Science.gov

Sample records for significant resulting economic

  1. Medico-economic evaluation of healthcare products. Methodology for defining a significant impact on French health insurance costs and selection of benchmarks for interpreting results.

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Benoît; Baseilhac, Eric; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Biot, Claire; Blachier, Corinne; Braun, Eric; Debroucker, Frédérique; Detournay, Bruno; Ferretti, Carine; Granger, Muriel; Jouan-Flahault, Chrystel; Lussier, Marie-Dominique; Meyer, Arlette; Muller, Sophie; Pigeon, Martine; De Sahb, Rima; Sannié, Thomas; Sapède, Claudine; Vray, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Decree No. 2012-1116 of 2 October 2012 on medico-economic assignments of the French National Authority for Health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) significantly alters the conditions for accessing the health products market in France. This paper presents a theoretical framework for interpreting the results of the economic evaluation of health technologies and summarises the facts available in France for developing benchmarks that will be used to interpret incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. This literature review shows that it is difficult to determine a threshold value but it is also difficult to interpret then incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) results without a threshold value. In this context, round table participants favour a pragmatic approach based on "benchmarks" as opposed to a threshold value, based on an interpretative and normative perspective, i.e. benchmarks that can change over time based on feedback.

  2. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  3. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  4. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  5. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  6. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  7. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  8. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653... Reform, Insurance Implementation § 400.653 Determining crops of economic significance. To be eligible for... of economic significance if the producer does not execute a waiver of any eligibility for...

  9. Economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops (Book Chapter)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...

  10. 7 CFR 400.653 - Determining crops of economic significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the producer's share, times the approved yield, and times the price; (2) Add the values of all crops... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining crops of economic significance. 400.653 Section 400.653 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  11. SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

  12. SLS-1 flight experiments preliminary significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) is the first of a series of dedicated life sciences Spacelab missions designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and the subsequent readaptation to 1 gravity (1 G). Hypotheses generated from the physiological effects observed during earlier missions led to the formulation of several integrated experiments to determine the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena. The 18 experiments selected for flight on SLS-1 investigated the cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, regulatory physiology, musculoskeletal, and neuroscience disciplines in both human and rodent subjects. The SLS-1 preliminary results gave insight to the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to the microgravity environment and readaptation when returning to Earth. The experimental results will be used to promote health and safety for future long duration space flights and, as in the past, will be applied to many biomedical problems encountered here on Earth.

  13. More Significant and Intentional Learning in the Economics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miners, Laurence; Nantz, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors are both teachers in the Economics Department at Fairfield University, where they share responsibility for the introductory and intermediate economics courses. Student's comment illustrates that they were apparently not reaching their students in ways that achieved their goals: developing students' abilities to understand economic…

  14. More Significant and Intentional Learning in the Economics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miners, Laurence; Nantz, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors are both teachers in the Economics Department at Fairfield University, where they share responsibility for the introductory and intermediate economics courses. Student's comment illustrates that they were apparently not reaching their students in ways that achieved their goals: developing students' abilities to understand economic…

  15. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    . Anomalies of the order of 1,000 gammas are shown along the east and west edges of the map. The outstanding feature is the previously mentioned linear positive anomaly that trends northeast and reaches a peak of 3,960 gammas. The positive anomaly is contoured from data on four consecutive profiles, but only two show high amplitudes. The high-amplitude anomalies along traverses 1 and 2 are shown in figure 3. Depth calculations suggest that the source of the anomaly lies about 1,000 feet below the surface. Assuming a dikelike source and magnetization resulting entirely from induction in the earth's field, several calculations were made in an attempt to fit the magnetic profile taken along the line AA' (see figs. 2 and 4), considered to be a typical cross-section of the magnetic anomaly. Comparisons are shown between observed and computed profiles. The fixed parameters used were (a) distance from detector to source of 2,000 ft; width of dike of 5,000 ft; dip of dike of 75?, 90?, 105? , and 120? , as shown. The best fit occurs when the dike is vertical or dips 75? to the southwest. For these cases, the susceptibility, k, is computed to be 0.016 c.g.s, units, and is comparable to k = 0.02+ calculated by Bath (1962) for the relatively unmetamorphosed iron-formation of the Main Megabi district in Minnesota where the induced magnetization was most likely the dominant magnetization. If the dominant magnetization for the anomaly in Fillmore County were remanent rather than induced, the economic importance of the anomaly would be greatly reduced. This anomaly seems sufficiently promising to warrant further geologic and geophysical investigation. Detailed ground magnetic and electrical studies would be useful to delineate the feature. In the final analysis, however, the presence of iron-formation can be determined only by the drill.

  16. Economic and Educational Correlates of TIMSS Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2005-01-01

    The good knowledge of the correlates of educational achievement highlights the ways to the efficient use of economic and human capital in raising the efficiency of education. The present paper investigates the correlates and compares the values of the correlates for the Republic of Lithuania with the average international values. The data for the…

  17. Economic downturn results in tick-borne disease upsurge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of zoonoses is due both to changes in human activities and to changes in their natural wildlife cycles. One of the most significant vector-borne zoonoses in Europe, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), doubled in incidence in 1993, largely as a consequence of the socio-economic transition from communism to capitalism and associated environmental changes. Methods To test the effect of the current economic recession, unemployment in 2009 and various socio-economic indices were compared to weather indices (derived from principal component analyses) as predictors for the change in TBE case numbers in 2009 relative to 2004-08, for 14 European countries. Results Greatest increases in TBE incidence occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (91, 79 and 45%, respectively). The weather was rejected as an explanatory variable. Indicators of high background levels of poverty, e.g. percent of household expenditure on food, were significant predictors. The increase in unemployment in 2009 relative to 2008 together with 'in-work risk of poverty' is the only case in which a multivariate model has a second significant term. Conclusion Background socio-economic conditions determine susceptibility to risk of TBE, while increased unemployment triggered a sudden increase in risk. Mechanisms behind this result may include reduced resistance to infection through stress; reduced uptake of costly vaccination; and more exposure of people to infected ticks in their forest habitat as they make greater use of wild forest foods, especially in those countries, Lithuania and Poland, with major marketing opportunities in such products. Recognition of these risk factors could allow more effective protection through education and a vaccination programme targeted at the economically most vulnerable. PMID:21406086

  18. Helmets prevent motorcycle injuries with significant economic benefits.

    PubMed

    Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P < .01) and Glasgow Coma Score (P < .01) and they had lower survival probability (P = .01). The unhelmeted patients were more likely to be smokers (P < .01), to drink alcohol (P < .01), to use drugs (P < .01), and to be involved in crashes at night (P = .03). Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P < .01). Helmets reduced the risk of injury to the head by at least two thirds (P < .01) and to the cervical spine by at least half (P = .03). Helmeted patients were less likely to require mechanical ventilation or intensive care or to have infections. They were discharged an average of 3 days earlier (P < .01) and were less likely to be discharged to a care facility for additional institutional care (P = .02). Total hospital cost savings exceeded $20,000 (P = .02) per helmeted patient. Helmets protect patients from head and neck injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.

  19. Economic downturn results in tick-borne disease upsurge.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Elinor R; Randolph, Sarah E

    2011-03-15

    The emergence of zoonoses is due both to changes in human activities and to changes in their natural wildlife cycles. One of the most significant vector-borne zoonoses in Europe, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), doubled in incidence in 1993, largely as a consequence of the socio-economic transition from communism to capitalism and associated environmental changes. To test the effect of the current economic recession, unemployment in 2009 and various socio-economic indices were compared to weather indices (derived from principal component analyses) as predictors for the change in TBE case numbers in 2009 relative to 2004-08, for 14 European countries. Greatest increases in TBE incidence occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (91, 79 and 45%, respectively). The weather was rejected as an explanatory variable. Indicators of high background levels of poverty, e.g. percent of household expenditure on food, were significant predictors. The increase in unemployment in 2009 relative to 2008 together with 'in-work risk of poverty' is the only case in which a multivariate model has a second significant term. Background socio-economic conditions determine susceptibility to risk of TBE, while increased unemployment triggered a sudden increase in risk. Mechanisms behind this result may include reduced resistance to infection through stress; reduced uptake of costly vaccination; and more exposure of people to infected ticks in their forest habitat as they make greater use of wild forest foods, especially in those countries, Lithuania and Poland, with major marketing opportunities in such products. Recognition of these risk factors could allow more effective protection through education and a vaccination programme targeted at the economically most vulnerable.

  20. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    PubMed

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  1. Reviewer Bias for Statistically Significant Results: A Reexamination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagley, N. S.; McKinney, I. Jean

    1983-01-01

    Reexamines the article by Atkinson, Furlong, and Wampold (1982) and questions their conclusion that reviewers were biased toward statistically significant results. A statistical power analysis shows the power of their bogus study was low. Low power in a study reporting nonsignificant findings is a valid reason for recommending not to publish.…

  2. Estimating the evidential value of significant results in psychological science.

    PubMed

    Aczel, Balazs; Palfi, Bence; Szaszi, Barnabas

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying evidence is an inherent aim of empirical science, yet the customary statistical methods in psychology do not communicate the degree to which the collected data serve as evidence for the tested hypothesis. In order to estimate the distribution of the strength of evidence that individual significant results offer in psychology, we calculated Bayes factors (BF) for 287,424 findings of 35,515 articles published in 293 psychological journals between 1985 and 2016. Overall, 55% of all analyzed results were found to provide BF > 10 (often labeled as strong evidence) for the alternative hypothesis, while more than half of the remaining results do not pass the level of BF = 3 (labeled as anecdotal evidence). The results estimate that at least 82% of all published psychological articles contain one or more significant results that do not provide BF > 10 for the hypothesis. We conclude that due to the threshold of acceptance having been set too low for psychological findings, a substantial proportion of the published results have weak evidential support.

  3. Investigating the Significance of the 2008 Matric Curriculum on First-Year Economics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlomo, Z.; Jansen, A.; Moses, M.; Yu, D.

    2011-01-01

    The academic success of first-year Economics students has been the focus of many South African studies in Economic Education. Many used the last school examination (Matric) results as a proxy for students' academic ability. In 2008 a new Matric curriculum was introduced. Given various changes in the curriculum, the question arises as to whether…

  4. "No Significant Distance" between Face-to-Face and Online Instruction: Evidence from Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…

  5. Post-depositional tectonic modification of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castroviejo, Ricardo; Quesada, Cecilio; Soler, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The original stratigraphic relationships and structure of VMS deposits are commonly obscured by deformation. This can also affect their economic significance, as shown by several Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, SW Iberia) examples. The contrasting rheologic properties of the different lithologies present in an orebody (massive sulphide, feeder stockwork, alteration envelope, volcanic and sedimentary rocks) play a major role in determining its overall behaviour. Variscan thin-skinned tectonics led to stacking of the massive pyrite and stockwork bodies in duplex structures, resulting in local thickening and increased tonnage of minable mineralization. Furthermore, differential mechanical behaviour of the different sulphide minerals localised the detachments along relatively ductile sulphide-rich bands. The result was a geochemical and mineralogical reorganisation of most deposits, which now consist of barren, massive pyrite horses, bounded by base metal-rich ductile shear zones. Metal redistribution was enhanced by mobilisation of the base metal sulphides from the initially impoverished massive pyrite, through pressure-solution processes, to tensional fissures within the already ductile shear zones. In NW Iberia, VMS deposits were also strongly overprinted by the Variscan deformation during emplacement of the Cabo Ortegal and Órdenes allochthonous nappe complexes, but no stacking of the orebodies was produced. Original contacts were transposed, and the orebodies, their feeder zones and the country rock acquired pronounced laminar geometry. In lower-grade rocks (greenschist facies, Cabo Ortegal Complex), solution transfer mechanisms are common in pyrite, which remains in the brittle domain, while chalcopyrite shows ductile behaviour. In higher-grade rocks (amphibolite facies, Órdenes Complex), metamorphic recrystallisation overprints earlier deformation textures. The contrasting behaviour of the IPB and NW Iberian deposits is explained by key factors that affect their

  6. The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

  7. Clinical and economic results of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections in children.

    PubMed

    Kanik, Ali; Sirin, Seda; Kose, Engin; Eliacik, Kayı; Anil, Murat; Helvaci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical and economic outcomes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. Patients diagnosed with ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 were included in this study. Demographic, clinical, and economic data were analyzed retrospectively. A cost coefficient (total cost/follow-up period) and hospitalization coefficient (duration of hospitalization/follow-up period) were calculated for each patient. In total, 132 shunt infections (mean follow-up, 734 ± 367 days) were evaluated in 51 patients (mean age, 16.6 ± 9.22 months; median age, 3 months; range, 1-88 months; 28 females, 21 males). In 23 patients (45%), shunt infections were seen in the first 2 months following shunt placement. Seven patients died during the follow-up. There was a negative correlation between the age at diagnosis and the hospitalization duration (p = 0.005, r = -0.381). The average cost of hospitalization per patient was 6397 ± 4338 TL. There was a negative correlation between the cost index and the age at diagnosis (p = 0.04, r = -0.292). Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections have significant medical and economic impacts. Younger the diagnosis of patients, the hospitalization duration and treatment cost were higher.

  8. The significance of renewable energy use for economic output and environmental protection: evidence from the Next 11 developing economies.

    PubMed

    Paramati, Sudharshan Reddy; Sinha, Avik; Dogan, Eyup

    2017-05-01

    Increasing economic activities in developing economies raise demand for energy mainly sourced from conventional sources. The consumption of more conventional energy will have a significant negative impact on the environment. Therefore, attention of policy makers has recently shifted towards the promotion of renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure low carbon economy. Given the recent scenario, in this paper, we aim to examine the role of renewable energy consumption on the economic output and CO2 emissions of the next fastest developing economies of the world. The study employs several robust panel econometric models by using annual data from 1990 to 2012. Empirical findings confirm the significant long-run association among the variables. Similarly, results show that renewable energy consumption positively contributes to economic output and has an adverse effect on CO2 emissions. Given our findings, we suggest policy makers of those economies to initiate further effective policies to promote more renewable energy generation and uses across economic activities to ensure sustainable economic development.

  9. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  10. Vocational Home Economics Today: Results of a National Phone Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Charlotte; Greene, Diana

    1990-01-01

    A survey by Illinois Plan for Home Economics Education of 51 state supervisors of vocational home economics found that 40 have recently revised the secondary home economics curriculum; only 10 had research underway in support of home economics; most favored family and/or family-work issues in the curriculum; and 40 considered their home economics…

  11. Significant results from Apollo 14 lunar orbital photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Roosa, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 14 obtained 950 photographs from lunar orbit using the Hasselblad and Hycon cameras. The photographs reveal a number of new geologic features as well as previously unrecognized details of the morphology, structure, and stratigraphy of lunar surface units. The primary result is the verification of the extensive role of volcanism in the formation and modification of the lunar highlands, especially on the far side. Terra volcanism appears to be manifest in the formation of (1) constructional units of hilly and furrowed materials of regional extent as in the Kant Plateau in the central near-side highlands and northwest of the crater Pasteur near the eastern limb of the moon; (2) somewhat viscous lava flows and pools associated with fracture systems and/or what appear to be volcanic craters; (3) craters, crater chains, and irregular depressions, particularly on the lunar far side. The first photographs of a flow channel, a leveed sinuous rille that apparently originated by lava flowage on the surface, were obtained by Apollo 14. Another first is a high-resolution photograph of the interior of what appears to be the youngest lunar crater yet photographed in the 20- 40-km size range.

  12. Significant results from Apollo 14 lunar orbital photography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Roosa, S. A.

    1972-01-01

    Apollo 14 obtained 950 photographs from lunar orbit using the Hasselblad and Hycon cameras. The photographs reveal a number of new geologic features as well as previously unrecognized details of the morphology, structure, and stratigraphy of lunar surface units. The primary result is the verification of the extensive role of volcanism in the formation and modification of the lunar highlands, especially on the far side. Terra volcanism appears to be manifest in the formation of (1) constructional units of hilly and furrowed materials of regional extent as in the Kant Plateau in the central near-side highlands and northwest of the crater Pasteur near the eastern limb of the moon; (2) somewhat viscous lava flows and pools associated with fracture systems and/or what appear to be volcanic craters; (3) craters, crater chains, and irregular depressions, particularly on the lunar far side. The first photographs of a flow channel, a leveed sinuous rille that apparently originated by lava flowage on the surface, were obtained by Apollo 14. Another first is a high-resolution photograph of the interior of what appears to be the youngest lunar crater yet photographed in the 20- 40-km size range.

  13. Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

  14. Results from a Faculty Development Program in Teaching Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstad, William B.; Salemi, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The Teaching Innovations Program (TIP) was a six-year project funded by the National Science Foundation that gave economics instructors the opportunity to learn interactive teaching strategies for use in undergraduate economics courses. TIP participants first attended a teaching workshop that presented various teaching strategies. They then could…

  15. Economic evaluation of Varicella vaccination: results of a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Unim, Brigid; Saulle, Rosella; Boccalini, Sara; Taddei, Cristina; Ceccherini, Vega; Boccia, Antonio; Bonanni, Paolo; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study is to review the economic burden of varicella disease and the benefit of universal varicella vaccination in different settings pending its implementation in all Italian regions. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. Score quality and data extraction were performed for all included studies. Results: Twenty-three articles met the criteria: 15 cost-effectiveness, 8 cost-benefit and one cost-utility analysis. Varicella vaccination could save the society from €637,762 (infant strategy) to 53 million annually (combined infant and adolescent strategy). The median and the mean quality scores resulted in 91.8% and 85.4% respectively; 11 studies were considered of high quality and 12 of low quality. Discussion: The studies are favorable to the introduction of universal varicella vaccination in Italy, being cost saving and having a positive impact on morbidity. The quality score of the studies varied greatly: recent analyses were of comparable quality to older studies. PMID:23823940

  16. 77 FR 23662 - Notice of Request for Comments on the Feasibility of Placing Economically Significant Patents...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... order of secrecy to establish an additional screening program based on economic factors. The USPTO has... to the nation's economic security. The USPTO is also seeking comments on the desirability of changes... filing licenses that could potentially impact economic security.'' H.R. Rpt. 112-169, at page 19 (July 20...

  17. Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis): epidemiology, economic impact and public health significance.

    PubMed

    Saleha, A A

    1991-12-01

    Liver fluke disease (fascioliasis) is an important parasitic disease found worldwide affecting sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo, as well as other domestic ruminants. The common causative agents are Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica which require various species of Lymnaea, fresh water snails, as their intermediate hosts. The epidemiology of the disease and its prevalence in Malaysia is mentioned briefly. The disease causes considerable impact on the economy of the livestock industry. The economic losses consist of costs of anthelmintics, drenches, labor, liver condemnation at meat inspection; and losses in production due to mortality, reduction in meat, milk and wool production; and reduction in growth rate, fertility and draught power. The disease also has public health significance, causing human fascioliasis and "halzoun".

  18. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  19. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  20. Gambling in the Mist of Economic Crisis: Results From Three National Prevalence Studies From Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Hayer, Tobias; Brosowski, Tim; Meyer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In October 2008 all three major banks in Iceland went bankrupt with serious consequences for Icelandic society. The national currency lost more than half of its value and there was a sharp increase in household debts and prices for domestic goods. Very little is known about the potential effects of economic recessions on gambling participation and problem gambling. This study reports on the results of three national prevalence studies conducted before and after the economic collapse in Iceland. The same methodology and measures were used in all three studies to ensure their comparability and the studies included in total N = 8.249 participants. There was an increase in past year gambling participation which extended across most gambling types. Only participation on EGMs declined significantly after the economic collapse. Past year prevalence of problematic gambling increased but further examination revealed that this increase is most probably explained by an increase in card and internet gambling among young men. Moreover, those who experienced financial difficulties due to the economic recession were 52% more likely to have bought a lottery ticket during the recession compared to those who were not affected financially. Overall, the results indicate that serious national economic recessions have differential effects on gambling behavior.

  1. 77 FR 76071 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Eighth Update Special Topic: Services' Contribution to Manufacturing AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. Nontimber forest products in Daniel Boone National Forest region--economic significance and potential for sustainability

    Treesearch

    Dasharathi Hembram; William L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Household members who gather nontimber forest products (NTFP) in and around the Daniel Boone National Forest (DBNF) in eastern Kentucky were interviewed. Participants reported that a wide variety of NTFP were economically and culturally important to them. Forty-three species of plants were sold commercially and 120 were used in households. Ginseng (Panax...

  3. Economic significance of Viroids in vegetable and fruit crops (Book Chapter)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop losses due to viroid infection occur in vegetable and field crops worldwide. In addition to potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), several viroids in the family Pospiviroidae infect these crops and economic losses range from minimal to severe depending upon the viroid/host combination, the host c...

  4. Medicaid Expansion Did Not Result In Significant Employment Changes Or Job Reductions In 2014.

    PubMed

    Gooptu, Angshuman; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali I; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Medicaid expansion undertaken through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is already producing major changes in insurance coverage and access to care, but its potential impacts on the labor market are also important policy considerations. Economic theory suggests that receipt of Medicaid might benefit workers who would no longer be tied to specific jobs to receive health insurance (known as job lock), giving them more flexibility in their choice of employment, or might encourage low-income workers to reduce their hours or stop working if they no longer need employment-based insurance. Evidence on labor changes after previous Medicaid expansions is mixed. To view the impact of the ACA on current labor market participation, we analyzed labor-market participation among adults with incomes below 138 percent of the federal poverty level, comparing Medicaid expansion and nonexpansion states and Medicaid-eligible and -ineligible groups, for the pre-ACA period (2005-13) and the first fifteen months of the expansion (January 2014-March 2015). Medicaid expansion did not result in significant changes in employment, job switching, or full- versus part-time status. While we cannot exclude the possibility of small changes in these outcomes, our findings rule out the large change found in one influential pre-ACA study; furthermore, they suggest that the Medicaid expansion has had limited impact on labor-market outcomes thus far. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan

    2017-08-22

    A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people's anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people's dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China.

  6. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people’s anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people’s dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China. PMID:28829395

  7. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gurr, Geoff M.; Johnson, Anne C.; Ash, Gavin J.; Wilson, Bree A. L.; Ero, Mark M.; Pilotti, Carmel A.; Dewhurst, Charles F.; You, Minsheng S.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems. PMID:27833616

  8. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance.

    PubMed

    Gurr, Geoff M; Johnson, Anne C; Ash, Gavin J; Wilson, Bree A L; Ero, Mark M; Pilotti, Carmel A; Dewhurst, Charles F; You, Minsheng S

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  9. Economic significance of revised age relations of rocks in the Cornucopia mining district, Elko County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coats, Robert Roy

    1967-01-01

    Recent geologic work in the Cornucopia mining district, a small silver-gold mining district in northwestern Elko County, Nev., has resulted in significant revision of the geological interpretation. Rocks formerly thought to be premineralization in age, but unmineralized, are now known to be postmineral extrusives, resting unconformably on the altered andesite in which the ore bodies are found. Extensions of the known productive veins may be expected at shallow depth beneath the younger volcanic rocks, and are separated from the mined part of the veins by postmineral high-angle faults that have brought the younger volcanic rocks into fault contact with the mineralized andesite. Some veins are apparently terminated against premineral faults.

  10. More Use of Peritoneal Dialysis Gives Significant Savings: A Systematic Review and Health Economic Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Eva; Hamidi, Vida; Ringerike, Tove; Wisloff, Torbjorn; Klemp, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are in need of renal replacement therapy as dialysis and/or transplantation. The prevalence of ESRD and, thus, the need for dialysis are constantly growing. The dialysis modalities are either peritoneal performed at home or hemodialysis (HD) performed in-center (hospital or satellite) or home. We examined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HD performed at different locations (hospital, satellite, and home) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) at home in the Norwegian setting. Methods We conducted a systematic review for patients above 18 years with end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis in several databases and performed several meta-analyses of existing literature. Mortality and major complications that required were our main clinical outcomes. The quality of the evidence for each outcome was evaluated using GRADE. Cost-effectiveness was assessed by developing a probabilistic Markov model. The analysis was carried out from a societal perspective, and effects were expressed in quality-adjusted life-years. Uncertainties in the base-case parameter values were explored with a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Scenario analyses were conducted by increasing the proportion of patients receiving PD with a corresponding reduction in HD patients in-center both for Norway and Europian Union. We assumed an annual growth rate of 4% in the number of dialysis patients, and a relative distribution between PD and HD in-center of 30% and 70%, respectively. Results From a societal perspective and over a 5-year time horizon, PD was the most cost-effective dialysis alternative. We found no significant difference in mortality between peritoneal and HD modalities. Our scenario analyses showed that a shift toward more patients on PD (as a first choice) with a corresponding reduction in HD in-center gave a saving over a 5-year period of 32 and 10,623 million EURO, respectively, for Norway and the European Union. Conclusions PD was

  11. Significant correlation of trauma epidemiology with the economic conditions of a community.

    PubMed

    Cinat, Marianne E; Wilson, Samuel E; Lush, Stephanie; Atkins, Courtney

    2004-12-01

    Depressed economic conditions are associated with increased trauma and violent crime. Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data. Population and labor force data from 1992 to 2002 were obtained from the state Employment Development Department and the US Census Bureau. County data regarding the total number of trauma activations and mechanism of trauma were recorded. Crime statistics were obtained from the state Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Correlation statistics were performed. Health care coverage for victims of penetrating trauma was also analyzed. Correlation between unemployment rate, trauma epidemiology, and crime indexes. The correlation between the percentage penetrating trauma and the unemployment rate was R = 0.92 (Orange County, California) and R = 0.95 (Los Angeles County, California) (P<.001). The unemployment rate was also tightly correlated with Federal Bureau of Investigation crime indexes in both counties and in the state (P<.001). The overall county population was positively correlated with the total number of trauma occurrences in both counties (P<.001) but was negatively correlated with the number of penetrating traumas and crime indexes (P<.001). Seventy-five percent of penetrating trauma victims had no health care coverage or had state or county aid only. The proportion of violent crime in a community is closely associated with the unemployment rate of that community and will vary longitudinally over time. The overall county population is less important. These data may be used for public policy initiatives regarding resource allocation to trauma centers, law enforcement planning, and programs aimed at crime prevention.

  12. Cost-effectiveness for acupuncture in seasonal allergic rhinitis: economic results of the ACUSAR trial.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Willich, Stefan N; Ortiz, Miriam; Witt, Claudia M; Brinkhaus, Benno

    2013-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a frequent allergic disorder with a significant economic effect on health care costs and productivity. To assess the cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for patients with seasonal AR (SAR) in Germany. The present analysis was part of the Acupuncture in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis (ACUSAR) trial, a 3-arm randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in patients with SAR, comparing acupuncture plus rescue medication (RM), penetrating sham acupuncture plus RM, and a control group receiving RM alone. Measures for health economic analyses were costs and health-related quality of life. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated for different scenarios on the duration of acupuncture effects and was expressed as costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained. The study was conducted from society's and from a third-party payer's perspective. From 422 initially randomized patients, a total of 364 patients with complete data on costs and quality of life were included in the health economic evaluation. Patients receiving acupuncture or sham acupuncture caused higher costs than patients in the RM group. Patients in the acupuncture group gained significantly more quality-adjusted life-years compared with the RM group. Depending on different scenarios, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for acupuncture patients was between €31,241 (approximately US $38.569) and €118,889 (approximately US $146,777) from society's perspective and between €20,807 (approximately US $25,688) and €74,585 (approximately US $92.080) from a third-party payer's perspective. Acupuncture is an effective intervention that results in improved quality of life in patients with SAR. However, in times of limited resources for health care, acupuncture for AR may not be a cost-effective intervention. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00610584. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Searching for Significance in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning and Finding None: Understanding Non-Significant Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, April

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative results from empirical studies are common in the field of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL), but it is important to remain aware of what the results from our studies can, and cannot, tell us. Oftentimes studies conducted to examine teaching and learning are constrained by class size. Small sample sizes negatively influence…

  14. Seasonal activity of millipedes (Diplopoda)--their economic and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Kania, Grzegorz; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The millipede Brachydesmus superus Latzel, Polydesmus inconstans Latzel (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) and Kryphioiulus occultus C. L. Koch (Diplopoda: Julida) were collected from compost in gardens in Lublin, eastern Poland. Collections were made by using pitfall traps between April - September 2009 and 2010. Brachydesmus superus, Polydesmus inconstans and Kryphioiulus occultus play a significant role in composting of plant residues. Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus Wood and Ommatoiulus sabulosus Linnaeus (Diplopoda: Julida) were collected manually in 2009-2011 in fallows and ruderals of Lublin and Kraków. C. caeruleocinctus and O. sabulosus caused considerable nuisance during mass occurrence and migration in human residences. The sex ratio has been determined for populations of C. caeruleocinctus, total sex ratio average 1:1.46. The number of females prevailed. Millipedes of the temperate climate have two peaks in the spring and autumn pattern of activity of the year. Both common species C. caeruleocinctus and O. sabulosus were analysed bacteriologically. The millipede Cylindroiulus caeruleocinctus transmits Citrobacter freundii, Pantoea agglomerans, Serratia marcescens, Raoultella planticola, Salmonella arizonae. The millipede Ommatoiulus sabulosus transmits Citrobacter freundii, Pantoea agglomerans, Raoultella planticola and Xanthomonas maltophila.

  15. The socio-economic significance of the Turkish coastal environment for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Kuleli, Tuncay

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy for sustainable development. There was no separate data base for the coastal zone so that the contribution from the coastal resources in the coastal region to the national economy was not evaluated. In estimating the significance of Turkish coastal cities, indirect methods and the geographical information system were used. In conclusion, it was found that 61.09% of the total national gross domestic product and 50.75% of the national agricultural, 90.98% of the national fisheries, 68.19% of the national tourism and 71.82% of the national industrial gross domestic product came from the coastal zone. It was determined that while coastal cities of Turkey had 28.23% of the national surface area, the coastal district had 12.96%; in other words, 21.5 million (28.04%) of the national population lived in 101.5 thousand km(2) (12.96%) of the national surface area. Approximately 44% of the national gross domestic product comes from the top ten coastal cities. According to the contribution ratio to the national economy of each coastal city, these low-lying coastal cities have about $16 billion risk value. An analysis showed that the coastal zone is very important for the national economy of Turkey and also the pressure on the coastal zone is very high. At a time of increasing pressures on coastal resources of Turkey, the decision-makers need the most up-to-date information on the full range of values these resources provide in order to make decisions that best reflect the public interest.

  16. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  17. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  18. Reporting of statistically significant results at ClinicalTrials.gov for completed superiority randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Dechartres, Agnes; Bond, Elizabeth G; Scheer, Jordan; Riveros, Carolina; Atal, Ignacio; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-11-30

    Publication bias and other reporting bias have been well documented for journal articles, but no study has evaluated the nature of results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov. We aimed to assess how many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov report statistically significant results and whether the proportion of trials with significant results differs when no treatment effect estimate or p-value is posted. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov in June 2015 for all studies with results posted. We included completed RCTs with a superiority hypothesis and considered results for the first primary outcome with results posted. For each trial, we assessed whether a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value was reported at ClinicalTrials.gov and if yes, whether results were statistically significant. If no treatment effect estimate or p-value was reported, we calculated the treatment effect and corresponding p-value using results per arm posted at ClinicalTrials.gov when sufficient data were reported. From the 17,536 studies with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov, we identified 2823 completed phase 3 or 4 randomized trials with a superiority hypothesis. Of these, 1400 (50%) reported a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value. Results were statistically significant for 844 trials (60%), with a median p-value of 0.01 (Q1-Q3: 0.001-0.26). For the 1423 trials with no treatment effect estimate or p-value posted, we could calculate the treatment effect and corresponding p-value using results reported per arm for 929 (65%). For 494 trials (35%), p-values could not be calculated mainly because of insufficient reporting, censored data, or repeated measurements over time. For the 929 trials we could calculate p-values, we found statistically significant results for 342 (37%), with a median p-value of 0.19 (Q1-Q3: 0.005-0.59). Half of the trials with results posted at ClinicalTrials.gov reported a treatment effect estimate and/or p-value, with significant

  19. Analyzing data in aquaculture: practical significance, a new paradigm for determining the importance of results

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analyzing data and interpreting results is often the most difficult and yet important part of the scientific research process. Currently, aquaculture researchers almost exclusively employ null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), a synthesis of the Fisher test of significance and the Neyman-Pears...

  20. Status report on education in the economics of animal health: results from a European survey.

    PubMed

    Waret-Szkuta, Agnès; Raboisson, Didier; Niemi, Jarkko; Aragrande, Maurizio; Gethmann, Jörn; Martins, Sara Babo; Hans, Lucie; Höreth-Böntgen, Detlef; Sans, Pierre; Stärk, Katharina D; Rushton, Jonathan; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Education on the use of economics applied to animal health (EAH) has been offered since the 1980s. However, it has never been institutionalized within veterinary curricula, and there is no systematic information on current teaching and education activities in Europe. Nevertheless, the need for economic skills in animal health has never been greater. Economics can add value to disease impact assessments; improve understanding of people's incentives to participate in animal health measures; and help refine resource allocation for public animal health budgets. The use of economics should improve animal health decision making. An online questionnaire was conducted in European countries to assess current and future needs and expectations of people using EAH. The main conclusion from the survey is that education in economics appears to be offered inconsistently in Europe, and information about the availability of training opportunities in this field is scarce. There is a lack of harmonization of EAH education and significant gaps exist in the veterinary curricula of many countries. Depending on whether respondents belonged to educational institutions, public bodies, or private organizations, they expressed concerns regarding the limited education on decision making and impact assessment for animal diseases or on the use of economics for general management. Both public and private organizations recognized the increasing importance of EAH in the future. This should motivate the development of teaching methods and materials that aim at developing the understanding of animal health problems for the benefit of students and professional veterinarians.

  1. Why publishing everything is more effective than selective publishing of statistically significant results.

    PubMed

    van Assen, Marcel A L M; van Aert, Robbie C M; Nuijten, Michèle B; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-01-01

    De Winter and Happee examined whether science based on selective publishing of significant results may be effective in accurate estimation of population effects, and whether this is even more effective than a science in which all results are published (i.e., a science without publication bias). Based on their simulation study they concluded that "selective publishing yields a more accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect than publishing everything, (and that) publishing nonreplicable results while placing null results in the file drawer can be beneficial for the scientific collective" (p.4). Using their scenario with a small to medium population effect size, we show that publishing everything is more effective for the scientific collective than selective publishing of significant results. Additionally, we examined a scenario with a null effect, which provides a more dramatic illustration of the superiority of publishing everything over selective publishing. Publishing everything is more effective than only reporting significant outcomes.

  2. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  3. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  4. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  5. Almost all articles on cancer prognostic markers report statistically significant results.

    PubMed

    Kyzas, Panayiotis A; Denaxa-Kyza, Despina; Ioannidis, John P A

    2007-11-01

    We aimed to understand the extent of the pursuit for statistically significant results in the prognostic literature of cancer. We evaluated 340 articles included in prognostic marker meta-analyses (Database 1) and 1575 articles on cancer prognostic markers published in 2005 (Database 2). For each article, we examined whether the abstract reported any statistically significant prognostic effect for any marker and any outcome ('positive' articles). 'Negative' articles were further examined for statements made by the investigators to overcome the absence of prognostic statistical significance. We also examined how the articles of Database 1 had presented the relative risks that were included in the respective meta-analyses. 'Positive' prognostic articles comprised 90.6% and 95.8% in Databases 1 and 2, respectively. Most of the 'negative' prognostic articles claimed significance for other analyses, expanded on non-significant trends or offered apologies that were occasionally remote from the original study aims. Only five articles in Database 1 (1.5%) and 21 in Database 2 (1.3%) were fully 'negative' for all presented results in the abstract and without efforts to expand on non-significant trends or to defend the importance of the marker with other arguments. Of the statistically non-significant relative risks in the meta-analyses, 25% had been presented as statistically significant in the primary papers using different analyses compared with the respective meta-analysis. We conclude that almost all articles on cancer prognostic marker studies highlight some statistically significant results. Under strong reporting bias, statistical significance loses its discriminating ability for the importance of prognostic markers.

  6. Economic determinants of urban form: resulting trade-offs between active and sedentary forms of travel.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lawrence D

    2004-10-01

    Economic factors have an impact on how the built environment is shaped, which in turn affects how we choose to travel. Regional transportation investment decisions are firmly rooted in economic "cost-benefit" trade-off considerations. The placement (central or outlying) and mode of transportation in which investments are made (transit, highway, sidewalks, or bikeways) influence where homes, businesses, schools, and other types of uses are located. Transportation investments create or limit access and establish a set of economic trade-offs that help determine if an area will be compact or dispersed, and mixed use or single use. Developers consider cost trade-offs between constructing connected street grids versus disconnected cul-de-sac networks, which determines if residents can walk to services and transit. Taken collectively, transportation investments and resulting land-use patterns determine if destinations are far apart or close together and linked with direct and safe sidewalks or bikeways. The end result is a built environment that determines whether walking and biking is feasible or perceived as more beneficial than driving or taking transit. This paper assesses (1) the economic forces that shape transportation investment decisions, (2) the economic impact of these investments on land use, and (3) how we as consumers choose to travel as a result of these transportation investment and land-use decisions.

  7. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  8. The ironic effect of significant results on the credibility of multiple-study articles.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Cohen (1962) pointed out the importance of statistical power for psychology as a science, but statistical power of studies has not increased, while the number of studies in a single article has increased. It has been overlooked that multiple studies with modest power have a high probability of producing nonsignificant results because power decreases as a function of the number of statistical tests that are being conducted (Maxwell, 2004). The discrepancy between the expected number of significant results and the actual number of significant results in multiple-study articles undermines the credibility of the reported results, and it is likely that questionable research practices have contributed to the reporting of too many significant results (Sterling, 1959). The problem of low power in multiple-study articles is illustrated using Bem's (2011) article on extrasensory perception and Gailliot et al.'s (2007) article on glucose and self-regulation. I conclude with several recommendations that can increase the credibility of scientific evidence in psychological journals. One major recommendation is to pay more attention to the power of studies to produce positive results without the help of questionable research practices and to request that authors justify sample sizes with a priori predictions of effect sizes. It is also important to publish replication studies with nonsignificant results if these studies have high power to replicate a published finding.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts in ERCOT: Preliminary Results; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.; Hodge, B. M.; Brinkman, G.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Banunarayanan, V.; Nasir, S.; Freedman, J.

    2012-09-01

    Historically, a number of wind energy integration studies have investigated the value of using day-ahead wind power forecasts for grid operational decisions. These studies have shown that there could be large cost savings gained by grid operators implementing the forecasts in their system operations. To date, none of these studies have investigated the value of shorter-term (0 to 6-hour-ahead) wind power forecasts. In 2010, the Department of Energy and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration partnered to fund improvements in short-term wind forecasts and to determine the economic value of these improvements to grid operators, hereafter referred to as the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP). In this work, we discuss the preliminary results of the economic benefit analysis portion of the WFIP for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. The improvements seen in the wind forecasts are examined, then the economic results of a production cost model simulation are analyzed.

  10. Using Bayes to get the most out of non-significant results

    PubMed Central

    Dienes, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    No scientific conclusion follows automatically from a statistically non-significant result, yet people routinely use non-significant results to guide conclusions about the status of theories (or the effectiveness of practices). To know whether a non-significant result counts against a theory, or if it just indicates data insensitivity, researchers must use one of: power, intervals (such as confidence or credibility intervals), or else an indicator of the relative evidence for one theory over another, such as a Bayes factor. I argue Bayes factors allow theory to be linked to data in a way that overcomes the weaknesses of the other approaches. Specifically, Bayes factors use the data themselves to determine their sensitivity in distinguishing theories (unlike power), and they make use of those aspects of a theory’s predictions that are often easiest to specify (unlike power and intervals, which require specifying the minimal interesting value in order to address theory). Bayes factors provide a coherent approach to determining whether non-significant results support a null hypothesis over a theory, or whether the data are just insensitive. They allow accepting and rejecting the null hypothesis to be put on an equal footing. Concrete examples are provided to indicate the range of application of a simple online Bayes calculator, which reveal both the strengths and weaknesses of Bayes factors. PMID:25120503

  11. Using the Descriptive Bootstrap to Evaluate Result Replicability (Because Statistical Significance Doesn't)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinella, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…

  12. The economic efficiency of conservation measures for amphibians in organic farming--results from bio-economic modelling.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Johannes; Sattler, Claudia; Helmecke, Angela; Zander, Peter; Uthes, Sandra; Bachinger, Johann; Stein-Bachinger, Karin

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents a whole farm bio-economic modelling approach for the assessment and optimisation of amphibian conservation conditions applied at the example of a large scale organic farm in North-Eastern Germany. The assessment focuses mainly on the habitat quality as affected by conservation measures such as through specific adapted crop production activities (CPA) and in-field buffer strips for the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), considering also interrelations with other amphibian species (i.e. common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus), fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina)). The aim of the approach is to understand, analyse and optimize the relationships between the ecological and economic performance of an organic farming system, based on the expectation that amphibians are differently impacted by different CPAs. The modelling system consists of a set of different sub-models that generate a farm model on the basis of environmentally evaluated CPAs. A crop-rotation sub-model provides a set of agronomically sustainable crop rotations that ensures overall sufficient nitrogen supply and controls weed, pest and disease infestations. An economic sub-model calculates the gross margins for each possible CPA including costs of inputs such as labour and machinery. The conservation effects of the CPAs are assessed with an ecological sub-model evaluates the potential negative or positive effect that each work step of a CPA has on amphibians. A mathematical programming sub-model calculates the optimal farm organization taking into account the limited factors of the farm (e.g. labour, land) as well as ecological improvements. In sequential model runs, the habitat quality is to be improved by the model, while the highest possible gross margin is still to be achieved. The results indicate that the model can be used to show the scope of action that a farmer has to improve habitat quality by reducing damage to amphibian population on its land during agricultural activities

  13. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  14. Regulation of the fishing activities in the lagoon of Venice, Italy: Results from a socio-economic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, Michele; Boatto, Vasco

    2008-10-01

    In the last years, the overall fish industry in the lagoon of Venice has shown a gradual decline. In order to better understand this process, we carry out a socio-economic questionnaire next to the fisherman population. Questionnaire contains significant qualitative and quantitative data that allow us to evaluate the social and the cultural profile of the respondents, including information with respect to the different technological fishing characteristics involved, type and amount of the species harvested as well as the overall productivity of the activity. Furthermore, the questionnaire contains an economic valuation exercise so as to assess in monetary terms the preferences of the fishermen with respect to different alternative policy options that may characterize a future regulation of this economic activity. Estimation results show that fishermen welcome any regulation initiative that is characterized by: (1) banning all fishing activities during the night, (2) allocating fishing concessions areas to each fishermen in a way that minimize the distance between the fishing area and the harbor, and (3) by introducing of a labeling mechanism that certifies the origin of the product. Moreover, the underlying economic valuation mechanism reveals to sensitive to respondent's motivational profile, including the overall trust and confidence that fisherman community places on the current institutional bodies. This result reveals to be of particular significance when attempting the design of an efficient, widely supported regulation of the fishing activity in the lagoon of Venice.

  15. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  16. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    PubMed

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new.

  17. Economic stress and condescending treatment in childhood and adult self-rated health: results from a population study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Granström, Fredrik; Eriksson, Hans-Georg; Molarius, Anu

    2017-05-22

    Even today, 12% of the children in Sweden live in poverty and many children are exposed to adverse experiences, such as being bullied, which may have long-term consequences on public health. This study examined the associations between economic stress and condescending treatment in childhood and self-rated health (SRH) in adulthood. The study is based on 26,706 persons who responded to a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 25-84 years in 2012 (response rate 53%). The associations between childhood circumstances and adult SRH were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, economic stress in adulthood, condescending treatment in adulthood, socioeconomic status and several other known material, behavioural and psychosocial risk factors. In total, 39% of both men and women reported economic stress in their family during childhood. 36% of the men and 41% of the women indicated that they had been treated in a condescending manner, e.g. in school or at home, during childhood. Both economic stress in childhood and condescending treatment in childhood were strongly associated with adult SRH. The associations attenuated, but were still statistically significant after adjustment for adulthood circumstances and other risk factors. Economic stress in childhood and condescending treatment in childhood were associated with SRH in adulthood, both independently and through adulthood circumstances. The results underline the importance of taking into account both material and psychosocial circumstances over the whole life course when developing public health measures.

  18. Why Publishing Everything Is More Effective than Selective Publishing of Statistically Significant Results

    PubMed Central

    van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; van Aert, Robbie C. M.; Nuijten, Michèle B.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2014-01-01

    Background De Winter and Happee [1] examined whether science based on selective publishing of significant results may be effective in accurate estimation of population effects, and whether this is even more effective than a science in which all results are published (i.e., a science without publication bias). Based on their simulation study they concluded that “selective publishing yields a more accurate meta-analytic estimation of the true effect than publishing everything, (and that) publishing nonreplicable results while placing null results in the file drawer can be beneficial for the scientific collective” (p.4). Methods and Findings Using their scenario with a small to medium population effect size, we show that publishing everything is more effective for the scientific collective than selective publishing of significant results. Additionally, we examined a scenario with a null effect, which provides a more dramatic illustration of the superiority of publishing everything over selective publishing. Conclusion Publishing everything is more effective than only reporting significant outcomes. PMID:24465448

  19. The Economic Benefits Resulting from the First 8 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000–2007)

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Brian K.; Hooper, Pamela J.; Bradley, Mark H.; McFarland, Deborah A.; Ottesen, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Between 2000–2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4–6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. Methodology To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization Principal Findings An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. Conclusions/Significance MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with

  20. The undue influence of significant p-values on the perceived importance of study results.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Montori, Victor M; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2005-06-01

    Statistically significant differences between treatments (i.e., results typically associated with p < 0.05) may not always correspond to important differences upon which to base orthopedic practice. If the hypothesis that p < 0.05 unduly influences the perception of importance of study results were true, we would expect that presenting such a p-value would lead to 1) greater agreement among clinicians about the importance of a study result, and 2) greater perceived importance of a study result, when compared with presenting the same results omitting the p-value. The participants were 3 orthopedics residents, 5 fellows, and 4 attending orthopedic surgeons at a university hospital. We constructed a 40-item questionnaire with the comparison groups, primary outcome of interest, and the results from each of 40 studies. These studies represent a variety of interventions across orthopedic surgery assessed in 2-group comparative intervention studies (randomized trials, observational studies) and were published between 2000 and 2002 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery--American Volume. For each question, respondents were asked to rate the importance of the study results. Participants answered the questionnaire first without p-values and then, 8 weeks later, with p-values (and a random sample of items without p-values). An intra-class correlation quantified agreement between clinicians when answering items with and without p-values. The difference in mean importance scores between the two presentations was also estimated. Of 40 eligible clinical comparative studies, 30 reported p < 0.05 for their primary comparison. Without presenting p-values, overall agreement regarding clinical significance among reviewers was fair (ICC = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.25-0.49). In the 30 studies with p < 0.05, mean importance scores (1 = low; 3 = high) were greater when p-values were presented (difference 0.6, CI 0.1-1.1). 10 of 12 reviewers perceived results to be more important when presented

  1. p-Curve and Effect Size: Correcting for Publication Bias Using Only Significant Results.

