cochran & Gertrude M. Cox Experimental Designs, Second Edition Richard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume I RIchard Courant Differential and Integral Calculus, Volume II Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume I Richard Courant & D. Hilbert Methods of Mathematical Physics, Volume II D. R. Cox Planning of Experiments Harold S. M. Coxeter Introduction to Geometry, Second Edition Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Representation Theory of Finite Groups and Associative Algebras Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume I Charles W. Curtis & Irving Reiner Methods of Representation Theory with Applications to Finite Groups and Orders, Volume II Cuthbert Daniel Fitting Equations to Data: Computer Analysis of Multifactor Data, Second Edition Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume I Bruno de Finetti Theory of Probability, Volume 2 W. Edwards Deming Sample Design in Business Research

  17. Digital Forensics Using Local Signal Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Xunyu

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Internet and the popularity of digital imaging devices, digital imagery has become our major information source. Meanwhile, the development of digital manipulation techniques employed by most image editing software brings new challenges to the credibility of photographic images as the definite records of events. We…

  18. Gene expression studies demonstrate that the K-ras/Erk MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and other novel pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of cumene-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Collins, Jennifer B; Parker, Joel S; Tessema, Mathewos; Clayton, Natasha P; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Belinsky, Steven; Devereux, Theodora R; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation studies demonstrated that cumene significantly increased the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Cumene or isopropylbenzene is a component of crude oil used primarily in the production of phenol and acetone. The authors performed global gene expression analysis to distinguish patterns of gene regulation between cumene-induced tumors and normal lung tissue and to look for patterns based on the presence or absence of K-ras and p53 mutations in the tumors. Principal component analysis segregated the carcinomas into groups with and without K-ras mutations, but failed to separate the tumors based on p53 mutation status. Expression of genes associated with the Erk MAP kinase signaling pathway was significantly altered in carcinomas with K-ras mutations compared to tumors without K-ras mutations or normal lung. Gene expression analysis also suggested that cumene-induced carcinomas with K-ras mutations have greater malignant potential than those without mutations. In addition, significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE) demonstrated expression changes of genes regulated by histone modification in carcinomas with K-ras mutations. The gene expression analysis suggested the formation of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in cumene-exposed mice typically involves mutation of K-ras, which results in increased Erk MAP kinase signaling and modification of histones.

  19. Acquisition of contextual discrimination involves the appearance of a RAS-GRF1/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated signaling pathway that promotes long term potentiation (LTP).

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan-Xue; Arai, Junko; Tian, Xuejun; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra; Feig, Larry A

    2013-07-26

    RAS-GRF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the ability to activate RAS and RAC GTPases in response to elevated calcium levels. We previously showed that beginning at 1 month of age, RAS-GRF1 mediates NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-induction of long term depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. Here we show that beginning at 2 months of age, when mice first acquire the ability to discriminate between closely related contexts, RAS-GRF1 begins to contribute to the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus by mediating the action of calcium-permeable, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs). Surprisingly, LTP induction by CP-AMPARs through RAS-GRF1 occurs via activation of p38 MAP kinase rather than ERK MAP kinase, which has more frequently been linked to LTP. Moreover, contextual discrimination is blocked by knockdown of Ras-Grf1 expression specifically in the CA1 hippocampus, infusion of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor into the CA1 hippocampus, or the injection of an inhibitor of CP-AMPARs. These findings implicate the CA1 hippocampus in the developmentally dependent capacity to distinguish closely related contexts through the appearance of a novel LTP-supporting signaling pathway.

  20. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  1. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal.

    PubMed

    Parra, Esteban J; Mazurek, Andrew; Gignoux, Christopher R; Sockell, Alexandra; Agostino, Michael; Morris, Andrew P; Petty, Lauren E; Hanis, Craig L; Cox, Nancy J; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Below, Jennifer E; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30-40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene.

  2. Admixture mapping in two Mexican samples identifies significant associations of locus ancestry with triglyceride levels in the BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5 region and fine mapping points to rs964184 as the main driver of the association signal

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Andrew; Sockell, Alexandra; Morris, Andrew P.; Petty, Lauren E.; Hanis, Craig L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Cruz, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We carried out an admixture mapping study of lipid traits in two samples from Mexico City. Native American locus ancestry was significantly associated with triglyceride levels in a broad region of chromosome 11 overlapping the BUD13, ZNF259 and APOA5 genes. In our fine-mapping analysis of this region using dense genome-wide data, rs964184 is the only marker included in the 99% credible set of SNPs, providing strong support for rs964184 as the causal variant within this region. The frequency of the allele associated with increased triglyceride concentrations (rs964184-G) is between 30–40% higher in Native American populations from Mexico than in European populations. The evidence currently available for this variant indicates that it may be exerting its effect through three potential mechanisms: 1) modification of enhancer activity, 2) regulation of the expression of several genes in cis and/or trans, or 3) modification of the methylation patterns of the promoter of the APOA5 gene. PMID:28245265

  3. Statistical Neurodynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, Gregory Harold

    1982-03-01

    The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of a Highly Effective Hog1 Inhibitor: A Powerful Tool for Analyzing MAP Kinase Signaling in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Migdal, Iwona; Andersson, Terese; Gebbia, Marinella; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hohmann, Stefan; Wysocki, Robert; Tamás, Markus J.; Grøtli, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway is a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction system that often serves as a model to analyze systems level properties of MAPK signaling. Hog1, the MAPK of the HOG-pathway, can be activated by various environmental cues and it controls transcription, translation, transport, and cell cycle adaptations in response to stress conditions. A powerful means to study signaling in living cells is to use kinase inhibitors; however, no inhibitor targeting wild-type Hog1 exists to date. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological application of small molecule inhibitors that are cell-permeable, fast-acting, and highly efficient against wild-type Hog1. These compounds are potent inhibitors of Hog1 kinase activity both in vitro and in vivo. Next, we use these novel inhibitors to pinpoint the time of Hog1 action during recovery from G1 checkpoint arrest, providing further evidence for a specific role of Hog1 in regulating cell cycle resumption during arsenite stress. Hence, we describe a novel tool for chemical genetic analysis of MAPK signaling and provide novel insights into Hog1 action. PMID:21655328

  5. The NO-cGMP-PKG Signaling Pathway Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Fear Memory Consolidation in the Lateral Amygdala via Activation of ERK/MAP Kinase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Kristie T.; Pierre, Vicki J.; Ploski, Jonathan E.; Queen, Kaila; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a crucial role in memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and in synaptic plasticity in the lateral amygdala (LA). In the present experiments, we examined the role of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), a downstream effector of NO, in fear memory consolidation and…

  6. Therapy of B-cell malignancies by anti–HLA-DR humanized monoclonal antibody, IMMU-114, is mediated through hyperactivation of ERK and JNK MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Chen, Xiaochuan; Cardillo, Thomas M.; Furman, Richard R.; Chen, Susan; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Goldenberg, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A humanized IgG4 anti–HLA-DR monoclonal antibody (IMMU-114), engineered to avoid side effects associated with complement activation, was examined for binding and cytotoxicity on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient specimens, followed by evaluation of the effects of IMMU-114 on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. HLA-DR was expressed on the majority of these cells at markedly higher levels than CD20, CD22, and CD74. IMMU-114 was toxic to mantle cell lymphoma, CLL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (including rituximab-resistant), and multiple myeloma cell lines, and also patient CLL cells. IMMU-114 induced disease-free survival in tumor-bearing SCID mice with early-stage disease and in models that are relatively resistant to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. Despite positive staining, acute myelogenous leukemic cells were not killed by IMMU-114. The ability of IMMU-114 to induce activation of ERK and JNK signaling correlated with cytotoxicity and differentiates the mechanism of action of IMMU-114 from monoclonal antibodies against CD20 and CD74. Thus, antigen expression is not sufficient for cytotoxicity; antibody-induced hyperactivation of ERK and JNK mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathways are also required. PMID:20101022

  7. Comparing landslide inventory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Mirco; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    Landslide inventory maps are effective and easily understandable products for both experts, such as geomorphologists, and for non experts, including decision-makers, planners, and civil defense managers. Landslide inventories are essential to understand the evolution of landscapes, and to ascertain landslide susceptibility and hazard. Despite landslide maps being compiled every year in the word at different scales, limited efforts are made to critically compare landslide maps prepared using different techniques or by different investigators. Based on the experience gained in 20 years of landslide mapping in Italy, and on the limited literature on landslide inventory assessment, we propose a general framework for the quantitative comparison of landslide inventory maps. To test the proposed framework we exploit three inventory maps. The first map is a reconnaissance landslide inventory prepared for the Umbria region, in central Italy. The second map is a detailed geomorphological landslide map, also prepared for the Umbria region. The third map is a multi-temporal landslide inventory compiled for the Collazzone area, in central Umbria. Results of the experiment allow for establishing how well the individual inventories describe the location, type and abundance of landslides, to what extent the landslide maps can be used to determine the frequency-area statistics of the slope failures, and the significance of the inventory maps as predictors of landslide susceptibility. We further use the results obtained in the Collazzone area to estimate the quality and completeness of the two regional landslide inventory maps, and to outline general advantages and limitations of the techniques used to complete the inventories.