    PubMed

    Simonsohn, Uri; Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph P

    2014-11-01

    Journals tend to publish only statistically significant evidence, creating a scientific record that markedly overstates the size of effects. We provide a new tool that corrects for this bias without requiring access to nonsignificant results. It capitalizes on the fact that the distribution of significant p values, p-curve, is a function of the true underlying effect. Researchers armed only with sample sizes and test results of the published findings can correct for publication bias. We validate the technique with simulations and by reanalyzing data from the Many-Labs Replication project. We demonstrate that p-curve can arrive at conclusions opposite that of existing tools by reanalyzing the meta-analysis of the "choice overload" literature.

  2. Assessing the agricultural costs of climate change: Combining results from crop and economic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    simultaneously. The paper will briefly discuss some examples of the direct embedding of results from plant growth models in economic models.

  3. Incidence and significance of inconclusive results in ultrasound for appendicitis in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Crockett, Ann; Rucker, Diana; Magnus, Kenneth G

    2011-08-01

    Frustratingly, sonography to assess for appendicitis in children often leads to an inconclusive report (eg, "suspicious for appendicitis") or nonvisualization of the appendix. To aid in planning who to image and how to interpret the results, we investigated whether these 2 results were more frequent in teenagers than preteens and the prevalence of appendicitis associated with each result. We retrospectively reviewed sonographic and surgical findings in patients <18 years (n = 189) referred with clinical suspicion of appendicitis over a 12-month period. Children (≤12.0 years old; n = 86) and teens (>12.0 years old; n = 103) were compared. Prevalence of appendicitis was 34% in each group, similar to other centres; 0% for those with negative ultrasound reports (0/35), 10% for nonvisualized appendix (8/84), 68% for inconclusive report (15/22), and 85% for positive ultrasound (41/48). Teens were significantly more likely to have an inconclusive ultrasound. Inconclusive reports were because of borderline findings (eg, appendix size near 6 mm; 9/22), body habitus, bowel gas, or unusual findings due in retrospect to perforation. The rate of nonvisualization of the appendix did not vary significantly with age (42% vs 47%). An inconclusive result of ultrasound for appendicitis was significantly more frequent in teens than in preteens and carried a high (68%) likelihood of appendicitis. Conversely, a nonvisualized appendix was equally frequent in teens and preteens, and had a low likelihood of appendicitis (only 10% positive). These findings encourage the use of ultrasound in preteens in particular and can assist interpretation of these common results. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant spinal injury resulting from low-level accelerations: a case series of roller coaster injuries.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael D; Croft, Arthur C; Nicodemus, Clarence N; Centeno, Christopher J; Elkins, Whitney L

    2005-11-01

    To describe a cohort of significantly injured roller coaster riders and the likely levels of acceleration at which the injuries occurred, and to compare these data with contemporary efforts to define a lower limit of acceleration below which no significant spinal injury is likely to occur. A retrospective case series of roller coaster ride-induced significant spinal injuries. Injury incident records and emergency medical service records for the Rattler roller coaster in San Antonio, TX, were evaluated for a 19-month period in 1992 and 1993. Medical records for the more significant injuries were also reviewed and the specific injuries were tabulated, along with the demographics of the cohort. There were 932,000 riders of the Rattler roller coaster, estimated to represent between 300,000 and 600,000 individual riders. Not applicable. Injury incident reports and medical record review. It is estimated that there were a total of 656 neck and back injuries during the study period, and 39 were considered significant by the study inclusion criteria. Seventy-two percent (28/39) of the injured subjects sustained a cervical disk injury; 71% of these injuries were at C5-6 (15 disk herniations, 5 symptomatic disk bulges) and 54% were at C6-7 (11 disk herniations, 4 symptomatic disk bulges). In the lumbar spine, the most frequent injury was a symptomatic disk bulge (20% of the cohort), followed by vertebral body compression fracture (18%), and L4-5 or L5-S1 disk herniation (13%). Accelerometry testing of passengers and train cars indicated a peak of 4.5 to 5g of vertical or axial acceleration and 1.5g of lateral acceleration over approximately 100ms (0.1s) on both. The results of this study suggest that there is no established minimum threshold of significant spine injury. The greatest explanation for injury from traumatic loading of the spine is individual susceptibility to injury, an unpredictable variable.

  5. The economic benefits resulting from the first 8 years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (2000-2007).

    PubMed

    Chu, Brian K; Hooper, Pamela J; Bradley, Mark H; McFarland, Deborah A; Ottesen, Eric A

    2010-06-01

    Between 2000-2007, the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) delivered more than 1.9 billion treatments to nearly 600 million individuals via annual mass drug administration (MDA) of anti-filarial drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine) to all at-risk for 4-6 years. Quantifying the resulting economic benefits of this significant achievement is important not only to justify the resources invested in the GPELF but also to more fully understand the Programme's overall impact on some of the poorest endemic populations. To calculate the economic benefits, the number of clinical manifestations averted was first quantified and the savings associated with this disease prevention then analyzed in the context of direct treatment costs, indirect costs of lost-labor, and costs to the health system to care for affected individuals. Multiple data sources were reviewed, including published literature and databases from the World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, and International Labour Organization An estimated US$21.8 billion of direct economic benefits will be gained over the lifetime of 31.4 million individuals treated during the first 8 years of the GPELF. Of this total, over US$2.3 billion is realized by the protection of nearly 3 million newborns and other individuals from acquiring lymphatic filariasis as a result of their being born into areas freed of LF transmission. Similarly, more than 28 million individuals already infected with LF benefit from GPELF's halting the progression of their disease, which results in an associated lifetime economic benefit of approximately US$19.5 billion. In addition to these economic benefits to at-risk individuals, decreased patient services associated with reduced LF morbidity saves the health systems of endemic countries approximately US$2.2 billion. MDA for LF offers significant economic benefits. Moreover, with favorable program implementation costs (largely a result of the sustained

  6. No difference found in time to publication by statistical significance of trial results: a methodological review

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, L; Cooper, E; Hewitt, C; Torgerson, T; Cook, L; Tharmanathan, P; Cockayne, S; Torgerson, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Time-lag from study completion to publication is a potential source of publication bias in randomised controlled trials. This study sought to update the evidence base by identifying the effect of the statistical significance of research findings on time to publication of trial results. Design Literature searches were carried out in four general medical journals from June 2013 to June 2014 inclusive (BMJ, JAMA, the Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine). Setting Methodological review of four general medical journals. Participants Original research articles presenting the primary analyses from phase 2, 3 and 4 parallel-group randomised controlled trials were included. Main outcome measures Time from trial completion to publication. Results The median time from trial completion to publication was 431 days (n = 208, interquartile range 278–618). A multivariable adjusted Cox model found no statistically significant difference in time to publication for trials reporting positive or negative results (hazard ratio: 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.16, p = 0.32). Conclusion In contrast to previous studies, this review did not demonstrate the presence of time-lag bias in time to publication. This may be a result of these articles being published in four high-impact general medical journals that may be more inclined to publish rapidly, whatever the findings. Further research is needed to explore the presence of time-lag bias in lower quality studies and lower impact journals. PMID:27757242

  7. The cancrinite-syenite/carbonatite complex of Lueshe, Kivu/NE-Zaire: petrographic and geochemical studies and its economic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravic, H. v.; Morteani, G.; Roethe, G.

    The Luesche cancrinite-syenite/carbonatite complex is located in NE-Zaire about 50 km SSW of Lake Edward. The alkaline rocks have intruded metamorphic rocks of Burundian age (1.100 m.y.). The country rocks are quartzites and mica schists bearing chlorite, garnet, Kyanite and staurolite, which indicates P-T conditions of some 4 kbar and 430-500°C, maximum 6 kbar and 620°C. The K/Ar age of the biotites from the carbonatite is found to be 516 m.y. The core of the alkaline complex is composed of cancrinite-syenites which vary from place to place with respect to the contents of garnet, amphibole, aegirine, sodalite and cancrinite. Significant variations of the pyrochlore content are also observed. The core is surrounded by fine grained calcitic carbonatite (alvikite) which often shows a banded texture and grades into coarse grained calcitic carbonatite (søvite). In the SE of the søvite ring there is a separate dolomitic carbonatite body (beforsite) while at the contacts between the alkaline rocks and the country rocks a wide range of low to high grade fenites enriched in Na or K occurs. Within the alkaline complex the highest niobium values are found associated with metasomatic rocks of the contact zones such as carbosyenites, pyroxentic rocks and fenites. The main niobium mineral is a Ca, Na-pyrochlore enriched in Ti and/or Sr. The geochemical distribution patterns of the major elements as well as of the trace elements, especially the REE, suggests that the carbonatites are of primary magmatic origin derived from mantle material which was affected by later remobilizations, most likely as a result of postmagmatic hydrothermal solutions. Regarding the cancrinite-syenites, there is no evidence for a comagmatic formation with the carbonatites. They are rather of subcrustal origin; formed in the course of various metasomatic processes where the alkalic carbonate melts or volatile carbonate phases interacted with the metamorphic country rocks to form rheomorphic syenites

  8. The significance of the Skylab altimeter experiment results and potential applications. [measurement of sea surface topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourad, A. G.; Gopalapillai, S.; Kuhner, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab Altimeter Experiment has proven the capability of the altimeter for measurement of sea surface topography. The geometric determination of the geoid/mean sea level from satellite altimetry is a new approach having significant applications in many disciplines including geodesy and oceanography. A Generalized Least Squares Collocation Technique was developed for determination of the geoid from altimetry data. The technique solves for the altimetry geoid and determines one bias term for the combined effect of sea state, orbit, tides, geoid, and instrument error using sparse ground truth data. The influence of errors in orbit and a priori geoid values are discussed. Although the Skylab altimeter instrument accuracy is about + or - 1 m, significant results were obtained in identification of large geoidal features such as over the Puerto Rico trench. Comparison of the results of several passes shows that good agreement exists between the general slopes of the altimeter geoid and the ground truth, and that the altimeter appears to be capable of providing more details than are now available with best known geoids. The altimetry geoidal profiles show excellent correlations with bathymetry and gravity. Potential applications of altimetry results to geodesy, oceanography, and geophysics are discussed.

  9. Geological questions and significant results provided by early ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The organization for evaluating the uses of Earth Resources Technology Satellite data of the United States and foreign areas is described. The implementation of a system to disseminate the data to the geographical areas of interest is discussed. Brief descriptions are included of data received for the following areas: (1) east coast, (2) central United States, (3) western mountain areas, (4) west coast areas, and (5) Alaska. It is concluded that the multiband approach is useful with each of the bands providing unique and useful information. The difficulties in handling the data if all seven bands are used are examined.

  10. Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 - 2000.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jed; Thomas, Duncan

    The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical health, and child education have been established in several studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population. Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed before and after the crisis, we document substantial increases in several different dimensions of psychological distress among male and female adults across the entire age distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated levels of psychological distress persist even after indicators of economic well-being such as household consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer lasting than the impacts on economic well-being.

  11. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  12. Video analysis of the biomechanics of a bicycle accident resulting in significant facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shameer H; Willing, Ryan; Jenkyn, Thomas R; Yazdani, Arjang

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to use video analysis techniques to determine the velocity, impact force, angle of impact, and impulse to fracture involved in a video-recorded bicycle accident resulting in facial fractures. Computed tomographic images of the resulting facial injury are presented for correlation with data and calculations. To our knowledge, such an analysis of an actual recorded trauma has not been reported in the literature. A video recording of the accident was split into frames and analyzed using an image editing program. Measurements of velocity and angle of impact were obtained from this analysis, and the force of impact and impulse were calculated using the inverse dynamic method with connected rigid body segments. These results were then correlated with the actual fracture pattern found on computed tomographic imaging of the subject's face. There was an impact velocity of 6.25 m/s, impact angles of 14 and 6.3 degrees of neck extension and axial rotation, respectively, an impact force of 1910.4 N, and an impulse to fracture of 47.8 Ns. These physical parameters resulted in clinically significant bilateral mid-facial Le Fort II and III pattern fractures. These data confer further understanding of the biomechanics of bicycle-related accidents by correlating an actual clinical outcome with the kinematic and dynamic parameters involved in the accident itself and yielding a concrete evidence of the velocity, force, and impulse necessary to cause clinically significant facial trauma. These findings can aid in the design of protective equipment for bicycle riders to help avoid this type of injury.

  13. Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. ); Ritland, K.G. ); Taylor, M.E. ); Hauser, S.G. )

    1991-02-01

    The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  15. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  16. Significant results of deep drilling at Elk Hills, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fishburn, M.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve 1 (Elk Hills) is located in the southwestern San Joaquin basin one of the most prolific oil-producing areas in the US. Although the basin is in a mature development stage, the presence of favorable structures and high-quality source rocks continue to make the deeper parts of the basin, specifically Elk Hills, an inviting exploration target. Of the three deep tests drilled by the US Department of Energy since 1976, significant geologic results were achieved in two wells. Well 987-25R reached low-grade metamorphic rock at 18,761 ft after penetrating over 800 ft of salt below the Eocene Point of Rocks Sandstone. In well 934-29R, the deepest well in California, Cretaceous sedimentary rocks were encountered at a total depth of 24,426 ft. In well 934-29R several major sand units were penetrated most of which encountered significant gas shows. Minor amounts of gas with no water were produced below 22,000 ft. In addition, production tests at 17,000 ft produced 46{degree} API gravity oil. Geochemical analysis of cores and cuttings indicated that the potential for hydrocarbon generation exists throughout the well and is significant because the possibility of hydrocarbon production exists at a greater depth than previously expected. A vertical seismic profile in the well indicated that basement at this location is at approximately 25,500 ft. Successful drilling of well 934-29R was attributed to the use of an oil-based mud system. The well took 917 days to drill, including 9,560 rotating hr with 134 bits. Bottom-hole temperature was 431{degree}F and pressures were approximately 18,000 psi. The high overburden pressure at 24,000 ft created drilling problems that ultimately led to the termination of drilling at 24,426 ft.

  17. Single decoupled blasthole tests and the significance of the results to presplitting and boulder busting

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, S.M.; Worsey, P.N.; Wilson, J.W.

    1996-12-01

    The position of a major joint in relation to a blasthole has a significant effect in presplitting. Broad research into the combined effects of firing two decoupled blastholes has been performed in the past. The effects of joints simulated between two blastholes has also been evaluated. However, no attempt has been made to investigate the splitting effects produced by firing a single decoupled blasthole. This paper presents the results of such an investigation. A series of model tests was carried out in specially prepared 12 x 9 x 6 inches concrete blocks each with a 3/8 inch blasthole, loaded with 15-grain detonating cord. To simulate a semi-infinite burden similar to field presplit conditions, the blocks were lightly constrained. Before tightening the blocks, wooden spacers approximately three inches thick were placed on one end of the block to provide a free face. Additional experiments were conducted without constraints to ascertain the resulting fracture pattern in boulder blasting mode. It was found, if the blasthole is relatively near to the free face the angle of crater is greater. It was also observed that, at a distance approximately five times the diameter of the blasthole, the cratering ceases. During these tests a recurring split appeared all the way back to the abutted end of the blocks far in excess of what is expected in presplitting. This was not anticipated. An extensive investigation was undertaken to find an application in presplitting and boulder busting for this new phenomenon. It was found that when the blasthole is placed close to the abutted end of the block, it can produce a significantly longer split than when it is placed near the middle of the block. This was also verified in tests without constraints, which illustrates its potential for application in boulder blasting.

  18. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  19. Comparing costing results in across country economic evaluations: the use of technology specific purchasing power parities.

    PubMed

    Wordsworth, Sarah; Ludbrook, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The number of economic evaluations conducted on a multinational basis is increasing. Therefore, techniques are required to compare the results of such studies in a meaningful manner. This paper explores different approaches to comparing across country cost data applied to a European study of dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease. A price and volume index is created at the level of the individual health care technology and compared to an exchange rate conversion and published purchasing power parities (PPPs). Both exchange rate and PPP conversions when published rates are used fail to accurately reflect the true resource use of the applied health care example. These differences can be related to specific issues of input mix and price variation. Alternatively, the use of technology specific PPPs provided a more robust approach for international comparisons and also have the potential for use in multi-centre economic evaluations within the same country. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  1. Low velocity gunshot wounds result in significant contamination regardless of ballistic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Joseph; Putney, Emily; Egol, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists among the orthopedic community regarding the treatment of gunshot injuries. No consistent treatment algorithm exists for treatment of low energy gunshot wound (GSW) trauma. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the wound contamination following low velocity GSW based upon bullet caliber and clothing fiber type found within the injury track. Four types of handguns were fired at ballistic gel from a 10-foot distance. Various clothing materials were applied (denim, cotton, polyester, and wool) circumferentially around the tissue agar in a loose manor. A total of 32 specimens were examined. Each caliber handgun was fired a minimum of 5 times into a gel. Regardless of bullet caliber there was gross contamination of the entire bullet track in 100% of specimens in all scenarios and for all fiber types. Furthermore, as would be expected, the degree of contamination appeared to increase as the size of the bullet increased. Low velocity GSWs result in significant contamination regardless of bullet caliber and jacket type. Based upon our results further investigation of low velocity GSW tracks is warranted. Further clinical investigation should focus on the degree to which debridement should be undertaken.

  2. Germination of sorghum grain results in significant changes in paste and texture properties.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cuiping; Li, Yan; Ping, Junai

    2017-10-01

    The changes in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] proteins during germination and the resultant effects on the physicochemical properties of sorghum flour were studied using non-germinated grains as a control. Results showed that flour obtained from germinated sorghum grains had lower protein levels, higher protease levels, and higher free amino nitrogen content compared with the control. There was an increase in the albumin and globulin protein fractions and a decrease in kafirin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that this decrease was the result of a decrease in γ-kafirins, while microscopy found that a continuous protein network was formed. Following the germination-associated protein changes, the viscosities of sorghum paste decreased with germination from a peak viscosity value of 1,324 rapid visco units (RVU) down to 727 RVU in white sorghum (WS), and from 1,549 RVU to 1,295 RVU in red sorghum (RS). The hardness of the sorghum gels was significantly enhanced after germination, with WS increasing from 1,640 g to 5,374 g and RS from 970 g to 5,529 g. Thus, the study revealed that germination decreased the viscosity of sorghum paste and increased the strength of sorghum gel by changing the content and structure of sorghum protein, making it possible to design new foods that require thickening and gelling using germinated sorghum. Germination triggers the protease system of sprouting seeds, leading to the breakdown of proteins into simpler forms that decrease the viscosity of sorghum paste and improve the strength of sorghum gel, allowing the use of germinated sorghum to design new foods that require thickening and gelling. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Can uncertainty of earthquake focal mechanisms impact the significance of results on tidal triggering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholc, M.; Steacy, S.; Simão, N.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Earth tides on earthquake timings has been widely investigated for many years. However, the evidence of tidally triggered seismicity is often variable and inconclusive. Tidal modulation of earthquake timings is based on the assumption that a critically-stressed seismic fault can be tidally activated only if tidal stresses are oriented along the faults natural slipping direction and therefore, enhance an existing tectonic stress. In this situation, the accuracy of tidal calculations is essential and depends greatly on the quality of earthquake focal mechanism solutions. The focal parameters provide necessary information about the geometry and kinematics of the fault. At the same time, they can be sensitive to numerous factors (e.g. the accuracy of the earthquake location, distribution of seismic stations, assumed velocity model) and thus, the fault-plane orientation and slip direction will always carry some degree of uncertainty. In this project, we conduct a sensitivity test to see how the orientation variability of the fault planes can affect the statistical significance of results on tidally-induced seismicity. We use a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a number of synthetic catalogues with the same properties as the original catalog. However, fault plane parameters of the synthetic catalogs are randomly drawn from the bounded range of uncertainties associated with an earthquake focal mechanism solution. The significance of correlation between Earth tides and earthquake occurrence is then evaluated separately for each catalog using the Shuster test. Firstly, we assign the tidal phase angle at the earthquake occurrence time. The phase angle is measured from the time series of the tidal stress calculated at the location of each event. The value is assigned by linearly dividing the time interval from 0° to 180° or from 180° to 0°, where 0° and ±180° corresponds to the maximum and the minimum of the tidal stress immediately before or after each

  4. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    PubMed

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EPA, CBP announce results from inspections at ports resulting in hundreds of vehicles seized and exported, significantly reducing air pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LOS ANGELES - On Thursday, U.S. EPA Regional Administrator Jared Blumenfeld will join the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to announce the conclusion of a 90 day pilot partnership that resulted in more than 730 items being seized or exported out o

  6. Significance of ODP results on deepwater hydrocarbon exploration Eastern equatorial Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Barry Jay

    2006-11-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has provided access to samples of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in a number of deepwater regions around the globe. The samples are often well constrained stratigraphically and normally free from organic drilling fluid contamination. The focus of this study is the results obtained on one of the Ocean Drilling Program's (ODP) legs - Leg 159, which was located along the Equatorial portion of the West African margin, a region of considerable hydrocarbon exploration interest. Four drilling sites were included in Leg 159 along the continental margins of Côte d'Ivorie and Ghana. Drilling at these sites recovered sediments of Albian to Pleistocene age. Prior studies revealed the presence of a number of organic-rich zones capable of yielding significant quantities of hydrocarbons within both the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections. These intervals could act as hydrocarbon sources, if suitable maturity levels were obtained. Both oil and gas would be expected as their primary products. A shore-based study which focused on Site 959 and to a lesser degree Site 962 provided an opportunity to expand upon the original dataset and to further characterize the organic matter. Detailed characterization of the bitumen fractions from Site 959, provided not only information on the geochemical character of these specific sediments, but permitted them to be placed into a more regional context by comparing them to oils from the Equatorial portion of the West African margin. These data reveal a similarity, but not necessarily a genetic relationship, between the Cretaceous sediments and the majority of the Côte d'Ivoire oils. The Paleogene extracts display similar geochemical attributes as the deepwater oils from the Niger Delta. Although this study is not attempting to establish a definitive correlation, the data suggest a Tertiary source rock system for the deepwater Niger Delta, where deposition occurred under oxic to sub-oxic conditions. This contrasts with

  7. Significance of patient-controlled sedation during colonoscopy. Results from a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Crepeau, Thomas; Poincloux, Laurent; Bonny, Corinne; Lighetto, Sylvie; Jaffeux, Patricia; Artigue, Fabrice; Walleckx, Pierre; Bazin, Jean Etienne; Dapoigny, Michel; Bommelaer, Gilles

    2005-11-01

    In France, general anesthesia is given to more than 90% of patients undergoing colonoscopy although in several countries sedation is limited to intolerant patients. This study was carried out to determine whether Patient-Controlled Sedation (PCS) could provide a lighter sedation than general anesthesia adapted to the patient's individual requirement. Patients aged from 18 to 80 scheduled for elective colonoscopy were prospectively randomized to receive either standard sedation (control group) or patient-controlled-sedation (PCS). In the control group, patients received a continuous infusion of propofol. Patients in the PCS group were connected to an infusion pump containing propofol and self-administered 20-mg boluses as often as they required. An anesthetist was present throughout the procedure. Patient satisfaction measured on a visual analog scale four hours after colonoscopy was the main outcome criterion. From December 2002 to September 2003, 402 patients underwent elective colonoscopy, 173 of them were eligible and were asked to participate in the study. Seventy-two gave their informed consent and were prospectively randomized. The patients' mean satisfaction scores were not statistically different between the two groups: 84.7 mm (PCS group) vs. 91.5 mm (control group); P = 0.24. Mean doses of propofol (60 mg vs. 248 mg; P <0.001), depth of sedation and time before discharge (1.75 hours vs. 4.45 hours) were significantly lower for patients in the PCS group; nine of them (25.7%) did not use the pump and had total colonoscopy without sedation. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding total duration of colonoscopy (19.4 min (PCS) vs. 18 min (control)) difficulty and therapeutic procedures (biopsy or polypectomy). Two weeks after the procedure, 96.5% of patients in the PCS group were willing to repeat the examination under the same conditions vs. 72.5% of patients in the control group (P = 0.03). Our results demonstrate

  8. [Gender, age, occupation, economic sector and mental health in the workplace: the results of the study SALVEO].

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Blanc, Marie-Eve; Durand, Pierre

    2015-04-29

    This article examined the contribution of gender, age, occupation and economic sector on psychological distress, depression and burnout. The data came from the SALVEO study carried out in 2009- 2012 among 2,162 workers employed in 63 Canadian workplaces. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated on the total sample and separately for men and women. The prevalences of psychological distress, depression and burnout were 23.8%, 5.8% and 3.9% respectively. Mental health problems varied between workplaces, but variations between workplaces were stronger for burnout. Differences between men and women were significant only for psychological distress, depression, and emotional exhaustion. Unskilled workers were found more at risk for depression and burnout. Associations among age, occupation and economic sector were not the same between genders. Results from the SALVEO study highlight important mental health problems in workers that vary between workplaces, and that differences in symptomatology are associated with gender, age, occupation and economic sector. Gender reveals differentiated profiles of relationships. These results point towards the development of targeted approaches to the prevention of and intervention on mental health problems in workplaces.

  9. "What If" Analyses: Ways to Interpret Statistical Significance Test Results Using EXCEL or "R"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Elif

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to review two motivations to conduct "what if" analyses using Excel and "R" to understand the statistical significance tests through the sample size context. "What if" analyses can be used to teach students what statistical significance tests really do and in applied research either prospectively to estimate what sample size…

  10. Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1) a structured literature search and review, and 2) consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1) consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2) very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy direction. Additionally

  11. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  12. 75 FR 64351 - The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints: Seventh Update; Special Topic: Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Supply Chains AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of seventh update..., include an overview of global supply chains, including the economic forces behind them and current U.S... reveal the operations of the firm supplying the information. By order of the Commission. Issued: October...

  13. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  14. Assessing the Impact of Antidrug Advertising on Adolescent Drug Consumption: Results From a Behavioral Economic Model

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lauren G.; Morwitz, Vicki G.; Putsis, William P.; Sen, Subrata K.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined whether adolescents’ recall of antidrug advertising is associated with a decreased probability of using illicit drugs and, given drug use, a reduced volume of use. Methods. A behavioral economic model of influences on drug consumption was developed with survey data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents to determine the incremental impact of antidrug advertising. Results. The findings provided evidence that recall of antidrug advertising was associated with a lower probability of marijuana and cocaine/crack use. Recall of such advertising was not associated with the decision of how much marijuana or cocaine/crack to use. Results suggest that individuals predisposed to try marijuana are also predisposed to try cocaine/crack. Conclusions. The present results provide support for the effectiveness of antidrug advertising programs. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1346–1351) PMID:12144995

  15. Significance of a Positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M Test Result in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Reshika; Gajurel, Kiran; Pomares, Christelle; Talucod, Jeanne; Press, Cynthia J; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-11-01

    A positive Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) result is often interpreted as a marker of an acute infection. However, IgM can persist for several years, and Toxoplasma commercial IgM diagnostic test kits can yield a number of false-positive results. For these reasons, a chronic Toxoplasma infection can be erroneously classified as an acute infection, resulting in serious adverse consequences, especially in pregnant women, leading to emotional distress and unnecessary interventions, including termination of pregnancy. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology at a reference laboratory can help differentiate a recently acquired infection from a chronic infection. Serological test results for 451 patients with positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at nonreference laboratories (NRLs) that were referred to Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) to determine whether the patient was acutely or chronically infected were retrospectively reviewed. PAMF-TSL results established that of the 451 patients, 335 (74%) had a chronic infection, 100 (22%) had an acute infection, and 7 (2%) were not infected, and for 9 (2%), results were indeterminate. Positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at NRLs cannot accurately distinguish between acute and chronic infections. To do so, testing at reference laboratories is required, as mandated in 1997 in a letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clinicians and laboratories in the United States.

  16. Significance of a Positive Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin M Test Result in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gajurel, Kiran; Pomares, Christelle; Talucod, Jeanne; Press, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    A positive Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) result is often interpreted as a marker of an acute infection. However, IgM can persist for several years, and Toxoplasma commercial IgM diagnostic test kits can yield a number of false-positive results. For these reasons, a chronic Toxoplasma infection can be erroneously classified as an acute infection, resulting in serious adverse consequences, especially in pregnant women, leading to emotional distress and unnecessary interventions, including termination of pregnancy. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology at a reference laboratory can help differentiate a recently acquired infection from a chronic infection. Serological test results for 451 patients with positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at nonreference laboratories (NRLs) that were referred to Palo Alto Medical Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) to determine whether the patient was acutely or chronically infected were retrospectively reviewed. PAMF-TSL results established that of the 451 patients, 335 (74%) had a chronic infection, 100 (22%) had an acute infection, and 7 (2%) were not infected, and for 9 (2%), results were indeterminate. Positive Toxoplasma IgM and IgG test results obtained at NRLs cannot accurately distinguish between acute and chronic infections. To do so, testing at reference laboratories is required, as mandated in 1997 in a letter from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clinicians and laboratories in the United States. PMID:26354818

  17. Assessing the impact of antidrug advertising on adolescent drug consumption: results from a behavioral economic model.

    PubMed

    Block, Lauren G; Morwitz, Vicki G; Putsis, William P; Sen, Subrata K

    2002-08-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' recall of antidrug advertising is associated with a decreased probability of using illicit drugs and, given drug use, a reduced volume of use. A behavioral economic model of influences on drug consumption was developed with survey data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents to determine the incremental impact of antidrug advertising. The findings provided evidence that recall of antidrug advertising was associated with a lower probability of marijuana and cocaine/crack use. Recall of such advertising was not associated with the decision of how much marijuana or cocaine/crack to use. Results suggest that individuals predisposed to try marijuana are also predisposed to try cocaine/crack. The present results provide support for the effectiveness of antidrug advertising programs.

  18. Behavioral economics holds potential to deliver better results for patients, insurers, and employers.

    PubMed

    Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A; Volpp, Kevin G

    2013-07-01

    Many programs being implemented by US employers, insurers, and health care providers use incentives to encourage patients to take better care of themselves. We critically review a range of these efforts and show that many programs, although well-meaning, are unlikely to have much impact because they require information, expertise, and self-control that few patients possess. As a result, benefits are likely to accrue disproportionately to patients who already are taking adequate care of their health. We show how these programs could be made more effective through the use of insights from behavioral economics. For example, incentive programs that offer patients small and frequent payments for behavior that would benefit the patients, such as medication adherence, can be more effective than programs with incentives that are far less visible because they are folded into a paycheck or used to reduce a monthly premium. Deploying more-nuanced insights from behavioral economics can lead to policies with the potential to increase patient engagement and deliver dividends for patients and favorable cost-effectiveness ratios for insurers, employers, and other relevant commercial entities.

  19. Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: results from a reputation-based model.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Cuesta, José A

    2014-08-01

    When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

  20. Spreading of intolerance under economic stress: Results from a reputation-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A.; Cuesta, José A.

    2014-08-01

    When a population is engaged in successive prisoner's dilemmas, indirect reciprocity through reputation fosters cooperation through the emergence of moral and action rules. A simplified model has recently been proposed where individuals choose between helping others or not and are judged good or bad for it by the rest of the population. The reputation so acquired will condition future actions. In this model, eight strategies (referred to as "leading eight") enforce a high level of cooperation, generate high payoffs, and are therefore resistant to invasions by other strategies. Here we show that, by assigning each individual one of two labels that peers can distinguish (e.g., political ideas, religion, and skin color) and allowing moral and action rules to depend on the label, intolerant behaviors can emerge within minorities under sufficient economic stress. We analyze the sets of conditions where this can happen and also discuss the circumstances under which tolerance can be restored. Our results agree with empirical observations that correlate intolerance and economic stress and predict a correlation between the degree of tolerance of a population and its composition and ethical stance.

  1. The life of p: "just significant" results are on the rise.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Nathan C; Thomas, Nicole A; Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2013-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing uses the seemingly arbitrary probability of .05 as a means of objectively determining whether a tested effect is reliable. Within recent psychological articles, research has found an overrepresentation of p values around this cut-off. The present study examined whether this overrepresentation is a product of recent pressure to publish or whether it has existed throughout psychological research. Articles published in 1965 and 2005 from two prominent psychology journals were examined. Like previous research, the frequency of p values at and just below .05 was greater than expected compared to p frequencies in other ranges. While this overrepresentation was found for values published in both 1965 and 2005, it was much greater in 2005. Additionally, p values close to but over .05 were more likely to be rounded down to, or incorrectly reported as, significant in 2005 than in 1965. Modern statistical software and an increased pressure to publish may explain this pattern. The problem may be alleviated by reduced reliance on p values and increased reporting of confidence intervals and effect sizes.

  2. Economic burden of transformed migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Julie; Hazard, Elisabeth; Serrano, Daniel; Klingman, David; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Tierce, Jonothan; Reed, Michael; Lipton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of incident transformed migraine on health care resource utilization, medication use, and productivity loss. In addition, the study estimates the total direct and indirect costs associated with transformed migraine. Emerging evidence indicates that migraine may be a chronic progressive disorder characterized by escalating frequency of headache attacks, often termed transformed migraine. Little is known about the economic impact of transformed migraine. AMPP is a 5-year, national, longitudinal survey study of headache in the US. The study utilized data from the 2006 follow-up survey based on an initial sample of 14,544 adults identified as having migraine in either the 2004 screening or 2005 baseline survey. A diagnosis of migraine was assigned based on criteria proposed by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition. Participants completed self-administered, validated questionnaires on headache features, frequency, impairment, resource use, medication use, and productivity loss. Direct and indirect headache-related costs were estimated using unit cost assumptions from the PharMetrics Patient-Centric database, wholesale acquisition costs (Red Book), and wage data from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Those who developed transformed migraine were compared with those who did not develop transformed migraine in the 1-2 year interval between screening/baseline and follow-up. A total of 7796 (54%) identified migraine cases completed the 2006 follow-up survey. Of those cases, 359 (4.6%) developed transformed migraine. Participants who developed transformed migraine reported significantly more primary care visits, neurologist or headache specialist visits, pain clinic visits, and emergency room visits compared with participants whose migraine remained episodic. Hospital nights and urgent care visits did not reach statistical significance. Transformed migraine participants reported significantly more time missed at work or

  3. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  4. Significant forefoot varus deformity resulting in progressive stress fractures of all lesser metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Ponsen, Kees J; Besselaar, Philip P; Goslings, J Carel

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur in any bone, but appear most frequently in the metatarsal bones. Consecutive stress fractures of all lesser metatarsals in a short period are rare, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. We report an unusual case of a young man with consecutive stress fractures of four adjacent lesser metatarsal bones. The etiology was in all probability the fixed forefoot varus deformity. This foot deformity may impose increased mechanical loads across the lateral aspect of the foot that, in turn, may result in stress fractures involving the lesser metatarsals. In our patient conservative treatment finally resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  5. Prognostic significance of left atrial enlargement in a general population: results of the PAMELA study.

    PubMed

    Bombelli, Michele; Facchetti, Rita; Cuspidi, Cesare; Villa, Paolo; Dozio, Dario; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the risk of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality associated with left atrium (LA) enlargement alone or combined with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in 1785 representatives of the general population of Monza recruited for the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. LA enlargement was assessed by measuring LA diameter via echocardiography. LA enlargement was defined as a LA diameter>2.3 cm/m2, whereas LVH was defined as a left ventricular mass index≥114 g/m2 and 99 g/m2 in men and women, respectively. Death certificates and hospital diagnoses were collected over an average 148 months follow-up. During follow-up, there were 175 deaths (of which 59 for cardiovascular causes) and 139 cardiovascular fatal and nonfatal events. Compared with subjects with neither LA enlargement nor LVH, subjects with isolated LA enlargement exhibited a significant increase in the adjusted risk of combined fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 2.0; confidence interval, 1-4.1; P=0.04), although not of cardiovascular death or all-cause death. The adjusted (for baseline covariates, including ambulatory blood pressure) risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death was significantly increased also in subjects with isolated LVH (hazard ratio, 2.2, 3.4, 2.1, respectively; P=0.001 for all), whereas no further increase was seen in subjects with both LA and left ventricular abnormalities. Thus, like LVH, LA enlargement is an independent long-term predictor of cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk, however, is not further increased when LA enlargement is superimposed on an increase of LV mass.

  6. The Ironic Effect of Significant Results on the Credibility of Multiple-Study Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Cohen (1962) pointed out the importance of statistical power for psychology as a science, but statistical power of studies has not increased, while the number of studies in a single article has increased. It has been overlooked that multiple studies with modest power have a high probability of producing nonsignificant results because power…

  7. Estimating the Reduction of Generating System CO2 Emissions Resulting from Significant Wind Energy Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Pineda, Ivan; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. The paper discusses pitfalls in methodology and proposes appropriate methods to perform the calculations. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. This paper is an international collaboration of IEA Wind Task 25 on wind integration.

  8. The Ironic Effect of Significant Results on the Credibility of Multiple-Study Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmack, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Cohen (1962) pointed out the importance of statistical power for psychology as a science, but statistical power of studies has not increased, while the number of studies in a single article has increased. It has been overlooked that multiple studies with modest power have a high probability of producing nonsignificant results because power…

  9. Assessment of the Economic Losses Resulting from Land Subsidence in Bandung Basin, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, H. Z.; Gumilar, I.; Andreas, H.; Fukuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The Bandung Basin is a large intra-montane basin surrounded by volcanic highlands, in western Java, Indonesia, inhabited by more than seven million people. The basin, an area of about 2300 km2, is a highland plateau at approximately 650-700 m above sea level and is surrounded by up to 2400 m high Late Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic terrain. Based on the results of 9 GPS surveys conducted since 2000 up to 2011 it was shown that several locations in the Bandung Basin have experienced land subsidence, with an average rate of about -8 cm/year and can go up to about -23 cm/year in certain locations. A similar rate of subsidence was also detected by the InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) technique. In general, the impacts of land subsidence in Bandung basin could be seen in several forms, such as cracking of houses, permanent constructions and roads, changes in river canal and drain flow systems, wider expansion of flooding areas, and malfunction of drainage system. The tangible and intangible impacts of land subsidence cannot be underestimated. The primary environmental and economic effects of land subsidence phenomena can vary from negligible to severe depending on the present land-use nature of the affected area and the subsidence magnitude and coverage. The indirect effects of subsidence through aggravation of other hazards already present in the area are frequently more severe than the direct effects. In the case of Bandung basin, the increase in flooding coverage caused by continuing subsidence introduce more problems compared to other indirect effects of land subsidence. Land subsidence also Increases the maintenance costs for the affected buildings and infrastructure, and lowering the quality of living environment (e.g. health and sanitation condition) and ecosystem in the affected areas. Although not easy, quantitative assessment of economic losses resulting from land subsidence in Bandung basin has been carried out. Methodology and estimated

  10. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Clinical significance of a proposed developmental trauma disorder diagnosis: results of an international survey of clinicians.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Grasso, Damion; Greene, Carolyn; Levine, Joan; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel

    2013-08-01

    Maltreatment, family violence, and disruption in primary caregiver attachment in childhood may constitute a developmental form of trauma that places children at risk for multiple psychiatric and medical diagnoses that often are refractory to well-established evidence-based mental health treatments. No integrative diagnosis exists to guide assessment and treatment for these children and adolescents. This study therefore assessed clinicians' ratings of the clinical utility of a proposed developmental trauma disorder diagnostic framework. An Internet survey was conducted with an international convenience sample of 472 self-selected medical, mental health, counseling, child welfare, and education professionals. Respondents made quantitative ratings of the clinical significance of developmental trauma disorder, developmental trauma exposure, and symptom items and also posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other Axis I internalizing and externalizing disorder symptom items for 4 clinical vignettes. Ratings of the discriminability of each developmental trauma disorder item from PTSD, other anxiety disorders, affective disorders, and externalizing behavior disorders, and of each developmental trauma disorder item's amenability to existing evidence-based treatments for those disorders, also were obtained. Respondents viewed developmental trauma disorder criteria as (1) comparable in clinical utility to criteria for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders; (2) discriminable from and not fully accounted for by other disorders; and (3) refractory to existing evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. The exposure and symptom criteria proposed for a developmental trauma disorder diagnosis warrant clinical dissemination and scientific field testing to determine their actual clinical utility in treating traumatized children with complex psychiatric presentations. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Significance of the perigametic interval as a major source of spontaneous mutations that result in mosaics.

    PubMed

    Russell, L B

    1999-01-01

    An earlier analysis showed that a significant percentage of spontaneous specific-locus mutations in mice are recovered as mosaics and that the spontaneous mutation rate per cell cycle is probably higher for those mutations that produce mosaics than for those that produce whole-body mutants. The finding that the average germline composition of the mosaics was approximately 50% supported the suggestion that single-strand DNA alterations during the perigametic interval constitute the major source of spontaneous mosaics. Here, alternative origins of 50% germline mosaicism are examined. Supporting the earlier hypothesis is the finding that spontaneous mutations that are recovered as clusters constitute a different array of types from those giving rise to singletons, and the evidence from interspecies comparisons that a unique component of the life cycle, probably meiosis, makes a major contribution to spontaneous mutations. Biological factors associated with the perigametic interval were examined in an effort to suggest explanations for the observations that 1) the spontaneous mutation rate in that interval is high relative to that characterizing any mitotic cell cycle, 2) the types of mutations appear to be different from those arising during mitotic divisions, and 3) the spontaneous mutation rate for males is higher than that for females. It is concluded that the higher yield from the perigametic interval is consistent with what is known about methylation status in development of both sexes and with repair capacity in the male germline. For both parameters, differences between the sexes during their respective perigametic intervals may be at least partly responsible for the fact that the spontaneous mutation rate of mammalian females is lower than that of males.

  13. Blood withdrawn through a cannula valve connector does not result in clinically significant haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Paoloni, Richard; Taghizadeh, Mehrdad; Kouzios, Dorothy; Janu, Margaret

    2010-08-01

    To assess the impact of cannula valve connectors on haemolysis of blood samples drawn from newly inserted cannulae. In a semi-blinded, randomized study paired blood samples, with and without cannula valve connector, were obtained from patients within the ED and tested for haemolysis, defined as haemolysis index of greater than 120 mg/dL. Patients were randomized as to which sample was collected first. Cannula size was standardized and vacutainer systems provided consistent draw pressures. Time taken for the tube to fill was recorded as a measure of blood flow. Two hundred and ninety patients were randomized, with six subsequently excluded from analysis because of samples being lost or insufficient for testing. Average patient age was 60.8 years and 52.5% were male. There were no significant differences between the randomization groups. The overall rate of haemolysis was 2.6%, being 2.8% in the valve first group and 2.5% in the no valve first group (P = 1.0). Time for collection averaged 7.7 s in the valve first group and 7.5 s in the no-valve first group (P = 0.22). Mean serum potassium level was 4.4 mmol/L in both groups (P = 0.46). The rate of hyperkalaemia was not different between valve first and no-valve first groups (12.7% and 13.7%, respectively, P = 1.0). The attachment of a cannula connector valve to a peripheral cannula prior to blood sampling is not associated with an increase in the rate of haemolysis or hyperkalaemia.

  14. Economic gains resulting from the reduction in children's exposure to lead in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D; Matte, Thomas D; Schwartz, Joel; Jackson, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    In this study we quantify economic benefits from projected improvements in worker productivity resulting from the reduction in children's exposure to lead in the United States since 1976. We calculated the decline in blood lead levels (BLLs) from 1976 to 1999 on the basis of nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected during 1976 through 1980, 1991 through 1994, and 1999. The decline in mean BLL in 1- to 5-year-old U.S. children from 1976-1980 to 1991-1994 was 12.3 microg/dL, and the estimated decline from 1976 to 1999 was 15.1 microg/dL. We assumed the change in cognitive ability resulting from declines in BLLs, on the basis of published meta-analyses, to be between 0.185 and 0.323 IQ points for each 1 g/dL blood lead concentration. These calculations imply that, because of falling BLLs, U.S. preschool-aged children in the late 1990s had IQs that were, on average, 2.2-4.7 points higher than they would have been if they had the blood lead distribution observed among U.S. preschool-aged children in the late 1970s. We estimated that each IQ point raises worker productivity 1.76-2.38%. With discounted lifetime earnings of $723,300 for each 2-year-old in 2000 dollars, the estimated economic benefit for each year's cohort of 3.8 million 2-year-old children ranges from $110 billion to $319 billion. PMID:12055046

  15. Economic gains resulting from the reduction in children's exposure to lead in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Matte, Thomas D; Schwartz, Joel; Jackson, Richard J

    2002-06-01

    In this study we quantify economic benefits from projected improvements in worker productivity resulting from the reduction in children's exposure to lead in the United States since 1976. We calculated the decline in blood lead levels (BLLs) from 1976 to 1999 on the basis of nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data collected during 1976 through 1980, 1991 through 1994, and 1999. The decline in mean BLL in 1- to 5-year-old U.S. children from 1976-1980 to 1991-1994 was 12.3 microg/dL, and the estimated decline from 1976 to 1999 was 15.1 microg/dL. We assumed the change in cognitive ability resulting from declines in BLLs, on the basis of published meta-analyses, to be between 0.185 and 0.323 IQ points for each 1 g/dL blood lead concentration. These calculations imply that, because of falling BLLs, U.S. preschool-aged children in the late 1990s had IQs that were, on average, 2.2-4.7 points higher than they would have been if they had the blood lead distribution observed among U.S. preschool-aged children in the late 1970s. We estimated that each IQ point raises worker productivity 1.76-2.38%. With discounted lifetime earnings of $723,300 for each 2-year-old in 2000 dollars, the estimated economic benefit for each year's cohort of 3.8 million 2-year-old children ranges from $110 billion to $319 billion.

  16. Bioventing results in significant reduction of diesel fuel contamination after one year

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.N.; Nickerson, D.A.; Guest, P.R.

    1994-12-31

    A bioventing system was designed and installed to enhance the natural biodegradation of residual diesel fuel contaminated soils at an underground storage tank (UST) facility in Seattle, Washington. This system was designed to operate in conjunction with an existing total fluids recovery system to expose more heavily contaminated soils at the capillary fringe to injected air. A pilot study conducted at the facility indicated that an initial biodegradation rate of 2,200 milligrams of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) per kiligram of soil per year could be achieved, making bioventing a feasible remedial alternative to accelerate site cleanup. Remediation costs were reduced by installing horizontal piping arrangements at the bottom of two separate tank pit excavations during the scheduled fueling system closures. Unlike single point injection wells, this innovative system design results in a wider area of influence by creating two aerated beds through which air is dispersed into the surrounding formation. As a result, less pressure is required to distribute air in the variably permeable site soils, minimizing subsurface vapor migration. The areas of greatest contamination in the capillary fringe are directly impacted by placing impermeable caps over the aerated beds.

  17. Delayed rRNA Processing Results in Significant Ribosome Biogenesis and Functional Defects

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Baxter, Jennifer L.; Carr, Edward A.; Yasenchak, Jason; Gallagher, Jennifer E. G.; Baserga, Susan J.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2003-01-01

    mof6-1 was originally isolated as a recessive mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which promoted increased efficiencies of programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting and rendered cells unable to maintain the killer virus. Here, we demonstrate that mof6-1 is a unique allele of the histone deacetylase RPD3, that the deacetylase function of Rpd3p is required for controlling wild-type levels of frameshifting and virus maintenance, and that the closest human homolog can fully complement these defects. Loss of the Rpd3p-associated histone deacetylase function, either by mutants of rpd3 or loss of the associated gene product Sin3p or Sap30p, results in a delay in rRNA processing rather than in an rRNA transcriptional defect. This results in production of ribosomes having lower affinities for aminoacyl-tRNA and diminished peptidyltransferase activities. We hypothesize that decreased rates of peptidyl transfer allow ribosomes with both A and P sites occupied by tRNAs to pause for longer periods of time at −1 frameshift signals, promoting increased programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting efficiencies and subsequent loss of the killer virus. The frameshifting defect is accentuated when the demand for ribosomes is highest, suggesting that rRNA posttranscriptional modification is the bottleneck in ribosome biogenesis. PMID:12588980

  18. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  19. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  20. Significant disparity in base and sugar damage in DNA resulting from neutron and electron irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Dalong; Nico, Jeffrey S.; Karam, Lisa; Timofeeva, Olga; Blakely, William F.; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Jaruga, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a comparison of the effects of neutron and electron irradiation of aqueous DNA solutions was investigated to characterize potential neutron signatures in DNA damage induction. Ionizing radiation generates numerous lesions in DNA, including base and sugar lesions, lesions involving base–sugar combinations (e.g. 8,5′-cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleosides) and DNA–protein cross-links, as well as single- and double-strand breaks and clustered damage. The characteristics of damage depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the incident radiation. Here we investigated DNA damage using aqueous DNA solutions in 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer from 0–80 Gy by low-LET electrons (10 Gy/min) and the specific high-LET (∼0.16 Gy/h) neutrons formed by spontaneous 252Cf decay fissions. 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), (5′R)-8,5′-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (R-cdA) and (5′S)-8,5′-cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (S-cdA) were quantified using liquid chromatography–isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to demonstrate a linear dose dependence for induction of 8-OH-dG by both types of radiation, although neutron irradiation was ∼50% less effective at a given dose compared with electron irradiation. Electron irradiation resulted in an exponential increase in S-cdA and R-cdA with dose, whereas neutron irradiation induced substantially less damage and the amount of damage increased only gradually with dose. Addition of 30 mmol/l 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (TRIS), a free radical scavenger, to the DNA solution before irradiation reduced lesion induction to background levels for both types of radiation. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of DNA damage by high-LET 252Cf decay neutrons and low-LET electrons, leading to enhanced understanding of the potential biological effects of these types of irradiation. PMID:25034731

  1. Significant disparity in base and sugar damage in DNA resulting from neutron and electron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Dalong; Nico, Jeffrey S; Karam, Lisa; Timofeeva, Olga; Blakely, William F; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Jaruga, Pawel

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a comparison of the effects of neutron and electron irradiation of aqueous DNA solutions was investigated to characterize potential neutron signatures in DNA damage induction. Ionizing radiation generates numerous lesions in DNA, including base and sugar lesions, lesions involving base-sugar combinations (e.g. 8,5'-cyclopurine-2'-deoxynucleosides) and DNA-protein cross-links, as well as single- and double-strand breaks and clustered damage. The characteristics of damage depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the incident radiation. Here we investigated DNA damage using aqueous DNA solutions in 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer from 0-80 Gy by low-LET electrons (10 Gy/min) and the specific high-LET (∼0.16 Gy/h) neutrons formed by spontaneous (252)Cf decay fissions. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), (5'R)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (R-cdA) and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (S-cdA) were quantified using liquid chromatography-isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry to demonstrate a linear dose dependence for induction of 8-OH-dG by both types of radiation, although neutron irradiation was ∼50% less effective at a given dose compared with electron irradiation. Electron irradiation resulted in an exponential increase in S-cdA and R-cdA with dose, whereas neutron irradiation induced substantially less damage and the amount of damage increased only gradually with dose. Addition of 30 mmol/l 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (TRIS), a free radical scavenger, to the DNA solution before irradiation reduced lesion induction to background levels for both types of radiation. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of DNA damage by high-LET (252)Cf decay neutrons and low-LET electrons, leading to enhanced understanding of the potential biological effects of these types of irradiation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation

  2. Late Quaternary stratigraphy of the La Janda Basin (SW Spain) - first results and palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, Nicole; Santisteban, Juan; Mediavilla, Rosa; May, Simon Matthias; Klasen, Nicole; Brückner, Helmut; van't Hoff, Jasmijn; Reicherter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The La Janda basin in southern Spain is a near-shore geo-bio-archive comprising a variable Quaternary depositional history, with shallow marine, lacustrine, palustrine, and terrestrial strata. In the 1930s the lake was drained and is serving now as a huge agricultural area. The 33 m-core recovered in fall 2016 along with several shallower drill cores up to c. 15 m, reveals insights into a unique mixed terrestrial palaeo-environmental archive in Andalucia influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and hence the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) within the Gulf of Cádiz. The basin's evolution was influenced both by the postglacial marine transgression and by an active tectonic fault controlling most of the accommodation space by causing subsidence. Our long core was accompanied by further corings along an E-W striking transect in order to reveal also the relation of the influence of tectonic activity with sedimentary sequences. Multi-Sensor Core Logging has been completed. Results of sedimentological, geochemical and micropalaeontological analyses will be presented in the frame of the climate variations during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, along with a preliminary age-depth model based on radiocarbon (AMS-14C) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques. Our investigations ultimately aim at providing valuable information on major Late Pleistocene to Holocene climatic and palaeo-environmental fluctuations in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula.

  3. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    SciTech Connect

    Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-02-22

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  4. Classification of physiologically significant pumping states in an implantable rotary blood pump: patient trial results.

    PubMed

    Karantonis, Dean M; Mason, David G; Salamonsen, Robert F; Ayre, Peter J; Cloherty, Shaun L; Lovell, Nigel H

    2007-01-01

    An integral component in the development of a control strategy for implantable rotary blood pumps is the task of reliably detecting the occurrence of left ventricular collapse due to overpumping of the native heart. Using the noninvasive pump feedback signal of impeller speed, an approach to distinguish between overpumping (or ventricular collapse) and the normal pumping state has been developed. Noninvasive pump signals from 10 human pump recipients were collected, and the pumping state was categorized as either normal or suction, based on expert opinion aided by transesophageal echocardiographic images. A number of indices derived from the pump speed waveform were incorporated into a classification and regression tree model, which acted as the pumping state classifier. When validating the model on 12,990 segments of unseen data, this methodology yielded a peak sensitivity/specificity for detecting suction of 99.11%/98.76%. After performing a 10-fold cross-validation on all of the available data, a minimum estimated error of 0.53% was achieved. The results presented suggest that techniques for pumping state detection, previously investigated in preliminary in vivo studies, are applicable and sufficient for use in the clinical environment.

  5. The Effect of Socio-Economic Predictors of Chronic Diseases in Ghana: Results of a Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Blay, Samuel Nguah; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available. PMID:23985113

  6. The relationship between economic characteristics and health-related quality of life in newly diagnosed cancer patients in Southeast Asia: results from an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kimman, Merel; Jan, Stephen; Monaghan, Helen; Woodward, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We investigate whether cancer patients' economic characteristics are independent determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in low- and middle-income settings to identify priorities for health policy and research. A cross-sectional survey of 9,513 cancer patients from Southeast Asia provided data on demographics, economic status and HRQoL. HRQoL was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D. Information on cancer site and stage was collected using the patients' medical records. Multiple linear regression analysis estimated the relative impact of economic characteristics (i.e. health insurance, employment status, household income and economic hardship) on HRQoL. All economic characteristics were significant independent determinants of HRQoL, when we controlled for demographic and clinical characteristics. Economic hardship was found to be most important. The adjusted mean differences in HRQoL scores between patients who had experienced economic hardship in the year before diagnosis compared to patients who did not were -5.6, -6.7, -7.3 and -0.06, respectively, for global health, physical function, emotional function and the EQ-5D index (all p values <0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that this significant result for economic hardship as a predictor of poor HRQoL was consistent across all age groups, for males and females, and across all levels of education. Living in poor economic circumstances before a cancer diagnosis is associated with greatly impaired HRQoL after diagnosis. There is wide scope for research on innovative interventions that provide low-cost and targeted support aimed to improve health outcomes of disadvantaged cancer patients in low- and middle-income settings.

  7. The Economic Contribution of Canada's Colleges and Institutes. An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 2: Detailed Results by Gender and Entry Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to present the results of the economic impact analysis in detail by gender and entry level of education. On the data entry side, gender and entry level of education are important variables that help characterize the student body profile. This profile data links to national statistical databases which are already…

  8. Evaluating state markets for residential wind systems: Results from an economic and policy analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

    2004-12-01

    The market for small wind systems in the United States, often defined as systems less than or equal to 100 kW that produce power on the customer side of the meter, is small but growing steadily. The installed capacity of domestic small wind systems in 2002 was reportedly 15-18 MW, though the market is estimated to be growing by as much as 40 percent annually (AWEA, 2002). This growth is driven in part by recent technology advancements and cost improvements and, perhaps more importantly, by favorable policy incentives targeted at small wind systems that are offered in several states. Currently, over half of all states have incentive policies for which residential small wind installations are eligible. These incentives range from low-interest loan programs and various forms of tax advantages to cash rebates that cover as much as 60 percent of the total system cost for turbines 10 kW or smaller installed in residential applications. Most of these incentives were developed to support a ran ge of emerging renewable technologies (most notably photovoltaic systems), and were therefore not specifically designed with small wind systems in mind. As such, the question remains as to which incentive types provide the greatest benefit to small wind systems, and how states might appropriately set the level and type of incentives in the future. Furthermore, given differences in incentive types and levels across states, as well as variations in retail electricity rates and other relevant factors, it is not immediately obvious which states offer the most promising markets for small wind turbine manufacturers and installers, as well as potential residential system owners. This paper presents results from a Berkeley Lab analysis of the impact of existing and proposed state and federal incentives on the economics of grid-connected, residential small wind systems. Berkeley Lab has designed the Small Wind Analysis Tool (SWAT) to compare system economics under current incentive structures

  9. An economic evaluation of implant treatment in edentulous patients-preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Sendi, Pedram; Marinello, Carlo P

    2005-01-01

    Edentulous patients with denture problems benefit from implant treatment with overdenture prostheses. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate a method of analyzing cost effectiveness in dentistry. As an example, overdenture treatment with two or four implants was compared to the conventional complete denture (CD). In a self-selected trial, 20 patients each were treated with implant-retained overdentures (two implants, IRET), implant-supported overdentures (four implants, ISUP), or CDs (control group) in the edentulous mandible. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the patient's perspective, with a time horizon of 6 months. Direct health-care costs were calculated in Swiss Francs (in 2000), and effects were defined as improvements in perceived chewing ability compared with the baseline value before treatment (measured on a VAS). Point estimates for mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were complemented with cost-effectiveness acceptability curves to account for uncertainties associated with costs and effects. Mean incremental costs were CHF 4,329 (IRET-CD), CHF 13,360 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 9,031 (ISUP-IRET); these cost differences were all statistically significant. The mean incremental effects at 6 months were 19% (IRET-CD), 23% (ISUP-CD), and 4% (ISUP-IRET). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were CHF 228 (IRET-CD), CHF 581 (ISUP-CD), and CHF 2,258 (IRET-ISUP) per percentage increase in chewing ability. From an economic point of view, IRETs were more attractive than ISUPs. The latter were associated with a statistically significant improvement in perceived chewing ability compared to CDs, but at substantially higher costs.

  10. Economic evaluation of an integrated diagnostic approach for psychogeriatric patients: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Claire A G; Dirksen, Carmen D; Kessels, Alfons; Severens, Johan L; Verhey, Frans R J

    2009-03-01

    Because of the increasing number of elderly people with dementia, the costs of dementia and dementia care are expected to grow rapidly in the coming decades. Cost-effectiveness results are relevant for decision making about new strategies in dementia care. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an integrated multidisciplinary diagnostic facility for diagnosing dementia in ambulatory psychogeriatric patients. Randomized controlled trial with an economic evaluation component. The Maastricht Evaluation of a Diagnostic Intervention for Cognitively Impaired Elderly, Maastricht University Hospital, Maastricht, the Netherlands. A total of 137 patients who received care in the multidisciplinary diagnostic facility and 93 who received usual care. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the main outcome measure and cognition and behavioral problems as secondary outcome measures. Compared with patients receiving usual care, patients who visited the diagnostic facility gained a mean 0.05 QALY at the extra cost of euro65. The incremental cost per QALY amounted to euro1267. This point estimate lies beneath commonly accepted thresholds and is within an acceptable range of uncertainty. With regard to the secondary analyses, cost-effectiveness results showed a substantial amount of uncertainty and were therefore indecisive. On the basis of the main cost-per-QALY analysis, the use of the integrated multidisciplinary diagnostic facility is cost-effective for the diagnosis and management of dementia in ambulatory patients.

  11. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. Objective The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Methods Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. Results The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely

  12. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  13. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  14. Evaluating the Economic Impact of Smart Care Platforms: Qualitative and Quantitative Results of a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vannieuwenborg, Frederic; Van der Auwermeulen, Thomas; Van Ooteghem, Jan; Jacobs, An; Verbrugge, Sofie; Colle, Didier

    2016-10-31

    In response to the increasing pressure of the societal challenge because of a graying society, a gulf of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported care services (eCare) can now be noticed. Their common goal is to increase the quality of care while decreasing its costs. Smart Care Platforms (SCPs), installed in the homes of care-dependent people, foster the interoperability of these services and offer a set of eCare services that are complementary on one platform. These eCare services could not only result in more quality care for care receivers, but they also offer opportunities to care providers to optimize their processes. The objective of the study was to identify and describe the expected added values and impacts of integrating SCPs in current home care delivery processes for all actors. In addition, the potential economic impact of SCP deployment is quantified from the perspective of home care organizations. Semistructured and informal interviews and focus groups and cocreation workshops with service providers, managers of home care organizations, and formal and informal care providers led to the identification of added values of SCP integration. In a second step, process breakdown analyses of home care provisioning allowed defining the operational impact for home care organization. Impacts on 2 different process steps of providing home care were quantified. After modeling the investment, an economic evaluation compared the business as usual (BAU) scenario versus the integrated SCP scenario. The added value of SCP integration for all actors involved in home care was identified. Most impacts were qualitative such as increase in peace of mind, better quality of care, strengthened involvement in care provisioning, and more transparent care communication. For home care organizations, integrating SCPs could lead to a decrease of 38% of the current annual expenses for two administrative process steps namely, care rescheduling and the billing for

  15. Economic assessment of central cancer registry operations, Part III: Results from 5 programs.

    PubMed

    Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Trebino, Diana; Michaud, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report results from the cost analysis of 5 central cancer registries funded by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). To estimate the true economic costs of operating a cancer registry, we used a cost-assessment tool (CAT) to collect data on all registry activities, not just those funded by the NPCR. Data were collected on actual, rather than budgeted, expenditures, including personnel, consultants, information technology (IT) support, and other factors influencing costs. Factors that can affect registry costs include the amount of consolidation from abstract to incident cases, the method of data reporting, the number of edits that must be performed manually versus electronically, and the amount of interstate data exchange required of a registry. Expenditures were allocated to specific surveillance and data enhancement and analysis activities. Our study confirmed that cost per case varies across registry activities. The cost of surveillance activities per case ranges from $24.79 to $95.78 while the cost of data enhancement and analysis registry activities per reported cancer case ranges from $2.91 to $9.32. Total cost per reported cancer case also varies, ranging from $30 to slightly more than $100, with a median of $45.84. Further research using data from all NPCR-funded registries is required to assess reasons for this variation. Information gained from such an assessment will improve efficiency in registry operations and provide data to better quantify the funding requirements for expanding registry activities.

  16. Socio-economic implications of cancer survivorship: results from the PROFILES registry.

    PubMed

    Mols, Floortje; Thong, Melissa S Y; Vissers, Pauline; Nijsten, Tamar; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this large population-based study was to examine the socio-economic implications of cancer survivorship. Individuals alive and diagnosed with colorectal cancer and melanoma between 1998 and 2007 or Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma between 1999 and 2008 as registered in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry received a questionnaire on work changes and problems with obtaining a new (or extended) health care insurance, life insurance or a home loan; 70% (n = 2892) responded. Results showed that 28% of all cancer patients experienced changes in their work situation after cancer. Most of them switched to part-time work or stopped working entirely. Patients (3.4%) who tried to obtain a different or upgrade their health care insurance experienced problems and in most cases, these were eventually resolved. Problems with life insurance were somewhat more common with 18% of those who tried to obtain a life insurance experiencing problems. The majority of these patients was rejected by the insurance company (61%) or was accepted at a higher premium (22%). Of the 21% who tried to obtain a home loan, 9% experienced problems. However, 22.2% got accepted eventually, 27.8% got accepted but at a higher mortgage payment and 22.2% got rejected but were eventually accepted by another bank. Almost a third of cancer survivors experienced changes in their work situation after cancer. Problems with obtaining health insurance, life insurance and home loans were also common. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Rehnberg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed. PMID:16356176

  18. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenzi, V. De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  19. Results of multibeam swath surveying by NOAA in the Gulf of Mexico exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, P.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The National Ocean Service/NOAA is conducting detailed, systematic multibeam swath surveys of the sea floor for all of the US Exclusive Economic Zone. The EEZ extends seaward from the coastline for 200 nautical miles (370 km). The surveys cover 100% of the ocean floor. The area surveyed in the Gulf of Mexico, as of January 1990, comprises about 70,000 km{sup 2}. Most of this area is south of Louisiana between 88{degrees}W and 91{degrees}W. It is anticipated that by the end of the 1990 field season this coverage will extend westward to 92{degrees}W or 93{degrees}W. The processed sounding data result in an evenly spaced 250 m grid. Navigational accuracy is generally accurate to within 50 m and it is estimated that most soundings, taking the sound velocity of sea water and other corrections into account, are measured to within l% of true depth. The major data products are (1) computer-produced multicolored bathymetric maps, each measuring one degree in longitude by one half degree in latitude, made at a scale of 1:100,000 with a contour interval of 20 m and (2) the 250 m gridded data, used to produce the map contours, made available on floppy disks for use in microcomputers. Plans call for three or four Gulf of Mexico maps to be published in 1990. However, after data processing and prior to the publication of a map, black and white diazo copies of the map are available to the public. Details of many seafloor features are being revealed for the first time by these surveys.

  20. Clinical and economic results of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fraix, V; Houeto, J‐L; Lagrange, C; Pen, C Le; Krystkowiak, P; Guehl, D; Ardouin, C; Welter, M‐L; Maurel, F; Defebvre, L; Rougier, A; Benabid, A‐L; Mesnage, V; Ligier, M; Blond, S; Burbaud, P; Bioulac, B; Destée, A; Cornu, P; Pollak, P

    2006-01-01

    Background High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an alternative but expensive neurosurgical treatment for parkinsonian patients with levodopa induced motor complications. Objective To assess the safety, clinical effects, quality of life, and economic cost of STN stimulation. Methods We conducted a prospective multicentre study in 95 consecutive Parkinson's disease (PD) patients receiving bilateral STN stimulation and assessed its effects over 12 months. A double blind randomised motor evaluation was carried out at 3 month follow up, and quality of life, self care ability, and predictive factors of outcome following surgery were assessed. The cost of PD was estimated over 6 months before and after surgery. Results The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score improved by 57% (p<0.0001) and activities of daily living improved by 48% (p<0.0001) at 12 month follow up. Double blind motor scoring improved by 51% at 3 month follow up (p<0.0001). The total PD Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL‐37) score improved by 28% (p<0.001). The better the preoperative motor score after a levodopa challenge, the better the outcome after STN stimulation. Five patients developed an intracerebral haematoma during electrode implantation with permanent after effects in two. The 6 month costs of PD decreased from €10 087 before surgery to €1673 after surgery (p<0.0001) mainly because of the decrease in medication. These savings allowed a return on the procedure investment, estimated at €36 904 over 2.2 years. Conclusions STN stimulation has good outcomes with relatively low risk and little cost burden in PD patients with levodopa induced motor complications. PMID:16543519

  1. Geospatial Planning and the Resulting Economic Impact of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Introduction in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.; Constenla, Dagna; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie; de Broucker, Gatien; Ozawa, Sachiko; Clark, Samantha; Portnoy, Allison; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background Research has shown that the distance to the nearest immunization location can ultimately prevent someone from getting immunized. With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine throughout the world, a major question is whether the target populations can readily access immunization. Methods In anticipation of HPV vaccine introduction in Mozambique, a country with a 2015 population of 25,727,911, our team developed Strategic Integrated Geo-temporal Mapping Application) to determine the potential economic impact of HPV immunization. We quantified how many people in the target population are reachable by the 1377 existing immunization locations, how many cannot access these locations, and the potential costs and disease burden averted by immunization. Results If the entire 2015 cohort of 10-year-old girls goes without HPV immunization, approximately 125 (111–139) new cases of HPV 16,18-related cervical cancer are expected in the future. If each health center covers a catchment area with a 5-km radius (ie, if people travel up to 5 km to obtain vaccines), then 40% of the target population could be reached to prevent 50 (44–55) cases, 178 (159–198) disability-adjusted life years, and US $202,854 (US $140,758–323,693) in health care costs and lost productivity. At higher catchment area radii, additional increases in catchment area radius raise population coverage with diminishing returns. Conclusions Much of the population in Mozambique is unable to reach any existing immunization location, thereby reducing the potential impact of HPV vaccine. The geospatial information system analysis can assist in planning vaccine introduction strategies to maximize access and help the population reap the maximum benefits from an immunization program. PMID:28282648

  2. Exploring the optimal economic timing for crop tree release treatments in hardwoods: results from simulation

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; Gary W. Miller

    2008-01-01

    In this study we used data from 16 Appalachian hardwood stands, a growth and yield computer simulation model, and stump-to-mill logging cost-estimating software to evaluate the optimal economic timing of crop tree release (CTR) treatments. The simulated CTR treatments consisted of one-time logging operations at stand age 11, 23, 31, or 36 years, with the residual...

  3. Motivations, Costs and Results of AOL: Perceptions of Accounting and Economics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenfelder, Mark J.; Bryan, Lois D.; Lee, Tanya M.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) on improving student learning through Assurance of Learning (AOL) makes faculty involvement in the process at AACSB accredited schools important. This study examines the attitudes of accounting and economics faculty at AACSB accredited institutions toward the AOL…

  4. Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Amenity Trees a Wide-Spread Problem of Economic Significance to the Urban Forest

    Treesearch

    James Lashomb; Alan Iskra; Ann Brooks Gould; George Hamilton

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial leaf scorch (BLS) of amenity trees is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-limited pathogen that causes water stress resulting in leaf scorch, decline, and eventual death of affected trees. Recent surveys indicate that BLS is widespread throughout the eastern half of the United States. In New Jersey, BLS primarily affects red and pin oaks...

  5. Cancer awareness and socio-economic position: results from a population-based study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Vedsted, Peter

    2014-08-09

    Differences in cancer awareness between individuals may explain variations in healthcare seeking behaviour and ultimately also variations in cancer survival. It is therefore important to examine cancer awareness and to investigate possible differences in cancer awareness among specific population subgroups. The aim of this study is to assess awareness of cancer symptoms, risk factors and perceived 5-year survival from bowel, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer in a Danish population sample and to analyse the association between these factors and socio-economic position indicators. A population-based telephone survey was carried out among 1,000 respondents aged 30-49 years and 2,000 respondents aged 50 years and older using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Information on socio-economic position was obtained by data linkage through Statistics Denmark. Prevalence ratios were used to determine the association between socio-economic position and cancer awareness. A strong socio-economic gradient in cancer awareness was found. People with a low educational level and a low household income were more likely to have a lower awareness of cancer symptoms, cancer risk factors and the growing risk of cancer with age. Furthermore, men and people outside the labour force tended to be less aware of these factors than women and people within the labour force. However, women were more likely than men to lack awareness of the relationship between age and cancer risk. No clear associations were found between socio-economic position and lack of awareness of 5-year survival from bowel, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. As cancer awareness has shown to be positively associated with cancer-related behaviour, e.g. healthcare seeking, consideration must be given to tackle inequalities in cancer awareness and to address this issue in future public health strategies, which should be targeted at and tailored to the intended recipient groups.

  6. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES) are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity) were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance) and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings) were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-1.49), poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60), more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83), more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73), and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41). The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic

  7. Socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet: results from the E3N study.

    PubMed

    Affret, Aurélie; Severi, Gianluca; Dow, Courtney; Rey, Grégoire; Delpierre, Cyrille; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2017-06-01

    To identify individual and contextual socio-economic factors associated with a healthy diet. Dietary data from a large cohort study were used to derive two mutually exclusive dietary patterns through a latent class analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and socio-economic factors were studied with logistic regression. E3N, a French prospective cohort study composed of women recruited from a national health insurance plan covering people working in the national education system. E3N participants (n 73 031) with dietary and socio-economic data available. The 'Healthy' pattern was characterized by a large consumption of fruits and vegetables and the 'Less Healthy' pattern by a large consumption of pizza and processed meat. When all socio-economic factors were analysed together, all of the individual factors considered were associated with a healthy diet (e.g. women with three or more children were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. women with no children, OR (95 % CI): 0·70 (0·66, 0·75)) while the contextual factors associated with a healthy diet included the size of the agglomeration of residence and the area of birth and residence (e.g. women living in the West of France were less likely to follow a healthy diet v. those living in the South of France: 0·78 (0·72, 0·83)). We demonstrated that individual and contextual factors are both associated with diet. Rather than focusing only on individual factors, we recommend future studies or public health and nutritional strategies on diet to consider both types of factors.

  8. The Economic Burden of Obesity in Germany: Results from the Population-Based KORA Studies.

    PubMed

    Yates, Nichola; Teuner, Christina M; Hunger, Matthias; Holle, Rolf; Stark, Renée; Laxy, Michael; Hauner, Hans; Peters, Annette; Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the excess costs of obese compared to normal-weight persons in Germany based on self-reported resource utilisation and work absence. Five cross sectional surveys of cohort studies in southern Germany were pooled resulting in 9,070 observations for 6,731 individuals (31-96 years). BMI was measured in the study centre. Self-reported health care utilisation and work absence was used to estimate direct and indirect costs for the year 2011 based on unit costs. Using regression analyses, adjusted costs for different BMI groups were calculated. Overweight and obese people showed significantly higher odds of health care utilisation and productivity losses compared with normal-weight people in most categories. Total direct/indirect costs were significantly higher with increasing severity of obesity (pre-obese (1.05 (0.90-1.23) / 1.38 (1.11-1.71)), obesity level I (1.18 (1.00-1.39) / 1.33 (1.02-1.73)), obesity level II (1.46 (1.14-1.87) / 1.77 (1.18-2.65)) or level III (2.04 (1.40-2.97) / 1.99 (1.20-3.30)) compared to normal-weight participants. In particular, higher obesity classes were significantly associated with increased costs for medication, general practitioner utilisation and work absence. Our results show that overweight and obesity are associated with enormous societal direct and indirect costs in Germany. This supports the evidence from previous top-down studies, but provides important new information based on a large pooled data set and measured BMI. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  10. Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluations of Diagnostic Tests in Brazil: How accurate are the results?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Leandro, Roseli; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Rozman, Luciana Martins; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the health economic evaluations (HEEs) of diagnostic tests conducted in Brazil, in terms of their adherence to international guidelines for reporting economic studies and specific questions in test accuracy reports. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting partial and full HEEs of diagnostic tests, published between 1980 and 2013. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and extracted the data. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Forty-three articles were reviewed. The most frequently studied diagnostic tests were laboratory tests (37.2%) and imaging tests (32.6%). Most were non-invasive tests (51.2%) and were performed in the adult population (48.8%). The intended purposes of the technologies evaluated were mostly diagnostic (69.8%), but diagnosis and treatment and screening, diagnosis, and treatment accounted for 25.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Of the reviewed studies, 12.5% described the methods used to estimate the quantities of resources, 33.3% reported the discount rate applied, and 29.2% listed the type of sensitivity analysis performed. Among the 12 cost-effectiveness analyses, only two studies (17%) referred to the application of formal methods to check the quality of the accuracy studies that provided support for the economic model. The existing Brazilian literature on the HEEs of diagnostic tests exhibited reasonably good performance. However, the following points still require improvement: 1) the methods used to estimate resource quantities and unit costs, 2) the discount rate, 3) descriptions of sensitivity analysis methods, 4) reporting of conflicts of interest, 5) evaluations of the quality of the accuracy studies considered in the cost-effectiveness models, and 6) the incorporation of accuracy measures into sensitivity analyses.

  11. Systematic Review of Health Economic Evaluations of Diagnostic Tests in Brazil: How accurate are the results?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Leandro, Roseli; Decimoni, Tassia Cristina; Rozman, Luciana Martins; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the health economic evaluations (HEEs) of diagnostic tests conducted in Brazil, in terms of their adherence to international guidelines for reporting economic studies and specific questions in test accuracy reports. We systematically searched multiple databases, selecting partial and full HEEs of diagnostic tests, published between 1980 and 2013. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and extracted the data. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Forty-three articles were reviewed. The most frequently studied diagnostic tests were laboratory tests (37.2%) and imaging tests (32.6%). Most were non-invasive tests (51.2%) and were performed in the adult population (48.8%). The intended purposes of the technologies evaluated were mostly diagnostic (69.8%), but diagnosis and treatment and screening, diagnosis, and treatment accounted for 25.6% and 4.7%, respectively. Of the reviewed studies, 12.5% described the methods used to estimate the quantities of resources, 33.3% reported the discount rate applied, and 29.2% listed the type of sensitivity analysis performed. Among the 12 cost-effectiveness analyses, only two studies (17%) referred to the application of formal methods to check the quality of the accuracy studies that provided support for the economic model. The existing Brazilian literature on the HEEs of diagnostic tests exhibited reasonably good performance. However, the following points still require improvement: 1) the methods used to estimate resource quantities and unit costs, 2) the discount rate, 3) descriptions of sensitivity analysis methods, 4) reporting of conflicts of interest, 5) evaluations of the quality of the accuracy studies considered in the cost-effectiveness models, and 6) the incorporation of accuracy measures into sensitivity analyses. PMID:28954010

  12. Preliminary economic evaluation of the use of graphite composite materials in surface transportation, phase 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Composite materials are discussed with emphasis on the identification of the characteristics of those materials that make them attractive for use in surface transportation. Potential uses of graphite composites are given including automotive applications and the effects of materials substitution on vehicle characteristics and performance. Preliminary estimates of the economic effects of the use of graphite composite materials on vehicle manufacturers and consumers are included. The combined impact on the national economy of vehicle design changes to meet mandated fuel efficiency requirements and the extensive use of graphite composite materials in the automotive industry is considered.

  13. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  14. Does the funding source influence the results in economic evaluations? A case study in bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Spackman, D Eldon; Hollenbeak, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry is often assumed to be more likely to report favourable cost-effectiveness results. To determine whether there was a relationship between the source of funding and the reporting of positive results. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify economic evaluations of bisphosphonates for the treatment of osteoporosis. We extracted the source of funding, region of study, the journal name and impact factor, and all reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We identified which ICERs were under the thresholds of $US20 000, $US50 000 and $US100 000 per QALY. A quality score between 0 and 7 was also given to each of the studies. We used generalized estimating equations for the analysis. The systematic review yielded 532 potential abstracts; 17 of these met our final eligibility criteria. Ten studies (59%) were funded by non-industry sources. A total of 571 ICERs were analysed. There was no significant difference between the number of industry- and non-industry-funded studies reporting ICERs below the thresholds of $US20 000 and $US50 000. However, industry-sponsored studies were more likely to report ICERs below $US100 000 (odds ratio = 4.69, 95% CI 1.77, 12.43). Studies of higher methodological quality (scoring >4.5 of 7) were less likely to report ICERs below $US20 000 and $US50 000 than studies of lower methodological quality (scores <4). Methodological quality was not significantly different between studies reporting ICERs under $US100 000. In this relatively small sample of studies of bisphosphonates, the funding source (industry vs non-industry) did not seem to significantly affect the reporting of ICERs below the $US20 000 and $US50 000 thresholds. We hypothesize that methodological quality might be a more significant factor than the source of funding in differentiating which studies are likely to report favourable ICERs, with the higher-quality studies significantly less likely to

  15. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  16. Multicolumn spinal cord stimulation for significant low back pain in failed back surgery syndrome: design of a national, multicentre, randomized, controlled health economics trial (ESTIMET Study).

    PubMed

    Roulaud, M; Durand-Zaleski, I; Ingrand, P; Serrie, A; Diallo, B; Peruzzi, P; Hieu, P D; Voirin, J; Raoul, S; Page, P; Fontaine, D; Lantéri-Minet, M; Blond, S; Buisset, N; Cuny, E; Cadenne, M; Caire, F; Ranoux, D; Mertens, P; Naous, H; Simon, E; Emery, E; Gadan, B; Regis, J; Sol, J-C; Béraud, G; Debiais, F; Durand, G; Guetarni Ging, F; Prévost, A; Brandet, C; Monlezun, O; Delmotte, A; d'Houtaud, S; Bataille, B; Rigoard, P

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic neuropathic radicular pain over recent decades, but despite global favourable outcomes in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with leg pain, the back pain component remains poorly controlled by neurostimulation. Technological and scientific progress has led to the development of new SCS leads, comprising a multicolumn design and a greater number of contacts. The efficacy of multicolumn SCS lead configurations for the treatment of the back pain component of FBSS has recently been suggested by pilot studies. However, a randomized controlled trial must be conducted to confirm the efficacy of new generation multicolumn SCS. Évaluation médico-économique de la STImulation MEdullaire mulTi-colonnes (ESTIMET) is a multicentre, randomized study designed to compare the clinical efficacy and health economics aspects of mono- vs. multicolumn SCS lead programming in FBSS patients with radicular pain and significant back pain. FBSS patients with a radicular pain VAS score≥50mm, associated with a significant back pain component were recruited in 14 centres in France and implanted with multicolumn SCS. Before the lead implantation procedure, they were 1:1 randomized to monocolumn SCS (group 1) or multicolumn SCS (group 2). Programming was performed using only one column for group 1 and full use of the 3 columns for group 2. Outcome assessment was performed at baseline (pre-implantation), and 1, 3, 6 and 12months post-implantation. The primary outcome measure was a reduction of the severity of low back pain (bVAS reduction≥50%) at the 6-month visit. Additional outcome measures were changes in global pain, leg pain, paraesthesia coverage mapping, functional capacities, quality of life, neuropsychological aspects, patient satisfaction and healthcare resource consumption. Trial recruitment started in May 2012. As of September 2013, all 14 study centres have been initiated and 112

  17. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; ...

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore » associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  18. Identification of Cost Indicators with Significant Economic Impact on the Total Treatment Costs of Chronic Heart Failure Patients - A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Ahmed S; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Schreier, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Increasing treatment costs of HF patients affect the initiation of appropriate treatment method. Divergent approaches to measure the costs of treatment and the lack of common cost indicators impede the comparison of therapy settings. In the context of the present meta-analysis, key cost indicators from the perspective of healthcare providers are to be identified, described, analyzed and quantified. This review helps narrowing down the cost indicators, which have the most significant economic impact on the total treatment costs of HF patients. Telemedical services are to be compared to standard therapy methods. The identification process was based on several steps. For the quantitative synthesis, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. An additional set of criteria was defined for the following qualitative analysis. 5 key cost indicators were identified with significant economic impact on the treatment costs of HF patients. 95% of the reported treatment costs could be captured based on the identified cost indicators.

  19. A clinically significant drug interaction between warfarin and amoxicillin resulting in persistent postoperative bleeding in a dental patient.

    PubMed

    Goodchild, Jason H; Donaldson, Mark

    2013-07-01

    One of the few cases reported in the literature, this article reviews the case of a 66-year-old man who developed an elevated international normalized ratio and sustained clinically significant bleeding as a result of a drug-drug interaction between warfarin and amoxicillin. Given the popularity of these medications, it is surprising that these reports are not more commonplace, and there is a concern that the lack of reports may result in practitioners overlooking the significance of this possible complication. Although the mechanism for this interaction is not fully known, it is suspected that a decrease in vitamin K-producing gut flora, with resulting vitamin K deficiency, is the most likely contributing factor. An objective causality assessment revealed that this adverse drug event, secondary to the warfarin and amoxicillin interaction, was probable.

  20. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  1. [Effects of long-term isolation and anticipation of significant event on sleep: results of the project "Mars-520"].

    PubMed

    Zavalko, I M; Rasskazova, E I; Gordeev, S A; Palatov, S Iu; Kovrov, G V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study effect of long-term isolation on night sleep. The data were collected during international ground simulation of an interplanetary manned flight--"Mars-500". The polysomnographic recordings of six healthy men were performed before, four times during and after 520-days confinement. During the isolation sleep efficiency and delta-latency decreased, while sleep latency increased. Post-hoc analysis demonstrate significant differences between background and the last (1.5 months before the end of the experiment) measure during isolation. Frequency of nights with low sleep efficiency rose on the eve of the important for the crew events (simulation of Mars landing and the end of the confinement). Two weeks after the landing simulation, amount of the nights with a low sleep efficiency significantly decreased. Therefore, anticipation of significant event under condition of long-term isolation might result in sleep worsening in previously healthy men, predominantly difficulties getting to sleep.

  2. [Methylmercury: existing recommendations; methods of analysing and interpreting the results; economic evaluation].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Martínez-García, María José; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José María; Llorente-Ballesteros, María Teresa; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Sáinz-Martín, María; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Blanco Fuentes, María; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-04

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.

  3. Health economics and surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease in a world perspective: results from an international survey.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Vincent A; Schechtmann, Gastón

    2014-01-01

    Most studies in the field of neurosurgical treatment for movement disorders have been published by a small number of leading centers in developed countries. This study aimed to investigate the clinical practice of stereotactic neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) worldwide. Neurosurgeons were contacted via e-mail to participate in a worldwide survey. The results obtained are presented in order of the countries' economic development according to the World Bank, as well as by the source of financial support. A total of 353 neurosurgeons from 51 countries who had operated on 13,200 patients in 2009 were surveyed. Surgical procedures performed in high-income countries were more commonly financed by a public health care system. In contrast, in lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries, patients frequently financed surgeries themselves, and ablative surgeries were most commonly performed. Unexpectedly, ablative surgery is still used by about 65% of neurosurgeons, regardless of their country's economic status. This study provides a previously unavailable picture of the surgical aspects of PD across the globe in relation to health economics and sociodemographic factors. Global educational and training programs are warranted to raise awareness of economically viable surgical options for PD that could be adopted by public health care systems in lower-income countries. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Economic evaluation of varicella vaccination in Spain: results from a dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Lenne, X; Diez Domingo, J; Gil, A; Ridao, M; Lluch, J A; Dervaux, B

    2006-11-17

    Varicella is a universal childhood disease in Spain, causing approximately 400,000 cases, 1,500 hospitalizations and 15 deaths every year. The aim of this study is to determine the economic impact of childhood varicella vaccination on the burden of disease and associated costs by using a dynamic model. The analysis is based on the varicella transmission model developed by Halloran and adapted to the Spanish context. Cost data (Euro, 2004) were derived from previous studies and official tariffs. Two vaccination scenarios were analysed: (1) routine vaccination program for children aged 1-2 years, and (2) routine vaccination program for children aged 1-2 years completed by a catch-up program during the first year of vaccine marketing for children aged 2-11 years. The analysis considers that a similar coverage rate to the MMR one would be achieved (97.15%). A societal perspective, including direct and indirect costs, and a health care payor perspective were adopted. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. A routine vaccination program has a positive impact on varicella-related morbidity: the number of varicella cases is estimated to be reduced by 89%, and 1230 hospitalizations are prevented. From the societal perspective, scenario (1) is cost-saving whether or not indirect costs are considered (-51 and -4%, respectively). From the Health Care System the strategy is cost-effective, with a cost-effectiveness ratio estimated at 3,982 Euro per life-year gained, although it leads to a small increase in the costs. Considering the impact of vaccination on morbidity and costs, a routine childhood vaccination program against varicella is worth while in Spain without taking into account the potential impact on HZ.

  5. The clinical and economic burden of significant bleeding during lung resection surgery: A retrospective matched cohort analysis of real-world data.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip K; Roy, Sanjoy; Daskiran, Mehmet; Yoo, Andrew; Li, Gang; Fegelman, Elliott J

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to quantify the clinical and economic burden of significant bleeding in lung resection surgery in the US. This study utilized 2009-2012 data from the Premier Perspective Database(TM). Adult patients with primary pulmonary lobectomy or segmentectomy procedures were categorized by the surgical approach (VATS vs open) and primary diagnosis (primary or metastatic lung cancer vs non-lung cancer). Patients requiring ≥3 units of blood products with at least 1 unit of PRBCs: "significant bleeding" cohort; those requiring <3 units: "non-significant bleeding" cohort; and those not requiring blood products: "no bleeding" cohort. A matched cohort analysis was performed between the "significant bleeding" and the "no bleeding cohort" using matching variables: hospital, lung cancer diagnosis, year of surgery, APR-DRG severity score, procedure type and approach, age, and gender. The "All-patient" cohort comprised 21,429 patients: 213 "significant bleeding"; 2,780 "non-significant bleeding"; and 18,436 "no bleeding". Overall incidence of significant chest bleeding was 0.99%. Patients from "significant bleeding" cohort and "non-significant bleeding" cohort had 2.5 days and 2 days (p < 0.0001) longer length of stay in the hospital compared to those in the "no bleeding" cohort, respectively. Overall, hospital costs for "significant bleeding" cohort were higher than "no bleeding" cohort for those who were covered under Medicare ($59,871 vs $23,641), were ≥76 years of age ($64,010 vs $24,243), had greater severity of illness ($97,813 vs $51,871) and underwent open segmentectomy ($74,220 vs $21,903). Hospital costs for "significant bleeding" cohort and "non-significant bleeding" were significantly higher ($11,589 and $5,280, respectively, p < 0.0001) than no bleeding cohort. Although significant bleeding during lung resection surgery is rare, patients with such complication could stay longer at the hospital and cost an average of

  6. Transferability of economic evaluations: approaches and factors to consider when using results from one geographic area for another.

    PubMed

    Goeree, Ron; Burke, Natasha; O'Reilly, Daria; Manca, Andrea; Blackhouse, Gord; Tarride, Jean-Eric

    2007-04-01

    Geographic transferability of economic evaluation data from one country to another has the potential to make a more efficient use of national and international evaluation resources. However, inappropriate transferability of economic data can provide misleading results and lead to an inefficient use of scarce health care resources. The objective of this study was to review, summarize and categorize the literature on: (i) factors affecting the geographic transferability of economic evaluation data; and (ii) approaches which have either been proposed or used for transferability. A systematic literature review on transferability was conducted. Electronic databases, hand searching and bibliographic searching techniques were utilized. Inclusion criteria for the review included conceptual or empirical papers with mention of factors affecting, or approaches for, transferability of economic evaluation data across geographic locations. Exclusion criteria included papers published prior to 1966, non-English language papers, pure science studies and animal studies. Three databases were involved in the primary search: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL. In addition to the primary search, the Heath Economic Evaluation Database (OHE HEED), the NHS EED database and the EconLit databases were searched. Transferability factors were classified into major and minor categories, a classification of alternative transferability approaches was developed, and the number of empirical studies was catalogued according to this classification. There is a substantial amount of literature on factors potentially affecting transferability. Based on these papers we identified 77 factors and subsequently developed a classification system which grouped these factors into five broad categories based on characteristics of the patient, the disease, the provider, the health care system and methodological conventions. Another 40 studies were identified which attempted to transfer economic evaluation data from

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A. . E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts ({>=}1,600 cm{sup 3}, n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT.