  8. Tomography and weak lensing statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Kilbinger, Martin E-mail: peter.coles@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We provide generic predictions for the lower order cumulants of weak lensing maps, and their correlators for tomographic bins as well as in three dimensions (3D). Using small-angle approximation, we derive the corresponding one- and two-point probability distribution function for the tomographic maps from different bins and for 3D convergence maps. The modelling of weak lensing statistics is obtained by adopting a detailed prescription for the underlying density contrast that involves hierarchal ansatz and lognormal distribution. We study the dependence of our results on cosmological parameters and source distributions corresponding to the realistic surveys such as LSST and DES. We briefly outline how photometric redshift information can be incorporated in our results. We also show how topological properties of convergence maps can be quantified using our results.

  9. cAMP-pKA signaling regulates multiple steps of fungal infection cooperatively with Cmk1 MAP kinase in Colletotrichum lagenarium.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Junko; Takayanagi, Naoyuki; Komeda, Kenichi; Takano, Yoshitaka; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2004-12-01

    In Colletotrichum lagenarium, RPK1 encoding the regulatory subunit of PKA is required for pathogenicity. From the rpkl mutant that forms small colonies, we isolated three growth-suppressor mutants. All rpk1-suppressor mutants are nonpathogenic and contain amino acid changes in the PKA catalytic subunit Cpkl. To assess the roles of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in detail, we generated knockout mutants of CPK1 and the adenylate cyclase gene CAC1. The cpk1 and cac1 mutants are nonpathogenic on cucumber. Interestingly, both of the mutants germinated poorly, suggesting involvement of cAMP signaling in germination. Germination defect in the cpk1 and cac1 mutants is partially rescued by incubation of the conidia at lower concentrations. Germinating conidia of the cpk1 and cac1 mutants can form appressoria, but the appressoria formed by them are nonfunctional, like those of the rpk1 mutant. Cytological analysis indicates that the appressoria of the cpk1 mutant contain larger numbers of lipid bodies compared with the wild type, whereas lipid levels in the rpk1 mutants are lower, suggesting cAMP-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism for appressorium functionality. Furthermore, the cpk1 and cacl mutants have a defect in infectious growth in plant. In C. lagenarium, Cmkl mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates germination, appressorium formation, and infectious growth. These results suggest that cAMP signaling controls multiple steps of fungal infection in cooperative regulation with Cmkl MAPK in C. lagenarium.

  10. Differential signalling pathways for EGF versus PDGF activation of Erk1/2 MAP kinase and cell proliferation in brown pre-adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstroem, Therese E.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Faelting, Johanna M.; Nedergaard, Jan

    2008-11-15

    Stimulation by both adrenergic and non-adrenergic pathways can induce proliferation of brown pre-adipocytes. To understand the signalling pathways involved in non-adrenergic stimulation of cell proliferation, we examined Erk1/2 activation. In primary cultures of mouse brown pre-adipocytes, both EGF (epidermal growth factor) and PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) induced Erk1/2 activation. EGF-stimulated Erk1/2 activation involved Src tyrosine kinases, but not PKC or PI3K, whereas in PDGF-induced Erk1/2 activation, PI3K, PKC (probably the atypical {zeta} isoform) and Src were involved sequentially. Both EGF and PDGF induced PI3K-dependent Akt activation that was not involved in Erk1/2 activation. By comparing effects of signalling inhibitors (wortmannin, SH-6, TPA, Goe6983, PP2, PD98059) on EGF- and PDGF-induced Erk1/2 activation and cell proliferation ({sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation), we conclude that while the signal transduction pathways initiated by these growth factors are clearly markedly different, their effects on cell proliferation can be fully explained through their stimulation of Erk1/2 activation; thus Erk1/2 is a common, essential step for stimulation of proliferation in these cells.

  11. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  12. Stupid statistics!