  8. Prognostic significance of the lung scintigraphy scan result and corresponding chest X-ray in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhami, A S; Simpson, A J; Reid, J H; MacDougall, M; Murchison, J T

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether the survival of patients with suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) relates to radiological probability of acute PE assessed using lung scintigraphy scans (LSS). Lung scintigraphy scan results from a venous thromboembolism database were categorised as high, indeterminate or low probability using the modified PIOPED criteria and corresponding chest X-rays (CXRs) as normal or abnormal. Mortality data on these cases were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland, and survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 1,818 LSS analysed, 941 (51.8%) were normal, 532 (29.3%) indeterminate and 345 (19.0%) high probability. After an adjustment for age and gender, no significant survival difference was found between patients with normal and high probability LSS (p=0.182). However, patients with indeterminate LSS had significantly lower survival than patients in the other groups. This difference persisted after adjustment for CXR result. Indeterminate LSS results are associated with a poor prognosis. Careful follow-up of patients with inderminate LSS would appear to be justified.

  9. Delayed Flood Recession in Central Yangtze Floodplains Can Cause Significant Food Shortages for Wintering Geese: Results of Inundation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate ( P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates ( P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate ( P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  10. Delayed flood recession in central Yangtze floodplains can cause significant food shortages for wintering geese: results of inundation experiment.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lei; Wen, Li; Feng, Duoduo; Zhang, Hong; Lei, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Carex meadows are critical habitat for wintering geese in the floodplains of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. These meadows follow a growth cycle closely tied to the seasonal hydrological fluctuation: as water levels recede in the fall, exposed mudflats provide habitat for Carex spp. growth. The seasonal growth of Carex overlaps the arrival of wintering geese and provides an important food source for the migrants. Recent alterations to the Yangtze's hydrology, however, have disrupted the synchronous relationship between water levels, Carex growth and wintering geese at Dongting Lake. In October 2012, we carried out an outdoor mesocosm experiment to investigate potential impacts of delayed water recession on the germination and growth of Carex heterolepis, the dominant Carex species at Dongting Lake, to understand how changes in hydrology might impact wintering goose habitat. Results showed that the delayed flood recession exerted significant impact on the first growth cycle of Carex growth. Prolonged inundation significantly lowered the intrinsic growth rate (P = 0.03) and maximum growth rates (P = 0.02). It also took significantly longer time to reach the peak growth rate (P = 0.04 and 0.05 for number of shoot and biomass, respectively). As a result, biomass accumulation was reduced by 45, 62 and 90 % for 10-day, 20-day and 30-day inundation treatments, respectively. These results indicate a severe risk of food shortage for wintering geese when water recession delayed. This potential risk should be taken into consideration when operating any hydrological control structures that alter the flood regimes in Dongting Lake.

  11. [False positive results or what's the probability that a significant P-value indicates a true effect?

    PubMed

    Cucherat, Michel; Laporte, Silvy

    2017-05-08

    The use of statistical test is central in the clinical trial. At the statistical level, obtaining a P<0.05 allows to claim the effectiveness of the new studied treatment. However, given its underlying mathematical logic the concept of "P value" is often misinterpreted. It is often assimilated, mistakenly, to the likelihood that treatment is ineffective. Actually the "P value" gives an indirect information about the plausibility of the existence of treatment effect. With "P<0.05", the probability that the treatment is effective may vary depending on other statistical parameters which are the alpha level of risk, the power of the study and especially the a priori probability of the existence of treatment effect. A "P<0.05" does not always produce the same degree of certainty. Thus there exist situations where the risk of a result "P<0.05" is in reality a false positive is very high. This is the case if the power is low, if there is an inflation of the alpha risk or if the result is exploratory or chance discoveries. This possibility is important to take into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical trials in order to avoid pushing ahead significant results in appearance, but which are likely to be actually false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving a web-based employability intervention for work-disabled employees: results of a pilot economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Noben, Cindy; Evers, Silvia; Genabeek, Joost van; Nijhuis, Frans; de Rijk, Angelique

    2016-01-23

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to improve web-based employability interventions for employees with work-related health problems for both intervention content and study design by means of a pilot economic evaluation. Methods Uptake rate analysis for the intervention elements, cost effectiveness, cost utility and subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential content-related intervention improvements. Differences in work ability and quality-adjusted life years and overall contribution of resource items to the total costs were assessed. These were used to guide study design improvements. Results Sixty-three participants were a-select allocated to either the intervention (n = 29) or the control (n = 34) group. Uptake regarding the intervention elements ranged between 3% and 70%. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses resulted in negative effects although higher total costs. Incremental effects were marginal (work ability -0.51; QALY -0.01). Conclusions The web-based tool to enhance employability among work disabled employees requires improvements regarding targeting and intensity; outcome measures selected and collection of cost data. With respect to the studies of disability and rehabilitation, the findings and methods presented in this pilot economic evaluation could guide the assessment of future assistive "e-health" technologies. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION The methods presented in this pilot economic evaluation have large potentials to guide the assessment of future assistive e-health technologies addressing work-disabilities. The findings show that the web-based tool requires content related improvements with respect to targeting and intensity to enhance employability among work disabled employees. The findings show that the web-based tool would benefit from improvements related to the study design by more adequately selecting and collecting both outcome measures and cost data. The burden attributable to large-scale studies and

  13. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    PubMed Central

    Brink, LuAnn L.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Sharma, Ravi K.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Wen Chi; Rager, Judith R.; Strosnider, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs) of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007) by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas. PMID:23983719

  14. Aerobic exercise alone results in clinically significant weight loss for men and women: Midwest Exercise Trial-2

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Smith, Bryan K.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Jaehoon; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Washburn, Rik A.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise is recommended by public health agencies for weight management; however, the role of exercise is generally considered secondary to energy restriction. Few studies exist that have verified completion of exercise, measured the energy expenditure of exercise, and prescribed exercise with equivalent energy expenditure across individuals and genders. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate aerobic exercise, without energy restriction, on weight loss in sedentary overweight and obese men and women. Design and Methods This investigation was a randomized, controlled, efficacy trial in 141 overweight and obese participants (body mass index, 31.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2; age 22.6 ± 3.9 years). Participants were randomized (2:2:1 ratio) to exercise at either 400 kcal/session or 600 kcal/session or to a non-exercise control. Exercise was supervised, 5 days/week, for 10 months. All participants were instructed to maintain usual ad libitum diets. Due to the efficacy design, completion of ≥ 90% of exercise sessions was an a priori definition of per protocol, and these participants were included in the analysis. Results Weight loss from baseline to 10 months for the 400 and 600 kcal/session groups was 3.9 ± 4.9kg (4.3%) and 5.2 ± 5.6kg (5.7%), respectively compared to weight gain for controls of 0.5 ± 3.5kg (0.5%) (p<0.05). Differences for weight loss from baseline to 10 months between the exercise groups and differences between men and women within groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions Supervised exercise, with equivalent energy expenditure, results in clinically significant weight loss with no significant difference between men and women. PMID:23592678

  15. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n = 755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p = 0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p < 0.001). Women held donor cards significantly more often (28.6%) than men (19.4%, p = 0.004). The majority of students were against direct payments as incentives for deceased and living donations. Nevertheless, 37.5% of the respondents support the idea that the funeral expenses of deceased organ donors should be covered. Women voted significantly less often for the coverage of expenses than men (women 31.6%, men 44.0%, p = 0.003). The number of those in favor of allowing to sell one’s organs for money (living organ donation) was highest among students of economics (p = 0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

  16. Thymoquinone vapor significantly affects the results of Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity tests using the standard broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Novy, Pavel; Kloucek, Pavel; Rondevaldova, Johana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Kourimska, Lenka; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2014-04-01

    The broth microdilution (BMD) method is widely used for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents, including volatile oils and their components. In this series of various experiments, we have demonstrated the influence of thymoquinone (TQ) vapor on the results of the BMD test performed with Staphylococcus aureus as a model organism. The spread of vapor from the TQ containing wells (32-512 μg/mL) caused the complete inhibition of staphylococcal growth in adjoining wells initially containing bacterium-inoculated pure Mueller-Hinton broth only and thus produced false positive results of the test. The ability of TQ to pass into the adjoined wells was subsequently confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas TQ at concentrations up to 84 μg/mL was detected in these wells after five hours. Based on these results, we suppose that vapors of TQ as well as of other naturally occurring volatile compounds and their mixtures (for example essential oils and plant extracts) can significantly influence results of the standard BMD assay. These observations, therefore, call for development of new appropriate BMD method suitable for assessment of antimicrobial activity of volatile substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Documentation of nonroutine communications of critical or significant radiology results: a multiyear experience at a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Paras; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of radiology reports that contain nonroutine communications of results and categorize the urgency of such communications. A rule-based text-query algorithm was applied to a database of 2.3 million radiology reports, which has an accuracy of 98% for classifying reports containing documentation of communications. The frequency of such communications by year, modality, and study type was then determined. Finally, 200 random reports selected by the algorithm were analyzed, and reports containing critical results were categorized according to ascending levels of urgency. Critical or noncritical results to health care providers were present in 5.09% of radiology reports (116,184 of 2,282,923). For common modalities, documentation of communications were most frequent in CT (14.34% [57,537 of 402,060]), followed by ultrasound (9.55% [17,814 of 186,626]), MRI (5.50% [13,697 of 248,833]), and chest radiography (1.57% [19,840 of 1,262,925]). From 1997 to 2005, there was an increase in reports containing such communications (3.04% in 1997, 6.82% in 2005). More reports contained nonroutine communications in single-view chest radiography (1.29% [5,533 of 428,377]) than frontal/lateral chest radiography (0.80% [1,815 of 226,837]), diagnostic mammography (9.42% [3,662 of 38,877]) than screening mammography (0.47% [289 of 61,114]), and head CT (26.21% [20,963 of 79,985]) than abdominal CT (15.05% [19,871 of 132,034]) or chest CT (5.33% [3,017 of 56,613]). All of these results were statistically significant (P < .00001). Of 200 random radiology reports indicating nonroutine communications, 155 (78%) had critical and 45 (22%) had noncritical results. Regarding level of urgency, 94 of 155 reports (60.6%) with critical results were categorized as high urgency, 31 (20.0%) as low urgency, 26 (16.8%) as medium urgency, and 4 (2.6%) as discrepant. From 1997 to 2005, there was a significant increase in documentation of nonroutine

  18. Effect of savings-led economic empowerment on HIV preventive practices among orphaned adolescents in rural Uganda: results from the Suubi-Maka randomized experiment.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Ssewamala, Fred M; Nabunya, Proscovia

    2016-01-01

    Improving economic resources of impoverished youth may alter intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors by motivating positive future planning to avoid HIV risk and by altering economic contexts contributing to HIV risk. Yet, few studies have examined the effect of economic-strengthening on economic and sexual behaviors of orphaned youth, despite high poverty and high HIV infection in this population. Hierarchal longitudinal regressions were used to examine the effect of a savings-led economic empowerment intervention, the Suubi-Maka Project, on changes in orphaned adolescents' cash savings and attitudes toward savings and HIV-preventive practices over time. We randomized 346 Ugandan adolescents, aged 10-17 years, to either the control group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring (n = 167) or the intervention group receiving usual orphan care plus mentoring, financial education, and matched savings accounts (n = 179). Assessments were conducted at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Results indicated that intervention adolescents significantly increased their cash savings over time (b = $US12.32, ±1.12, p < .001) compared to adolescents in the control group. At 24 months post-baseline, 92% of intervention adolescents had accumulated savings compared to 43% in the control group (p < .001). The largest changes in savings goals were the proportion of intervention adolescents valuing saving for money to buy a home (ΔT1-T0 = +14.9, p < .001), pursue vocational training (ΔT1-T0 = +8.8, p < .01), and start a business (T1-T0 = +6.7, p < .01). Intervention adolescents also had a significant relative increase over time in HIV-preventive attitudinal scores (b = +0.19, ±0.09, p < .05), most commonly toward perceived risk of HIV (95.8%, n = 159), sexual abstinence or postponement (91.6%, n = 152), and consistent condom use (93.4%, n = 144). In addition, intervention adolescents had 2.017 significantly greater

  19. Symptoms and socio-economic impact of ependymoma on adult patients: results of the Adult Ependymoma Outcomes Project 2.

    PubMed

    Walbert, Tobias; Mendoza, Tito R; Vera-Bolaños, Elizabeth; Acquaye, Alvina; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S

    2015-01-01

    Ependymoma is a rare central nervous system tumor of adults. Reports of patient symptoms, interference patterns and costs encountered by patients and families are limited. Adult ependymoma patients completed the online Ependymoma Outcomes Questionnaire II. The survey assesses disease and functional status as well as socio-economic factors. Descriptive statistics were used to report disease characteristics as well as economic and social impact. Independent samples t test was used to test if differences exist between high- and low-income groups in terms of symptom severity. Correlations were calculated between symptoms and cost estimates. 86 international patients participated (male = 50 %). The economic analysis focused on 78 respondents from the US. 48 % were employed and 55 % earned ≥$60,000. Tumors were located in the brain (44 %), spine (44 %) or both (12 %). Spine patients compared to brain patients reported significantly worse pain (4.4 versus 2.2, p < .003), numbness (5.3 versus 2.2, p < .001), fatigue (5.1 versus 3.6, p < .03), changes in bowel patterns (3.8 versus 1.4, p < .003) and weakness (4.2 versus 2.1, p < .006). Brain patients compared with spine patients had increased lack of appetite (.4 versus 2, p < .014). Patients with lower income (≤$59,999) had more problems concentrating (p < .024) and worse cognitive module severity scores (p < .024). Estimated average monthly out-of-pocket spending was $168 for medical co-pays and $59 for prescription medication. Patients with ependymoma are highly affected by their symptoms. Spinal patients report higher severity of symptoms. Patients in the lower income group report significantly higher severity of cognitive symptoms independent of disease site.

  20. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  1. Study of the Economic and Rehabilitative Aspects of Prison Industry. Technical Tasks and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This volume analyzes existing and proposed correctional industries in Connecticut. First, the results of a survey made to determine the potential inmate work force for prison industry are presented as inmate profiles, descriptions of inmate and supervisor attitudes, and analyses of parolees' employment and recidivism rates. In part 2, four…

  2. Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

  3. Economic Development Threatens Groundwater in Puerto Rico: Results of a Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbona, Sonia I.; Hunter, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of a field study done on 7 wells providing 37% of the total aquifer production for 4 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Each sampled well showed signs of contamination by heavy metals, nitrate, and semivolatile organic compounds. Although found in low concentrations, current development threatens groundwater quality. (MJP)

  4. Study of the Economic and Rehabilitative Aspects of Prison Industry. Technical Tasks and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    This volume analyzes existing and proposed correctional industries in Connecticut. First, the results of a survey made to determine the potential inmate work force for prison industry are presented as inmate profiles, descriptions of inmate and supervisor attitudes, and analyses of parolees' employment and recidivism rates. In part 2, four…

  5. The Economic Consequences of Being Left-Handed: Some Sinister Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin; O' Sullivan, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of handedness on earnings. Augmenting a conventional earnings equation with an indicator of left-handedness shows there is a positive effect on male earnings with manual workers enjoying a slightly larger premium. These results are inconsistent with the view that left-handers in general are handicapped either…

  6. The Economic Consequences of Being Left-Handed: Some Sinister Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Kevin; O' Sullivan, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of handedness on earnings. Augmenting a conventional earnings equation with an indicator of left-handedness shows there is a positive effect on male earnings with manual workers enjoying a slightly larger premium. These results are inconsistent with the view that left-handers in general are handicapped either…

  7. Social Media Use of Cooperative Extension Family Economics Educators: Online Survey Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Barbara; Zumwalt, Andrew; Bechman, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of an online survey conducted by the eXtension Financial Security for All (FSA) Community of Practice (CoP) to determine the social media capacity and activity of its members. The survey was conducted to inform two subsequent FSA CoP programs: an archived webinar on social media programs and impact evaluation methods…

  8. Ohio's Economic Advantage. Enhancing Workforce Performance. Improving Business Results. Increasing Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This booklet contains 36 one-page "success stories" that reveal how the two-year colleges and the vocational and adult education system in Ohio are responding to business and industry needs with innovative problem solving and effective partnerships. Each profile includes a challenge, a solution, results, and comments from business…

  9. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (an update of control group results)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braen, C.

    1978-01-01

    The economic experiment, the results obtained to date and the work which still remains to be done are summarized. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service and Federal Crop Insurance Corp. Resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements are discussed.

  10. Bundling of Reimbursement for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement Resulted in Significantly Decreased Utilization between 2012 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Roan J; TerBush, Matthew J; Hill, Elaine L; Guido, Joseph J; Doyle, Adam; Ellis, Jennifer L; Raman, Kathleen; Morrow, Gary R; Stoner, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    On January 1, 2012, reimbursement for inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) became bundled by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This resulted in ICVF placement (CPT code 37191) now yielding 4.71 relative value units (RVUs), a decrease from 15.6 RVUs for placement and associated procedures (CPT codes 37620, 36010, 75825-26, 75940-26). Our hypothesis was that IVCF utilization would decrease in response to this change as other procedures had done once they had become bundled. Including data from 2010 to 2011 (before bundling) and 2012 to 2014 (after bundling), we utilized 5% inpatient, outpatient, and carrier files of Medicare limited data sets and analyzed IVCF utilization before and after bundling across specialty types, controlling for total diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) (ICD-9 codes 453.xx and 415.xx, respectively) and placement location. In 2010 and 2011, the rates/10,000 DVT/PE diagnoses were 918 and 1,052, respectively (average 985). In 2012, 2013, and 2014, rates were 987, 877, and 605, respectively (average 823). Comparing each year individually, there is a significant difference (P < 0.0001) with 2012, 2013, and 2014 having lower rates of ICVF utilization. Comparing averages in the 2010-2011 and 2012-2014 groups, there is also a significant decrease in utilization after bundling (P < 0.0001). Following the bundling of reimbursement for IVCF placement, procedural utilization decreased significantly. More data from subsequent years will be needed to show if this decrease utilization continues to persist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  12. Early Significant Tumor Volume Reduction After Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma Results in Long-Term Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wook Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate survival of patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 46 patients were treated with radiosurgery, and the total number of lesions was 99. The mean age was 58.9 years (range, 33-78 years). Twenty-six patients (56.5%) had a single brain metastasis. The mean tumor volume was 3.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-35.1 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 20.8 Gy (range, 12-25 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. A patient was classified into the good-response group when the sum of the volume of the brain metastases decreased to less than 75% of the original volume at a 1-month follow-up evaluation using MRI. Results: As of December 28, 2010, 39 patients (84.8%) had died, and 7 (15.2%) survived. The overall median survival time was 10.0 {+-} 0.4 months (95% confidence interval, 9.1-10.8). After treatment, local tumor control was achieved in 72 (84.7%) of the 85 tumors assessed using MRI after radiosurgery. The good-response group survived significantly longer than the poor-response group (median survival times of 18.0 and 9.0 months, respectively; p = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, classification in the good-response group was the only independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.037; hazard ratio = 0.447; 95% confidence interval, 0.209-0.953). Conclusions: Radiosurgery seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastases from RCC. The early significant tumor volume reduction observed after radiosurgery seems to result in long-term survival in RCC patients with brain metastases.

  13. Economic analysis of ticagrelor therapy from a U.S. perspective: results from the PLATO study.

    PubMed

    Cowper, Patricia A; Pan, Wenqin; Anstrom, Kevin J; Kaul, Padma; Wallentin, Lars; Davidson-Ray, Linda; Nikolic, Elisabet; Janzon, Magnus; Levin, Lars-Åke; Cannon, Christopher P; Harrington, Robert A; Mark, Daniel B

    2015-02-10

    Based on results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial comparing ticagrelor with clopidogrel therapy, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ticagrelor in 2011 for reducing thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with the proviso that it be taken with low-dose aspirin. This study sought to assess the cost and cost effectiveness of ticagrelor therapy relative to clopidogrel in treating ACS patients from the perspective of the U.S. health care system. We estimated within-trial resource use and costs using U.S. low-dose aspirin patients in PLATO (n = 547). Quality-adjusted life expectancy was estimated using the total PLATO population (n = 18,624), combined with baseline risk and long-term survival data from an external ACS patient cohort. Study drugs were valued at current costs. Cost effectiveness was assessed, as was the sensitivity of results to sampling and methodological uncertainties. One year of ticagrelor therapy, relative to that of generic clopidogrel, cost $29,665/quality-adjusted life-year gained, with 99% of bootstrap estimates falling under a $100,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Results were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses, including variations in clopidogrel cost, exclusion of costs in extended years of life, and a recalibrated estimate of survival reflecting a lower underlying mortality risk in the United States. For PLATO-eligible ACS patients, a U.S. perspective comparison of the current standard of dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin with clopidogrel versus aspirin plus ticagrelor showed that the ticagrelor regimen increased life expectancy at an incremental cost well within accepted benchmarks of good value for money. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Online training on the safe use of fluoroscopy can result in a significant decrease in patient dose.

    PubMed

    Frederick-Dyer, Katherine C; Faulkner, Austin R; Chang, Ted T; Heidel, R Eric; Pasciak, Alexander S

    2013-10-01

    Concerns over medical radiation exposure have received national press in recent years, and training in the appropriate use of radiation has become an essential component of every radiology residency program. Appropriate training is particularly important in fluoroscopy because it is commonly used by inexperienced radiology residents and has the potential to impart relatively high patient radiation doses. In an effort to minimize the radiation doses received by patients, our institution has recently initiated an online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy. This course is required and must be completed by new radiology residents before their first fluoroscopy rotation. The goal of this study was to determine if the use of an online course in the safe use of fluoroscopy could result in decreased patient dose without affecting diagnostic quality. Four years of retrospective procedural data for residents performing gastrointestinal and genitourinary fluoroscopic procedures without specialized training were reviewed. Incoming residents took an American Medical Association-accredited online training program in the safe use of fluoroscopy the week before their first fluoroscopy rotation. Patient dose and diagnostic quality data, inferred from the frequency of attending physician intervention necessary to complete the procedure, were collected for all exams performed by the new group of residents after completion of the training course. This was then compared to data from prior classes and stratified by procedure type. Statistically significant reductions in both average fluoroscopy time (FT) or dose-area-product (DAP) were found for many of the fluoroscopic procedures performed by residents who participated in the online fluoroscopy training program. Specifically, statistically significant reductions in FT for barium enema, cystogram, defecogram, and esophagram procedures (P < .001) were found. Esophagram and upper gastrointestinal studies were completed with a

  15. Preliminary Results from CINDERS: Circularized IFUs Now Deployed using Economical Robots on SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, JoEllen; Cecil, G. N.

    2014-01-01

    Long slit spectroscopy provides stellar population and activity information along an entire axis of a target. Single fiber spectroscopy focuses in on specific regions of galaxies, such as the center. We discuss preliminary results from the addition of the CINDERS IFU module to the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope, which provides the next stage, spatially resolved spectroscopy. CINDERS deploys three bundles of 61 fiber optic cables arranged in a nested circular pattern using inexpensive actuators that control 3-axis motion stages. The optics allow for 0.77" sampling of an 7" diameter region of up to three objects simultaneously in a 9'x4.5' field of view, making CINDERS ideal for clustered targets with more than 100" separation. Because approximately 78% of the bundle face is light sensitive, it is necessary to dither observations by 0.38" in a triangular pattern to adequately recover spatial resolution of the target. Using the 400 line/mm grating produces spectral coverage over 3700-7200AA at 5AA resolution. Initial system throughput measurements (excluding atmosphere), in the V-band, for one of the bundles are 65%. The initial project utilizing CINDERS involves mapping the central regions of 44 galaxies in Southern Compact Groups and determining the amount of star formation and AGN activity compared to isolated galaxies. We will discuss preliminary results for several of these groups.

  16. 45 Economic Analyses of Partially Hydrolyzed Infant Formulas in Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis: Results From 5 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Patrick; Spieldenner, Joerg; Navarro, Vincent; Berbari, Jade; Iskedjian, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Economic analyses (EAs) were performed in 5 European countries to determine costs, outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a partially hydrolysed 100% whey-based infant formula (PHF-W) in the prevention of atopic dermatitis (AD) in ‘at risk’ children when compared to standard cow's milk formula (SF) or extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF). Methods The EAs were performed in France, Germany, Spain, Denmark and Switzerland, using decision-analytic models describing AD treatment pathways, as well as resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of AD in healthy yet ‘at risk’ newborns who could not be exclusively breastfed. A time horizon of 12 months including 6 months of formula consumption was applied, with country-specific resource use and costs. In 4 settings, SF was the main comparator. The outcomes of the EAs were the number of avoided cases and the incremental cost per avoided case (ICER) of AD when comparing subjects who used PHF-W versus SF. An ICER represents the additional cost for obtaining each additional clinical outcome gained; in this instance each avoided case. Given a lack of significant differences in efficacy between PHF-W and EHF, a cost-minimization approach was used in all settings to compare them. A negative ICER represents savings. Three perspectives were applied: the Ministry of Health (MOH), the family and society. Results In the base case analyses selecting PHF-W over SF yielded numbers of avoided cases of AD ranging from 1653 (Switzerland) to 13,356 cases (France) for respective “at risk” birth cohorts of 22,933 and 185,298 infants. The analyses of PHF-W versus SF generated ICERs ranging from €801 to €1343 (MOH), from −€1796 to −€454 (family) and from −€995 to €719 (society). The costs of formula and time loss were the main cost drivers. When comparing PHF-W to EHF in prevention, PHF-W demonstrated savings ranging from €4 to €120 million for society, or €1.3 to €64 million for the

  17. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  18. Health Effects of Unemployment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 2007-2010: Differing Economic Conditions, Differing Results?

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates short-term health effects of unemployment for individuals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during an economic downturn (2007-2010) that hit the Scandinavian countries with diverging strength. The longitudinal part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data material is analyzed, and results from generalized least squares estimation indicate that Denmark is the only Scandinavian country in which health status deteriorated among the unemployed. The individual-level (and calendar year) fixed-effect results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and health status in Denmark. This result is robust across different subsamples, model specifications, and changes in both the dependent and independent variable. Health status deteriorated especially among women and people in prime working age (30-59 years). There is, however, only scant evidence of short-term health effects among the recently unemployed in Norway and Sweden. The empirical findings are discussed in light of: (1) the adequacy of the unemployment insurance system, (2) the likelihood of re-employment for the displaced worker, and (3) selection patterns into and out of employment in the years preceding and during the economic downturn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Results of efforts by the Convention on Biological Diversity to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas.

    PubMed

    Bax, Nicholas J; Cleary, Jesse; Donnelly, Ben; Dunn, Daniel C; Dunstan, Piers K; Fuller, Mike; Halpin, Patrick N

    2016-06-01

    In 2004, Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) addressed a United Nations (UN) call for area-based planning, including for marine-protected areas that resulted in a global effort to describe ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs). We summarized the results, assessed their consistency, and evaluated the process developed by the Secretariat of the CBD to engage countries and experts in 9 regional workshops held from 2011 to 2014. Experts from 92 countries and 79 regional or international bodies participated. They considered 250 million km(2) of the world's ocean area (two-thirds of the total). The 204 areas they examined in detail differed widely in area (from 5.5 km(2) to 11.1 million km(2) ). Despite the initial focus of the CBD process on areas outside national jurisdiction, only 31 of the areas examined were solely outside national jurisdiction. Thirty-five extended into national jurisdictions, 137 were solely within national jurisdictions, and 28 included the jurisdictions of more than 1 country (1 area lacked precise boundaries). Data were sufficient to rank 88-99% of the areas relative to each of the 7 criteria for EBSAs agreed to previously by Parties to the CBD. The naturalness criterion ranked high for a smaller percentage of the EBSAs (31%) than other criteria (51-70%), indicating the difficulty in finding relatively undisturbed areas in the ocean. The highly participatory nature of the workshops, including easy and consistent access to the relevant information facilitated by 2 technical teams, contributed to the workshop participants success in identifying areas that could be ranked relative to most criteria and areas that extend across jurisdictional boundaries. The formal recognition of workshop results by the Conference of Parties to the CBD resulted in these 204 areas being identified as EBSAs by the 196 Parties. They represent the only suite of marine areas recognized by the international community for their

  20. [Why does the prevalence of cytopathological results of cervical cancer screening can vary significantly between two regions of Brazil?].

    PubMed

    Discacciati, Michelle Garcia; Barboza, Bárbara Maria Santos; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the prevalence of cervical cytopathological results for the screening of cervical cancer with regard to women's age and time since the last examination in Maceió and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, among those assisted by the Brazilian Unified Health System. Cervical cytopathological results available in the Information System of Cervical Cancer Screening for the year 2011 were analyzed, corresponding to 206,550 for Rio de Janeiro and 45,243 for Maceió. In Rio de Janeiro, examination at one and two year intervals predominated, while in Maceió examination at one and three year intervals had a higher predominance. Women who underwent cervical smear screening in Maceió were older than those in Rio de Janeiro. The prevalence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma was similar for the two cities, but all the other results presented a higher prevalence in Rio de Janeiro: ASCUS (PR=5.32; 95%CI 4.66-6.07); ASCH (PR=4.27; 95%CI 3.15-5.78); atypical glandular cells (PR=10.02; 95%CI 5.66-17.76); low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (PR=6.10; 95%CI 5.27-7.07); high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (PR=8.90; 95%CI 6.50-12.18) and adenocarcinoma (PR=3.00; 95%CI 1.21-7.44). The rate of unsatisfactory cervical samples was two times higher in Maceió and that of rejected samples for analysis was five times higher in Maceió when compared to Rio de Janeiro. The prevalence rates of altered cervical cytopathological results was significantly higher in Rio de Janeiro than in Maceió. There is no objective information that may justify this difference. One hypothesis is that there may be a difference in the diagnostic performance of the cervical cancer screening, which could be related to the quality of the Pap smear. Thus, these findings suggest that it would be necessary to perform this evaluation at national level, with emphasis on the performance of cervical cancer screening in order to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer control.

  1. Wire Marking Results in a Small but Significant Reduction in Avian Mortality at Power Lines: A BACI Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Rafael; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Martín, Carlos A.; Martín, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control) power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV) and distribution (15 kV–45 kV) lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6%) but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only) or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only) on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. Conclusions Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species of conservation

  2. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M

    2016-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties.

  3. Wire marking results in a small but significant reduction in avian mortality at power lines: a BACI designed study.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Rafael; Ponce, Carlos; Palacín, Carlos; Martín, Carlos A; Martín, Beatriz; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Collision with electric power lines is a conservation problem for many bird species. Although the implementation of flight diverters is rapidly increasing, few well-designed studies supporting the effectiveness of this costly conservation measure have been published. We provide information on the largest worldwide marking experiment to date, including carcass searches at 35 (15 experimental, 20 control) power lines totalling 72.5 km, at both transmission (220 kV) and distribution (15 kV-45 kV) lines. We found carcasses of 45 species, 19 of conservation concern. Numbers of carcasses found were corrected to account for carcass losses due to removal by scavengers or being overlooked by researchers, resulting in an estimated collision rate of 8.2 collisions per km per month. We observed a small (9.6%) but significant decrease in the number of casualties after line marking compared to before line marking in experimental lines. This was not observed in control lines. We found no influence of either marker size (large vs. small spirals, sample of distribution lines only) or power line type (transmission vs. distribution, sample of large spirals only) on the collision rate when we analyzed all species together. However, great bustard mortality was slightly lower when lines were marked with large spirals and in transmission lines after marking. Our results confirm the overall effectiveness of wire marking as a way to reduce, but not eliminate, bird collisions with power lines. If raw field data are not corrected by carcass losses due to scavengers and missed observations, findings may be biased. The high cost of this conservation measure suggests a need for more studies to improve its application, including wire marking with non-visual devices. Our findings suggest that different species may respond differently to marking, implying that species-specific patterns should be explored, at least for species of conservation concern.

  4. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730

  5. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P < .05. There were 164 burn center admissions between Memorial Day and Labor Day in 2010 (n = 82) and 2011 (n = 82). Compared with all summer burn center admissions, patients injured by campfires were younger (18 vs 37 years; P = .002) with smaller total surface area burns (3.2 vs 6.2%; P = .41) and had shorter lengths of stay (10-11 vs 6-7 days; P = .62). There was more than a 3-fold decrease in burn admissions due to recreational fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of

  6. Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers? The Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Dieterle, David; Clark, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on how well students are learning economics, how teachers are trained, and other outcomes associated with improved understanding of economics. However, almost nothing is reported in the research literature on economics teachers' views of the curriculum, how they teach their subject, their views on public issues, and…

  7. Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers? The Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Dieterle, David; Clark, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on how well students are learning economics, how teachers are trained, and other outcomes associated with improved understanding of economics. However, almost nothing is reported in the research literature on economics teachers' views of the curriculum, how they teach their subject, their views on public issues, and…

  8. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2009-11-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  9. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI): methodology and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatewicz, T.; Yang, X.; Peterson, J. M.; Staggenborg, S.; Welch, S. M.; Steward, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI). This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  10. Quality of random number generators significantly affects results of Monte Carlo simulations for organic and biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Click, Timothy H.; Kaminski, George A.; Liu, Aibing B.

    2010-01-01

    We have simulated pure liquid butane, methanol and hydrated alanine polypeptide with the Monte Carlo technique using three kinds of random number generators - the standard Linear Congruential Generator (LCG), a modification of the LCG with additional randomization used in the BOSS software, and the “Mersenne Twister” generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. While using the latter two random number generators leads to reasonably similar physical features, the LCG produces a significant different results. For the pure fluids, a noticeable expansion occurs. Using the original LCG on butane yields a molecular volume of 171.4 Å3 per molecule compared to ca. 163.6–163.9 Å3 for the other two generators, a deviation of about 5%. For methanol, the LCG produces an average volume of 86.3 Å3 per molecule, which is about 24% higher than the 68.8–70.2 Å3 obtained with the random number generator in BOSS and the generator by Matsumoto and Nishimura. In case of the hydrated tridecaalanine peptide, the volume and energy tend to be noticeably greater with the LCG than with the BOSS (modified LCG) random number generator. For the simulated hydrated extended conformation of tridecaalanine, the difference in volume reached ca. 87%. The uniformity and periodicity of the generators do not seem to play the crucial role in these phenomena. We conclude that it is important to test a random number generator by modeling a system such as the pure liquid methanol with a well-established force field before routinely employing it in Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:20734313

  11. Prevalence and significance of rare RYR2 variants in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: results of a systematic screening.

    PubMed

    Roux-Buisson, Nathalie; Gandjbakhch, Estelle; Donal, Erwan; Probst, Vincent; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Chevalier, Philippe; Klug, Didier; Mansencal, Nicolas; Delacretaz, Etienne; Cosnay, Pierre; Scanu, Patrice; Extramiana, Fabrice; Keller, Dagmar; Hidden-Lucet, Françoise; Trapani, Jonathan; Fouret, Pierre; Frank, Robert; Fressart, Veronique; Fauré, Julien; Lunardi, Joel; Charron, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a genetic disease predominantly caused by desmosomal gene mutations that account for only ~50% of cases. Ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) gene mutations usually cause catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia but have been associated with a peculiar phenotype named ARVC2. We aimed to determine the prevalence and phenotype associated with RYR2 mutations in a large ARVC/D population. We analyzed the whole RYR2 coding sequence by Sanger sequencing in 64 ARVC/D probands without desmosomal gene mutations. We have identified 6 rare missense variants: p.P1583S, p.A2213S, p.G2367R, p.Y2932H, p.V3219M, and p.L4670V. It corresponds to a 9% prevalence of rare RYR2 variants in the ARVC/D population (6 of 64 probands), which is significantly higher than the estimated frequency of rare RYR2 variants in controls (Fisher exact test, P = .03). Phenotypes associated with RYR2 variants were similar to desmosome-related ARVC/D, associating typical electrocardiographic abnormalities at rest, frequent monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, right ventricular dilatation, wall motion abnormalities, and fibrofatty replacement when histopathological examination was available. In this first systematic screening of the whole coding region of the RYR2 gene in a large ARVC/D cohort without mutation in desmosomal genes, we show that putative RYR2 mutations are frequent (9% of ARVC/D probands) and are associated with a conventional phenotype of ARVC/D, which is in contrast with previous findings. The results support the role of the RYR2 gene in conventional ARVC/D. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of a modeling workshop concerning economic and environmental trends and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Johnson, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.; Staley, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade, the southern regions of the U.S. have experienced rapid change which is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Growth in population, industry, and resource development has been attributed to a variety of advantages such as an abundant and inexpensive labor force, a mild climate, and the availability of energy, water, land, and other natural resources. While this growth has many benefits for the region, it also creates the potential for increased air, water, and solid waste pollution, and modification of natural habitats. A workshop was convened to consider the Mobile Bay area as a site-specific case of growth and its environmental consequences in the southern region. The objectives of the modeling workshop were to: (1) identify major factors of economic development as they relate to growth in the area over the immediate and longer term; (2) identify major environmental and resource management issues associated with this expected growth; and (3) identify and characterize the complex interrelationships among economic and environmental factors. This report summarizes the activities and results of a modeling workshop concerning economic growth and concomitant resource management issues in the Mobile Bay area. The workshop was organized around construction of a simulation model representing the relationships between a series of actions and indicators identified by participants. The workshop model had five major components. An Industry Submodel generated scenarios of growth in several industrial and transportation sectors. A Human Population/Economy Submodel calculated human population and economic variables in response to employment opportunities. A Land Use/Air Quality Submodel tabulated changes in land use, shoreline use, and air quality. A Water Submodel calculated indicators of water quality and quantity for fresh surface water, ground water, and Mobile Bay based on discharge information provided by the Industry and Human

  13. Socio-economic rehabilitation programmes of LEPRA India--methodology, results and application of needs-based socio-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rao, V P; Rao, I R; Palande, D D

    2000-12-01

    There is now a better understanding of the scope and process of rehabilitation. The approach recognizes the impact of leprosy on the individual, aims to understand the needs and concerns of those affected, their families and community in the rehabilitation process, and that aims to restore the person to normal social life. LEPRA India has undertaken socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) activities in its projects in Andrah Pradesh and Orissa States in India with a holistic approach that has been evolutionary, developmental and participatory. A SER Officer (SERO) was posted to each project. A plan was formulated by the SERO with participation of all project staff. The main emphasis of the programme was on active participation of the affected person in the rehabilitation process. A needs-assessment study was conducted in the target population using a semi-structured questionnaire. Information was elicited about social and economic status, before and after the disease, and the current rehabilitation needs of the persons affected. The next step was meeting the needs through interventions by the SER staff. The impact of the programme on restoration of social and economic status of the affected persons was analysed. The paper stresses the importance of assessing the needs of persons affected by leprosy, structuring a rehabilitation programme with the active participation of the affected person and evaluating the impact of the interventions in restoring normal social and economic life.

  14. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    PubMed

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  15. Economic Recession Affects Gambling Participation But Not Problematic Gambling: Results from a Population-Based Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Olason, Daniel T.; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Brosowski, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In October 2008, Iceland experienced the fastest and deepest financial crisis recorded in modern times when all three major banks went bankrupt in less than 2 weeks. The purpose of this follow-up study is to examine potential changes in participation in 12 different gambling types and in problem gambling before (time 1; year 2007) and after (time 2; year 2011) the economic collapse in 2008. The time between the first and second wave of data collection was 3.5 years. In total, 1,531 participants took part in the study, 688 males and 843 females. There was a considerable increase in past year gambling behavior from 2007 to 2011, mostly due to increased participation in lotto (National lotto and Viking lotto) but also in bingo, monthly lotteries (class lotteries with at least monthly draw) and scratch tickets. Only EGMs (electronic gaming machines) participation declined significantly between the two timepoints. Examining past year problematic gambling figures revealed that there were no changes in the prevalence figures between the year 2007 (1.2%) and 2011 (1.1%). Further examination revealed that those who reported financial difficulties due to the recession were more likely to buy lotto- or scratch tickets during the recession than those who were not financially affected by the crisis. These findings remained after controlling for background variables and baseline gambling activity (gambling in 2007). Overall, the findings of the follow-up study suggest that when people are experiencing financial difficulties during economic recessions, the possibility to improve their financial situation by winning large jackpots with low initial stakes becomes more enticing. PMID:28790946

  16. Norfloxacin treatment for clinically significant portal hypertension: results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kemp, William; Colman, John; Thompson, Kenneth; Madan, Anoop; Vincent, Margaret; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; Kompa, Andrew; Krum, Henry; Roberts, Stuart

    2009-03-01

    While selective intestinal decontamination (SID) can alter the hyperdynamic circulatory state of cirrhosis, the impact of SID on portal pressure remains unclear especially in the setting of clinically significant portal hypertension. To examine the impact of SID with norfloxacin on portal pressure in subjects with clinically significant portal hypertension and explore the potential mechanisms by which norfloxacin exerts its haemodynamic effects. Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of norfloxacin 400 mg twice daily for 4 weeks. The portal pressure was assessed by hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). Endotoxaemia was assessed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. l-arginine (l-Arg) transporter function was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Plasma levels of urotensin II (UII) and tumour necrosis factor were measured before and after therapy. Sixteen subjects with clinically significant portal hypertension (16.5+/-1.1 mmHg) completed the study. Norfloxacin therapy was not superior to placebo in reducing HVPG (13.8+/-1.0 mmHg vs 13.6+/-1.2 mmHg, P=0.3). Furthermore, no alteration in l-Arg transport was detected after 4 weeks of norfloxacin therapy. Plasma UII levels correlated positively with HVPG (P=0.01) and the Child-Pugh score (P<0.05). However, UII levels following therapy did not parallel HVPG changes. Norfloxacin is not superior to placebo in reducing HVPG in subjects with clinically significant portal hypertension. Furthermore, norfloxacin does not appear to modulate the l-Arg transporter mechanism in this patient population. Although plasma UII correlates positively with HVPG, UII does not appear to have a direct role in modulating HVPG.

  17. [Significance of changes in the myocardium for the forensic-medical diagnosis of death as a result of alcoholic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Kapustin, A V

    2004-01-01

    Significance, of the weight and dimensions of heart as well as of fat dystrophy of cardiomyocytes and of the related detection methods is demonstrated for the diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACMP). When such patients die in a state of alcoholic intoxication, the diagnosis should be death of acute alcoholic intoxication. Lethality of ACMP can be diagnosed only in those who die in the sober condition or with an insignificant level of alcohol.

  18. Economic analysis of amifostine as adjunctive support for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: preliminary results from a randomized phase II clinical trial from Germany.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C L; Lane, D; Stinson, T; Glatzel, M; Buntzel, J

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized phase II trial in Germany, we investigated the clinical and economic impact of amifostine protection against the hematological and oral toxicities of carboplatin administered concurrently with standard fractions of radiotherapy. 28 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck received adjunctive or primary radiotherapy (5 days per week with daily fractions of 2 Gy, up to a total dose of 60 Gy) in conjunction with carboplatin (70 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and days 21-26. All patients received radiation encompassing at least 75% of the major salivary glands. Patients were randomized to receive radiation and carboplatin (RCT) alone or RCT preceded by rapid infusion of amifostine (500 mg) on days carboplatin was administered. The 14 patients who received amifostine, in comparison to 14 patients in the control arm, had significantly fewer episodes of grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001), mucositis (p = 0.001), and xerostomia (p = 0.001). The patients receiving amifostine accrued significantly lower supportive care costs for resources related to infection ($241 vs. $1,275, p < 0.01), red blood cell and platelet support ($286 vs. $1,276 p = 0.06) alimentation ($343 vs. $894, p = .01), and hospitalization ($286 vs. $2,429, p < 0.01). Overall, including the costs of amifostine, mean per patient supportive care costs were $4,401 for the amifostine group and $5,873 (p = .02) for the control group. Our results from a randomized phase II trial indicate that selective cytoprotection with amifostine potentially offers clinical and economic benefits in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. Additional economic studies alongside randomized phase III trials and from other countries are needed.

  19. Lack of prognostic significance of conventional peritoneal cytology in colorectal and gastric cancers: results of EVOCAPE 2 multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cotte, E; Peyrat, P; Piaton, E; Chapuis, F; Rivoire, M; Glehen, O; Arvieux, C; Mabrut, J-Y; Chipponi, J; Gilly, F-N

    2013-07-01

    In digestive cancers, the prognostic significance of intraperitoneal free cancer cells remains unclear (IPCC). The main objective of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of IPCC in colorectal and gastric adenocarcinoma. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the predictive significance of IPCC for the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) and to evaluate the prevalence of synchronous PC and IPCC. This was a prospective multicentre study. All patients undergoing surgery for a digestive tract cancer had peritoneal cytology taken. Patients with gastric and colorectal cancer with no residual tumour after surgery and no evidence of PC were followed-up for 2 years. The primary end point was overall survival. Between 2002 and 2007, 1364 patients were enrolled and 956 were followed-up over 2 years. Prevalence of IPCC was 5.7% in colon cancer, 0.6% in rectal cancer and 19.5% in gastric cancer. The overall 2-year survival rate for patients with IPCC was 34.7% versus 86.8% for patients with negative cytology (p<0.0001). By multivariate analysis, IPCC was not an independent prognostic factor. No relationship between cytology and recurrence was found. The presence of IPCC was not an independent prognostic and didn't add any additional prognostic information to the usual prognostic factors related to the tumour (pTNM and differentiation). Moreover the presence of IPCC detected with this method didn't appear to predict development of PC. Peritoneal cytology using conventional staining doesn't seem to be a useful tool for the staging of colorectal and gastric cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  2. Diabetes mellitus and co-morbid depression: treatment with milnacipran results in significant improvement of both diseases (results from the Austrian MDDM study group)

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Hofmann, Peter; Prager, Rudolf; Toplak, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Co-morbid depression is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and has a negative impact on diabetes self-care, adherence to treatment and the development of complications. Effective treatment of depression has been associated with improvement in metabolic parameters. We evaluated the feasibility of a two question screen for co-morbid depression in diabetic patients and studied the effect of the serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, milnacipran, on metabolic and psychological parameters in 64 type 2 diabetic patients with co-morbid depression. The severity of depression was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients received milnacipran, and diabetes was treated according to the guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association in a 6-month open label study. Metabolic parameters and BDI were measured at baseline and after 1, 3 and 6 months. 46 patients satisfied the criteria for an antidepressant response (reduction of baseline BDI score of at least 50%). Hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose, body mass index, total and LDL-cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were all significantly decreased in these patients at the end of the study whereas in antidepressant non-responders these parameters were not significantly changed. Diagnosis and treatment of depression is an important factor for the improvement of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes and co-morbid depression. PMID:19557120

  3. Recent climatic changes in the Northern Extratropics with foci on extreme events and transitions through environmentally and socio-economically significant thresholds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Karl, T. R.

    2009-12-01

    Contemporary climate models send several very different messages regarding changes in the energy and water cycle over northern extratropical land areas that are leading to climate extremes of different kinds. For the regions of the Northern Extratropics with a dense network of long-term time series of daily observations, we quantified several lines of evidence of contemporary changes that have lead to changes in the frequency (and intensity) of extreme events. Among these extreme events are very heavy rainfall events, prolonged no-rain intervals, indices that characterize severity of the “fire” weather, and timing and magnitude of peak streamflow. We paid a special attention to recent climatic changes in the Northern Extratropics characteristics of the seasonal cycle such as temperature transitions through environmentally and socio-economically significant thresholds (e.g., no-frost period, duration and “strength” of growing season and cold seasons, frequency and intensity of hot and cold spells) and energy accumulated indices that are proportional to the societal need to cope with seasonal weather (e.g., heating-degree and cooling degree days). These thresholds do not necessarily characterize extreme events, but rather changes in their dates, duration, totals, or distribution within the year which may affect society. In particular, our analyses for North America show increasing rates of changes in most of characteristics of the temperature seasonal cycle during the past few decades. Some of these changes can be considered as positive while others cause concern. In particular, in the area of the North American Monsoon (southwestern US) we observe strong warming that together with the precipitation deficit increases chances of detrimental weather conditions such as extremely hot nights that affect human health, prolonged no-rain periods, and higher values of the fire weather indices. Generally, the impact of hot nights on human health (a relative frequency

  4. The role of socio-economic status in depression: results from the COURAGE (aging survey in Europe).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Aislinne; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-19

    Low socio-economic status (SES) has been found to be associated with a higher prevalence of depression. However, studies that have investigated this association have been limited in their national scope, have analyzed different components of SES separately, and have not used standardized definitions or measurements across populations. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between SES and depression across three European countries that represent different regions across Europe, using standardized procedures and measurements and a composite score for SES. Nationally-representative data on 10,800 individuals aged ≥18 from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) survey conducted in Finland, Poland and Spain were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. An adapted version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify the presence of depression, and SES was computed by using the combined scores of the total number of years educated (0-22) and the quintiles of the country-specific income level of the household (1-5). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between SES and depression. Findings reveal a significant association between depression and SES across all countries (p ≤ 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, the odds of depression were significantly decreased for every unit increase in the SES index for Finland, Poland and Spain. Additionally, higher education significantly decreased the odds for depression in each country, but income did not. The SES index seems to predict depression symptomatology across European countries. Taking SES into account may be an important factor in the development of depression prevention strategies across Europe.

  5. Contributing to the Community: The Economic Significance of Academic Health Centers and Their Role in Neighborhood Development. Report IV. Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Fund, New York, NY.

    This report is a selective analysis and assessment of quantitative data and field studies that reflect the economic role of the Academic Health Center (AHC) in the urban economy and in neighborhood revitalization. It describes the effect of a variety of cooperative efforts between local community organizations and AHCs, which usually include a…

  6. Significant reductions in alcohol use after hepatitis C treatment: results from the ANRS CO13-HEPAVIH cohort.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Roux, Perrine; Vilotitch, Antoine; Marcellin, Fabienne; Rosenthal, Eric; Esterle, Laure; Boué, François; Rey, David; Piroth, Lionel; Dominguez, Stéphanie; Sogni, Philippe; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Spire, Bruno; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2017-09-01

    Few data exist on changes to substance use patterns before and after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. We used longitudinal data of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals to examine whether receiving pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)-based therapy irrespective of HCV clearance could modify tobacco, cannabis and alcohol use. A prospective cohort of HIV-HCV co-infected individuals was enrolled from 2006. Participants' clinical data were retrieved from medical records and socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were collected by yearly self-administered questionnaires. Data were collected across 17 hospitals in France. All HIV-HCV co-infected patients who initiated HCV treatment during follow-up and answered items regarding substance use in at least one yearly questionnaire (258 patients, 671 visits). HCV treatment consisted of Peg-IFN-based regimens. Four time-varying outcomes: hazardous alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C > 3/4 for women/men), number of alcohol units/month, binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. Mixed models assessed the effect of HCV treatment status (not yet treated, treated and HCV-cleared, treated and HCV-chronic) on each outcome. A significant decrease (more than 60% reduction) in both hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking and a reduction of 10 alcohol units/month was observed after HCV treatment (irrespective of HCV clearance). No significant effect of HCV treatment status was found on tobacco use and regular cannabis use, but HCV 'clearers' reported less non-regular use of cannabis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment appears to help HIV-HCV co-infected patients reduce alcohol use. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.

  8. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ2 test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P < 0.001) and higher levels of depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P < 0.001), anxiety symptoms (F [4, 765] = 12.890, P < 0.001) and suicidal ideation (F [4, 653] = 6.970, P < 0.001). It also indicated lower levels of social function (F [4, 760] = 13.343, P < 0.001), and quality of life (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in alcohol consumption (F [4, 656] = 11.975, P < 0.001). The number of depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry. PMID:27051248

  9. Pasireotide treatment significantly improves clinical signs and symptoms in patients with Cushing's disease: results from a Phase III study.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Petersenn, Stephan; Newell-Price, John; Findling, James W; Gu, Feng; Maldonado, Mario; Trovato, Andrew; Hughes, Gareth; Salgado, Luiz R; Lacroix, André; Schopohl, Jochen; Biller, Beverly M K

    2014-09-01

    Signs and symptoms of Cushing's disease are associated with high burden of illness. In this analysis, we evaluated the effect of pasireotide treatment on signs and symptoms in patients with Cushing's disease. Phase III study with double-blind randomization of two pasireotide doses. Patients (n = 162) with persistent/recurrent or de novo Cushing's disease and urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels ≥1·5× upper limit of normal (ULN) were randomized to receive subcutaneous pasireotide (600/900 μg bid). At month 3, patients with UFC ≤2 × ULN and not exceeding the baseline value continued their randomized dose; all others received 300 μg bid uptitration. At month 6, patients could enter an open-label phase until month 12 with a maximal dose of 1200 μg bid. Changes in signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism over 12 months' treatment in patients still enroled in the study and with evaluable measurements were assessed in relation to degree of UFC control. Reductions in blood pressure were observed even without full UFC control and were greatest in patients who did not receive antihypertensive medications during the study. Significant reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were observed in patients who achieved UFC control. Reductions in BMI, weight and waist circumference occurred during the study even without full UFC control. Adverse effects were typical of somatostatin analogues except for hyperglycaemia-related events, which were experienced by 72·8% of patients. In the largest Phase III study of medical therapy in Cushing's disease, significant improvements in signs and symptoms were seen during 12 months of pasireotide treatment, as UFC levels decreased. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children at Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This article presents results of 2 studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially…

  11. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children at Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This article presents results of 2 studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially…

  12. Significance of "Not Detected but Amplified" Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or "Not Detected but Amplified" (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT ) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation.

  13. Significance of “Not Detected but Amplified” Results by Real-Time PCR Method for HPV DNA Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taek Soo; Lim, Mi Suk; Hwang, Sang Mee; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important etiologic factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Various HPV DNA detection methods have been evaluated for clinicopathological level. For the specimens with normal cytological finding, discrepancies among the detection methods were frequently found and adequate interpretation can be difficult. 6,322 clinical specimens were submitted and evaluated for real-time PCR and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). 573 positive or “Not Detected but Amplified” (NDBA) specimens by real-time PCR were additionally tested using genetic analyzer. For the reliability of real-time PCR, 325 retests were performed. Optimal cut-off cycle threshold (CT) value was evaluated also. 78.7% of submitted specimens showed normal or nonspecific cytological finding. The distributions of HPV types by real-time PCR were not different between positive and NDBA cases. For positive cases by fragment analysis, concordance rates with real-time PCR and HC2 were 94.2% and 84.2%. In NDBA cases, fragment analysis and real-time PCR showed identical results in 77.0% and HC2 revealed 27.6% of concordance with fragment analysis. Optimal cut-off CT value was different for HPV types. NDBA results in real-time PCR should be regarded as equivocal, not negative. The adjustment of cut-off CT value for HPV types will be helpful for the appropriate result interpretation. PMID:28097135

  14. RNAi targeting putative genes in phosphatidylcholine turnover results in significant change in fatty acid composition in Crambe abyssinica seed oil.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rui; Li, Xueyuan; Hofvander, Per; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Wang, Danni; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of three enzymes, LPCAT, PDCT and PDAT, involved in acyl turnover in phosphatidylcholine in order to explore the possibility of further increasing erucic acid (22:1) content in Crambe seed oil. The complete coding sequences of LPCAT1-1 and LPCAT1-2 encoding lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), PDCT1 and PDCT2 encoding phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PDCT), and PDAT encoding phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) were cloned from developing Crambe seeds. The alignment of deduced amino acid sequences displayed a high similarity to the Arabidopsis homologs. Transgenic lines expressing RNA interference (RNAi) targeting either single or double genes showed significant changes in the fatty acid composition of seed oil. An increase in oleic acid (18:1) was observed, to varying degrees, in all of the transgenic lines, and a cumulative effect of increased 18:1 was shown in the LPCAT-PDCT double-gene RNAi. However, LPCAT single-gene RNAi led to a decrease in 22:1 accumulation, while PDCT or PDAT single-gene RNAi had no obvious effect on the level of 22:1. In agreement with the abovementioned oil phenotypes, the transcript levels of the target genes in these transgenic lines were generally reduced compared to wild-type levels. In this paper, we discuss the potential to further increase the 22:1 content in Crambe seed oil through downregulation of these genes in combination with fatty acid elongase and desaturases.

  15. Reductions of budgets, staffing, and programs among local health departments: results from NACCHO's economic surveillance surveys, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiali; Leep, Carolyn; Newman, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To provide an overview of budget cuts, job losses, and program reductions among local health departments (LHDs) and to examine the association between LHD infrastructure characteristics and the likelihood of budget cuts. Data from 4 waves of the economic surveillance survey (July-August 2009, September-November 2010, January-February 2012, and January-March 2013) conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials were analyzed to assess cuts to budgets, jobs, and programs since 2009. Data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments survey were used to assess the infrastructural characteristics associated with budget cuts. When asked in early 2013, more than a quarter of LHDs (26.9%) reported a reduced budget, continuing the trend of a substantial proportion of LHDs experiencing financial hardship in recent years. The percentages of LHDs that made cuts to programmatic areas fluctuated from year to year but have never been lower than 40%. Maternal and child health services were among areas most often cut during all 4 time points of the survey. Governance type, total expenditures, and percentage of revenues from local sources were significantly associated with LHD budget cuts. Cuts in LHD budgets, staff, and activities have been widespread for a period that lasted long after the official end of the Great Recession. There is a great need for substantive and consistent funding to ensure the retention of the workforce and the delivery of essential public health services.

  16. Significance and costs of complex biopsychosocial health care needs in elderly people: results of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wild, Beate; Heider, Dirk; Maatouk, Imad; Slaets, Joris; König, Hans-Helmut; Niehoff, Dorothea; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann; Söllner, Wolfgang; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    To improve health care for the elderly, a consideration of biopsychosocial health care needs may be of particular importance-especially because of the prevalence of multiple conditions, mental disorders, and social challenges facing elderly people. The aim of the study was to investigate significance and costs of biopsychosocial health care needs in elderly people. Data were derived from the 8-year follow-up of the ESTHER study-a German epidemiological study in the elderly population. A total of 3124 participants aged 57 to 84 years were visited at home by trained medical doctors. Biopsychosocial health care needs were assessed using the INTERMED for the Elderly (IM-E) interview. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was measured by the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and psychosomatic burden was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire. The IM-E correlated with decreased mental (mental component score: r = -0.38, p < .0001) and physical HRQOL (physical component score: r = -0.45, p < .0001), increased depression severity (r = 0.53, p < .0001), and costs (R = 0.41, p < .0001). The proportion of the participants who had an IM-E score of at least 21 was 8.2%; according to previous studies, they were classified as complex patients (having complex biopsychosocial health care needs). Complex patients showed a highly reduced HRQOL compared with participants without complex health care needs (mental component score: 37.0 [10.8] versus 48.7 [8.8]; physical component score: 33.0 [9.1] versus 41.6 [9.5]). Mean health care costs per 3 months of complex patients were strongly increased (1651.1 &OV0556; [3192.2] versus 764.5 &OV0556; [1868.4]). Complex biopsychosocial health care needs are strongly associated with adverse health outcomes in elderly people. It should be evaluated if interdisciplinary treatment plans would improve the health outcomes for complex patients.

  17. Frequency of "Time for Self" Is a Significant Predictor of Postnatal Depressive Symptoms: Results from a Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Small, Rhonda; Miller, Kirsty; Brown, Stephanie J

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to explore the relationship between frequency of time for self and maternal depressive symptoms at 6 months postpartum. A prospective cohort study of 1,507 first-time mothers in Australia, recruited in early pregnancy with follow-up at 6 months postpartum, was conducted. Scores of more than or equal to 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to identify depressive symptoms. Of 1,507 women recruited to the study, 92.6 percent completed follow-up at 6 months postpartum. Almost half (48.5%) reported having time for themselves when someone else looked after their baby (time for self) once a week or more. Compared with women who reported less frequent time for self, women who had time for themselves once a week or more were less likely to report depressive symptoms (unadjusted OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.30-0.66]). Women who had more frequent time for themselves were more likely to have more practical and emotional support. However, this only partially explained the relationship between time for self and depressive symptoms, which remained significant in regression models after adjusting for other recognized risk factors for maternal depression, including social support (adjusted OR 0.60 [95% CI 0.39-0.94]). Our findings suggest that having time for self at least once a week in the first 6 months after childbirth may have a beneficial influence on maternal mental health. Ensuring women get regular respite from the challenges of caring for a young baby may be a relatively simple and effective way of promoting maternal mental health in the year after childbirth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Volunteer driven home safety intervention results in significant reduction in pediatric injuries: A model for community based injury reduction.

    PubMed

    Falcone, Richard A; Edmunds, Patrick; Lee, Emily; Gardner, Dawne; Price, Kimberly; Gittelman, Michael; Pomerantz, Wendy; Besl, John; Madhavan, Gowri; Phelan, Kieran J

    2016-07-01

    Home based injuries account for a significant number of injuries to children between 1 and 5years old. Evidence-based safety interventions delivered in the home with installation of safety equipment have been demonstrated to reduce injury rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a community based volunteer implemented home safety intervention. In partnership with a community with high injury rates for children between 1 and 5years old, a home safety bundle was developed and implemented by volunteers. The safety bundle included installing evidence based safety equipment. Monthly community emergency room attended injury rates as well as emergency room attended injuries occurring in intervention and nonintervention homes was tracked throughout the study. Between May 2012 and May 2014 a total of 207 homes with children 1-5years old received the home safety bundle. The baseline monthly emergency room attended injury rate for children aged 1-5years within our target community was 11.3/1000 and that within our county was 8.7/1000. Following the intervention current rates are now 10.3/1000 and 9.2/1000 respectively. Within intervention homes the injury rate decreased to 4.2/1000 while the rate in the homes not receiving the intervention experienced an increase in injury rate to 12/1000 (p<0.05). When observed vs. expected injuries were examined the intervention group demonstrated 59% fewer injuries while the nonintervention group demonstrated a 6% increase (p<0.05). Children in homes that received a volunteer-provided, free home safety bundle experienced 59% fewer injuries than would have been expected. By partnering with community leaders and organizing volunteers, proven home safety interventions were successfully provided to 207 homes during a two-year period, and a decline in community injury rates for children younger than 5years was observed compared to county wide injury rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Significance of Low Result of 1-hour 50-g Glucose-Challenge Test in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Oawada, Nozomi; Aoki, Shigeru; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Obata, Soichiro; Seki, Kazuo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2017-08-22

    To examine the effect of low glucose value on the 1-hour 50-g Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) on neonatal body weight in low-risk Asian singleton pregnant women. We retrospectively analyzed women who delivered a singleton neonate at term at a tertiary center and underwent GCT at 24-28 weeks of gestation between June 2001 and June 2015. Low GCT group was defined as < 75 mg/dL, and 75-139 mg/dL were control. We compared these two groups of maternal characteristics, small for gestational age neonate (SGA), large for gestational age neonate (LGA), low-birth weight, and macrosomia. The Χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test were used. There were 313 low GCT group, and 4611 control. Low GCT group were younger, had lower prepregnancy body weight, higher stature, and lower prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). After adjusting these variables, the low GCT group had a lower rate of LGA and a higher rate of SGA. Neonatal body weight is more influenced by maternal physique than by low GCT result (Standardized coefficient (β)(β); GCT 0.071, height 0.188, prepregnancy BMI 0.143). Neonatal body weight was only slightly influenced by low GCT result, but markedly influenced by maternal physique, such as height and prepregnancy BMI.

  20. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  1. Exercise testing in patients with variant angina: results, correlation with clinical and angiographic features and prognostic significance

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, D.D.; Szlachcic, J.; Bourassa, M.G.; Scholl, J.-M.; Theroux, P.

    1982-02-01

    Eighty-two patients with variant angina underwent a treadmill exercise test using 14 ECG leads, and 67 also underwent exercise thallium-201 scans. The test induced ST elevation in 25 patients (30%), ST depression in 21 (26%) and no ST-segment abnormality in 36 (44%). ST elevation during exercise occurred in the same ECG leads as during spontaneous attacks at rest, and was always associated with a large perfusion defect on the exercise thallium scan. In contrast, exercise-induced ST depression often did not occur in the leads that exhibited ST elevation during episodes at rest. The ST-segment response to exercise did not accurately predict coronary anatomy: Coronary stenoses greater than or equal to 70% were present in 14 of 25 patients (56%) with ST elevation, in 13 of 21 (62%) with ST depression and in 14 of 36 (39%) with no ST-segment abnormality (NS). However, the degree of disease activity did correlate with the result of the exercise test: ST elevation occurred during exercise in 11 of 14 patients who had an average of more than two spontaneous attacks per day, in 12 of 24 who had between two attacks per day and two per week, and in only two of 31 who had fewer than two attacks per week (p<0.005). ST elevation during exercise was reproducible in five of five patients retested during an active phase of their disease, but not in three of three patients who had been angina-free for a least 1 month before the repeat test. We conclude that in variant angina patients, the results of an exercise test correlate well with the degree of disease activity but not with coronary anatomy, and do not define a high-risk subgroup.

  2. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  3. Economic evaluation of a behavioral intervention versus brief advice for substance use treatment in pregnant women: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Yonkers, Kimberly A; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-03-07

    Substance use in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal and fetal morbidities and substantial economic costs. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of substance use treatment programs in pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of a behavioral intervention that integrated motivational enhancement therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (MET-CBT) for treatment of substance use in pregnancy, in comparison with brief advice. We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial by collecting data on resource utilization and performing a cost minimization analysis as MET-CBT and brief advice had similar effects on clinical outcomes (e.g., alcohol and drug use and birth outcomes). Costs were estimated from the health care system's perspective and included intervention costs, hospital facility costs, physician fees, and costs of psychotropic medications from the date of intake assessment until 3-month postpartum. We compared effects of MET-CBT on costs with those of brief advice using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Although the integrated MET-CBT therapy had higher intervention cost than brief advice (median = $1297/participant versus $303/participant, p < 0.01), costs of care during the prenatal period, delivery, and postpartum period, as well as for psychotropic medications, were comparable between the two groups (all p values ≥ 0.55). There was no statistically significant difference in overall cost of care (median total cost = $26,993/participant for MET-CBT versus $27,831/participant for brief advice, p = 0.90). The MET-CBT therapy and brief advice resulted in similar clinical outcomes and overall medical costs. Further research incorporating non-medical costs, targeting women with more severe substance use disorders, and evaluating the impact of MET-CBT on participants' quality of life will provide additional insights. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00227903 . Registered 27 September

  4. [Economic aspects of the treatment of urinary stones. Results of the German Society for Shock Wave Lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Volkmer, B G; Petschl, S; Chaussy, C; Köhrmann, K-U; Haupt, G; Jocham, D

    2009-10-01

    Urolithiasis is the disease that leads to the largest number of inpatient treatments in urologic clinics in Germany. It is very important to know the current rules of remuneration for urinary stone therapy and to adjust the relevant clinical pathways. The German Society for Shock Wave Lithotripsy (DGSWL) stressed these economic aspects at its 2009 consensus meeting, since clinical therapy cannot be free of economic restrictions in the long term.

  5. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity): an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE) approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum) and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from

  6. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care literature supports the development of accessible interventions that integrate behavioral economics, wearable devices, principles of evidence-based behavior change, and community support. However, there are limited real-world examples of large scale, population-based, member-driven reward platforms. Subsequently, a paucity of outcome data exists and health economic effects remain largely theoretical. To complicate matters, an emerging area of research is defining the role of Superusers, the small percentage of unusually engaged digital health participants who may influence other members. Objective The objective of this preliminary study is to analyze descriptive data from GOODcoins, a self-guided, free-to-consumer engagement and rewards platform incentivizing walking, running and cycling. Registered members accessed the GOODcoins platform through PCs, tablets or mobile devices, and had the opportunity to sync wearables to track activity. Following registration, members were encouraged to join gamified group challenges and compare their progress with that of others. As members met challenge targets, they were rewarded with GOODcoins, which could be redeemed for planet- or people-friendly products. Methods Outcome data were obtained from the GOODcoins custom SQL database. The reporting period was December 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015. Descriptive self-report data were analyzed using MySQL and MS Excel. Results The study period includes data from 1298 users who were connected to an exercise tracking device. Females consisted of 52.6% (n=683) of the study population, 33.7% (n=438) were between the ages of 20-29, and 24.8% (n=322) were between the ages of 30-39. 77.5% (n=1006) of connected and active members met daily-recommended physical activity guidelines of 30 minutes, with a total daily average activity of 107 minutes (95% CI 90, 124). Of all connected and active users, 96.1% (n=1248) listed walking as their primary activity. For members who

  7. Measuring the economic value of alternative clam fishing management practices in the Venice Lagoon: results from a conjoint valuation application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Rossetto, Luca; de Blaeij, Arianne

    2004-11-01

    This article focuses on the economic valuation of alternative clam management practices in the Venice Lagoon. The proposed valuation method is characterized by the design of a survey questionnaire applied to the fishermen population. In each questionnaire, two fishing alternatives are described. The respondent is asked to choose one of them. This valuation method, referred in the article as conjoint valuation, gives sufficient flexibility to set, alter, and combine the valuation of different clam management practices. Furthermore, this approach presents an important advantage to the well-known contingent valuation method since it makes the monetary valuation of each management attribute possible. Estimation results show that all three attributes used in the questionnaire to describe and value different clam management practices—price of the annual permit and fishing technological system—are statistically robust, indicating that fishermen bear a utility change whenever these attributes change. In particular, fishermen's willingness to pay for a larger clam fishing area ranges between 568 and 811 € per year. In addition, an individual's willingness to pay for a fishing practice exclusively based on the vibrant rake system ranges between 1005 and 2456 €. Finally, the adoption of a clam fish management practice in the Venice Lagoon that is exclusively based on the use of manual rakes, which is associated with the lowest damage to the lagoon ecosystem, will represent a welfare loss of 5904 € per fisherman per year. Combining such a value estimate with the total number of fishermen currently operating in the Lagoon of Venice, the welfare loss associated with the adoption of this type of clam management policy amounts to 11.8 € million per year. This figure can be regarded as an upper bound to the cost of implementation of a clam fishing system anchored in the use of manual, ecosystem friendly rakes.

  8. Assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity (ACE-obesity): an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rob; Moodie, Marj; Markwick, Alison; Magnus, Anne; Vos, Theo; Swinburn, Boyd; Haby, Michele M

    2009-11-18

    The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE) approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum) and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from

  9. Constellations of New Demands Concerning Careers and Jobs: Results from a Two-Country Study on Social and Economic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wasilewski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on new demands posed by social and economic change, and applying a pattern-based approach, this study examined constellations of increasing labor market uncertainties (understood as threat) and increasing job-related learning tasks (understood as positive challenge). We investigated whether and how the groups of working individuals behind…

  10. Constellations of New Demands Concerning Careers and Jobs: Results from a Two-Country Study on Social and Economic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Wasilewski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on new demands posed by social and economic change, and applying a pattern-based approach, this study examined constellations of increasing labor market uncertainties (understood as threat) and increasing job-related learning tasks (understood as positive challenge). We investigated whether and how the groups of working individuals behind…

  11. A Little More than Chalk and Talk: Results from a Third National Survey of Teaching Methods in Undergraduate Economics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Michael; Becker, William E.

    2008-01-01

    In 1995, 2000, and 2005, the authors surveyed U.S. academic economists to investigate how economics is taught in four different types of undergraduate courses at postsecondary institutions. They especially looked for any changes in teaching methods that occurred over this decade, when there were several prominent calls for economists and…

  12. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    PubMed

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  13. Yield and Economic Performance of Organic and Conventional Cotton-Based Farming Systems – Results from a Field Trial in India

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M.; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007–2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007–2008) for cotton (−29%) and wheat (−27%), whereas in the 2nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009–2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (−1% in cycle 1, −11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of

  14. Decline of the Mediterranean diet at a time of economic crisis. Results from the Moli-sani study.

    PubMed

    Bonaccio, M; Di Castelnuovo, A; Bonanni, A; Costanzo, S; De Lucia, F; Persichillo, M; Zito, F; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2014-08-01

    Adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) is reportedly declining in the last decades. We aimed to investigate the adherence to MD over the period 2005-2010 and exploring the possible role of the global economic crisis in accounting for the changing in the dietary habits in Italy. Cross-sectional analysis in a population-based cohort study which randomly recruited 21,001 southern Italian citizens enrolled within the Moli-sani study. Food intake was determined by the Italian EPIC food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to MD was appraised by the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI). A wealth score was derived to evaluate the economic position and used together with other socioeconomic indicators. Highest prevalence of adherence to MD was observed during the years 2005-2006 (31.3%) while the prevalence dramatically fell down in the years 2007-2010 (18.3%; P<0.0001). The decrease was stronger in the elderly, less affluent groups, and among those living in urban areas. Accordingly, we observed that in 2007-2010 socioeconomic indicators were strongly associated with higher adherence to MD, whereas no association was detected in the years before the economic crisis began; both wealth score and education were major determinants of high adherence to MD with 31% (95%CI: 18-46%) higher adherence to this pattern within the wealthier group compared to the less affluent category. Adherence to MD has considerably decreased over the last few years. In 2007-2010 socioeconomic indicators have become major determinants of adherence to MD, a fact likely linked to the economic downturn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social and economic correlates of malnutrition in Polish elderly population: the results of PolSenior study.

    PubMed

    Krzymińska-Siemaszko, R; Mossakowska, M; Skalska, A; Klich-Rączka, A; Tobis, S; Szybalska, A; Cylkowska-Nowak, M; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, M; Chudek, J; Wieczorowska-Tobis, K

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of malnutrition in Polish elderly population and analyse its social and economic correlates based on the data from the PolSenior project, the first large-scale study of a representative group of Polish seniors. A cross-sectional population-based study. All territorial provinces in Poland. 4482 community-dwelling respondents aged 65 years or above (women: n=2142, age=79.0±8.4 years; men: n=2340, age= 78.3±8.6 years). The nutritional status of participants was assessed through the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (the revised MNA-SF). Out of social and economic correlates we evaluated age, sex, level of education, marital status, place of residence, living conditions and economic status. Economic status of the respondents was determined on the basis of questions on how well they could manage their own budgets. Those who could afford only the cheapest food or clothes were considered the group of self-reported poverty. Frequency of malnutrition in the PolSenior population accounted for 7.5% (in 5.0% men and 9.0% women; p<0.001). The risk of malnutrition was present in 38.9% (33.3% men and 42.4% women; p<0.001). In our study female sex, older age, unmarried status, living in a rural area and self-reported poverty were independent correlates of malnutrition. Our data showed high prevalence of malnutrition and the risk of its development among the community-dwelling elderly people in Poland. Screening with MNA-SF should focus in particular on unmarried, poorly educated individuals, in late old age, living in rural areas and self-reporting a poor financial state, especially women.

  16. Oil revenues and economic policy in Cameroon: results from a computable general-equilibrium model. World Bank staff working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, N.C.; Devarajan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of oil revenues on the agriculture-based economy of Cameroon, a significant (100,000 barrels per day) but temporary (20 years of reserves) oil producer. It has been observed in other oil-exporting countries that when oil revenues are spent domestically, an appreciation of the real exchange rate results, leading to a shift in the production mix away from tradeable sectors in favor of nontradeables. Using a multisectoral, general-equilibrium model of Cameroon, the authors show that while this effect occurs in the aggregate, some tradeable sectors actually expand.

  17. Evaluating the health and economic impact of osteoarthritis pain in the workforce: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey.

    PubMed

    Dibonaventura, Marco dacosta; Gupta, Shaloo; McDonald, Margaret; Sadosky, Alesia

    2011-04-28

    There has been increasing recognition that osteoarthritis (OA) affects younger individuals who are still participants in the workforce, but there are only limited data on the contribution of OA pain to work productivity and other outcomes in an employed population. This study evaluated the impact of OA pain on healthcare resource utilization, productivity and costs in employed individuals. Data were derived from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to characterize employed individuals (full-time, part-time, or self-employed) ≥ 20 years of age who were diagnosed with OA and had arthritis pain in the past month relative to employed individuals not diagnosed with OA or not experiencing arthritis pain in the past month. Work productivity was assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire; health status was assessed using the physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores from the SF-12v2 Health Survey and SF-6D health utilities; and healthcare utilization was evaluated by type and number of resources within the past 6 months. Direct and indirect costs were estimated and compared between the two cohorts. Individuals with OA pain were less likely to be employed. Relative to workers without OA pain (n = 37,599), the OA pain cohort (n = 2,173) was significantly older (mean age 52.1 ± 11.5 years vs 41.4 ± 13.2 years; P < 0.0001) and with a greater proportion of females (58.2% vs 45.9%; P < 0.0001). OA pain resulted in greater work impairment than among workers without OA pain (34.4% versus 17.8%; P < 0.0001), and was primarily due to presenteeism (impaired activity while at work). Health status, assessed both by the SF-12v2 and the SF-6D was significantly poorer among workers with OA pain (P < 0.0001), and healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than workers without OA pain. Total costs were higher in the OA pain cohort ($15,047 versus $8

  18. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; La Pelle, Nancy; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Prosser, Lisa A

    2009-12-21

    Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI >or= 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV) watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs) among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Parents identify

  19. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  20. Micro-economic impact of congenital heart surgery: results of a prospective study from a limited-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Paul, Mary; Sudhakar, Abish; Varghese, Anu Alphonse; Haridas, Aareesh Chittulliparamb; Kabali, Conrad; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The microeconomic impact of surgery for congenital heart disease is unexplored, particularly in resource limited environments. We sought to understand the direct and indirect costs related to congenital heart surgery and its impact on Indian households from a family perspective. Baseline and first follow-up data of 644 consecutive children admitted for surgery for congenital heart disease (March 2013 - July 2014) in a tertiary referral hospital in Central Kerala, South India was collected prospectivelyfrom parents through questionnaires using a semi-structured interview schedule. The median age was 8.2 months (IQR: 3.0- 36.0 months). Most families belonged to upper middle (43.0%) and lower middle (35.7%) socioeconomic class. Only 3.9% of families had some form of health insurance. The median expense for the admission and surgery was INR 201898 (IQR: 163287-266139) [I$ 11989 (IQR: 9696-15804)], which was 0.93 (IQR: 0.52-1.49) times the annual family income of affected patients. Median loss of man-days was 35 (IQR: 24-50) and job-days was 15 (IQR: 11-24). Surgical risk category and hospital stay duration significantly predicted higher costs. One in two families reported overwhelming to high financial stress during admission period for surgery. Approximately half of the families borrowed money during the follow up period after surgery. Surgery for congenital heart disease results in significant financial burden for majority of families studied. Efforts should be directed at further reductions in treatment costs without compromising the quality of care together with generating financial support for affected families.

  1. Cancer time trend in a population following a socio-economic transition: results of age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Pes, Giovanni Mario; Cocco, Federica; Bibbò, Stefano; Marras, Giuseppina; Dore, Maria Pina

    2017-04-01

    To examine cancer trend using age-period-cohort analysis with a cohort of patients in Sardinia, Italy, where epidemiological transition occurred between 1950 and 1960. Poisson log-linear regression models were used to analyze time trend in patients undergoing upper endoscopy between 1995 and 2013. A total of 10,546 clinical records (62.2% women) were retrieved. In 541 patients (5.1%), a diagnosis of cancer was reported, more often in men (5.5%) than in women (4.9%). Age and birth cohort were significantly associated with cancer rate according to age-period-cohort analysis (p < 0.0001), whereas the effect of time period was negligible (p = 0.875). An upward trend for all cancers was observed in the younger generations (7.15% before 1950, 8.85% between 1950 and 1960, and 10.7% after 1960). Population aging and increased exposure to cancer risk factors after epidemiological transition were the major determinants associated with cancer in this Sardinian cohort, whereas time period had no effect, ruling out any variation in diagnostic accuracy. These results may facilitate the provision of preventive measures by the health care system, and improve population-tailored cancer screening strategies.

  2. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Inthorn, Julia; Wöhlke, Sabine; Schmidt, Fabian; Schicktanz, Silke

    2014-07-05

    There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n = 755). The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p = 0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p < 0.001). Women held donor cards significantly more often (28.6%) than men (19.4%, p = 0.004). The majority of students were against direct payments as incentives for deceased and living donations. Nevertheless, 37.5% of the respondents support the idea that the funeral expenses of deceased organ donors should be covered. Women voted significantly less often for the coverage of expenses than men (women 31.6%, men 44.0%, p = 0.003). The number of those in favor of allowing to sell one's organs for money (living organ donation) was highest among students of economics (p = 0.034). Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward.

  3. Long-term clinical and economic benefits associated with the management of a nosocomial outbreak resulting from extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Piednoir, Emmanuel; Thibon, Pascal; Borderan, Guy-Claude; Godde, Frédéric; Borgey, France; Le Coutour, Xavier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, there was an epidemic of infections resulting from extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the intensive care department. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential long-term clinical and economic benefits resulting from the management of this epidemic and the resulting changes in practices. Two periods were defined: the period leading up to and including the epidemic (2003-2005; period I) and the postepidemic period (2006-2008; period II). We estimated the number of nosocomial infections prevented between these two periods in three ways: comparison of attack rates, incidence rates, and calculation of standardized infection ratios. A cost-benefit analysis was then carried out by multiplying the number of nosocomial infections prevented by their cost as estimated from a literature review. The characteristics of the populations hospitalized during these two periods were comparable in terms of age, sex, Simplified Acute Physiologic Scale II score, origin, and type of diagnosis. The death rate was similar in the two periods (21.8% vs. 23.3%; p = .63). The number of nosocomial infections prevented was 54.1 (95% confidence interval 25.8-83.1; 30.4, 95% confidence interval 5.3-54.9; 32.8, 95% confidence interval 6.0-63.7; and 30.1, 95% confidence interval 17.7-42.5) according to the methodology. The savings cost potentially associated with the infection control intervention ranged from €149,928 (USD $183,781) to €269,472 (USD $330,318). The management of this epidemic and the change in medical practices that it triggered were associated with a significant decrease in the number of infections acquired in the intensive care unit. There were substantial cost savings, highlighting the value of investment in the prevention of nosocomial infections.

  4. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) and associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural

  5. Cross-sectional analysis of the reporting of continuous outcome measures and clinical significance of results in randomized trials of non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Thomas, Sarah T; Shin, Paul Ng Hung; Glasziou, Paul P

    2014-09-17

    Reporting the scoring details of continuous outcome measures in randomized trials allows readers to interpret the size of any effect of the intervention. This study aimed to determine, in a sample of randomized trials: 1) the completeness of reporting of scoring details for continuous outcome measures, and 2) whether trial authors comment on the clinical significance of statistically significant trial results. A descriptive analysis of randomized trials of non-pharmacological interventions published during 2009 in the six leading general medical journals (n = 138), and which used at least one continuous outcome measure (n = 85). From each trial report, two authors independently extracted the following information about each continuous outcome measure: the reporting of its scoring details, presentation of its results, and the reporting and justification of the clinical significance of the results. Across the 84 trials, we identified 336 continuous outcome measures. A total of 146 (44%) were published measures, 12 (4%) were adapted from published measures, 5 (1%) were developed for the trial, and 173 (51%) were 'conventional measures' for which scoring details are not necessary (such as weight). For 57 (35%) of the 163 non-conventional outcome measures no scoring details or reference to the outcome measure were provided in the trial report. Of the 159 outcome measures with a statistically significant result, clinical significance was not mentioned for 81 (51%) and was reported without any elaboration or justification for 39 (25%) of them. Scoring details of continuous outcome measures used in this sample of randomized trials of non-pharmacological interventions were incompletely reported, which hampers interpretation of a trial's results. Complete reporting of scoring details is important when considering the clinical significance of the results. When deciding about an intervention, having this information may help clinicians in their conversations with patients

  6. Follow-up of breast cancer in primary care vs specialist care: results of an economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Grunfeld, E; Gray, A; Mant, D; Yudkin, P; Adewuyi-Dalton, R; Coyle, D; Cole, D; Stewart, J; Fitzpatrick, R; Vessey, M

    1999-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing primary-care-centred follow-up of breast cancer patients with the current standard practice of specialist-centred follow-up showed no increase in delay in diagnosing recurrence, and no increase in anxiety or deterioration in health-related quality of life. An economic evaluation of the two schemes of follow-up was conducted concurrent with the RCT. Because the RCT found no difference in the primary clinical outcomes, a cost minimization analysis was conducted. Process measures of the quality of care such as frequency and length of visits were superior in primary care. Costs to patients and to the health service were lower in primary care. There was no difference in total costs of diagnostic tests, with particular tests being performed more frequently in primary care than in specialist care. Data are provided on the average frequency and length of visits, and frequency of diagnostic testing for breast cancer patients during the follow-up period. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098764

  7. Effects of the 2008 Global Economic Crisis on National Health Indicators: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Gyeongsil; Kim, Jun-Suk; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Keun-Seung; Hur, Yong; Cho, Be-Long

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between economics and health has been of great interest throughout the years. The accumulated data is not sufficient enough to carry out long-term studies from the viewpoint of morbidity, although Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was carried out yearly since 1998 in Korea. Thus, we investigated the effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on health indicators of Korea. Health indicators were selected by paired t-test based on 2007 and 2009 KNHANES data. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, working status, and stress were used as confounding factors, which were analyzed with logistic and probit analyses. Validation was done by comparing gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates and probit analyses results of 2007-2012 KNHANES data. Among several health indicators, the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception was higher after the economic crisis. Factors related with higher hypertension prevalence include older age, male gender, higher BMI, no current tobacco use, recent drinking, lower education levels, and stress perception. Factors related with more stress perception were younger age, female gender, current smoking, lower education levels, and lower income. GDP growth rates, a macroeconomic indicator, are inversely associated with hypertension prevalence with a one-year lag, and also inversely associated with stress perception without time lag. The economic crisis increased the prevalence of hypertension and stress perception. In the case of GDP growth rate change, hypertension was an inversely lagging indicator and stress perception was an inversely-related coincident indicator.

  8. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  9. 10 CFR 709.25 - Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect “Significant Response” or “No Opinion”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect âSignificant Responseâ or âNo Opinionâ. 709.25 Section 709.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM Safeguarding Privacy and Employee Rights § 709.25 Limits on use of polygraph...

  10. 10 CFR 709.25 - Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect “Significant Response” or “No Opinion”.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect âSignificant Responseâ or âNo Opinionâ. 709.25 Section 709.25 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COUNTERINTELLIGENCE EVALUATION PROGRAM Safeguarding Privacy and Employee Rights § 709.25 Limits on use of polygraph...

  11. Measuring the Regional Economic Significance of Airports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    include . I-planing, sky-diving, flying homebuilt aircraft , and local -gntseeing. These are an important source of recreation ind entertainment and...if major improvements or new construction are anticipated. They may even be the target of proposed restrictions aimed at limiting aircraft noise...critical variables that must be determined for each individual analysis are the number of based aircraft , the number of passengers in commercial air

  12. Understanding economic abuse in the lives of survivors.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about economic abuse and its relationship with economic self-sufficiency by presenting the results from an exploratory study with IPV survivors participating in a financial literacy program. Of the 120 individuals who participated in the first wave, 94% experienced some form of economic abuse, which also correlated highly with other forms of IPV. Seventy-nine percent experienced some form of economic control, 79% experienced economic exploitative behaviors, and 78% experienced employment sabotage. MANOVA results also indicated that economic control differed significantly based on education with those with a high school education experiencing higher rates than those with less than high school education or those with some college. Finally, results from the OLS regressions indicated that experiencing any form of economic abuse as well as economic control significantly predicted a decrease in economic self sufficiency. Implications suggest that advocates should assess for economic abuse when working with survivors and should be prepared to offer financial tools to increase survivors' economic self-sufficiency. Policymakers should understand the ramifications of economic abuse and create policies that support survivors and prohibit economic abuse. Finally, more research is needed to fully understand economic abuse and its impact on survivors and their economic self-sufficiency.

  13. [Poverty and Health: The Living Standard Approach as a Supplementary Concept to Measure Relative Poverty. Results from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP 2011)].

    PubMed

    Pförtner, T-K

    2016-06-01

    A common indicator of the measurement of relative poverty is the disposable income of a household. Current research introduces the living standard approach as an alternative concept for describing and measuring relative poverty. This study compares both approaches with regard to subjective health status of the German population, and provides theoretical implications for the utilisation of the income and living standard approach in health research. Analyses are based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) from the year 2011 that includes 12 290 private households and 21106 survey members. Self-rated health was based on a subjective assessment of general health status. Income poverty is based on the equalised disposable income and is applied to a threshold of 60% of the median-based average income. A person will be denoted as deprived (inadequate living standard) if 3 or more out of 11 living standard items are lacking due to financial reasons. To calculate the discriminate power of both poverty indicators, descriptive analyses and stepwise logistic regression models were applied separately for men and women adjusted for age, residence, nationality, educational level, occupational status and marital status. The results of the stepwise regression revealed a stronger poverty-health relationship for the living standard indicator. After adjusting for all control variables and the respective poverty indicator, income poverty was statistically not significantly associated with a poor subjective health status among men (OR Men: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00-1.77) and women (OR Women: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.22). In contrast, the association between deprivation and subjective health status was statistically significant for men (OR Men: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.57-2.52) and women (OR Women: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.76-2.64). The results of the present study indicate that the income and standard of living approach measure different dimensions of poverty. In comparison to the income approach, the living

  14. Solar engineering - 1981; Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Systems Simulation, Economic Analysis/Solar Heating and Cooling Operational Results, Reno, NV, April 27-May 1, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, R. L.; Murphy, L. M.; Ward, D. S.

    Progress made toward the commercialization of solar energy technologies as of 1981 is assessed, and attention is given to the future uses and impacts of solar energy. Attention is given to the results of several years of monitoring and modifying solar heating and cooling on residential and commercial structures. Solar system simulation and analysis methods are reviewed, covering the performance and operations of passive and active systems, thermosyphon systems, heat pumps and phase change systems. Simulations of system components are discussed, as are means to validate existing computer simulation codes, particularly the TRNSYS program. Control systems and logic for collector systems are explored, including analyses of building loads and climates, and numerical models of the economics of solar heating systems are presented. Performance simulations and economic analyses are also outlined for wind and photovoltaic systems, and for industrial solar heating systems. Finally, fundamental studies of corrosion, steam flow, wind loading, and scaling in solar systems are described.

  15. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    (GHRR) equal to the original boiler design. Boiler efficiencies (cogeneration-steam plus air) is increased from the original design value of 70% to 78.9% due to a combination of improved burnout, operation with lower excess air, and drier fuel. For the fully implemented plant, the thermal efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion is 79.8% in the cogeneration mode, 5% above the design goal. Finally, self-generated electricity will be increased from the 10.8 MW currently attributable to No.2 Boiler to 46.7MW, an increase of 332%. Environmental benefits derived from the system include a reduction in NOx emissions from the boiler of about 30-50% (90-130 tons/year) through syngas reburning, improved carbon burnout and lower excess air. This does not count NOx reduction that may be associated with replacement of purchased electricity. The project would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the generation of electricity to meet the mill's power requirements, including 50,000 tons/yr from a net reduction in gas usage in the mill and an additional 410,000 tons/yr reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions due to a 34 MW reduction of purchased electricity. The total CO{sub 2} reduction amounts to about 33% of the CO{sub 2} currently generated to meet the mills electricity requirement. The overall conclusion of the study is that while significant engineering challenges are presented by the proposed system, they can be met with operationally acceptable and cost effective solutions. The benefits of the system can be realized in an economic manner, with a simple payback period on the order of 6 years. The results of the study are applicable to many paper mills in the U.S. firing woodwastes and other solid fuels for steam and power production.