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The method of least squares is probably the most powerful data analysis tool available to scientists. Toward a fuller appreciation of that power, this work begins with an elementary review of statistics fundamentals, and then progressively increases in sophistication as the coverage is extended to the theory and practice of linear and nonlinear least squares. The results are illustrated in application to data analysis problems important in the life sciences. The review of fundamentals includes the role of sampling and its connection to probability distributions, the Central Limit Theorem, and the importance of finite variance. Linear least squares are presented using matrix notation, and the significance of the key probability distributions-Gaussian, chi-square, and t-is illustrated with Monte Carlo calculations. The meaning of correlation is discussed, including its role in the propagation of error. When the data themselves are correlated, special methods are needed for the fitting, as they are also when fitting with constraints. Nonlinear fitting gives rise to nonnormal parameter distributions, but the 10% Rule of Thumb suggests that such problems will be insignificant when the parameter is sufficiently well determined. Illustrations include calibration with linear and nonlinear response functions, the dangers inherent in fitting inverted data (e.g., Lineweaver-Burk equation), an analysis of the reliability of the van't Hoff analysis, the problem of correlated data in the Guggenheim method, and the optimization of isothermal titration calorimetry procedures using the variance-covariance matrix for experiment design. The work concludes with illustrations on assessing and presenting results.

  13. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances < 656 km from the rock-slide source area) and one short-period network. We inverted broadband data to derive a time series of forces that the avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional

  14. Statistical calibration via Gaussianization in hot-wire anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluzman, Igal; Cohen, Jacob; Oshman, Yaakov

    2017-03-01

    A statistical method is introduced, that is based on Gaussianization to estimate the nonlinear calibration curve of a hot-wire probe, relating the input flow velocity to the output (measured) voltage. The method uses as input a measured sequence of voltage samples, corresponding to different unknown flow velocities in the desired operational range, and only two measured voltages along with their known (calibrated) flow velocities. The method relies on the conditions that (1) the velocity signal is Gaussian distributed (or has another known distribution), and (2) the measured signal covers the desired velocity range over which the sensor is to be calibrated. The novel calibration method is validated against standard calibration methods using data acquired by hot-wire probes in wind-tunnel experiments. In these experiments, a hot-wire probe is placed at a certain region downstream of a cube-shaped body in a freestream of air flow, properly selected, so that the central limit theorem, when applied to the random velocity increments composing the instantaneous velocity in the wake, roughly holds, and renders the measured signal nearly Gaussian distributed. The statistical distribution of the velocity field in the wake is validated by mapping the first four statistical moments of the measured signals in different regions of the wake and comparing them with corresponding moments of the Gaussian distribution. The experimental data are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the method to the distribution of the measured signal, and the method is demonstrated to possess some robustness with respect to deviations from the Gaussian distribution.

  15. ERK Signals: Scaffolding Scaffolds?

    PubMed Central

    Casar, Berta; Crespo, Piero

    2016-01-01

    ERK1/2 MAP Kinases become activated in response to multiple intra- and extra-cellular stimuli through a signaling module composed of sequential tiers of cytoplasmic kinases. Scaffold proteins regulate ERK signals by connecting the different components of the module into a multi-enzymatic complex by which signal amplitude and duration are fine-tuned, and also provide signal fidelity by isolating this complex from external interferences. In addition, scaffold proteins play a central role as spatial regulators of ERKs signals. In this respect, depending on the subcellular localization from which the activating signals emanate, defined scaffolds specify which substrates are amenable to be phosphorylated. Recent evidence has unveiled direct interactions among different scaffold protein species. These scaffold-scaffold macro-complexes could constitute an additional level of regulation for ERK signals and may serve as nodes for the integration of incoming signals and the subsequent diversification of the outgoing signals with respect to substrate engagement. PMID:27303664

  16. Early events in the induction of apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells by CD437: activation of the p38 MAP kinase signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Holmes, William F; Soprano, Dianne Robert; Soprano, Kenneth J

    2003-09-25

    Retinoids have great potential in the areas of cancer therapy and chemoprevention. 6-[3-(1-admantyl)]-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) is a conformationally restricted synthetic retinoid that has been reported to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in ovarian tumor cell lines but the entire mechanism for apoptotic induction has not been fully defined. We set out to identify the early events of CD437-induced apoptosis of the CA-OV-3 cell line and determine if these occur in a CA-OV-3 cell line resistant to CD437 (CA-CD437R). Using inhibitors for the MAP kinase cascade, we determined that MEK and p38 inhibitors could block CD437-induced apoptosis of the CA-OV-3 cell line. Moreover, treatment of CA-OV-3 and CA-CD437R cells with CD437 resulted in increased phosphorylation and activity of p38 independent of caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, p38 induced the phosphorylation of MEF2 in both CA-OV-3 and CA-CD437R cells after CD437 treatment. Finally, GFP-TR3 protein translocated to the cytosol and associated with mitochondria in both cell lines in response to CD437 treatment. This leads to depolarization of mitochondria and subsequent induction of apoptosis only in CA-OV-3 cells. These results identify a number of initial molecular events in the induction of apoptosis by CD437 in CA-OV-3 cells and demonstrate that the alteration in CA-CD437R cells, which results in resistance to CD437 maps downstream of these early events after TR3 translocation but prior to mitochondrial depolarization.