  16. The economic impact of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: results of a double-blinded, prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ralph E; Burke, Rachel; Schneider, James J; Brar, Harpreet; Lucha, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    For this study, 66 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of unilateral primary inguinal hernia were randomized to undergo laparoscopic totally extra peritoneal (TEP), laparoscopic transabdominal (TAPP), or open inguinal hernia repair with polypropylene mesh (Lichtenstein type). Both the operative team caring for the patient postoperatively and the patient were blinded to the operative approach by placement of a large dressing covering the abdomen, which was not removed until postoperative day 3. The patients recorded their pain level on a visual analog pain scale daily. Medication usage also was recorded. All patients were seen at 7-day intervals until they returned to work. The patients were interviewed during their postoperative visits by an investigator blinded to the operative approach and questioned regarding their ability to return to work and their pain levels. The average number of lost work days in all the groups was 12, and there was no significant difference between the three groups (p = 0.074). The average operating time for the TAPP procedure was 59 min, less than the time required to complete either the TEP or the Lichtenstein approach, which had equivalent operative times (p = 0.027). The material cost was significantly lower for the Lichtenstein repair (1,200 dollars less) than for either of the laparoscopic approaches, a saving primarily related to consumable operating room supplies. The TEP repair costs were minimally higher than those for the TAPP repair (125 dollars more). No significant differences were noted in the postoperative pain scales, and the use of postoperative oral analgesics was equivalent. The higher operative costs noted for the laparoscopic hernia repairs were not offset by a shortened convalescence. Postoperative pain appears to be equivalent regardless of the operative approach chosen and is easily managed with oral analgesics.

  17. What is the clinical significance of chest CT when the chest x-ray result is normal in patients with blunt trauma?

    PubMed

    Kea, Bory; Gamarallage, Ruwan; Vairamuthu, Hemamalini; Fortman, Jonathan; Lunney, Kevin; Hendey, Gregory W; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2013-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been shown to detect more injuries than plain radiography in patients with blunt trauma, but it is unclear whether these injuries are clinically significant. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients with normal chest x-ray (CXR) result and injury seen on CT and abnormal initial CXR result and no injury on CT and to characterize the clinical significance of injuries seen on CT as determined by a trauma expert panel. Patients with blunt trauma older than 14 years who received emergency department chest imaging as part of their evaluation at 2 urban level I trauma centers were enrolled. An expert trauma panel a priori classified thoracic injuries and subsequent interventions as major, minor, or no clinical significance. Of 3639 participants, 2848 (78.3%) had CXR alone and 791 (21.7%) had CXR and chest CT. Of 589 patients who had chest CT after a normal CXR result, 483 (82.0% [95% confidence interval [CI], 78.7-84.9%]) had normal CT results, and 106 (18.0% [95% CI, 15.1%-21.3%]) had CTs diagnosing injuries-primarily rib fractures, pulmonary contusion, and incidental pneumothorax. Twelve patients had injuries classified as clinically major (2.0% [95% CI, 1.2%-3.5%]), 78 were clinically minor (13.2% [95% CI, 10.7%-16.2%]), and 16 were clinically insignificant (2.7% (95% CI, 1.7%-4.4%]). Of 202 patients with CXRs suggesting injury, 177 (87.6% [95% CI, 82.4%-91.5%]) had chest CTs confirming injury and 25 (12.4% [95% CI, 8.5%-17.6%]) had no injury on CT. Chest CT after a normal CXR result in patients with blunt trauma detects injuries, but most do not lead to changes in patient management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are body mass index and waist circumference significant predictors of diabetes and prediabetes risk: Results from a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Amini, Masoud; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the predictive role of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for diabetes and prediabetes risk in future in total sample as well as in men and women separately. METHODS In a population based cohort study, 1765 with mean ± SD age: 42.32 ± 6.18 healthy participants were followed up from 2003 till 2013 (n = 960). Anthropometric and biochemical measures of participants were evaluated regularly during the follow up period. BMI and WC measures at baseline and diabetes and prediabetes status of participants at 2013 were determined. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used for determining the risk of diabetes and prediabetes considering important potential confounding variables. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to determine the best cut of values of BMI and WC for diabetes and prediabetes. RESULTS At 2013, among participants who had complete data, 45 and 307 people were diabetic and prediabetic, respectively. In final fully adjusted model, BMI value was a significant predictor of diabetes (RR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.06-1.82 and AUC = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.59-0.75; P < 0.001) however not a significant risk factor for prediabetes. Also, WC was a significant predictor for diabetes (RR = 1.2, 95%CI: 1.05-1.38 and AUC = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.6-0.75) but not significant risk factor for prediabetes. Similar results were observed in both genders. CONCLUSION General and abdominal obesity are significant risk factors for diabetes in future. PMID:28751960

  19. Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. Objectives To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. Methods Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Results Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. Conclusions RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions. PMID:23355902

  20. Economic Analysis of Apixaban Therapy for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation From a US Perspective: Results From the ARISTOTLE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Cowper, Patricia A; Sheng, Shubin; Lopes, Renato D; Anstrom, Kevin J; Stafford, Judith A; Davidson-Ray, Linda; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Ansell, Jack; Dorian, Paul; Husted, Steen; McMurray, John J V; Steg, P Gabriel; Alexander, John H; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Mark, Daniel B

    2017-05-01

    The Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial reported that apixaban therapy was superior to warfarin therapy in preventing stroke and all-cause death while causing significantly fewer major bleeds. To establish the value proposition of substituting apixiban therapy for warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis using patient-level data from the ARISTOTLE trial. To assess the cost and cost-effectiveness of apixaban therapy compared with warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation from the perspective of the US health care system. This economic analysis uses patient-level resource use and clinical data collected in the ARISTOTLE trial, a multinational randomized clinical trial that observed 18 201 patients (3417 US patients) for a median of 1.8 years between 2006 and 2011. Apixaban therapy vs warfarin therapy. Within-trial resource use and cost were compared between treatments, using externally derived US cost weights. Life expectancies for US patients were estimated according to their baseline risk and treatment using time-based and age-based survival models developed using the overall ARISTOTLE population. Quality-of-life adjustment factors were obtained from external sources. Cost-effectiveness (incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained) was evaluated from a US perspective, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed. Of the 3417 US patients enrolled in ARISTOTLE, the mean (SD) age was 71 (10) years; 2329 (68.2%) were male and 3264 (95.5%) were white. After 2 years of anticoagulation therapy, health care costs (excluding the study drug) of patients treated with apixaban therapy and warfarin therapy were not statistically different (difference, -$60; 95% CI, -$2728 to $2608). Life expectancy, modeled from ARISTOTLE outcomes, was significantly longer with apixaban therapy vs warfarin therapy (7.94 vs 7.54 quality

  1. [The significance of the results of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities for the prevention of the traffic road accidents].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Grigoryan, V G; Gusarov, A A; Kucheryavets, Yu O

    The disabling injuries inflicted during road traffic accidents (RTA) create a serious challenge for the public health services and are at the same time a major socio-economic problem in the majority of the countries throughout the world. The injuries to the lower extremities of the pedestrians make up the largest fraction of the total number of the non-lethal RTA injuries. Most of them are responsible for the considerable deterioration of the quality of life for the participants in the accidents during the subsequent period. The objective of the present study was to summarize the currently available results of experimental testing of the biomechanical models of the pedestrians' lower extremities in the framework of the program for the prevention of the road traffic accidents as proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2004). The European Enhanced Safety Vehicle Committee (EEVC) has developed a series of crash-tests with the use of the models of the pedestrians' lower extremities simulating the vehicle bumper-pedestrian impact. The models are intended for the assessment of the risk of the tibia fractures and the injuries to the knee joint ligaments. The experts of EEVC proposed the biomechanical criteria for the acceleration of the knee and talocrural parts of the lower limbs as well as for the shear displacement of the knee and knee-bending angle. The engineering solution of this problem is based on numerous innovation proposals being implemented in the machine-building industry with the purpose of reducing the stiffness of structural elements of the bumper and other front components of a modern vehicle designed to protect the pedestrians from severe injuries that can be inflicted in the road traffic accidents. The activities of the public health authorities (in the first place, bureaus of forensic medical expertise and analogous facilities) have a direct bearing on the solution of the problem of control of road traffic injuries because they are possessed of

  2. [Cognitive function evaluation in school-age children from economically impoverished community: results of enriched education program].

    PubMed

    Macedo, Célia Sperandéo; Andreucci, Lívia Christina; Montelli, Terezinha de Cresci Braga

    2004-09-01

    Sixty-three school-age children of low socioeconomic status and exposed to adverse environmental factors (malnutrition, familiar distress and low familiar incomes) were submitted to neuropsychological tests to investigate possible cognitive impairments. Classical neuropsychological test battery was employed (Raven test, Bender Gestalt copy of complex figures, draw-a-man Goodenough test). Low intellectual level was found on 30% and 74% showed higher cognitive disorders (visuoperceptual skills and/or perseverations and/or global shapes perception and/or draw-a-man disturbances). These children attended to a school with semi-boarding regimen which receives children under personnel and social adverse factors. School program was enriched with learning activity program based on Piaget and psychomotor exercises based on Lambert for at least one year. They also had some other activities, as painting, singing, computer training, English and Spanish classes. Twenty children were newly accepted and 43 attended at school for one, two or three years. We found significant correlations (p < or =0.05) between superior intellectual performances, bigger periods of attendance at school and methods for cognitive development. There was no association between other brain cognitive functions examined, the attendance to the teaching programs and the years of permanence at school.

  3. Cell type-dependent induction of DNA damage by 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

  4. Exhaling a budesonide inhaler through the nose results in a significant reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray in patients having asthma with rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, W A

    1999-01-01

    Budesonide, an inhaled corticosteroid is used routinely in the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. Although inhaled corticosteroids in therapeutic doses are unlikely to result in systemic side effects, there is as yet skepticism about their routine and prolonged use. The aim of this study was to determine whether budesonide inhalation through a metered dose inhaler, when exhaled through the nose could result in a reduction in the dose requirement of budesonide metered nasal spray in patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis. This study was an open, parallel, comparative, crossover trial in which 49 young patients having perennial allergic asthma with rhinitis were divided into two groups and administered either a combination of budesonide metered dose inhaler with a budesonide nasal spray or a budesonide inhaler alone, which was to be exhaled through the nose. Both groups were later crossed over and weekly symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates were monitored during each phase of the study. Finally, patients who volunteered from both groups were instructed to note the reduction in dose requirement of budesonide nasal spray while using a budesonide inhaler and exhaling it through the nose. The results of this study reveal that when a budesonide inhaler is exhaled through the nose, it results in an improvement in symptom scores and peak nasal inspiratory flow rates, which were significantly less than those obtained in the group using both a budesonide nasal spray and a metered dose inhaler. In addition, exhaling budesonide through the nose results in a 40.1% reduction in the dose requirement of a budesonide nasal spray, which is statistically significant (p < 0.001).

  5. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [P<.0001]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.014% [P =.016]). Women testing HPV negative/ASC-US were found to have precancer/cancer risks that were more closely aligned with women with negative Pap test results, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014

  6. The prognostic significance of early treatment response in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: results of the international study Relapsed AML 2001/01.

    PubMed

    Creutzig, Ursula; Zimmermann, Martin; Dworzak, Michael N; Gibson, Brenda; Tamminga, Rienk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Hasle, Henrik; Maschan, Alexey; Bertrand, Yves; Leverger, Guy; von Neuhoff, Christine; Razzouk, Bassem; Rizzari, Carmelo; Smisek, Petr; Smith, Owen P; Stark, Batia; Reinhardt, Dirk; Kaspers, Gertjan L

    2014-09-01

    The prognostic significance of early response to treatment has not been reported in relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. In order to identify an early and easily applicable prognostic factor allowing subsequent treatment modifications, we assessed leukemic blast counts in the bone marrow by morphology on days 15 and 28 after first reinduction in 338 patients of the international Relapsed-AML2001/01 trial. Both day 15 and day 28 status was classified as good (≤20% leukemic blasts) in 77% of patients. The correlation between day 15 and 28 blast percentages was significant, but not strong (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.49, P<0.001). Survival probability decreased in a stepwise fashion along with rising blast counts at day 28. Patients with bone marrow blast counts at this time-point of ≤5%, 6-10%, 11-20% and >20% had 4-year probabilities of survival of 52%±3% versus 36%±10% versus 21%±9% versus 14%±4%, respectively, P<0.0001; this trend was not seen for day 15 results. Multivariate analysis showed that early treatment response at day 28 had the strongest prognostic significance, superseding even time to relapse (< or ≥12 months). In conclusion, an early response to treatment, measured on day 28, is a strong and independent prognostic factor potentially useful for treatment stratification in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with ISRCTN code: 94206677. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. The prognostic significance of early treatment response in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia: results of the international study Relapsed AML 2001/01

    PubMed Central

    Creutzig, Ursula; Zimmermann, Martin; Dworzak, Michael N.; Gibson, Brenda; Tamminga, Rienk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Hasle, Henrik; Maschan, Alexey; Bertrand, Yves; Leverger, Guy; von Neuhoff, Christine; Razzouk, Bassem; Rizzari, Carmelo; Smisek, Petr; Smith, Owen P.; Stark, Batia; Reinhardt, Dirk; Kaspers, Gertjan L.

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic significance of early response to treatment has not been reported in relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. In order to identify an early and easily applicable prognostic factor allowing subsequent treatment modifications, we assessed leukemic blast counts in the bone marrow by morphology on days 15 and 28 after first reinduction in 338 patients of the international Relapsed-AML2001/01 trial. Both day 15 and day 28 status was classified as good (≤20% leukemic blasts) in 77% of patients. The correlation between day 15 and 28 blast percentages was significant, but not strong (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.49, P<0.001). Survival probability decreased in a stepwise fashion along with rising blast counts at day 28. Patients with bone marrow blast counts at this time-point of ≤5%, 6–10%, 11–20% and >20% had 4-year probabilities of survival of 52%±3% versus 36%±10% versus 21%±9% versus 14%±4%, respectively, P<0.0001; this trend was not seen for day 15 results. Multivariate analysis showed that early treatment response at day 28 had the strongest prognostic significance, superseding even time to relapse (< or ≥12 months). In conclusion, an early response to treatment, measured on day 28, is a strong and independent prognostic factor potentially useful for treatment stratification in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia. This study was registered with ISRCTN code: 94206677. PMID:24763401

  8. Psychological distress in French college students: demographic, economic and social stressors. Results from the 2010 National Health Barometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological distress (PD) in students is under-investigated, since its prevalence can be high in certain subgroups of students and it has been seen to be associated with other mental health issues and academic achievement. In a sample of French college students, this study investigated factors associated with PD, and looked more closely at the impact of social and interpersonal variables. Methods Data were extracted from the 2010 French “National Health Barometer”. 946 students were interviewed. Mental health was assessed using the MH-5 five-item scale. Results The PD rate in this sample was 13.8% (7.2% in males, 19.5% in females). Low income, nonsexual assault in the last 12 months, studying law and low social participation were associated with PD in multivariate analyses. Conclusions French students show specific characteristics that are discussed in order to explain the relatively low rate of PD observed. The impact of loneliness and social isolation are a major focus for preventive policies based on community resources and early detection of the symptoms of PD. PMID:24629002

  9. What is the economic value of digoxin therapy in congestive heart failure patients? Results from the DIG trial.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Yusuf, Salim; Bindal, Vishal; Bourassa, Martial G; Horney, Anne; Collins, Joseph F; Mark, Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    The Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) clinical train randomized 6800 congestive heart failure patients (ejection fraction > or =45%) to a daily regimen of either digoxin or placebo. At 37 months average follow-up, patients in both groups had similar mortality. We determined the incremental costs associated with the use of digoxin in this high-risk population. Hospitalizations and medical costs were compared by using a societal perspective. Hospitalizations were assigned Medicare DRG codes by using descriptive information from the clinical trial. Digoxin use was assigned a cost by using the 1998 average wholesale price as reported by Red Book. On average, there were fewer hospitalizations in digoxin-treated patients. These patients had lower heart failure yet higher non-heart failure hospitalization costs than placebo patients. Digoxin therapy was cost saving versus placebo in only 27% of 1000 bootstrap samples using Medicare costs (mean costs 12,648 dollars vs. 12,362 dollars) and in 44% of samples using commercial carrier costs (mean costs 17,400 dollars vs. 17,306 dollars). How ever, digoxin was cost saving in >50% of samples for several higher-risk patient subgroups. The use of digoxin therapy versus placebo was associated with reduced hospitalizations. Moreover, the resulting cost-savings could cover the costs of this inexpensive therapy in selected subgroups of higher-risk patients. In the remainder, there is a modest cost associated with this therapy.

  10. Obesity and onset of significant depressive symptoms: results from a prospective community-based cohort study of older men and women.

    PubMed

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Brenes, Gretchen A; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2010-04-01

    Although several cross-sectional studies have linked obesity and depression, less is known about their longitudinal association and about the relative influence of obesity subtypes. We prospectively examined whether obesity (specifically, abdominal) increased the risk of onset of depression in a population-based sample of older persons. Participants were 2,547 nondepressed, well-functioning white and black persons, aged 70-79 years, enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study. Baseline measurements were conducted between April 1997 and June 1998. Overall obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), whereas abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computer tomography). Onset of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 10-item score > or = 10 at any annual follow-up over 5 years and/or new antidepressant medication use. Persistent depression was defined as depression at 2 consecutive follow-up visits. Over 5 years, significant depressive symptoms emerged in 23.7% of initially nondepressed persons. In men, both overall (BMI: hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) and abdominal obesity (visceral fat: HR per SD increase = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33) predicted onset of depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographics. When BMI and visceral fat were adjusted for each other, only visceral fat was significantly associated with depression onset (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04-1.34). Stronger associations were found for persistent depressive symptoms. No associations were found in women. This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for dementia family caregivers with significant depressive symptoms: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Mausbach, Brent T; López, Javier; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-08-01

    The differential efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for dementia family caregivers' is analyzed through a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 135 caregivers with high depressive symptomatology who were randomly allocated to the intervention conditions or a control group (CG). Pre-, postintervention, and follow-up measurements assessed depressive symptomatology, anxiety, leisure, dysfunctional thoughts, and experiential avoidance. Depression: Significant effects of interventions compared with CG were found for CBT (p < .001, d = 0.98, number needed to treat [NNT] = 3.61) and ACT (p < .001, d = 1.17, NNT = 3.53) at postintervention, but were maintained only at follow-up for CBT (p = .02, d = 0.74, NNT = 9.71). Clinically significant change was observed in 26.7% participants in CBT, 24.2% in ACT, and 0% in CG. At follow-up, 10.53% in CBT and 4% in ACT were recovered (0% CG). Anxiety: At postintervention, ACT participants showed lower anxiety than CBT participants (p < .05, d = 0.50) and CG participants (p < .01, d = 0.79, NNT = 3.86), with no effects at follow-up. At postintervention, 23.33% in CBT, 36.36% in ACT, and 6.45% in CG showed clinically significant change. At follow-up, 26.32% in CBT, 36% in ACT, and 13.64% in CG were recovered. Significant changes at postintervention were found in leisure and dysfunctional thoughts in both ACT and CBT, with changes in experiential avoidance only for ACT. Similar results were obtained for ACT and CBT. ACT seems to be a viable and effective treatment for dementia caregivers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Disruption of interleukin-27 signaling results in impaired gamma interferon production but does not significantly affect immunopathology in murine schistosome infection.

    PubMed

    Shainheit, Mara G; Saraceno, Rosita; Bazzone, Lindsey E; Rutitzky, Laura I; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2007-06-01

    In schistosomiasis mansoni, parasite eggs cause hepatointestinal granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis mediated by CD4 T cells specific for egg antigens. The severity of disease varies extensively in humans and among mouse strains. Marked disease exacerbation induced in typically low-pathology C57BL/6 mice by immunization with schistosome egg antigens (SEA) in complete Freund's adjuvant (SEA/CFA) correlates with elevated production of the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are regulated by IL-12 and IL-23, respectively. Here we examined the effect on the schistosome infection of a third member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, IL-27, using SEA/CFA-immunized and unimmunized mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor chain WSX-1 (WSX-1(-/-)). SEA-stimulated bulk mesenteric lymph node cells or CD4 T cells from 7-week-infected WSX-1(-/-) mice produced significantly less IFN-gamma than did those from C57BL/6 mice, even though there was no difference between these mice in exacerbated hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation or in the levels of IL-17 induced by immunization with SEA/CFA. A fraction of the cells in the granulomas stained positive for IL-27, but there were no significant differences between WSX-1(-/-) and BL/6 mice, nor were there differences in the number of CD4 T cells and eosinophils. A 24-week chronic infection resulted in markedly reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma, in WSX-1(-/-) mice, but again the magnitude of immunopathology was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings indicate that despite the impaired IFN-gamma production, IL-27 signaling has no significant effect on either the magnitude of egg-induced immunopathology or on its closest in vitro correlate, IL-17.

  13. Pisces did not have increased heart failure: data-driven comparisons of binary proportions between levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect statistical significance levels.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Goldwasser, Meredith A

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact on statistical inference when a chi(2) test is used to compare the proportion of successes in the level of a categorical variable that has the highest observed proportion of successes with the proportion of successes in all other levels of the categorical variable combined. Monte Carlo simulations and a case study examining the association between astrological sign and hospitalization for heart failure. A standard chi(2) test results in an inflation of the type I error rate, with the type I error rate increasing as the number of levels of the categorical variable increases. Using a standard chi(2) test, the hospitalization rate for Pisces was statistically significantly different from that of the other 11 astrological signs combined (P=0.026). After accounting for the fact that the selection of Pisces was based on it having the highest observed proportion of heart failure hospitalizations, subjects born under the sign of Pisces no longer had a significantly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization compared to the other residents of Ontario (P=0.152). Post hoc comparisons of the proportions of successes across different levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect inferences.

  14. From Science to Finance-A Tool for Deriving Economic Implications from the Results of Dietary Supplement Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Christopher J; de Lorimier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines evidence showing that the use of key dietary supplements can reduce overall disease treatment-related hospital utilization costs associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States among those at a high risk of experiencing a costly, disease-related event. Results show that the potential avoided hospital utilization costs related to the use of omega-3 supplements at preventive intake levels among the target population can be as much as $2.06 billion on average per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs after accounting for the cost of omega-3 dietary supplements at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $3.88 billion in cumulative health care cost savings from 2013 to 2020. Furthermore, the use of folic acid, B6, and B12 among the target population at preventive intake levels could yield avoided CHD-related hospital utilization costs savings of an average savings of $1.52 billion per year from 2013 to 2020. The potential net savings in avoided CHD-related health care costs after accounting for the cost of folic acid, B6, and B12 utilization at preventive daily intake levels would be more than $5.23 billion in cumulative health care cost net savings during the same period. Thus, targeted dietary supplement regimens are recommended as a means to help control rising societal health care costs, and as a means for high-risk individuals to minimize the chance of having to deal with potentially costly events and to invest in increased quality of life.

  15. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  16. Demographics and economic burden of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK: results of a 2010 census

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The population of dogs and cats passing through rescue shelters may be subject to compromised welfare and increased susceptibility to disease. Little information exists to describe this population, its dynamics and associated management practices. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of un-owned cats and dogs in the UK in 2010, and to document the origins, destinations, husbandry and costs associated with the care of these animals. Results A sampling frame was constructed by searching the databases of publicly registered charities for England, Scotland and Wales, registers of breed rescues, and by internet searches of animal welfare websites. Overall, 2,352 contacts for 1,380 organisations were identified. All were sent a postal questionnaire asking for data on the number of dogs and cats housed, their origins and eventual outcomes, and details of husbandry between January 1st and December 31st 2010. For those which were registered charities (595), financial records were also obtained. A response rate of 38.8% was obtained. Overall, in 2010, 89,571 dogs and 156,826 cats entered the care of the participating organisations. Approximately half of these animals were relinquished by their owners. Other origins included being found as strays or confiscated for welfare purposes. Seventy-five per cent of dogs and 77.1% of cats were rehomed. The next most common outcome was euthanasia, accounting for 10.4% of dogs and 13.2% cats. For dogs and cats, 44.3% and 62% of participants respectively reported having a waiting list, which frequently exceeded the actual capacity of the facility. Over 19,000 people were involved in the care of these animals, on a paid or voluntary basis. Financial records were available for 519/595 (87.2%) of the registered charities, and their total expenditure in 2010 was £340 million. Conclusions This study showed that a large number of animals become un-owned each year, which could have considerable implications for their

  17. Economic crime: does personality matter?

    PubMed

    Alalehto, Tage

    2003-06-01

    Since the publication of Edwin Sutherland's classical study, White Collar Crime, personality has been treated as completely irrelevant as a cause or as a correlating variable in studies of economic crime. This article questions that thesis. In an ongoing Swedish project studying economic crime in the areas of construction, engineering, and the music industry, 128 informants were interviewed regarding the personal character of the economic criminal compared to that of the law-abiding businessperson. Data were collected from five different regions in Sweden using the Big Five model, the personality model most often used within the field of personality research today. This article compares the results from the interviews with the few international studies that exist regarding economic crimes in these areas and common results are emphasized. It also presents nuanced analyses of the significance of personality in economic crime.

  18. Socio-economic factors and virological suppression among people diagnosed with HIV in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study.

    PubMed

    Burch, Lisa; Smith, Colette; Anderson, Jane; Sherr, Lorraine; Rodger, Alison; O'Connell, Rebecca; Gilson, Richard; Elford, Jonathan; Phillips, Andrew; Speakman, Andrew; Johnson, Margaret; Lampe, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, rates of virological suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are very high, but there remain a small but significant number of people on ART with detectable viraemia. The impact of socio-economic factors on virological suppression has been little studied. We used data from ASTRA, a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of >3000 individuals from 8 clinics in the United Kingdom in 2011-2012, linked to clinical records to address this question. Included participants had received ART for >6 months with a recorded current viral load (VL) (latest at the time of questionnaire). Participants provided data on demographic factors: gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and age; and socio-economic factors: UK birth/English reading ability, employment, housing, education and financial hardship. To assess non-adherence, participants were asked if in the past 3 months, they had missed ART for ≥2 days at a time. Virological suppression was defined as VL≤50 cps/mL. For each socio-economic factor, we calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression, first adjusting for demographic factors, then also for non-adherence. A total of 2445 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria (80% male, 69% MSM, median age: 46 years, median CD4 count: 556 cells/mm(3)); 10% (234/2445) had VL>50 cps/mL. After adjusting for demographic factors, non-fluent English, not being employed, not home owning, education below university level and increasing financial hardship were each associated with higher prevalence of VL>50 cps/mL. Additional adjustment for non-adherence largely attenuated each association, but did not fully explain them (see Table 1). After adjustment for non-adherence and demographic factors, younger age was also associated with VL>50 cps/mL: for each additional 10 years an individual was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70-0.92) times as likely to have VL>50 cps/mL (p=0.0019). Adjusted prevalence ratios for VL>50cps/mL were 0.91 (0.62-1.34) for women and 1.25 (0

  19. A simulation study of the strength of evidence in the recommendation of medications based on two trials with statistically significant results

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, John P. A.

    2017-01-01

    A typical rule that has been used for the endorsement of new medications by the Food and Drug Administration is to have two trials, each convincing on its own, demonstrating effectiveness. “Convincing” may be subjectively interpreted, but the use of p-values and the focus on statistical significance (in particular with p < .05 being coined significant) is pervasive in clinical research. Therefore, in this paper, we calculate with simulations what it means to have exactly two trials, each with p < .05, in terms of the actual strength of evidence quantified by Bayes factors. Our results show that different cases where two trials have a p-value below .05 have wildly differing Bayes factors. Bayes factors of at least 20 in favor of the alternative hypothesis are not necessarily achieved and they fail to be reached in a large proportion of cases, in particular when the true effect size is small (0.2 standard deviations) or zero. In a non-trivial number of cases, evidence actually points to the null hypothesis, in particular when the true effect size is zero, when the number of trials is large, and when the number of participants in both groups is low. We recommend use of Bayes factors as a routine tool to assess endorsement of new medications, because Bayes factors consistently quantify strength of evidence. Use of p-values may lead to paradoxical and spurious decision-making regarding the use of new medications. PMID:28273140

  20. No significant improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators by a lifestyle intervention in people with Familial Hypercholesterolemia compared to usual care: results of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background People with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) may benefit from lifestyle changes supporting their primary treatment of dyslipidaemia. This project evaluated the efficacy of an individualised tailored lifestyle intervention on lipids (low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides), systolic blood pressure, glucose, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in people with FH. Methods Adults with FH (n = 340), recruited from a Dutch cascade screening program, were randomly assigned to either a control group or an intervention group. The personalised intervention consisted of web-based tailored lifestyle advice and personal counselling. The control group received care as usual. Lipids, systolic blood pressure, glucose, BMI, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Regression analyses were conducted to examine differences between both groups. Results After 12 months, no significant between-group differences of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk indicators were observed. LDL-C levels had decreased in both the intervention and control group. This difference between intervention and control group was not statistically significant. Conclusions This project suggests that an individually tailored lifestyle intervention did not have an additional effect in improving CVD risk indicators among people with FH. The cumulative effect of many small improvements in all indicators on long term CVD risk remains to be assessed in future studies. Trial registration NTR1899 at ww.trialregister.nl PMID:22490761

  1. A simulation study of the strength of evidence in the recommendation of medications based on two trials with statistically significant results.

    PubMed

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-01-01

    A typical rule that has been used for the endorsement of new medications by the Food and Drug Administration is to have two trials, each convincing on its own, demonstrating effectiveness. "Convincing" may be subjectively interpreted, but the use of p-values and the focus on statistical significance (in particular with p < .05 being coined significant) is pervasive in clinical research. Therefore, in this paper, we calculate with simulations what it means to have exactly two trials, each with p < .05, in terms of the actual strength of evidence quantified by Bayes factors. Our results show that different cases where two trials have a p-value below .05 have wildly differing Bayes factors. Bayes factors of at least 20 in favor of the alternative hypothesis are not necessarily achieved and they fail to be reached in a large proportion of cases, in particular when the true effect size is small (0.2 standard deviations) or zero. In a non-trivial number of cases, evidence actually points to the null hypothesis, in particular when the true effect size is zero, when the number of trials is large, and when the number of participants in both groups is low. We recommend use of Bayes factors as a routine tool to assess endorsement of new medications, because Bayes factors consistently quantify strength of evidence. Use of p-values may lead to paradoxical and spurious decision-making regarding the use of new medications.

  2. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  3. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  4. Significant enhancements of nitrogen oxides, black carbon, and ozone in the North Atlantic lower free troposphere resulting from North American boreal wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val MartíN, M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Pfister, G.; Fialho, P.; Barata, F.

    2006-12-01

    Extensive wildfires burned in northern North America during summer 2004, releasing large amounts of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. Emissions from these wildfires frequently impacted the PICO-NARE station, a mountaintop site situated 6-15 days downwind from the fires in the Azores Islands. To assess the impacts of the boreal wildfire emissions on the levels of aerosol black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides and O3 downwind from North America, we analyzed measurements of CO, BC, total reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy), NOx (NO + NO2) and O3 made from June to September 2004 in combination with MOZART chemical transport model simulations. Long-range transport of boreal wildfire emissions resulted in large enhancements of CO, BC, NOy and NOx, with levels up to 250 ppbv, 665 ng m-3, 1100 pptv and 135 pptv, respectively. Enhancement ratios relative to CO were variable in the plumes sampled, most likely because of variations in wildfire emissions and removal processes during transport. Analyses of ΔBC/ΔCO, ΔNOy/ΔCO and ΔNOx/ΔCO ratios indicate that NOy and BC were on average efficiently exported in these plumes and suggest that decomposition of PAN to NOx was a significant source of NOx. High levels of NOx suggest continuing formation of O3 in these well-aged plumes. O3 levels were also significantly enhanced in the plumes, reaching up to 75 ppbv. Analysis of ΔO3/ΔCO ratios showed distinct behaviors of O3 in the plumes, which varied from significant to lower O3 production. We identify several potential reasons for the complex effects of boreal wildfire emissions on O3 and conclude that this behavior needs to be explored further in the future. These observations demonstrate that boreal wildfire emissions significantly contributed to the NOx and O3 budgets in the central North Atlantic lower free troposphere during summer 2004 and imply large-scale impacts on direct radiative forcing of the atmosphere and on tropospheric NOx and O3.

  5. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  6. Results of a combined model of root system growth and soil water uptake: evaluating the significance of root system architecture to plant water uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouda, M.; Saiers, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Root system hydraulic architecture is a key determinant of plants' ability to withdraw water from the soil, satisfying transpirational demand. Presently, the representation of this component of the hydrological cycle in large-scale models is generally very simplistic, even though transpiration accounts for much of the terrestrial heat and water surface fluxes, and exercises control over photosynthetic uptake of CO2. In order to address this gap, we have developed a modelling approach that relies on several components. The first is RootGrow, original MATLAB code that simulates the stochastic growth of a root system as a function of an intrinsic set of parameters as well as its environment. We ran RootGrow coupled to the second component, a finite-element 3D simulation of the physics of water transport in the soil and root system using COMSOL, resulting in a combined model of root system development and water uptake. Model results show that root system architecture can affect water uptake by two separate mechanisms: (a) root system geometry determines the distribution of absorbing surface area throughout the soil domain, and (b) root system topology affects the water potential at the absorbing surfaces. In this study we sample the model's parameter space to demonstrate over what ranges of physically meaningful parameters (including hydraulic conductivity of plant tissues, soil type, and soil moisture level) these mechanisms significantly affect root systems' water withdrawal rate. The two mechanisms identified and our quantitative results will form the basis of a third component in this approach: developing simple analytical relationships characterising water uptake as a function of root system architecture that can be used in Ecosystem Demography Model v2.1 (ED2), a large-scale Dynamic Vegetation Model, based on a method of upscaling individual-based models of plant ecology.

  7. The significance of mouse liver tumor formation for carcinogenic risk assessment: results and conclusions from a survey of ten years of testing by the agrochemical industry.

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, N G; Enzmann, H; Pate, I; Waechter, F

    1997-01-01

    A survey was performed on the results of 138 carcinogenicity studies conducted in various mouse strains by the agrochemical industry over the period 1983-1993. Data for liver tumor incidence, liver weight, and histopathology were collected along with data on genotoxicity. Studies were judged positive or negative for liver tumor formation on the basis of apparent dose response, malignancy, and difference from historical control values using a weight of evidence approach. Thirty-seven studies were judged to be positive for liver tumorigenicity in one or both sexes. There was no evidence showing an influence of the mouse strain and the duration of the study on the proportion of positive studies. Although 8 of the chemicals tested in the 138 studies were positive in the Ames test, only one of these was judged positive for carcinogenicity. Only 6 of the 37 positive chemicals had any other reported positive genotoxicity findings. A clear relationship between hepatomegaly at 1 year after exposure and a positive tumorigenic outcome at 18 months or 2 years after exposure was demonstrated. Whereas the average relative liver weight of top dose animals was 110% of control in negative studies, it was 150% in positive studies. Likewise, very few negative studies demonstrated significant pathological findings after 1 year, whereas the majority of positive studies had significant liver pathology. The implications of these findings for extrapolation to humans are discussed. Images p1196-a Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9370513

  8. Economic feasibility of microalgal bacterial floc production for wastewater treatment and biomass valorization: A detailed up-to-date analysis of up-scaled pilot results.

    PubMed

    Vulsteke, Elien; Van Den Hende, Sofie; Bourez, Lode; Capoen, Henk; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Albrecht, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The economic potential of outdoor microalgal bacterial floc (MaB-floc) raceway ponds as wastewater treatment technology and bioresource of biomass for fertilizer, shrimp feed, phycobiliproteins and biogas in Northwest Europe is assessed. This assessment is based on cost data provided by industry experts, on experimental data obtained from pilot-scale outdoor MaB-floc ponds treating aquaculture and food-industry effluents, and from different biomass valorization tests. MaB-floc ponds exhibit a cost-performance of EUR 0.25-0.50m(-3) wastewater which is similar to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. The production cost of MaB-flocs in aquaculture and food industry effluent is EUR 5.29 and 8.07kg(-1)TSS, respectively. Capital costs and pond mixing costs are the major expenses. Commercializing MaB-flocs as aquaculture feed generates substantial revenues, but the largest profit potential lies in production of high-purity phycobiliproteins from MaB-flocs. These results highlight the large economic potential of MaB-floc technology, and justify its further development.

  9. Significant prevalence of sickle cell disease in Southwest Germany: results from a birth cohort study indicate the necessity for newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Joachim B; Awad, Saida; Happich, Margit; Muckenthaler, Lena; Lindner, Martin; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bruckner, Thomas; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-02-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) benefit from newborn screening, because life-threatening complications can be prevented by pre-symptomatic diagnosis. In Germany, the immigration of people from endemic countries is steadily growing. Comprehensive data about the epidemiology and prevalence of SCD in Germany are however lacking, and SCD is not included in the national newborn screening program. We provide data on the prevalence of SCD in a population from both urban and rural areas in Southwest Germany. Anonymized dried blood spots from 37,838 unselected newborns were analyzed by allele-specific PCR for the HbS mutation. Samples tested positive were subjected to Sanger sequencing of the entire β-globin coding sequence firstly to validate the screening and secondly to identify compound heterozygous SCD patients with other mutations of the β-globin gene. We identified 83 carriers of the sickle cell trait, three compound heterozygous SCD patients (two with sickle cell-β-thalassemia, one with sickle cell-Hb Tianshui) but no homozygous SCD patients. The novel molecular method and strategy for newborn screening for SCD presented here compares favorably in terms of sensitivity (1.0 for homozygous HbS, 0.996 for heterozygous HbS), specificity (0.996), practicability, and costs with conventional biochemical screening. Our results demonstrate a significant prevalence of SCD of approximately 1:12,000 in an unselected urban and rural population in Southwest Germany. Together with previously published even higher results from exclusively urban populations in Berlin and Hamburg, our data provide the basis for the decision on a newborn screening program for SCD in Germany.

  10. Clinical significance of thyroid incidentalomas identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT: correlation of ultrasonograpy findings with cytology results.

    PubMed

    Demir, Özgür; Köse, Naziyet; Özkan, Elgin; Ünlütürk, Uğur; Aras, Gülseren; Erdoğan, Murat Faik

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of incidental focal or diffuse fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and to evaluate the additive value of thyroid ultrasonography (US) in defining the malignancy potential of thyroid incidentalomas. A total of 1450 patients, who had undergone a PET/CT scan for staging or restaging of various malignancies, were screened retrospectively and 52 (3.6%) patients with focal or diffuse F-FDG uptake in the thyroid gland on PET/CT were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had any history of thyroid diseases. Thyroid US with elastography for a thyroid nodule was performed for all the patients cross-sectionally. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was also applied at the same time as the thyroid US to 34 patients with a nodule(s) 10 mm or more in diameter or less than 10 mm, but with malignancy potential ultrasonographically. The cytology results were compared with the thyroid US and F-FDG PET/CT findings. Although 39 patients had focal (group 1) F-FDG uptake in the thyroid gland, the remaining 13 patients had diffuse (group 2) uptake. In group 1, FNAB was performed in 32 patients. In 10 of 32 (31%) patients, FNAB results were concordant with malignant cytology (seven primary thyroid malignancy and three metastasis to thyroid). In group 2, in one of two patients who had undergone FNAB, malignant cytology (metastasis to thyroid) was detected. Although the difference between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of malignant and benign nodules was statistically significant (10.2±8.9 vs. 5.6±3.0, P=0.013), the difference between the nodule sizes was not statistically significant (20.0±7.3 vs. 16.7±7.4, P=0.923). The presence of suspicious US findings and a high elastography score (≥4) were also statistically significant (P<0.001 and P=0.035, respectively). In the receiver

  11. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were “41-45-58” (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (−325.76 vs. −310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses. PMID:27344182

  12. Prognostic significance of preoperative prognostic nutritional index in colorectal cancer: results from a retrospective cohort study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuchong; Gao, Peng; Chen, Xiaowan; Song, Yongxi; Shi, Jinxin; Zhao, Junhua; Sun, Jingxu; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-09-06

    The preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may forecast colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes, but the evidence is not conclusive. Here, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of patients from the Department of Surgical Oncology at the First Hospital of China Medical University (CMU-SO). We also conducted a meta-analysis of eleven cohort studies. Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) was used to determine the optimal PNI cut-off values for classifying prognosis in the patients from the CMU-SO. The result from CMU-SO and meta-analysis both confirmed that low PNI was significantly associated with a poor prognosis and advanced TNM stages. Among the patients from the CMU-SO, the optimal cut-off values were "41-45-58" (PNI < 41, 41 ≤ PNI < 45, 45 ≤ PNI < 58, PNI ≥ 58), which divided patients into 4 stages. The BIC value for TNM staging combined with the PNI was smaller than that of TNM staging alone (-325.76 vs. -310.80). In conclusion, low PNI was predictive of a poor prognosis and was associated with clinicopathological features in patients with CRC, and the 41-45-58 four-stage division may be suitable for determining prognosis. PNI may thus provide an additional index for use along with the current TNM staging system to determine more accurate CRC prognoses.

  13. Down-regulation of crambe fatty acid desaturase and elongase in Arabidopsis and crambe resulted in significantly increased oleic acid content in seed oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyuan; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Qing; Fan, Jing; Singh, Surinder; Green, Allan; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    High oleic oil is an important industrial feedstock that has been one of the main targets for oil improvement in a number of oil crops. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) is a dedicated oilseed crop, suitable for industrial oil production. In this study, we down-regulated the crambe fatty acid desaturase (FAD) and fatty acid elongase (FAE) genes for creating high oleic seed oil. We first cloned the crambe CaFAD2, CaFAD3 and CaFAE1 genes. Multiple copies of each of these genes were isolated, and the highly homologous sequences were used to make RNAi constructs. These constructs were first tested in Arabidopsis, which led to the elevated oleic or linoleic levels depending on the genes targeted, indicating that the RNAi constructs were effective in regulating the expression of the target genes in nonidentical but closely related species. Furthermore, down-regulation of CaFAD2 and CaFAE1 in crambe with the FAD2-FAE1 RNAi vector resulted in even more significant increase in oleic acid level in the seed oil with up to 80% compared to 13% for wild type. The high oleic trait has been stable in subsequent five generations and the GM line grew normally in greenhouse. This work has demonstrated the great potential of producing high oleic oil in crambe, thus contributing to its development into an oil crop platform for industrial oil production.

  14. Significance Testing Needs a Taxonomy: Or How the Fisher, Neyman-Pearson Controversy Resulted in the Inferential Tail Wagging the Measurement Dog.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Michael T; Brand, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Accurate measurement and a cutoff probability with inferential statistics are not wholly compatible. Fisher understood this when he developed the F test to deal with measurement variability and to make judgments on manipulations that may be worth further study. Neyman and Pearson focused on modeled distributions whose parameters were highly determined and concluded that inferential judgments following an F test could be made with accuracy because the distribution parameters were determined. Neyman and Pearson's approach in the application of statistical analyses using alpha and beta error rates has played a dominant role guiding inferential judgments, appropriately in highly determined situations and inappropriately in scientific exploration. Fisher tried to explain the different situations, but, in part due to some obscure wording, generated a long standing dispute that currently has left the importance of Fisher's p < .05 criteria not fully understood and a general endorsement of the Neyman and Pearson error rate approach. Problems were compounded with power calculations based on effect sizes following significant results entering into exploratory science. To understand in a practical sense when each approach should be used, a dimension reflecting varying levels of certainty or knowledge of population distributions is presented. The dimension provides a taxonomy of statistical situations and appropriate approaches by delineating four zones that represent how well the underlying population of interest is defined ranging from exploratory situations to highly determined populations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for evaluating regional economic impacts under NEPA. This system is mandated, as Army policy, for use... proposed action may or will result in significant impacts to the environment, an EIS is prepared to provide more comprehensive analyses and conclusions about the impacts. Significant impacts of...

  16. Does socio-economic status predict grip strength in older Europeans? Results from the SHARE study in non-institutionalised men and women aged 50+.

    PubMed

    Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Mackenbach, Johan P; Andersen-Ranberg, K; Avendano, Mauricio

    2010-09-01

    Reduced hand-grip strength predicts disability, morbidity and mortality, but whether it is shaped by socio-economic experiences is yet unknown. The authors examined the association of education, occupation, income and wealth with grip strength in older Europeans. Data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe comprising 27 351 participants ages 50+ in 11 countries. Grip strength was objectively measured using a handheld dynamometer. Estimates were obtained based on multivariate linear regression controlling for a wide set of confounders, demographics, health and disability measures, and behavioural risk factors. In the total sample, education, occupational class, income and wealth predicted grip strength among men, whereas only education and wealth predicted grip strength among women. While education and income effects were inconsistent in most countries, wealth consistently predicted grip strength in each country. A one-point increase in the log of wealth was associated with 0.38 kg (95% CI 0.31 to 0.45) higher grip strength in men and 0.18 kg (95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) higher grip strength in women. While education, income and occupation effects disappeared after adjustment for health measures, log of wealth effects remained significant in both men (0.22, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.29) and women (0.08, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.11). Wealth effects were particularly evident in the two lowest quintiles. Old-age socio-economic and financial circumstances as measured by wealth are associated with grip strength, particularly among the least wealthy, while circumstances defined earlier in life as measured by education, income and occupation do not consistently predict grip strength.