  17. 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol induces HuR-dependent MAP kinase phosphatase-1 expression via mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+)/PKCα signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Woo, Joo Hong; Lee, Jee Hoon; Joe, Eun-Hye; Jou, Ilo

    2016-08-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 plays a pivotal role in controlling MAP kinase (MAPK)-dependent (patho) physiological processes. Although MKP-1 gene expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, the underlying mechanistic details remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that MKP-1 expression is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol [22(R)-HC] through a novel mechanism. 22(R)-HC induces Hu antigen R (HuR) phosphorylation, cytoplasmic translocation and binding to MKP-1 mRNA, resulting in stabilization of MKP-1 mRNA. The resulting increase in MKP-1 leads to suppression of JNK-mediated inflammatory responses in brain astrocytes. We further demonstrate that 22(R)-HC-induced phosphorylation of nuclear HuR is mediated by PKCα, which is activated in the cytosol by increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels mediated by the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (PLC/IP3R) pathway and translocates from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, pharmacological interventions reveal that metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) is responsible for the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) that underlie these actions of 22(R)-HC. Collectively, our findings identify a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of 22(R)-HC, which acts through PKCα-mediated cytoplasmic shuttling of HuR to post-transcriptionally regulate MKP-1 expression. These findings provide an experimental basis for the development of a RNA-targeted therapeutic agent to control MAPK-dependent inflammatory responses.

  18. Data series embedding and scale invariant statistics.

    PubMed

    Michieli, I; Medved, B; Ristov, S

    2010-06-01

    Data sequences acquired from bio-systems such as human gait data, heart rate interbeat data, or DNA sequences exhibit complex dynamics that is frequently described by a long-memory or power-law decay of autocorrelation function. One way of characterizing that dynamics is through scale invariant statistics or "fractal-like" behavior. For quantifying scale invariant parameters of physiological signals several methods have been proposed. Among them the most common are detrended fluctuation analysis, sample mean variance analyses, power spectral density analysis, R/S analysis, and recently in the realm of the multifractal approach, wavelet analysis. In this paper it is demonstrated that embedding the time series data in the high-dimensional pseudo-phase space reveals scale invariant statistics in the simple fashion. The procedure is applied on different stride interval data sets from human gait measurements time series (Physio-Bank data library). Results show that introduced mapping adequately separates long-memory from random behavior. Smaller gait data sets were analyzed and scale-free trends for limited scale intervals were successfully detected. The method was verified on artificially produced time series with known scaling behavior and with the varying content of noise. The possibility for the method to falsely detect long-range dependence in the artificially generated short range dependence series was investigated.

  19. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Sara; Luschnig, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cells at the tips of budding branches in the Drosophila tracheal system generate two morphologically different types of seamless tubes. Terminal cells (TCs) form branched lumenized extensions that mediate gas exchange at target tissues, whereas fusion cells (FCs) form ring-like connections between adjacent tracheal metameres. Each tracheal branch contains a specific set of TCs, FCs, or both, but the mechanisms that select between the two tip cell types in a branch-specific fashion are not clear. Here, we show that the ETS domain transcriptional repressor anterior open (aop) is dispensable for directed tracheal cell migration, but plays a key role in tracheal tip cell fate specification. Whereas aop globally inhibits TC and FC specification, MAPK signaling overcomes this inhibition by triggering degradation of Aop in tip cells. Loss of aop function causes excessive FC and TC specification, indicating that without Aop-mediated inhibition, all tracheal cells are competent to adopt a specialized fate. We demonstrate that Aop plays a dual role by inhibiting both MAPK and Wingless signaling, which induce TC and FC fate, respectively. In addition, the branch-specific choice between the two seamless tube types depends on the tracheal branch identity gene spalt major, which is sufficient to inhibit TC specification. Thus, a single repressor, Aop, integrates two different signals to couple tip cell fate selection with branch identity. The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network.

  20. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... PRS GO PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the ... Plastic Surgery Statistics 2005 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics Stats Report 2016 National Clearinghouse of ...

  1. C. elegans GLA-3 is a novel component of the MAP kinase MPK-1 signaling pathway required for germ cell survival.

    PubMed

    Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Milstein, Stuart; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Lettre, Guillaume; Bogan, Erica; Doukoumetzidis, Kimon; Gray, Phillip; Chappell, Thomas G; Vidal, Marc; Hengartner, Michael O

    2006-08-15

    During oocyte development in Caenorhabditis elegans, approximately half of all developing germ cells undergo apoptosis. While this process is evolutionarily conserved from worms to humans, the regulators of germ cell death are still largely unknown. In a genetic screen for novel genes involved in germline apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified and cloned gla-3. Loss of gla-3 function results in increased germline apoptosis and reduced brood size due to defective pachytene exit from meiosis I. gla-3 encodes a TIS11-like zinc-finger-containing protein that is expressed in the germline, from the L4 larval stage to adulthood. Biochemical evidence and genetic epistasis analysis revealed that GLA-3 participates in the MAPK signaling cascade and directly interacts with the C. elegans MAPK MPK-1, an essential meiotic regulator. Our results show that GLA-3 is a new component of the MAPK cascade that controls meiotic progression and apoptosis in the C. elegans germline and functions as a negative regulator of the MAPK signaling pathway during vulval development and in muscle cells.

  2. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  3. Statistical Mechanics of Optimal Convex Inference in High Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advani, Madhu; Ganguli, Surya

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental problem in modern high-dimensional data analysis involves efficiently inferring a set of P unknown model parameters governing the relationship between the inputs and outputs of N noisy measurements. Various methods have been proposed to regress the outputs against the inputs to recover the P parameters. What are fundamental limits on the accuracy of regression, given finite signal-to-noise ratios, limited measurements, prior information, and computational tractability requirements? How can we optimally combine prior information with measurements to achieve these limits? Classical statistics gives incisive answers to these questions as the measurement density α =(N /P )→∞ . However, these classical results are not relevant to modern high-dimensional inference problems, which instead occur at finite α . We employ replica theory to answer these questions for a class of inference algorithms, known in the statistics literature as M-estimators. These algorithms attempt to recover the P model parameters by solving an optimization problem involving minimizing the sum of a loss function that penalizes deviations between the data and model predictions, and a regularizer that leverages prior information about model parameters. Widely cherished algorithms like maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum-a posteriori (MAP) inference arise as special cases of M-estimators. Our analysis uncovers fundamental limits on the inference accuracy of a subclass of M-estimators corresponding to computationally tractable convex optimization problems. These limits generalize classical statistical theorems like the Cramer-Rao bound to the high-dimensional setting with prior information. We further discover the optimal M-estimator for log-concave signal and noise distributions; we demonstrate that it can achieve our high-dimensional limits on inference accuracy, while ML and MAP cannot. Intriguingly, in high dimensions, these optimal algorithms become computationally simpler than

  4. Statistics of South Dakota Libraries. 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    The South Dakota State Library 1975 annual report is presented in this volume, followed by tables of statistical data on services, resources, income, and expenditures for South Dakota public, academic, and special libraries. Sections include: (1) a summary of public library statistics by size of library and type of library; (2) map of areas with…

  5. FEM: Feature-enhanced map

    SciTech Connect

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; Sobolev, Oleg V.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Turk, Dusan; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-02-26

    A method is presented that modifies a 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map such that the resulting map can strengthen a weak signal, if present, and can reduce model bias and noise. The method consists of first randomizing the starting map and filling in missing reflections using multiple methods. This is followed by restricting the map to regions with convincing density and the application of sharpening. The final map is then created by combining a series of histogram-equalized intermediate maps. In the test cases shown, the maps produced in this way are found to have increased interpretability and decreased model bias compared with the starting 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map.

  6. FEM: Feature-enhanced map

    DOE PAGES

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Mustyakimov, Marat; ...

    2015-02-26

    A method is presented that modifies a 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map such that the resulting map can strengthen a weak signal, if present, and can reduce model bias and noise. The method consists of first randomizing the starting map and filling in missing reflections using multiple methods. This is followed by restricting the map to regions with convincing density and the application of sharpening. The final map is then created by combining a series of histogram-equalized intermediate maps. In the test cases shown, the maps produced in this way are found to have increased interpretability and decreased model bias compared with themore » starting 2mFobs-DFmodelσA-weighted map.« less

  7. FEM: feature-enhanced map