  17. Reducing Human-Tsetse Contact Significantly Enhances the Efficacy of Sleeping Sickness Active Screening Campaigns: A Promising Result in the Context of Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Camara, Mamadou; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Kagbadouno, Moise; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Oumou; Traoré, Ibrahima S.; Rouamba, Jérémi; Peylhard, Moana; Somda, Martin B.; Leno, Mamadou; Lehane, Mike J.; Torr, Steve J.; Solano, Philippe; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of gambiense sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020, relies mainly on mass screening of populations at risk and treatment of cases. This strategy is however challenged by the existence of undetected reservoirs of parasites that contribute to the maintenance of transmission. In this study, performed in the Boffa disease focus of Guinea, we evaluated the value of adding vector control to medical surveys and measured its impact on disease burden. Methods The focus was divided into two parts (screen and treat in the western part; screen and treat plus vector control in the eastern part) separated by the Rio Pongo river. Population census and baseline entomological data were collected from the entire focus at the beginning of the study and insecticide impregnated targets were deployed on the eastern bank only. Medical surveys were performed in both areas in 2012 and 2013. Findings In the vector control area, there was an 80% decrease in tsetse density, resulting in a significant decrease of human tsetse contacts, and a decrease of disease prevalence (from 0.3% to 0.1%; p=0.01), and an almost nil incidence of new infections (<0.1%). In contrast, incidence was 10 times higher in the area without vector control (>1%, p<0.0001) with a disease prevalence increasing slightly (from 0.5 to 0.7%, p=0.34). Interpretation Combining medical and vector control was decisive in reducing T. b. gambiense transmission and in speeding up progress towards elimination. Similar strategies could be applied in other foci. PMID:26267667

  18. Analysis of clinical significance of equivocal thyroid cytology with a special consideration for FLUS category - five years of new classification of FNA results.

    PubMed

    Słowińska-Klencka, Dorota; Wojtaszek-Nowicka, Martyna; Sporny, Stanisław; Kuzdak, Krzysztof; Dedecjus, Marek; Pomorski, Lech; Popowicz, Bożena; Woźniak-Oseła, Ewa; Sopiński, Jan; Kaczka, Krzysztof; Koptas, Włodzimierz; Klencki, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic category of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) was intended to allow selection of cases with low risk of malignancy from all smears with indeterminate, suspicious cytology (ISC), which can potentially take advantage from repeat fine-needle aspiration (rFNA). Aim of the study was a comparison of the risk of malignancy related to FLUS nodules and other nodules with ISC: suspected follicular neoplasm (SFN) and suspected malignancy (SM), as well as analysis of the usefulness of assessing ultrasonographic malignancy risk features (UMRF) in nodules with ISC. We analysed UMRF, rFNA, and results of histopathological examination (H) in 441 FLUS, 135 SFN, and 72 SM nodules. The frequency of exposing cancer in H in FLUS nodules was 5.9%, and when cytological follow up was also included it was 2.9%. rFNAs made the diagnosis more precise in 72.7% of FLUS, and in 5.2% it was diagnosis/suspicion of cancer. The incidence of cancer in SFN nodules was 8.2%, in SM nodules with suspicion of papillary cancer - 61.1%, and in nodules with suspicion of other or unspecified malignancy - 53.8% (p < 0.0001 FLUS vs. both groups). The presence of calcifications is the only independent UMRF for nodules with ISC (OR 4.7). Features of importance are also microcalcifications (OR 3.8), especially in the SM group, and taller-than-wide-shape (OR 2.2). FLUS and SFN nodules are characterised by particularly low value of assessing suspicious margins; analysis of hypoechogenicity is of low value in SFN nodules, like suspected vascularisation in SFN and SM nodules. The risk of cancer in FLUS and SFN nodules is lower than in SM nodules. rFNAs of FLUS nodules make the diagnosis more precise in more than 70% of cases and are effective in revealing cancers. UMRFs present variable diagnostic value depending on the subcategory of ISC.

  19. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  20. [Economic crime].

    PubMed

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  1. Report: ECHO Data Quality Audit – Phase I Results: The Integrated Compliance Information System Needs Security Controls to Protect Significant Non-Compliance Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #09-P-0226, August 31, 2009. End users of the Permit Compliance System and Integrated Compliance Information System National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System can override the Significant Non-Compliance data field without more access controls.

  2. Is Thawing Permafrost as a Result of Global Warming a Possible Significant Source of Degradable Carbon for Microbiota Residing In Situ and in Arctic Rivers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, E. Y.; Coolen, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Northern high-latitude ecosystems contain about half of the world's soil carbon, most of which is stored in permanently frozen soil (permafrost). Global warming through the 21st century is expected to induce permafrost thaw, which will increase microbial organic matter (OM) decomposition and release large amounts of the greenhouse gasses methane and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In addition, Arctic rivers are a globally important source of terrestrial organic carbon to the ocean and further permafrost melting will impact surface runoff, directly affecting groundwater storage and river discharge. Up to now, it remains largely unknown to what extent the ancient OM stored in newly thawing permafrost can be consumed by microbes in situ or by microbes residing in Arctic rivers which become exposed to newly discharged permafrost OM. In addition, we know little about which microbes are capable of degrading permafrost OM. During a field trip to the Toolik Lake Arctic Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) field station in northern Alaska in August 2008, we cored permafrost located near the Kuparuk River down to 110 cm below the active layer (i.e. the top layer which melts each summer) and analyzed the initial microbial enzymatic cleavage of particulate OM (POM) stored in permafrost. Alkaline phosphatase activity remained fairly constant throughout the permafrost and was only one order of magnitude lower than in the active layer. The latter enzyme cleaves organic phosphoesters into phosphate, which could cause eutrophication of lakes and rivers via ground water discharge. Similar results were found for β-glucosidase, which cleaves cellobiose into glucose. This process could fuel heterotrophic bacteria to produce carbon dioxide which, in return, could be converted to the stronger greenhouse gas methane by methanogenic archaea. Leucine aminopeptidase activities, on the other hand, were highest in the top Sphagnum root layer and quickly dropped to below detection limit

  3. Analyzing Beach Recreationists’ Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents’ mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  4. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  5. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  6. The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Ted; And Others

    This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

  7. The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Ted; And Others

    This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

  8. The Variable Significance of Religion Among Ethnic Types of Rural Youth in the U.S.: A Synthesis of Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuvlesky, William P.

    A comparative analysis of the findings of three studies involving widely varying ethnic groupings of rural youth was conducted in order to evolve a speculative frame of propositions about religion as a variable attribute of the life situation of rural youth, and to speculate about the possible significance of patterned variability in religious…

  9. Verification results for the Spectral Ocean Wave Model (SOWM) by means of significant wave height measurements made by the GEOS-3 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J.; Salfi, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Significant wave heights estimated from the shape of the return pulse wave form of the altimeter on GEOS-3 for forty-four orbit segments obtained during 1975 and 1976 are compared with the significant wave heights specified by the spectral ocean wave model (SOWM), which is the presently operational numerical wave forecasting model at the Fleet Numerical Weather Central. Except for a number of orbit segments with poor agreement and larger errors, the SOWM specifications tended to be biased from 0.5 to 1.0 meters too low and to have RMS errors of 1.0 to 1.4 meters. The much fewer larger errors can be attributed to poor wind data for some parts of the Northern Hemisphere oceans. The bias can be attributed to the somewhat too light winds used to generate the waves in the model. Other sources of error are identified in the equatorial and trade wind areas.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of the RSI QuickScan intervention programme for computer workers: Results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Speklé, Erwin M; Heinrich, Judith; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Blatter, Birgitte M; van der Beek, Allard J; van Dieën, Jaap H; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2010-11-11

    The costs of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms are high. In order to decrease these costs employers implement interventions aimed at reducing these symptoms. One frequently used intervention is the RSI QuickScan intervention programme. It establishes a risk profile of the target population and subsequently advises interventions following a decision tree based on that risk profile. The purpose of this study was to perform an economic evaluation, from both the societal and companies' perspective, of the RSI QuickScan intervention programme for computer workers. In this study, effectiveness was defined at three levels: exposure to risk factors, prevalence of arm, shoulder and neck symptoms, and days of sick leave. The economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participating computer workers from 7 companies (N = 638) were assigned to either the intervention group (N = 320) or the usual care group (N = 318) by means of cluster randomisation (N = 50). The intervention consisted of a tailor-made programme, based on a previously established risk profile. At baseline, 6 and 12 month follow-up, the participants completed the RSI QuickScan questionnaire. Analyses to estimate the effect of the intervention were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. To compare costs between groups, confidence intervals for cost differences were computed by bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping. The mean intervention costs, paid by the employer, were 59 euro per participant in the intervention and 28 euro in the usual care group. Mean total health care and non-health care costs per participant were 108 euro in both groups. As to the cost-effectiveness, improvement in received information on healthy computer use as well as in their work posture and movement was observed at higher costs. With regard to the other risk factors, symptoms and sick leave, only small and non-significant effects were found. In this study, the RSI Quick

  11. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (P<0.01), but the effects were not sustained at Week 4 when the treatment was removed. Granola bar intake decreased in the treatment group at Week 2 (P≤0.001) and Week 3 (P≤0.005) relative to baseline. Parents were able to administer feeding practices derived from behavioral economics and psychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long

  12. Randomised control trial showed that delayed cord clamping and milking resulted in no significant differences in iron stores and physical growth parameters at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivam; Jaiswal, Vijay; Singh, Dharamveer; Jaiswal, Prateek; Garg, Amit; Upadhyay, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Placental redistribution has been shown to improve haematological outcomes in the immediate neonatal period and early infancy. This study compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) on haematological and growth parameters at 12 months of age. This was a follow-up study of a randomised control trial, conducted in a tertiary care paediatric centre from August 2013 to August 2014. We studied 200 apparently healthy Indian infants randomised at birth to receive DCC for 60-90 seconds or UCM. The outcome measures were iron status and physical growth parameters at 12 months. Of the 200 babies, 161 completed the follow-up and baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean haemoglobin in the DCC group (102.2 (17.2) g/L and serum ferritin 16.44 (2.77) μg/L) showed no significant differences to the UCM group (98.6 (17.1) g/L and 18.2 (2.8) μg/L) at one year. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the two groups. Term-born Indian infants who had DCC at 60-90 seconds or UCM showed no significant differences in ferritin and haemoglobin levels and growth parameters at 12 months of age. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  14. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Miles

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people's minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called "bounded rationality"), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world.

  15. Sociodemographic and economic factors are associated with weight gain between before and after cancer diagnosis: results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Partula, Valentin; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Purpose While many cancer patients are affected by weight loss, others tend to gain weight, which may impact prognosis and risk of recurrence and of second cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis and socio-demographic, economic, lifestyle and clinical factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain. Methods 1051 incident cases of first primary cancer were diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. Weight was prospectively collected every 6 months since subjects’ inclusion (i.e. an average of 2y before diagnosis). Mean weights before and after cancer diagnosis were compared with paired Student's t-test. Factors associated with moderate-to-severe weight gain (≥5% of initial weight) were investigated by age and sex-adjusted logistic regression. Results Weight loss was observed in men (-3.54±4.39kg in those who lost weight, p=0.0002) and in colorectal cancer patients (-3.94±4.40kg, p=0.001). Weight gain was observed in breast and skin cancers (2.83±3.21kg, p=0.04, and 2.96±2.75kg, p=0.04 respectively). Women (OR=1.75[1.06-2.87],p=0.03), younger patients (2.44[1.51-3.70],p<0.0001), those with lower income (OR=1.30[1.01-1.72],p-trend=0.007), lower education (OR=1.32[1.03-2.70],p-trend=0.03), excess weight before diagnosis (OR=1.64[1.12-2.42],p=0.01), lower physical activity (OR=1.28[1.01-1.64],p=0.04) and those who stopped smoking (OR=4.31[1.99-9.35],p=0.005]) were more likely to gain weight. In breast cancer patients, induced menopause was associated with weight gain (OR=4.12[1.76-9.67]), but no association was detected for tumor characteristics or treatments. Conclusion This large prospective cohort provided original results on weight variation between before and after cancer diagnosis, highlighting different weight trajectories. Socio-demographic and economic factors appeared to influence the risk of weight gain, illustrating social inequalities in health

  16. Statistical Significance Is Not a "Kosher Certificate" for Observed Effects: A Critical Analysis of the Two-Step Approach to the Evaluation of Empirical Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    2000-01-01

    Shows why the two-step approach proposed by D. Robinson and J. Levine (1997) is inappropriate for the evaluation of empirical results and reiterates the preferred approach of increased sample size and the computation of confidence intervals. (SLD)

  17. Interim Guidance on the Treatment of Condensable Particulate Matter Test Results in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Nonattainment New Source Review Permitting Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Functional variants of the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase gene significantly increase susceptibility to prostate cancer: Results from an ethnic Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Xian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Rui; Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Chang, Kun; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Gan, Hua-Lei; Dai, Bo; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Shi, Guo-Hai; Zhu, Yao; Ye, Ding-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. The one-carbon metabolism pathway and related metabolites determine cellular DNA methylation and thus is thought to play a pivotal role in PCa occurrence. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes to prostate cancer (PCa) risk and the underlying biological mechanisms. In this hospital-based case-control study of 1817 PCa cases and 2026 cancer-free controls, we genotyped six polymorphisms in three one-carbon metabolism genes and assessed their association with the risk of PCa. We found two noncoding MTR variants, rs28372871 T > G and rs1131450 G > A, were independently associated with a significantly increased risk of PCa. The rs28372871 GG genotype (adjusted OR = 1.40, P = 0.004) and rs1131450 AA genotype (adjusted OR = 1.64, P = 0.007) exhibited 1.40-fold and 1.64-fold higher risk of PCa, respectively, compared with their respective homozygous wild-type genotypes. Further functional analyses revealed these two variants contribute to reducing MTR expression, elevating homocysteine and SAH levels, reducing methionine and SAM levels, increasing SAH/SAM ratio, and promoting the invasion of PCa cells in vitro. Collectively, our data suggest regulatory variants of the MTR gene significantly increase the PCa risk via decreasing methylation potential. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism for the prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:27808252

  19. Significant differences in incubation times in sheep infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy result from variation at codon 141 in the PRNP gene.

    PubMed

    Tan, Boon Chin; Blanco, Anthony R Alejo; Houston, E Fiona; Stewart, Paula; Goldmann, Wilfred; Gill, Andrew C; de Wolf, Christopher; Manson, Jean C; McCutcheon, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to prion infection is linked to variation in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. Common polymorphisms occur at codons 136, 154 and 171. Sheep which are homozygous for the A(136)R(154)Q(171) allele are the most susceptible to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The effect of other polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility is unknown. We orally infected ARQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep with equal amounts of BSE brain homogenate and a range of incubation periods was observed. When we segregated sheep according to the amino acid (L or F) encoded at codon 141 of the PRNP gene, the shortest incubation period was observed in LL(141) sheep, whilst incubation periods in FF(141) and LF(141) sheep were significantly longer. No statistically significant differences existed in the expression of total prion protein or the disease-associated isoform in BSE-infected sheep within each genotype subgroup. This suggested that the amino acid encoded at codon 141 probably affects incubation times through direct effects on protein misfolding rates.

  20. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  1. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6–17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. Methods In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Results It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Conclusion Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem. PMID:27227780

  2. Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the face are associated with significant morbidity and mortality: results of an 11-year multi-institutional study of 720 patients.

    PubMed

    Shackford, Steven R; Kahl, Jessica E; Calvo, Richard Y; Kozar, Rosemary A; Haugen, Christine E; Kaups, Krista L; Willey, Marybeth; Tibbs, Brian M; Mutto, Susan M; Rizzo, Anne G; Lormel, Christy S; Shackford, Meghan C; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Cogbill, Thomas H; Kallies, Kara J; Haan, James M; Ward, Jeanette

    2014-02-01

    Gunshot wounds and blast injuries to the face (GSWBIFs) produce complex wounds requiring management by multiple surgical specialties. Previous work is limited to single institution reports with little information on processes of care or outcome. We sought to determine those factors associated with hospital complications and mortality. We performed an 11-year multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients sustaining GSWBIF. The face, defined as the area anterior to the external auditory meatuses from the top of the forehead to the chin, was categorized into three zones: I, the chin to the base of the nose; II, the base of the nose to the eyebrows; III, above the brows. We analyzed the effect of multiple factors on outcome. From January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2010, we treated 720 patients with GSWBIF (539 males, 75%), with a median age of 29 years. The wounding agent was handgun in 41%, explosive (shotgun and blast) in 20%, rifle in 6%, and unknown in 33%. Prehospital or resuscitative phase airway was required in 236 patients (33%). Definitive care was rendered by multiple specialties in 271 patients (38%). Overall, 185 patients died (26%), 146 (79%) within 48 hours. Of the 481 patients hospitalized greater than 48 hours, 184 had at least one complication (38%). Factors significantly associated with any of a total of 207 complications were total number of operations (p < 0.001), Revised Trauma Score (RTS, p < 0.001), and head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score (p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with mortality were RTS (p < 0.001), head AIS score (p < 0.001), total number of operations (p < 0.001), and age (p < 0.05). An injury located in Zone III was independently associated with mortality (p < 0.001). GSWBIFs have high mortality and are associated with significant morbidity. The multispecialty involvement required for definitive care necessitates triage to a trauma center and underscores the need for an organized approach and the development of

  3. Would you bet on PET? Evaluation of the significance of positive PET scan results post-microwave ablation for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Syed N; Whitley, Justin M; Thomas, Paul A; Steinke, Karin

    2015-12-01

    Fluodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is an acknowledged modality for the follow-up of solid tumours treated with thermal ablation, with persistent or new FDG uptake at the ablation site considered to be a reliable indicator of local recurrence. Several cases of proven false-positive FDG-PET scans are illustrated in this pictorial essay with uptake at the site of the ablated tumour, remote from the ablated lesion and in mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Positive FDG-PET scans post-thermal ablation of lung tumours therefore cannot always reliably predict local tumour recurrence or nodal spread. It is important to be familiar with FDG uptake patterns post-ablation and their significance. FDG-PET avid lesions post-ablation may require histological confirmation before further therapy is planned or management is changed. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. New insights on therapeutic touch: a discussion of experimental methodology and design that resulted in significant effects on normal human cells and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Monzillo, Eloise; Gronowicz, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose is to discuss the study design and innovative approaches that led to finding significant effects of one energy medicine therapy, Therapeutic Touch (TT), on cells. In the original published studies, TT was shown to significantly increase human osteoblast DNA synthesis, differentiation, and mineralization; increase in a dose-dependent manner the growth of other human cell types; and decrease the differentiation and mineralization of a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. A unique feature of the study's methodology and design that contributed to the success of the findings was that a basic level of skill and maturity of the TT practitioner was quantified for producing observable and replicable outcomes in a test administered to all TT practitioners. Only those practitioners that passed the test were selected for the study. (2) The practitioners were required to keep a journal, which appeared to promote their ability to stay centered and replicate their treatments over months of cell experimentation. (3) The origin of the cells that the practitioners were treating was explained to them, although they were blinded to cell type during the experiments. (4) Only early passage cells were used to maintain a stable cell phenotype. (5) Standard protocols for performing TT in the room were followed to ensure reproducible conditions. (6) Placebo controls and untreated controls were used for each experiment. (7) The principal investigator and technicians performing the assays were blinded as to the experimental groups, and all assays and procedures were well established in the laboratory prior to the start of the TT experiments. The absence of studies on the human biofield from mainstream scientific literature is also discussed by describing the difficulties encountered in publishing. These roadblocks contribute to our lack of understanding of the human biofield and energy medicine modalities in science. In conclusion, this report seeks to encourage well

  5. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Neale, E P; Batterham, M J; Tapsell, L C

    2016-05-01

    Consumption of healthy dietary patterns has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary intervention targets disease prevention, so studies increasingly use biomarkers of underlying inflammation and metabolic syndrome progression to examine the diet-health relationship. The extent to which these biomarkers contribute to the body of evidence on healthy dietary patterns is unknown. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of healthy dietary patterns on biomarkers associated with adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammation in adults. A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all years to April 2015) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials; effects of dietary patterns assessed on C-reactive protein (CRP), total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin:leptin, resistin, or retinol binding protein 4. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted to assess the weighted mean differences in change or final mean values for each outcome. Seventeen studies were included in the review. These reflected research on dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet, Nordic diet, Tibetan diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern was associated with significant reductions in CRP (weighted mean difference, -0.75 [-1.16, -0.35]; P = .0003). Non-significant changes were found for all other biomarkers. This analysis found evidence for favorable effects of healthy dietary patterns on CRP, with limited evidence for other biomarkers. Future research should include additional randomized controlled trials incorporating a greater range of dietary patterns and biomarkers.

  6. Prognostic Impact of Serum Heavy/Light Chain Pairs in Patients With Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Smoldering Myeloma: Long-Term Results From a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Magnano, Laura; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; Elena, Montserrat; Cibeira, María Teresa; Tovar, Natalia; Aróstegui, Juan I; Pedrosa, Fabiola; Rosiñol, Laura; Filella, Xavier; Yagüe, Jordi; Bladé, Joan

    2016-06-01

    Asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathies, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM), are clinical conditions that usually precede symptomatic multiple myeloma. Therefore, risk stratification is crucial owing to the heterogeneous progression rate among these patients. In previous years, suppression of the uninvolved chain of specific heavy/light chain (HLC) pairs in serum has been identified as a new risk factor in MGUS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic effect of involved and uninvolved HLC pairs and HLC ratios on progression in a series of patients with MGUS and SMM. All specific serum HLC pairs were measured in 114 patients diagnosed with SMM (n = 27) and MGUS (n = 87) from 1983 to 2003. Also, the HLC ratios were calculated. Progression to symptomatic multiple myeloma was observed in 13 patients (8 with SMM and 5 with MGUS). The risk of progression was 6 times greater in those with SMM (P = .001) and 4 times greater for those with the IgA isotype (P = .01). The suppression of any IgM isotypes (IgMκ or IgMλ) in patients with IgA or IgG gammopathy or any IgA isotypes (IgAκ or IgAλ) in patients with IgG or IgM gammopathy was associated with a shorter time to progression to symptomatic gammopathy (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). On multivariate analysis, the evolving pattern and suppression of any IgM HLC pair remained significant. HLC ratios could be a valuable tool in the risk stratification of patients with SMM and MGUS, especially patients with IgG isotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  8. Anxiety can significantly explain bolus perception in the context of hypotensive esophageal motility: Results of a large multicenter study in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, D; Scheerens, C; Omari, T; Monrroy, H; Hani, A; Leguizamo, A; Bilder, C; Ditaranto, A; Ruiz de León, A; Pérez de la Serna, J; Valdovinos, M A; Coello, R; Abrahao, L; Remes-Troche, J; Meixueiro, A; Zavala, M A; Marin, I; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have not been able to correlate manometry findings with bolus perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of different variables, including traditional manometric variables (at diagnostic and extreme thresholds), esophageal shortening, bolus transit, automated impedance manometry (AIM) metrics and mood with bolus passage perception in a large cohort of asymptomatic individuals. High resolution manometry (HRM) was performed in healthy individuals from nine centers. Perception was evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale. Anxiety was evaluated using Hospitalized Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Subgroup analysis was also performed classifying studies into normal, hypotensive, vigorous, and obstructive patterns. One hundred fifteen studies were analyzed (69 using HRM and 46 using high resolution impedance manometry (HRIM); 3.5% swallows in 9.6% of volunteers were perceived. There was no correlation of any of the traditional HRM variables, esophageal shortening, AIM metrics nor bolus transit with perception scores. There was no HRM variable showing difference in perception when comparing normal vs extreme values (percentile 1 or 99). Anxiety but not depression was correlated with perception. Among hypotensive pattern, anxiety was a strong predictor of variance in perception (R(2) up to .70). Bolus perception is less common than abnormal motility among healthy individuals. Neither esophageal motor function nor bolus dynamics evaluated with several techniques seems to explain differences in bolus perception. Different mechanisms seem to be relevant in different manometric patterns. Anxiety is a significant predictor of bolus perception in the context of hypotensive motility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Significant antitumor response of disseminated glioblastoma to bevacizumab resulting in long-term clinical remission in a patient with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Raita; Ozaki, Masatoki; Kamamoto, Dai; Tokuda, Yukina; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Fukuchi, Masahito; Fujii, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of recurrent and disseminated glioblastoma is very poor. Bevacizumab is an effective established therapy for recurrent glioblastoma following treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide. However, the efficacy of bevacizumab is limited to prolonging progression-free survival, without significant prolongation of the overall survival. We herein report a case of glioblastoma in a 32-year-old female patient with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) that had disseminated following surgical resection and subsequent treatment with temozolomide and radiation therapy. The disseminated tumors disappeared completely after five courses of bevacizumab therapy. Surprisingly, the patient has remained in clinical remission for >2.5 years after dissemination by continuing this therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of long-time clinical remission following glioblastoma dissemination and treatment with bevacizumab. In the present case, bevacizumab exerted an atypically strong antitumor effect against disseminated glioblastoma after multidisciplinary treatments had already been applied. Moreover, this is the first report of ECCL associated with a malignant brain tumor. PMID:27703677

  10. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

    2009-11-15

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging.

  11. Inactivation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Myelinating Glial Cells Results in Significant Loss of Adult Spiral Ganglion Neurons Accompanied by Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. J.; Furusho, M.; D’Sa, C.; Kuwada, S.; Conti, L.; Morest, D. K.; Bansal, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging. PMID:19598249

  12. [Results of surgical treatment of intrathoracic recurrence after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer: clinical significance of subsequent lesion in lung parenchyma].

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Takahashi, S; Sato, M; Sagawa, M; Kanma, K; Usuda, K; Endo, C; Chen, Y; Sakurada, A; Aikawa, H

    1995-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment for 33 intrathoracic recurrence after complete resection of non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed. Prognosis of the second surgical treatment were favorable in patients with subsequent cancer with in situ component and solitary lesion in lung parenchyma. Retrospective study of 53 patients who recurred and were thoroughly followed up their clinical course until lung cancer death revealed that the solitary one tends to be confined to the intrathoracic location, and the multiple one did not confined to the intrathoracic location but also extended to the extrathoracic distant metastasis or to the supraclavicular lymph nodes.

  13. Shame and self-acceptance in continued flux: qualitative study of the embodied experience of significant weight loss and removal of resultant excess skin by plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fran; Farrants, Jacqui R

    2013-09-01

    This study explored the embodied experience of body change using a qualitative design. Eight previous plastic surgery patients of a London hospital took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews 1 year post a plastic surgery procedure to remove excess skin around their abdomen, resulting from weight loss. Participant interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Two sub-themes titled 'Shame of the hidden body' and 'Lack of acceptance; the future focused body' are presented in this article. Findings are considered in relation to theories of 'Body Shame' and in the current cultural context.

  14. Periodontal disease is significantly higher in non-smoking treatment-naive rheumatoid arthritis patients: results from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Potikuri, Damodaram; Dannana, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Kanchinadam, Suresh; Agrawal, Sumeet; Kancharla, Anuradha; Rajasekhar, Liza; Pothuraju, Shantakumari; Gumdal, Narsimulu

    2012-09-01

    To find the strength of association between periodontal disease (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in non-smoking, disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive RA patients in a case-control design. Patients of RA (DMARD-naive, non-smokers) satisfying the American college of Rheumatology 1987 criteria and healthy controls were included. PD was defined as present if the mean pocket depth (MPD) is ≥3 mm. Demographic data and disease specific variables were recorded for RA patients and healthy controls. Titres of immunoglobulin M-rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) were measured using ELISA. Patients with RA (n=91) had a 4.28 (CI 2.35 to 7.38) higher odds of PD (64.8% vs 28%, p<0.001) compared with healthy controls (n=93). The MPD was 3.61±1.22 mm in cases and 2.46±0.74 mm in controls (p<0.001). IgM-RF titres (110.56±95.81 vs 66.53±70.29; p=0.02) and ACPA titres (753.05±1088.27 vs 145.15±613.16, p=0.001) were significantly higher in RA patients with PD than those without PD. The MPD positively correlated with titres of ACPAs in RA patients (r=0.24; p=0.02). PD is more frequent and severe in non-smoking DMARD-naive RA patients compared with healthy controls. PD in RA is associated with high titres of ACPAs.

  15. Black tea is not significantly different from water in the maintenance of normal hydration in human subjects: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H; Hart, Valerie A

    2011-08-01

    There is a belief that caffeinated drinks, such as tea, may adversely affect hydration. This was investigated in a randomised controlled trial. Healthy resting males (n 21) were recruited from the general population. Following 24 h of abstention from caffeine, alcohol and vigorous physical activity, including a 10 h overnight fast, all men underwent four separate test days in a counter-balanced order with a 5 d washout in between. The test beverages, provided at regular intervals, were 4 × 240 ml black (i.e. regular) tea and 6 × 240 ml black tea, providing 168 or 252 mg of caffeine. The controls were identical amounts of boiled water. The tea was prepared in a standardised way from tea bags and included 20 ml of semi-skimmed milk. All food taken during the 12 h intervention period was controlled, and subjects remained at rest. No other beverages were offered. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h, and a 24 h urine sample was collected. Outcome variables were whole blood cell count, Na, K, bicarbonate, total protein, urea, creatinine and osmolality for blood; and total volume, colour, Na, K, creatinine and osmolality for urine. Although data for all twenty-one participants were included in the analysis (mean age 36 years and mean BMI 25·8 kg/m(2)), nineteen men completed all conditions. Statistical analysis, using a factorial ANOVA approach within PROC MIXED, revealed no significant differences between tea and water for any of the mean blood or urine measurements. It was concluded that black tea, in the amounts studied, offered similar hydrating properties to water.

  16. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  17. Results of in-situ biofouling control, and corrosion test at Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico and its significance on OTEC heater exchanger design

    SciTech Connect

    Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.; Tosteson, T.R.

    1983-06-01

    Because Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) operates at a low thermodynamic efficiency, heat exchangers represent a major portion of the overall cost of an OTEC power plant. For this reason, the commercial viability of OTEC depends on the design of efficient and inexpensive heat exchangers which have an operational life expectancy of 20 to 30 years and which can be maintained at a high level of efficiency by the use of effective biofouling control. Summarized here are the results of experiments conducted by the Center for Energy and Environment Research of the University of Puerto Rico to: determine the nature of the biofilm which develops on heat exchanger surfaces exposed to running seawater, test the effectiveness of brush cleaning and chlorination in controlling biofouling on these surfaces and study the corrosion behavior of zinc protected aluminum alloys under OTEC conditions in an attempt to qualify them for use in low cost OTEC heat exchangers.

  18. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  19. The significance of meaning: why do over 90% of behavioral neuroscience results fail to translate to humans, and what can we do to fix it?

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of drugs entering human trials fail. This problem (called "attrition") is widely recognized as a public health crisis, and has been discussed openly for the last two decades. Multiple recent reviews argue that animals may be just too different physiologically, anatomically, and psychologically from humans to be able to predict human outcomes, essentially questioning the justification of basic biomedical research in animals. This review argues instead that the philosophy and practice of experimental design and analysis is so different in basic animal work and human clinical trials that an animal experiment (as currently conducted) cannot reasonably predict the outcome of a human trial. Thus, attrition does reflect a lack of predictive validity of animal experiments, but it would be a tragic mistake to conclude that animal models cannot show predictive validity. A variety of contributing factors to poor validity are reviewed. The need to adopt methods and models that are highly specific (i.e., which can identify true negative results) in order to complement the current preponderance of highly sensitive methods (which are prone to false positive results) is emphasized. Concepts in biomarker-based medicine are offered as a potential solution, and changes in the use of animal models required to embrace a translational biomarker-based approach are outlined. In essence, this review advocates a fundamental shift, where we treat every aspect of an animal experiment that we can as if it was a clinical trial in a human population. However, it is unrealistic to expect researchers to adopt a new methodology that cannot be empirically justified until a successful human trial. "Validation with known failures" is proposed as a solution. Thus new methods or models can be compared against existing ones using a drug that has translated (a known positive) and one that has failed (a known negative). Current methods should incorrectly identify both as effective, but a

  20. The Significance of Meaning: Why Do Over 90% of Behavioral Neuroscience Results Fail to Translate to Humans, and What Can We Do to Fix It?

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of drugs entering human trials fail. This problem (called “attrition”) is widely recognized as a public health crisis, and has been discussed openly for the last two decades. Multiple recent reviews argue that animals may be just too different physiologically, anatomically, and psychologically from humans to be able to predict human outcomes, essentially questioning the justification of basic biomedical research in animals. This review argues instead that the philosophy and practice of experimental design and analysis is so different in basic animal work and human clinical trials that an animal experiment (as currently conducted) cannot reasonably predict the outcome of a human trial. Thus, attrition does reflect a lack of predictive validity of animal experiments, but it would be a tragic mistake to conclude that animal models cannot show predictive validity. A variety of contributing factors to poor validity are reviewed. The need to adopt methods and models that are highly specific (i.e., which can identify true negative results) in order to complement the current preponderance of highly sensitive methods (which are prone to false positive results) is emphasized. Concepts in biomarker-based medicine are offered as a potential solution, and changes in the use of animal models required to embrace a translational biomarker-based approach are outlined. In essence, this review advocates a fundamental shift, where we treat every aspect of an animal experiment that we can as if it was a clinical trial in a human population. However, it is unrealistic to expect researchers to adopt a new methodology that cannot be empirically justified until a successful human trial. “Validation with known failures” is proposed as a solution. Thus new methods or models can be compared against existing ones using a drug that has translated (a known positive) and one that has failed (a known negative). Current methods should incorrectly identify both as effective

  1. Integrated modelling of climate, water, soil, agricultural and socio-economic processes: A general introduction of the methodology and some exemplary results from the semi-arid north-east of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Maarten; Jaeger, Annekathrin; Bronstert, Axel; Güntner, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    SummaryMany semi-arid regions are characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress. Integrated studies including climatology, hydrology, and socio-economic studies are required both for analysing the dynamic natural conditions and to assess possible strategies to make semi-arid regions less vulnerable to the present and changing climate. The model introduced here dynamically describes the relationships between climate forcing, water availability, agriculture and selected societal processes. The model has been tailored to simulate the rather complex situation in the semi-arid north-eastern Brazil in a quantitative manner including the sensitivity to external forcing, such as climate change. The selected results presented show the general functioning of the integrated model, with a primary focus on climate change impacts. It becomes evident that due to large differences in regional climate scenarios, it is still impossible to give quantitative values for the most probable development, e.g., to assign probabilities to the simulated results. However, it becomes clear that water is a very crucial factor, and that an efficient and ecologically sound water management is a key question for the further development of that semi-arid region. The simulation results show that, independent of the differences in climate change scenarios, rain-fed farming is more vulnerable to drought impacts compared to irrigated farming. However, the capacity of irrigation and other water infrastructure systems to enhance resilience in respect to climatic fluctuations is significantly constrained given a significant negative precipitation trend.

  2. Biases in Recommendations for and Acceptance of Prostate Biopsy Significantly Affect Assessment of Prostate Cancer Risk Factors: Results From Two Large Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Phyllis J.; Till, Cathee; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors related to who undergoes a prostate biopsy in a screened population and to estimate the impact of biopsy verification on risk factor–prostate cancer associations. Patients and Methods Men who were screened regularly from the placebo arms of two large prostate cancer prevention trials (Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial [SELECT]) were examined to define incident prostate cancer cohorts. Because PCPT had an end-of-study biopsy, prostate cancer cases were categorized by a preceding prostate-specific antigen/digital rectal examination prompt (yes/no) and noncases by biopsy-proven negative status (yes v no). We estimated the association of risk factors (age, ethnicity, family history, body mass index, medication use) with prostate cancer and quantified differences in risk associations across cohorts. Results Men 60 to 69 years of age, those with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and those with a family history of prostate cancer were more likely, and those with a higher body mass index (≥ 25), diabetes, or a smoking history were less likely, to undergo biopsy, adjusting for age and longitudinal prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination. Medication use, education, and marital status also influenced who underwent biopsy. Some risk factor estimates for prostate cancer varied substantially across cohorts. Black (v other ethnicities) had odds ratios (ORs) that varied from 1.20 for SELECT (community screening standards, epidemiologic-like cohort) to 1.83 for PCPT (end-of-study biopsy supplemented with imputed end points). Statin use in SELECT provided an OR of 0.65 and statin use in in PCPT provided an OR of 0.99, a relative difference of 34%. Conclusion Among screened men enrolled in prostate cancer prevention trials, differences in risk factor estimates for prostate cancer likely underestimate the magnitude of bias found in other cohorts with varying screening and biopsy

  3. Why do humans have such a prominent nose? The final result of phylogenesis: a significant reduction of the splanchocranium on account of the neurocranium.

    PubMed

    Mladina, Ranko; Skitarelić, Neven; Vuković, Katarina

    2009-09-01

    surrounding bones, and the other one gets more room for the further development according to human's intellectual needs. The final morphologic result of the squeezing of the splanchocranium, in fact a side-effect of these phylogenetic changes, is a protrusion of its most anterior parts more anteriorly, that is a prominent nose in humans which is a hallmark of the modern man.

  4. Remote age verification to prevent underage alcohol sales. First results from Dutch liquor stores and the economic viability of national adoption.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; van Velthoven, Ben C J

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol consumption among minors is a popular topic in the public health debate, also in the Netherlands. Compliance with the legal age limits for selling alcohol proves to be rather low. Some Dutch liquor stores (outlets with an exclusive license to sell off-premise drinks with 15% alcohol or more) have recently adopted a remote age verification system. This paper discusses the first results of the use of the system. We use data from 67 liquor stores that adopted Ageviewers, a remote age verification system, in 2011. A remote validator judges the customer's age using camera footage and asks for an ID if there is any doubt. The system then sends a signal to the cash register, which approves or rejects the alcohol purchase. From the 367346 purchase attempts in the database, 8374 were rejected or aborted for age-related reasons. This figure amounts to an average ratio of 1.12 underage alcohol purchase attempts per sales day in each participating liquor store. Scaling up to a national level, the figures suggest at least 1 million underage alcohol purchase attempts per year in Dutch liquor stores. Underage alcohol purchases can be prevented by the nationwide adoption of remote age verification. However, given the lax enforcement of the age limits by the government, adopting such a system on a voluntary basis is generally not in the economic interest of the liquor stores. Obligatory installation of the system in off-premise alcohol outlets may pass a social cost-benefit test if certain conditions are fulfilled. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. For Better or Worse: Contemporary Social, Cultural and Economic Changes in Europe and Their Significance for Cultural and Educational Policies. The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lithman, Yngve Georg

    Contemporary demographic, economic, political, and social changes in Europe are influencing cultural and educational processes. International migration, internal migration from rural to urban centers, emergence of the welfare state, professionalization of society, technological advancement, and changes in occupational structure and the situation…

  6. [Economic theory and the environment].

    PubMed

    Yachir, F

    1992-01-01

    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  7. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  8. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  9. First forest soil survey gives significant results.

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Tarrant

    1947-01-01

    The first forest soil survey on national forest lands in the Pacific Northwest was completed last year on the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest when a detailed soil map covering four square miles was made by W.J. Leighty, Assistant Inspector, Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils and Agricultural Engineering. Arrangements for the survey were made by Region 6 of the Forest...

  10. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  11. Nutritional and socio-economic factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from Equatorial Guinea: results from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Villamor, Eduardo; Molina, Laura; Sánchez, Ignacio; Lwanga, Magdalena; Bernis, Cristina; Benito, Agustín; Roche, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria has traditionally been a major endemic disease in Equatorial Guinea. Although parasitaemia prevalence on the insular region has been substantially reduced by vector control in the past few years, the prevalence in the mainland remains over 50% in children younger than five years. The aim of this study is to investigate the risk factors for parasitaemia and treatment seeking behaviour for febrile illness at country level, in order to provide evidence that will reinforce the EG National Malaria Control Programme. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of children 0 to 5 years old, using a multistaged, stratified, cluster-selected sample at the national level. It included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and thick and thin blood smears to determine the Plasmodium infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for parasitaemia, taking into account the cluster design. Results The overall prevalence of parasitemia was 50.9%; it was higher in rural (58.8%) compared to urban areas (44.0%, p = 0.06). Age was positively associated with parasitemia (p < 0.0001). In rural areas, risk factors included longer distance to health facilities (p = 0.01) and a low proportion of households with access to protected water in the community (p = 0.02). Having had an episode of cough in the 15 days prior to the survey was inversely related to parasitemia (p = 0.04). In urban areas, the risk factors were stunting (p = 0.005), not having taken colostrum (p = 0.01), and that someone in the household slept under a bed net (p = 0.002); maternal antimalarial medication intake during pregnancy (p = 0.003) and the household socio-economic status (p = 0.0002) were negatively associated with parasitemia. Only 55% of children with fever were taken outside their homes for care, and treatment seeking behaviour differed substantially between rural and urban populations. Conclusion

  12. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that < 1% of research papers published since 1972 include economic evaluations of pest management tactics. At least 85% of these analyses were performed by entomologists and not economists. Much of the research on economic evaluations is performed without special funds granted by agencies separate from the authors' institutions. In the United States, USDA competitive grants supported 20% of the economic evaluations published since 2000. However, only approximately 12% of the projects funded since 2000 by three sections of the USDA (Crops at Risk, Risk Avoidance and Mitigation Program, and Pest Management Alternatives Program) resulted in publications concerning economic evaluations. If the purpose of economic entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  13. Introducing Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    The booklet outlines and presents examples of basic economics concepts. Objectives are to help elementary and secondary teachers introduce economic concepts in the classroom and to help teachers grasp some of the fundamentals of economics. The document is divided into seven sections. Each section presents concepts, offers three supporting…

  14. Economic Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armento, Beverly

    This paper identifies economic roles in terms of personal and social contexts and defines economic socialization as a life-long, complex, interactional, and multi-disciplinary set of processes that involve the development of ideological beliefs about economic systems and individual roles within an economy. Socialization is influenced by…

  15. Television Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

    Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

  16. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  17. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

  18. Inhaled oxygen and cluster headache sufferers in the United States: use, efficacy and economics: results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Todd D; Fishman, Royce S

    2011-02-01

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey concerning the use of inhaled oxygen as acute treatment for cluster headache (CH). Several small clinic and community-based investigations have indicated that more than 50% of CH patients have never used oxygen for the treatment of their headaches. This statistic is alarming and the reasons why they have not tried oxygen have not been determined. The United States Cluster Headache Survey is the largest study ever completed looking at CH sufferers living in the United States. The total survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions, 84 questions dealt with oxygen use, efficacy and economics. The survey was placed on a website from October to December 2008. A total of 1134 individuals completed the survey (816 male, 318 female). Among them 868 patients had episodic CH while 266 had chronic CH. Ninety-three percent of survey responders were aware of oxygen as a CH therapy; however, 34% had never tried oxygen. Forty-four percent of patients had to suggest oxygen to their physicians to get prescribed. Twelve percent of physicians refused to prescribe oxygen. Fifty percent using oxygen never received training on proper use. Forty-five percent had to find their own source for oxygen. On prescriptions only 45% specified flow rate, 50% stated CH as diagnosis and 28% indicated mask type. Seventy percent of the surveyed population felt oxygen was effective but only 25% was presently using oxygen. Potential reasons for this finding include: oxygen is slow to onset; prescribed oxygen flow rates are too low for efficacy and most CH patients need to raise flow rates during attacks to achieve response. The efficacy of oxygen does not vary by the age of the patient, gender, the number of CH attacks per day, and smoking history. Episodic CH responds better and faster to inhaled oxygen than chronic CH. Oxygen plus a triptan may be more efficacious and faster at aborting a CH than a triptan alone. Sixteen percent of

  19. Bivalirudin is associated with improved clinical and economic outcomes in heart failure patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from an observational database.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Duane S; Kohli, Payal; Fan, Weihong; Kirtane, Ajay J; Kociol, Robert D; Meduri, Christopher; Deliargyris, Efthymios N; Prats, Jayne; Reynolds, Matthew R; Stone, Gregg W; Michael Gibson, C

    2016-02-15

    Outcomes with bivalirudin compare favorably with heparin ± GPIIb/IIIa receptor inhibition (heparin ± GPI) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have increased risk for complications. The objective was to investigate clinical and economic outcomes for bivalirudin ± GPI vs. heparin ± GPI among PCI patients with CHF. Using the Premier Hospital Database, PCI patients with CHF were stratified by anticoagulant: bivalirudin, bivalirudin ± GPI, heparin and heparin ± GPI. The probability of receiving bivalirudin ± GPI was estimated using individual and hospital variables. Using propensity scores, each bivalirudin ± GPI patient was matched to a heparin ± GPI patient. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Bleeding rates, transfusion, length of stay and in-hospital cost were ascertained. Overall, 116,313 patients at 315 hospitals received bivalirudin (n = 45,559) bivalirudin + GPI (n = 8,115), heparin (n = 27,972) or heparin + GPI (n = 34,667). Patients had STEMI (21.2%), NSTEMI (29.1%), unstable angina (16.6%), stable angina (5.7%) or other ischemic heart disease (24.2%). Of these, 79.1% of bivalirudin patients matched, resulting in 84,948 analyzed patients. Compared with heparin ± GPI patients, bivalirudin ± GPI patients had fewer deaths (3.3% vs. 3.9%; p < 0.0001), less clinically apparent bleeding (10.2% vs. 11.4%; p < 0.0001), clinically apparent bleeding with transfusion (2.7% vs. 3.2%, p <0.0001), and transfusion (8.5% vs. 9.8%, p < 0.0001). Patients receiving bivalirudin had shorter length of stay (6.3 vs. 6.8 days; p < 0.0001) and lower in-hospital cost (mean $26,706 vs. $27,166 [median $19,414 vs. $19,798]; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, this is the largest retrospective analysis of PCI patients with CHF and demonstrates bivalirudin ± GPI compared with heparin ± GPI is associated with lower inpatient rates of death, bleeding, and cost. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased iron availability resulting from increased CO2 enhances carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the economical marine red macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Chen, Binbin; Zou, Dinghui; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising CO2 is predicted to increase the concentrations of dissolved species of Fe(II) and Fe(III), leading to the enhanced photosynthetic carbon sequestration in some algal species. In this study, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in responses to increased iron availability under two CO2 levels (390 μL L(-1) and 1000 μL L(-1)), were investigated in the maricultivated macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta). The results showed that, elevated CO2 increased soluble carbonhydrate (SC) contents, resulting from enhanced photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment synthesis in this algae, but declined its soluble protein (SP) contents, resulting in increased ratio of SC/SP. This enhanced photosynthesis performance and carbon accumulation was more significant under iron enrichment condition in seawater, with higher iron uptake rate at high CO2 level. As a key essential biogenic element for algae, Fe-replete functionally contributed to P. haitanensis photosynthesis. Increased SC fundamentally provided carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation. The significant increase of carbon and nitrogen assimilation finally contributed to enhanced growth in this alga. This was also intuitively reflected by respiration that provided energy for cellular metabolism and algal growth. We propose that, in the predicted scenario of rising atmospheric CO2, P. haitanensis is capable to adjust its physiology by increasing its carbon and nitrogen metabolism to acclimate the acidified seawater, at the background of global climate change and simultaneously increased iron concentration due to decreased pH levels.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination of children against hepatitis A in Argentina: results of a dynamic health-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Eduardo; Debbag, Roberto; Coudeville, Laurent; Baron-Papillon, Florence; Armoni, Judith

    2007-02-01

    Socioeconomic improvements can reduce levels of endemic hepatitis A, but conversely increase the burden of disease. Routine childhood vaccination can rapidly control hepatitis A infection rates through the induction of herd immunity, although such programs can be costly. We evaluated the healthcare benefits and cost-effectiveness of a routine childhood vaccination program against hepatitis A in Argentina, using a dynamic model that incorporated the changing epidemiology of infection and the impact of vaccine-induced herd immunity. Demographic, disease, and economic data from Argentina were used where available. At 95% coverage, the program would reduce the number of hepatitis A infections by 352,405 annually, avoiding 121,587 symptomatic cases and 428 deaths. Substantial healthcare benefits were also observed with vaccination coverage as low as 70%, which would prevent 295,826 infections. Economically, the program would save 23,989,963 US$ annually at 95% coverage, equivalent to 3,429 US$ per life-year gained. The program remained cost-saving in response to variation in factors, including disease-related costs, discount rate, herd immunity level, and rate of decrease of force of infection. The break-even cost per vaccine dose for the society was 25 US$ in the base-case, more than three times the current public cost of 7 US$ per dose. Routine childhood vaccination against hepatitis A showed both health benefits and robust economic benefits in this analysis, supporting the recent decision of the Argentine government to implement such a program.

  2. Distinguishing major lithologic types in rocks of precambrian age in central Wyoming using multilevel sensing, with a chapter on possible economic significance of iron formation discovered by use of aircraft images in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Information obtained by remote sensing from three altitude levels: ERTS-1 (565 miles), U-2 (60,000 feet), and C-130 aircraft (15,000 feet) illustrates the possible application of multilevel sensing in mineral exploration. Distinction can be made between rocks of greenstone belts and rocks of granite-granite gneiss areas by using ERTS-1 imagery in portions of the Precambrian of central Wyoming. Study of low altitude color and color infrared photographs of the mafic terrain revealed the presence of metasedimentary rocks with distinct layers that were interpreted as amphibolite by photogeologic techniques. Some of the amphibolite layers were found to be iron formation when examined in the field. To our knowledge this occurrence of iron formation has not been previously reported in the literature.

  3. Economic Literacy among Corporate Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, William C.; Doyle, Joanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a telephone survey of employees (n=1001) of large corporations (n=7) conducted for the Business Roundtable. Embeds 20 questions keyed to the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics to measure economic literacy. Finds that economic literacy was associated with education level, courses in economics, high income, and…

  4. Direct healthcare costs and cost-effectiveness of acute coronary syndrome secondary prevention with ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel: economic evaluation from the public payer's perspective in Poland based on the PLATO trial results.

    PubMed

    Pawęska, Justyna; Macioch, Tomasz; Perkowski, Piotr; Budaj, Andrzej; Niewada, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Ticagrelor is the first reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist designed to reduce clinical thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Compared to clopidogrel, ticagrelor has been proven to significantly reduce the rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke without an increase in the rate of overall major bleeding in patients who have an ACS with or without ST-segment elevation (STEMI and NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and healthcare costs associated with secondary prevention of ACS using ticagrelor or clopidogrel in patients after STEMI, NSTEMI and UA. An economic model based on results from the PLATO trial was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of one-year therapy with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. The structure of the model consisted of two parts, i.e. the decision tree with one-year PLATO results and the Markov model with lifelong estimations, which exceeded PLATO follow-up data. The model was adjusted to Polish settings with country-specific data on death rates in the general population and direct medical costs calculated from the public payer's perspective. Costs were derived from the National Health Fund (NHF) and the Ministry of Health and presented in PLN 2013 values. Annual mean costs of second and subsequent years after stroke or MI were obtained from the literature. Uncertainty of assumed parameters was tested in scenarios and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The adopted model allowed the estimation of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for life years gained (LYG) and an incremental cost-utility ratio for quality adjusted life years (QALY). Total direct medical costs to the public payer at a one year horizon were 2,905 PLN higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. However, mean healthcare costs at a one year horizon (excluding drug costs and concomitant drugs) were 690 PLN higher for patients treated with clopidogrel. In a lifetime horizon

  5. Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Derek D.; Niileksela, Christopher R.; Kaplan, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, behavioral economics has gained much attention in psychology and public policy. Despite increased interest and continued basic experimental studies, the application of behavioral economics to therapeutic settings remains relatively sparse. Using examples from both basic and applied studies, we provide an overview of the principles comprising behavioral economic perspectives and discuss implications for behavior analysts in practice. A call for further translational research is provided. PMID:25729506

  6. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  7. Economic Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Alstyne, Carol

    Concerns relating to the economics of higher education, including inflation, are considered. It is suggested that future sources of rising costs are energy, equipment, books, and federal requirements, and that another major economic concern involves trends in enrollments and in tuition revenues. Projections of declining enrollments should be…

  8. Economics 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this one-credit economics course for secondary schools in Manitoba (Canada) is to help students develop skills in business education and to provide them with basic information about how the Canadian economic system affects business, government, and the individual. The course requires 110 to 220 hours of instruction. Students study…

  9. Economics Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alexander; Straker-Cook, Dawn

    1976-01-01

    This paper contains survey information relating to the relative performance of economics pupils at"A" level, their feelings about the subject, and the type of teaching to which they are exposed. The primary concern is to stimulate debate about the issues raised. Journal is available from: Economics Association, Room 340, Hamilton House, Mabledon…

  10. To amend the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 to eliminate cost-sharing requirements in connection with economic adjustment grants made to assist communities that have suffered economic injury as a result of military base closures and realignments, defense contractor reductions in force, and Department of Energy defense-related funding reductions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Arcuri, Michael A. [D-NY-24

    2009-12-11

    House - 12/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. To amend the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 to eliminate cost-sharing requirements in connection with economic adjustment grants made to assist communities that have suffered economic injury as a result of military base closures and realignments, defense contractor reductions in force, and Department of Energy defense-related funding reductions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Arcuri, Michael A. [D-NY-24

    2009-12-11

    12/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. To amend the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 to eliminate cost-sharing requirements in connection with economic adjustment grants made to assist communities that have suffered economic injury as a result of military base closures and realignments, defense contractor reductions in force, and Department of Energy defense-related funding reductions.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Arcuri, Michael A. [D-NY-24

    2009-12-11

    12/12/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Medical and economic benefits of telehealth in low- and middle-income countries: results of a study in four district hospitals in Mali

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of telehealth on 1) the diagnosis, and management in obstetrics and cardiology, 2) health care costs from patients’ perspectives, 3) attendance at health centres located in remote areas of Mali. Methods The impact of telehealth on health care utilization, quality, and costs was assessed using a five-point Likert-scale based questionnaire consisting of three dimensions. It was completed by health care professionals in four district hospitals. The role of telehealth on attendance at health centres was also assessed based on data collected from the consultations logs before and during the project, between project sites and control sites. Referrals specific to the activities of the research study were also evaluated using a questionnaire to measure the real share of telehealth tools in increasing attendance at project sites. Finally, the cost savings achieved was estimated using the transport and lodging costs incurred if patients were to travel to the capital city for the same tests or care. Results The telehealth activities contributed to improving medical diagnoses in cardiology and obstetrics (92.6%) and the patients’ management system on site (96.2%). The attendance records at health centres increased from 8 to 35% at all project sites during the study period. Patients from project sites saved an average of 12380 XOF (CFA Francs) or 25 USD (American dollar) and a maximum of 35000 XOF or 70 USD compared to patients from neighbouring sites, who must go to the capital city to receive the same care. Conclusion We conclude that in Mali, enhanced training in ultrasound / electrocardiography and the introduction of telehealth have improved the health system in remote areas and resulted in high levels of appropriate diagnosis and patient management in the areas of obstetrics and cardiology. Telehealth can also significantly reduce the cost to the patient. PMID:25080312

  14. Economics and lighting level recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-04-01

    The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America develops light level recommendations for tasks where visual performance is important. The 1959 and 1972 recommendations for illumination levels were based on the principle of delivering a fixed level of performance as predicted by the visual performance models of the time. This same principle is being considered for future revisions to the recommendations. There is currently no explicit method for determining whether a given fixed performance level is in any sense optimal or best. Visual performance increases with lighting levels, but so do economic and environmental costs. These costs lessen the economic benefits of the improved visual performance. A formal method for including these factors in light level recommendations is to restate the problem in terms of net benefits (benefits minus costs). The resulting equations have well defined optima versus light level, and thus give an explicit estimate of what the best lighting levels are in terms of current visual performance models, and current economic conditions. A simple net-benefit procedure is described, and sample calculations are shown for two current visual performance models. Fixed performance levels do not provide economically optimal recommendations with either model. There are also differences between models, but they are less significant than the large differences between the principles of fixed performance levels and economic optimization.

  15. The abattoir condemnation of meat because of parasitic infection, and its economic importance: results of a retrospective study in north-eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Borji, H; Parandeh, S

    2010-12-01

    In nine districts in the north of Khorasan province, in north-eastern Iran, a 5-year retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalences, in livestock slaughtered in abattoirs, of the parasitic infections responsible for the condemnation of the animals' carcasses and viscera (and the economic importance of such infections in terms of lost meat and offal). Between 20 March 2005 and 19 March 2010, 436,620 animals (45,360 cattle, 275,439 sheep, 115,674 goats and 147 camels) were slaughtered in the study area and the livers of 30,207 (6.9%), the lungs of 23,259 (5.3%) and the carcasses of 1072 (0.2%) of these animals were condemned. Almost all (92.4%) of the condemned livers, most (68.9%) of the condemned lungs but only 10.8% of the condemned carcasses were rejected because of parasitic infection. The parasitic lesions observed in the condemned livers were attributed to Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica and/or Dicrocoelium dendriticum (cattle, sheep and goats) or entirely to E. granulosus (camels). All the parasitic lesions observed in the condemned lungs (which also came from cattle, sheep, goats and camels) were attributed to E. granulosus. Sarcocystis cysts and/or Taenia cysticerci were found in ovine muscle while only Taenia cysticerci were detected in bovine muscle (no parasitic lesions were observed in the muscles of the goats and camels). Parasites were responsible for 80.8% of the condemned organs or carcasses, and the value of the food lost because of parasite-related condemnation (based on market prices in 2010) was estimated to be U.S.$421,826 (U.S.$47,980 for cattle, U.S.$316,344.0 for sheep, U.S.$57,372 for goats and U.S.$130 for camels). The parasites contributing most to the condemnation of otherwise marketable organs and muscles were E. granulosus (52.2%) and D. dendriticum flukes (29.5%). These parasites clearly remain too common and cause considerable economic loss in Khorasan and, presumably, other areas of Iran.

  16. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Martyn; Chesterton, Linda S.; Sim, Julius; Mallen, Christian D.; Hay, Elaine M.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM)–consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises–with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation. Methods and Findings Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120) or PCM plus TENS (n = 121). Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i) healthcare–inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii) societal–healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves). Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106) and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176) for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35) for change in pain (0–10 pain scale); -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029) for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035) for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS). The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio) for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£) relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113). However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost–effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated. Conclusion Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. PMID:26317528

  17. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  18. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    1999-10-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of each chapter, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems.

  19. Swarm Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi, Sanza; Lee, John

    The Hamiltonian Method of Swarm Design is applied to the design of an agent based economic system. The method allows the design of a system from the global behaviors to the agent behaviors, with a guarantee that once certain derived agent-level conditions are satisfied, the system behavior becomes the desired behavior. Conditions which must be satisfied by consumer agents in order to bring forth the `invisible hand of the market' are derived and demonstrated in simulation. A discussion of how this method might be extended to other economic systems and non-economic systems is presented.

  20. The health economic impact of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population: results from the Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST).

    PubMed

    Haycox, A; Einarson, T; Eggleston, A

    1999-01-01

    The Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST) is the first large, multinational, population-based survey to assess the 3-month prevalence and economic/quality-of-life impact of upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGIS). A total of 5581 subjects were interviewed in 10 countries (grouped into seven regions). Respondents were classified as having relevant or non-relevant upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and questioned about consumption of healthcare resources in terms of doctor consultations, prescribed and non-prescribed medications, hospital stays and investigations for both gastrointestinal and other health problems. The impact of symptoms in terms of time lost and reduced effectiveness at work or social activities was also recorded. Twenty-eight percent of the total sample was defined as having clinically relevant UGIS (UGIS of at least moderate severity and with a frequency of at least once per week in the previous 3 months). During the period studied, 20% of these subjects had consulted a family practitioner (16.2%) and/ or a specialist (6.3%), primarily for UGIS. Of those with clinically relevant UGIS, 49% had taken over-the-counter medication, and 27% prescription medication for gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Two percent reported a hospital stay and 27% reported days of reduced or no work, school or domestic productivity due to UGIS. Four percent of all study subjects underwent investigations for UGIS during this period. Variations between countries in these parameters may be due to differences in healthcare systems and cultural attitudes towards UGIS, influencing both the healthcare-seeking behaviour of subjects with UGIS and their management.

  1. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  2. Economics of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir in Africa: estimates based on DART trial results and costs for Uganda and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kit N; Baran, Robert W; Kirbach, Stephanie E; Dietz, Birgitta

    2011-12-01

    Substantial immunological improvement has been reported for HIV-infected patients who switch from a failing regimen to a protease inhibitor regimen with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). We use decision analysis modeling to estimate health and economic consequences expected from this switch. A Markov model combined best evidence for CD4(+) T-cell response, infectious disease events, death rates, and quality of life for African populations with Kenyan and Ugandan data on drug and medical care costs. We estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of switching to an LPV/r-based regimen versus remaining on a failed first antiretroviral (ARV) regimen or discontinuing all ARV drugs. The model assumes concurrent use of cotrimoxazole, and 4% annual loss to follow-up. Local effects due to prevalence of malaria and tuberculosis are included in the model. Sensitivity analysis examines the effects of varying disease, ARV therapy and CD4(+) T-cell cost, and ART discontinuation assumptions. The base model estimates an improvement of 20 months in average survival for the LPV/r group. The respective LPV/r ICER for Kenya is $1483 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) compared to $1673/QALY for Uganda. The ICERs increase to $1517 and $1707, respectively, if CD4(+) T-cell tests cost $25. The model comparing switching to LPV/r to discontinuing all ARV drugs decreases both costs and benefits proportionally for the treatment groups. The estimates are clearly below the most stringent World Health Organization benchmark for cost-effectiveness for Kenya and within the acceptable range of cost-effectiveness for Uganda. Thus, the switch to second-line therapy with LPV/r in these countries appears to be a cost-effective use of resources. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526

  4. Noblesse oblige? Social status and economic inequality maintenance among politicians.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Callaghan, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats - measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender - was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered.

  5. The Economic Impact of Subsidized Child Care: An Economic Analysis of Valley Child Care from November 1976 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freis, Ruth; Miller, Miriam

    This study examines the specific economic impact on the cost to government of subsidized child care and development services. Data were collected from all 295 families who used Valley Child Care services for more than six months, over a period of two and a half years. The data and results indicated significant economic effects of providing…

  6. Airship economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, R. D.; Hackney, L. R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Projected operating and manufacturing costs of a large airship design which are considered practical with today's technology and environment are discussed. Data and information developed during an 18-month study on the question of feasibility, engineering, economics and production problems related to a large metalclad type airship are considered. An overview of other classic airship designs are provided, and why metalclad was selected as the most prudent and most economic design to be considered in the 1970-80 era is explained. Crew operation, ATC and enroute requirements are covered along with the question of handling, maintenance and application of systems to the large airship.

  7. Behavioral economics: reunifying psychology and economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, C

    1999-09-14

    "Behavioral economics" improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  8. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis and management of developmental hip dysplasia (UK Hip Trial): clinical and economic results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elbourne, Diana; Dezateux, Carol; Arthur, Rosemary; Clarke, N M P; Gray, Alastair; King, Andy; Quinn, Anne; Gardner, Frances; Russell, Glynn

    Clinical screening aims to identify and treat neonatal hip instability associated with increased risk of hip displacement, but risks failures of diagnosis and treatment (abduction splinting), iatrogenic effects, and costs to parents and health services. Our objectives were to assess clinical effectiveness and net cost of ultrasonography compared with clinical assessment alone, to provide guidance for management of infants with clinical hip instability. Infants with clinical hip instability were recruited from 33 centres in UK and Ireland and randomised to either ultrasonographic hip examination (n=314) or clinical assessment alone (n=315). The primary outcome was appearance on hip radiographs by 2 years. Secondary outcomes included surgical treatment, abduction splinting, level of mobility, resource use, and costs. Analysis was by intention to treat. Protocol compliance was high, and radiographic information was available for 91% of children by 12-14 months and 85% by 2 years. By age 2 years, subluxation, dislocation, or acetabular dysplasia were identified by radiography on one or both hips of 21 children in each of the groups (relative risk 1.00; 95% CI 0.56-1.80). Fewer children in the ultrasonography group had abduction splinting in the first 2 years than did those in the no-ultrasonography group (0.78; 0.65-0.94; p=0.01). Surgical treatment was required by 21 infants in the ultrasonography group (6.7%) and 25 (7.9%) in the no-ultrasonography group (0.84; 0.48-1.47). One child from the ultrasonography group and four from the no-ultrasonography group were not walking by 2 years (0.25; 0.03-2.53; p=0.37). Infants in the ultrasonography group incurred significantly higher ultrasound costs over the first 2 years (pound 42 vs pound 23, mean difference pound 19, 95% CI 11-27); total hospital costs were lower for those infants, but the difference was not significant. The use of ultrasonography in infants with screen-detected clinical hip instability allows abduction

  9. Economics of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2015-08-01

    The following text is an introduction into the economic theory of electricity supply and demand. The basic approach of economics has to reflect the physical peculiarities of electric power that is based on the directed movement of electrons from the minus pole to the plus pole of a voltage source. The regular grid supply of electricity is characterized by a largely constant frequency and voltage. Thus, from a physical point of view electricity is a homogeneous product. But from an economic point of view, electricity is not homogeneous. Wholesale electricity prices show significant fluctuations over time and between regions, because this product is not storable (in relevant quantities) and there may be bottlenecks in the transmission and distribution grids. The associated non-homogeneity is the starting point of the economic analysis of electricity markets.

  10. Transonic transport study: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Wilcox, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    An economic analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of advanced materials, increased aerodynamic and structural efficiencies, and cruise speed on advanced transport aircraft designed for cruise Mach numbers of .90, .98, and 1.15. A detailed weight statement was generated by an aircraft synthesis computer program called TRANSYN-TST; these weights were used to estimate the cost to develop and manufacture a fleet of aircraft of each configuration. The direct and indirect operating costs were estimated for each aircraft, and an average return on investment was calculated for various operating conditions. There was very little difference between the operating economics of the aircraft designed for Mach numbers .90 and .98. The Mach number 1.15 aircraft was economically marginal in comparison but showed significant improvements with the application of carbon/epoxy structural material. However, the Mach .90 and Mach .98 aircraft are the most economically attractive vehicles in the study.

  11. Recent Research in Economics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Keith G., Ed.

    In the summer of 1968, the second conference on new developments in the teaching of economics was conducted at Stanford University. For four weeks forty selected professors revised ideas on many basic economic education issues: methodology, innovative techniques, effective teaching, and ways of improving economics courses. As a result of this…

  12. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…

  13. Different perspectives on economic base.

    Treesearch

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes; Nicholas E. Reyna

    1999-01-01

    Two general approaches for measuring the economic base are discussed. Each method is used to define the economic base for each of the counties included in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project area. A more detailed look at four selected counties results in similar findings from different approaches. Limitations of economic base analysis also are...

  14. Addressing Socio-Economic Disparities in Non-Cognitive and Cognitive Skills through Summer Book Reading: Results from a Longitudinal Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.; Guryan, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    There are several goals guiding this study. First, the authors use an experimental design to examine the causal effects of giving children 10 self-selected books over two summers. Second, they examine whether treatment effects are moderated by children's family income (i.e., eligibility for free- and reduced-price lunch). As a result, they examine…

  15. Ethical and Economic Issues: Trustee Interest and Involvement in Academic Policies for Faculty Consulting, Overload Teaching and Intellectual Property Rights. Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert, W.; Linnell, Robert H.

    Chairpersons of governing boards were surveyed regarding the policies and practices related to extra-income-earning activities of faculty at their institutions. The results are preliminary since more data are still being collected. A total of 176 institutions were surveyed, ranging from two-year colleges and specialized professional schools to…

  16. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  17. Economic Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2005-01-01

    The signals had been there for years. Task force reports and researchers all predicted it. Then, in the late 1990s, the economic collapse in this blue-collar region of central Maine began. First, the Cascade Co. closed its textile mill. Then the C.F. Hathaway Co. shut down, and Dumont Industries followed suit soon after. Several stores and other…

  18. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  19. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  20. Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, James B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual introduction for teachers explains economic growth and how it is measured. Four instructional units follow, beginning with a preschool and kindergarten unit which offers young students an opportunity to interview puppet workers, set up a classroom corner store, and learn the importance of capital resources for increasing productivity…

  1. Economic Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  2. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

  3. Basketball Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheinman, Daniel; Scheinman, Ted

    This teaching unit offers five economics lessons related to basketball. Lessons include: (1) "Money, Money, Money in the Basketball Player's World"; (2) "Take Me to the Basketball Game Lesson"; (3) "What Does It Take?"; (4) "Productivity of a Basketball Player"; and (5) "Congratulations! You Just Won…

  4. The economics of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  5. The relationship between unhealthy food sales, socio-economic deprivation and childhood weight status: results of a cross-sectional study in England.

    PubMed

    Howard Wilsher, Stephanie; Harrison, Flo; Yamoah, Fred; Fearne, Andrew; Jones, Andy

    2016-02-15

    Recent increases in obesity prevalence have led to research into the neighbourhood food environment. Research suggests that proximity and density of food outlets around the home is associated with childhood obesity prevalence, however, the evidence is inconclusive, and associations between food outlet locations and diet are less clear. The purpose of this study is to assess area level associations between sales of unhealthy foods in supermarkets and weight status of children. This study examined the association between weight status in children (4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds) measured in the National Child Measurement Programme over three time points (2008/9, 2009/10, 2010/11) and annual sales of unhealthy foods (2012/3), as identified from a large supermarket chain. Geographical analysis was conducted to link store-based food sales for 537 stores with 6517 UK Census Areas. Unadjusted associations were examined with error-bar plots and linear regression was used to examine the relationship between the prevalence of overweight and obesity and sales of unhealthy food, while controlling for covariates known to predict weight status in children. A statistically significant relationship was identified between the sales of unhealthy foods and the prevalence of overweight and obese children in both age groups (p < 0.01). Of the covariates, area deprivation was positively associated with weight status (p < 0.001). Non-white population (%) was negatively associated (p < 0.001) with overweight and obesity among Reception children, but positively associated with the other weight statuses (p < 0.001). A higher proportion of children in the same age group were associated with statistically significantly lower overweight and obesity prevalence in Reception (p <0.01) but not Year 6 children. The study provides novel findings linking supermarket food sales with the weight status of children. Food sales in geographically referenced supermarkets are a valuable source of

  6. Role of home visiting in improving parenting and health in families at risk of abuse and neglect: results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jane; Davis, Hilton; McIntosh, Emma; Jarrett, Patricia; Mockford, Carole; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of an intensive home visiting programme in improving outcomes for vulnerable families. Multicentre randomised controlled trial in which eligible women were allocated to receive home visiting (n = 67) or standard services (n = 64). Incremental cost analysis. 40 general practitioner practices across 2 counties in the UK. 131 vulnerable pregnant women. Selected health visitors were trained in the Family Partnership Model to provide a weekly home visiting service from 6 months antenatally to 12 months postnatally. Mother-child interaction, maternal psychological health attitudes and behaviour, infant functioning and development, and risk of neglect or abuse. At 12 months, differences favouring the home-visited group were observed on an independent assessment of maternal sensitivity (p<0.04) and infant cooperativeness (p<0.02). No differences were identified on any other measures. A non-significant increase in the likelihood of intervention group infants being the subject of child protection proceedings, or being removed from the home, and one death in the control group were found. The mean incremental cost per infant of the home visiting intervention was 3246 pounds sterling (bootstrapped 95% CI for the difference 1645-4803 pounds sterling). This intervention may have the potential to improve parenting and increase the identification of infants at risk of abuse and neglect in vulnerable families. Further investigation is needed, along with long-term follow-up to assess possible sleeper effects.

  7. Regional and socio-economic differences in food, nutrient and supplement intake in school-age children in Germany: results from the GINIplus and the LISAplus studies.

    PubMed

    Sausenthaler, Stefanie; Standl, Marie; Buyken, Anette; Rzehak, Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl Peter; Schaaf, Beate; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Borte, Michael; Herbarth, Olf; Lehmann, Irina; Krämer, Ursula; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    To describe regional differences between eastern and western Germany with regard to food, nutrient and supplement intake in 9-12-year-old children, and analyse its association with parental education and equivalent income. Data were obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the two prospective birth cohort studies - GINIplus and LISAplus. Data on food consumption and supplement intake were collected using an FFQ, which had been designed for the specific study population. Information on parental educational level and equivalent income was derived from questionnaires. Logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the effect of parental education, equivalent income and region on food intake, after adjusting for potential confounders. Germany. A total of 3435 children aged 9-12 years. Substantial regional differences in food intake were observed between eastern and western Germany. Intakes of bread, butter, eggs, pasta, vegetables/salad and fruit showed a significant direct relationship with the level of parental education after adjusting for potential confounders, whereas intakes of margarine, meat products, pizza, desserts and soft drinks were inversely associated with parental education. Equivalent income had a weaker influence on the child's food intake. Nutritional education programmes for school-age children should therefore account for regional differences and parental education.

  8. Significant increase of IGF-I concentration and of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in generation test predicts the good response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with short stature and normal results of GH stimulating tests.

    PubMed

    Smyczynska, Joanna; Hilczer, Maciej; Stawerska, Renata; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) generation test has been introduced for the assessment of growth hormone (GH) sensitivity, however, its significance in predicting growth response to GH therapy has also been brought up. The molar ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) determines IGF-I bioavailability. Evaluation of usefulness of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test in predicting the effectiveness of rhGH therapy in children with short stature. The analysis comprised 60 children with short stature, normal results of GH stimulating tests but decreased IGF-I secretion. In all the patients, GH insensitivity was excluded on the basis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 generation test. Next, GH therapy was administered and height velocity (HV), together with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 secretion, was assessed every year, during 3 years. The comparative group consisted of 30 children with partial GH deficiency (pGHD). Both IGF-I secretion and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio increased significantly during generation test (p<0.05) and - further - during GH therapy (however insignificantly), together with at least doubling of pretreatment HV. There was no significant difference between the studied group of patients and children with pGHD. Significant increase of IGF-I in generation test speaks for GH therapy effectiveness in short children, despite normal results of GH stimulating tests.

  9. [Clinical and economical comparison between in-house (Make) and outsourcing (Buy) management of the cardiac catheterization laboratory from two high-volume diagnostic and interventional centers: immediate and 6-month results].

    PubMed

    Varbella, Ferdinando; Minniti, Davide; Belli, Riccardo; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Tomassini, Francesco; Gagnor, Andrea; Gambino, Alfonso; Tizzani, Emanuele; Montali, Nicolò; Ceruti, Michele; Gianino, Maria Michela

    2014-04-01

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are widespread procedures in the Italian Healthcare System, but concerns are raised about their economic sustainability. In the last decade, public hospitals have outsourced the PCI services (building and maintaining the technological instruments and the personnel) "buying" them from private companies (Buy) rather than building and maintaining them through public expenditure (Make). The aim of this study was to compare the economic and clinical impact of these two management solutions (Buy and Make) in two community hospitals located in the Turin metropolitan area (Italy). We conducted: 1) a quantitative assessment in order to compare differences in the economic impact between Buy and Make for providing PCI; 2) a qualitative assessment comparing the clinical characteristics of two inpatient populations undergoing PCI and then analyzing the efficacy of the procedure in-hospital and at 6-month follow-up. Between January and June 2010, a total of 332 patients underwent PCI at the "degli Infermi" Hospital in Rivoli and 340 at the "Maria Vittoria" Hospital in Turin (Italy). There were no significant differences between the two populations neither about the clinical characteristics nor in procedural efficacy (either immediate or at follow-up). For 600 units of diagnostic-therapeutic pathway, the net present value at a discount rate of 3.5% of the Make project is higher than that of the Buy by €278.402,25, and is therefore the less convenient of the two solutions. The Buy solution is still the more convenient of the two at volumes <700 units. Our findings show that the Buy solution, if tailored to the specific local needs, provides access to sophisticated technology without making worse quality of services and may save capital expenditure below 700 PCI/years.

  10. An economic evaluation of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis in a Swedish setting: based on the results of the SOTI and TROPOS trials.

    PubMed

    Borgström, F; Jönsson, B; Ström, O; Kanis, J A

    2006-12-01

    Strontium ranelate is a new therapy for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis that has been shown in two phase III clinical trials (the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention [SOTI] and the Treatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis Study [TROPOS] trials) to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures at the vertebral, non-vertebral and hip level in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Swedish patients. A Markov cohort model was adapted to fit patients corresponding to the patients in the SOTI and TROPOS clinical trials. The model was populated with Swedish cost and epidemiological data. In the base case, the cost-effectiveness was estimated for 69-year old women with low bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalent vertebral fractures (SOTI) and for 77-year old women with low BMD (TROPOS). The cost-effectiveness analysis had a societal perspective. In the base case analysis, the cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of strontium ranelate patients compared to no treatment patients was estimated at SEK 472,586 and SEK 259,643, including costs in added life years, based on the SOTI and the TROPOS trials, respectively. Excluding cost in added life years, the cost per QALY gained was estimated at SEK 336,420 (SOTI) and SEK 165,680 (TROPOS). In subgroup analyses, in patients 74 years and older with a T-score lower than -2.4 and patients older than 80 years of age, strontium ranelate was found to be cost saving compared to no treatment. The results in the base case analyses and the sensitivity analyses of this study indicate that, compared to no treatment, strontium ranelate is cost-effective in the treatment of postmenopausal women with low BMD.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication, telephone motivational interviewing, and a combination of the two: results of an economic evaluation alongside the Vitalum randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of tailored print communication (TPC), telephone motivational interviewing (TMI), a combination of the two, and no intervention on two outcomes in adults aged 45 to 70, half of them having hypertension: increasing the number of public health guidelines met for three behaviors (physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption), and impact on quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Methods Participants (n = 1,629) from 23 Dutch general practices were randomized into one of four groups, which received 4 TPCs, 4 TMIs, 2 of each (combined), or no intervention (control), respectively. The self-reported outcomes, measured at baseline and 73 weeks follow-up (7 months after the last intervention component), were difference in total number of guidelines met at follow-up compared to baseline, and number of QALYs experienced over 73 weeks. The costs of implementing the intervention were estimated using a bottom-up approach. Results At 73 weeks follow-up participants showed increased adherence with 0.62 (TPC), 0.40 (TMI), 0.50 (combined), and 0.26 (control) guidelines compared to baseline, and experienced 1.09, 1.08, 1.08, and 1.07 QALYs, respectively. The costs for the control group were considered to be zero. TMI was more expensive (€107 per person) than both the combined intervention (€80) and TPC (€57). The control condition was most cost-effective for lower ceiling ratios, while TPC had the highest probability of being most cost-effective for higher ceiling ratios (more than €160 per additional guideline met, and €2,851 for each individual QALY). Conclusions For low society's willingness to pay, the control group was most cost-effective for the number of QALYs experienced over 73 weeks. This also applied to the increase in the number of guidelines met at lower ceiling ratios, whereas at higher ceiling ratios, TPC had a higher probability of being more cost-effective than the TMI

  12. Students' Persistent Preconceptions and Learning Economic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busom, Isabel; Lopez-Mayan, Cristina; Panadés, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Economic views held by the general public tend to differ significantly from those of economic experts. Would these differences fade away if people were exposed to some economic instruction? In this article, the authors identify college students' preconceptions about economic issues at the beginning of the semester, verify their persistence…

  13. High-risk Plaque Detected on Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Predicts Acute Coronary Syndrome Independent of Significant Stenosis in Patients with Acute Chest Pain – Results from ROMICAT II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Puchner, Stefan B.; Liu, Ting; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Truong, Quynh A.; Lee, Hang; Fleg, Jerome L.; Nagurney, John T.; Udelson, James E.; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine whether high-risk plaque as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) permits improved early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) independent to the presence of significant CAD in acute chest pain patients. Objectives The primary aim was to determine whether high-risk plaque features, as detected by CTA in the emergency department, may improve diagnostic certainty of ACS independent and incremental to the presence of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment in patients with acute chest pain but without objective evidence of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction. Methods We included patients randomized to the CCTA arm of ROMICAT II trial. Readers assessed coronary CTA qualitatively for the presence of non-obstructive CAD (1-49% stenosis), significant CAD (≥50% or ≥70% stenosis), and the presence of at least 1 of the high-risk plaque features (positive remodeling, low < 30 Hounsfield Units plaque, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium). In logistic regression analysis, we determined the association of high-risk plaque with ACS [myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina pectoris (UAP)] during the index hospitalization and whether this was independent of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment. Results Overall 37 of 472 patients who underwent coronary CTA with diagnostic image quality (mean age 53.9±8.0 years, 52.8% men) had ACS (7.8%; MI n=5, UAP n=32)]. CAD was present in 262 (55.5%) patients [non-obstructive CAD 217 (46.0%) patients, significant CAD with ≥50% stenosis 45 (9.5%) patients]. High-risk plaques were more frequent in patients with ACS and remained a significant predictor of ACS (OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.8-43.3, p=0.006) after adjusting for ≥50% stenosis (OR 38.6, 95% CI 14.2-104.7, p<0.001) and clinical risk assessment (age, gender, number of cardiovascular risk factors). Similar results were observed after adjusting for ≥70% stenosis. Conclusions In patients presenting to the ED with acute

  14. The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-04

    government borrowing adds to total credit demand and tends to push up interest rates . Higher interest rates increase the cost of financing new...investors believe to be the long-run trend in the debt-to-GDP ratio. If large deficits are expected to persist, or if the interest rate on the debt is...debt held by the public. This is the measure of debt that has actually been sold in credit markets, and which has influenced interest rates and

  15. The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    has influenced interest rates and private investment decisions. At the beginning of 2007, the debt held by the public is just over $4.9 trillion. The...Federal government borrowing adds to total credit demand and tends to push up interest rates . Higher interest rates increase the cost of financing...in the debt-to-GDP ratio. If large deficits are expected to persist, or if the interest rate on the debt is expected to exceed the growth rate

  16. The Federal Government Debt: Its Size and Economic Significance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-03

    the short run. As the economy approaches full employment, federal government borrowing adds to total credit demand and tends to push up interest rates . Higher... interest rates increase the cost of financing new investment in plant and equipment and thus may tend to reduce the stock of productive...are expected to persist, or if the interest rate on the debt is expected to exceed the growth rate indefinitely, then at some point the federal

  17. Manganese oxide minerals: Crystal structures and economic and environmental significance

    PubMed Central

    Post, Jeffrey E.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese oxide minerals have been used for thousands of years—by the ancients for pigments and to clarify glass, and today as ores of Mn metal, catalysts, and battery material. More than 30 Mn oxide minerals occur in a wide variety of geological settings. They are major components of Mn nodules that pave huge areas of the ocean floor and bottoms of many fresh-water lakes. Mn oxide minerals are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and participate in a variety of chemical reactions that affect groundwater and bulk soil composition. Their typical occurrence as fine-grained mixtures makes it difficult to study their atomic structures and crystal chemistries. In recent years, however, investigations using transmission electron microscopy and powder x-ray and neutron diffraction methods have provided important new insights into the structures and properties of these materials. The crystal structures for todorokite and birnessite, two of the more common Mn oxide minerals in terrestrial deposits and ocean nodules, were determined by using powder x-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld refinement method. Because of the large tunnels in todorokite and related structures there is considerable interest in the use of these materials and synthetic analogues as catalysts and cation exchange agents. Birnessite-group minerals have layer structures and readily undergo oxidation reduction and cation-exchange reactions and play a major role in controlling groundwater chemistry. PMID:10097056

  18. What constitutes best supportive care in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients?--Results from the lung cancer economics and outcomes research (LUCEOR) study.

    PubMed

    Lester, J F; Agulnik, J; Akerborg, O; Chouaid, C; De Geer, A; Finnern, H W; Herder, G J M; Lungershausen, J; Mitchell, P L R; Vansteenkiste, J; Ziske, C; Goker, E

    2013-10-01

    A significant proportion of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receive supportive treatments to manage disease-related symptoms either separately or combined with systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT). This supportive treatment is commonly referred to as best supportive care (BSC). Definition of BSC in clinical trials and its description in published comparative and real-life NSCLC studies is limited. The lack of a consensus BSC definition makes detailed evaluations of clinical trials and comparisons between clinical trials problematic. Data were collected as part of the lung cancer economics and outcomes research (LUCEOR) study. Information on treatment and treatment outcomes from deceased stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients across ten countries was retrospectively collected from medical records. BSC was defined as the best care available as judged by the attending physicians. A total of 1327 patients' data were analyzed. Of those, 774/1327 (58%), 316/631 (50%), 123/259 (47%), 25/56 (45%) and 15/26 (58%) were administered treatment defined as BSC with first, second, third, fourth and fifth-line SACT respectively. In total, 346/678 (51%), 149/335 (45%), 86/176 (49%), 11/28 (39%) and 13/25 (52%) of patients were administered treatment defined as BSC in the end-of-life setting after finishing first, second, third, fourth and fifth-line SACT respectively. BSC therapies could be grouped into 24 different categories. The most common elements did not vary substantially whether given with SACT (irrespective of treatment line), in the end-of-life setting, or between countries. The commonest categories of BSC were narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics, corticosteroids and gastrointestinal medication. There were no major differences in what constituted BSC. BSC included in all instances narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics, corticosteroids and gastrointestinal medication. To our knowledge this is the first study attempting to describe BSC in routine clinical practice

  19. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC) during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to common practice (CP). Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951). Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working mothers; therefore

  20. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Madhavi; Kandpal, S D; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6-17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem.

  1. Economic Stress and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171

  2. Significant association of female gender with lower degree of pathological 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy results as well as higher cardiac-related deaths free survival in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Joe, Alexius Y; Herder, Ellen; Brockmann, Holger; Reinhardt, Michael J; Palmedo, Holger; Tiemann, Klaus; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of female gender on the extent of myocardial perfusion defects as revealed by (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and on emerging cardiac events (CE) in patients aged ≥ 70 years. 86 patients aged ≥ 70 years with known or suspected CAD undergoing MPS (74.4 ± 3.2 years; women: n = 46; 53.5%) were included in this study. Semiquantitative analysis of MPS was performed and summed stress (SSS), summed difference (SDS), and summed rest scores (SRS) were calculated. Emerging CE comprised myocardial revascularization and -infarction and cardiac-related death. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the independent prognostic impact of several patient related variables on MPS results. Kaplan-Meier- and log rank analyses were calculated for assessment of CE free survival as related to gender. Normal SSS (87.0% vs. 27.5%; p < 0.0001), SDS (80.4% vs. 27.5%; p < 0.0001), and SRS (97.8% vs. 82.5%; p = 0.023) were significantly more often found in women, whereas incidence of mildly and severely impaired SSS (6.5% vs. 35%; p = 0.001 and 2.2% vs. 25%; p = 0.002, respectively) and SDS (15.2% vs. 52.5%; p < 0.0001 and 2.2% vs. 17.5%; p = 0.023, respectively) were significantly higher in men. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed female gender as an independent predictor of normal SSS (odds ratio/OR: 17.6) and SDS (OR: 53.3). Female gender was associated with a significant higher cardiac-death free survival compared to male patients (p = 0.031). Female gender is independently associated with a significantly lower degree of pathological MPS results and a higher cardiac-death free survival in elderly patients.

  3. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-02-05

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement.

  5. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production.

    PubMed

    Elhofy, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v) the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1)) when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1); p < 0.05). This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  6. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter; Søndergaard, Lars; Witsenburg, Maarten; Guccione, Paolo; Benson, Lee N; Suárez de Lezo, José; Lung, Te-Hsin; Hess, John; Eicken, Andreas; Berger, Felix

    2017-02-20

    Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI) is used to treat patients with dysfunctional pulmonary valve conduits. Short- and longer-term results from multiple trials have outlined haemodynamic improvements. Our aim was to report the long-term results, including quality of life, from a multicentre trial in Europe and Canada. From October 2007 to April 2009, 71 patients (24 female; median age 19.0 [IQR: 14.0 to 25.0] years) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. PPVI was performed successfully in 63 patients. At five-year follow-up four patients had died. Moderate and severe pulmonary regurgitation were completely resolved in all except one patient, who needed re-PPVI. Outflow tract obstruction improved significantly from a mean pressure gradient of 37.7±12.1 mmHg before PPVI to 17.3±9.7 mmHg at five-year follow-up; however, 11 patients needed treatment for restenosis. The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and improved quality of life.

  7. Economics of Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion; Knetsch, Jack L.

    Written for the purposes of presenting an overview of outdoor recreation in the United States and defining the significant outdoor recreation policy issues of the next 10 to 20 years, this document also includes major sections on recreation resources and economic considerations. Projections to the year 2000 are made for a national time budget,…

  8. Economics of Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Marion; Knetsch, Jack L.

    Written for the purposes of presenting an overview of outdoor recreation in the United States and defining the significant outdoor recreation policy issues of the next 10 to 20 years, this document also includes major sections on recreation resources and economic considerations. Projections to the year 2000 are made for a national time budget,…

  9. Health economics and nutrition: a review of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Gyles, Collin L; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Carlberg, Jared G; Senanayake, Vijitha; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Inaki; Poley, Marten J; Dubois, Dominique; Jones, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between nutrition and health-economic outcomes is important at both the individual and the societal level. While personal nutritional choices affect an individual's health condition, thus influencing productivity and economic contribution to society, nutrition interventions carried out by the state also have the potential to affect economic output in significant ways. This review summarizes studies of nutrition interventions in which health-related economic implications of the intervention have been addressed. Results of the search strategy have been categorized into three areas: economic studies of micronutrient deficiencies and malnutrition; economic studies of dietary improvements; and economic studies of functional foods. The findings show that a significant number of studies have calculated the health-economic impacts of nutrition interventions, but approaches and methodologies are sometimes ad hoc in nature and vary widely in quality. Development of an encompassing economic framework to evaluate costs and benefits from such interventions is a potentially fruitful area for future research. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Future Approaches to the Economic Instrument of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    economics, we can create better national security options and results. Policy Schizophrenia In the past, economics and national security shared...opportunity for military planners and economists to collaborate. Promoting economic growth and spreading awareness of economic empowerment

  11. Family economic hardship and Chinese adolescents' sleep quality: A moderated mediation model involving perceived economic discrimination and coping strategy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping; Lai, Xuefen

    2016-07-01

    The association between family economic hardship and adolescent adjustment outcomes, including sleep quality, is well-established. Few studies, however, have examined the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying the relation between family economic hardship and adolescents' sleep quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of family economic hardship on Chinese adolescents' sleep quality, as well as the role of perceived economic discrimination as a mediator and the role of coping strategy as a moderator. Survey data from a cross-sectional sample of 997 Chinese adolescents (45% male, mean age = 15.04 years) were analyzed using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. The results of this study indicated that family economic hardship was significantly associated with adolescents' sleep quality. This association was mediated by adolescents' perceived economic discrimination. In addition, adolescents' coping strategy significantly moderated the path from perceived economic discrimination to sleep quality, with the "shift" coping strategy as a protective factor. The present study contributes to our understanding of key mechanisms underlying the association between family economic hardship and adolescent sleep quality and highlights the importance of improving sleep quality for adolescents exposed to economic hardship.

  12. Economic Impact of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Elena A; Pyzocha, Natasha

    2016-03-01

    Parallel to rising obesity rates is an increase in costs associated with excess weight. Estimates of future direct (medical) and indirect (nonmedical) costs related to obesity suggest rising expenditures that will impose a significant economic burden to individuals and society as a whole. This article reviews research on direct and indirect medical costs and future economic trends associated with obesity and associated comorbidities. Cost disparities associated with subsets of the population experiencing higher than average rates of obesity are explored. Finally, potential solutions with the highest estimated impact are offered, and future directions are proposed.

  13. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    PubMed Central

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions. PMID:10485865

  14. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National.... Although the IFQ Program resulted in significant safety and economic benefits for many fishermen, since the... economic conditions in those communities. CQE Program In 2001, the Council recognized that a number of...

  15. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  16. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correla