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Sample records for significantly greater impairment

  1. Which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of position sense?

    PubMed

    Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Billaut, François; Behm, David; Teasdale, Normand

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of elbow position sense. Eleven male subjects participating in the study underwent (i) an exercise task (ET) consisting of 9 sets of 10 voluntary isometric, concentric, or eccentric contractions randomly performed on three separate sessions, and (ii) a pre- and post-exercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction (iMVC). Prior to and between sets of ET, a proprioception task (PT) consisting of matching the right arm to the left reference arm was performed at three different target angular positions (70 degrees , 110 degrees and 150 degrees). Each ET was immediately followed by 3 PT and 1 min rest. The statistical analysis revealed that post-exercise iMVCs were significantly decreased compared to pre-exercise iMVC in all conditions with a greater drop following the eccentric task. Despite this greater drop, position sense was significantly affected by the concentric exercise task. In addition, the spectral EMG signals significantly shifted towards lower frequencies from the initial values, regardless of exercise task. The results showed that concentric muscle contractions impaired position sense to a greater extent compared to isometric and eccentric contractions.

  2. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners.

  3. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  4. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse Associated with Greater Psychological Impairment among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Michael R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the psychiatric histories and projective test responses of 102 sexually abused girls found that the following characteristics of abuse were significantly associated with greater psychological disturbance: more than one perpetrator, an early age of abuse onset, and periods of intense and frequent abuse episodes. A relatively stable…

  5. Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Insomnia: Clinical Significance and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the nature of cognitive impairment in individuals with insomnia, (2) document their clinical significance, (3) examine their correlates, and (4) explore differences among individuals with insomnia with and without cognitive complaints. Design: Participants underwent 3 consecutive nights of polysomnography. On the morning following the third night, they completed a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Participants: The sample included 25 adults with primary insomnia (mean age: 44.4 ± 11.5 y, 56% women) and 16 controls (mean age: 42.8 ± 12.9 y, 50% women) matched for sex, age, and education. Intervention: N/A. Measurement and Results: Participants completed neuropsychological tests covering attention, memory, working memory, and executive functions, as well as questionnaires assessing the subjective perception of performance, depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleepiness, and hyperarousal. There were significant group differences for the attention and episodic memory domains. Clinically significant deficits were more frequent in the insomnia group. Within the insomnia group, individuals with cognitive complaints exhibited significantly poorer performance on a larger number of neuropsychological variables. All impaired aspects of performance were significantly associated with either subjective or objective sleep continuity, and some were also independently related to sleep microstructure (i.e., relative power for alpha frequencies) or selected psychological variables (i.e., beliefs or arousal). Conclusions: These findings suggest clinically significant alterations in attention and episodic memory in individuals with insomnia. Objective deficits were more pronounced and involved more aspects of performance in a subgroup of individuals with cognitive complaints. These deficits appear associated with sleep continuity, and may also be related to sleep microstructure and dysfunctional beliefs

  6. Optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation are associated with lower likelihood of cognitive impairment and greater positive affect among cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M. P.; Ferrer, Rebecca A.; Kent, Erin E.; Harris, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimism and self-affirmation promote adaptive coping, goal achievement, and better health. Purpose To examine the associations of optimism and spontaneous self-affirmation (SSA) with physical, mental, and cognitive health and information seeking among cancer survivors. Methods Cancer survivors (n=326) completed the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013, a national survey of U.S. adults. Participants reported optimism, SSA, cognitive and physical impairment, affect, health status, and information seeking. Results Participants higher in optimism reported better health on nearly all indices examined, even when controlling for SSA. Participants higher in SSA reported lower likelihood of cognitive impairment, greater happiness and hopefulness, and greater likelihood of cancer information seeking. SSA remained significantly associated with greater hopefulness and cancer information seeking when controlling for optimism. Conclusions Optimism and SSA may be associated with beneficial health-related outcomes among cancer survivors. Given the demonstrated malleability of self-affirmation, these findings represent important avenues for future research. PMID:26497697

  7. Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ≅1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ≥3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking.

  8. Prefrontal Recruitment During Social Rejection Predicts Greater Subsequent Self-Regulatory Imbalance and Impairment: Neural and Longitudinal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region’s inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. PMID:25094019

  9. Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-21

    Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ∼310 × 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 × 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ∼100 × 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 × 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications.

  10. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy…

  11. Significant Impairment in Immune Recovery Following Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Duck-Hee; Weaver, Michael T.; Park, Na-Jin; Smith, Barbara; McArdle, Traci; Carpenter, John

    2009-01-01

    Background Although immunosuppression from cancer adjuvant therapy has been documented, how these suppressed immune responses recover to baseline values after completion of cancer adjuvant therapy has not been studied systematically. Objectives To examine the probability of immune recovery following cancer adjuvant therapy and the potential impact of cancer adjuvant therapy type and cancer stage on immune recovery in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Method In a repeated-measures design, immune responses were measured 4 times in 80 early stage breast cancer patients: prior to, and at 2, 6, and 12 months from the beginning of cancer adjuvant therapy. Natural killer cell activity (NKCA), lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, CD subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD56), and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-1α) were selected for their relevance to breast cancer. Immune recovery was defined by the level of immune response reaching to and above baseline levels. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized linear mixed model approach. Results Delayed immune recovery to pretreatment baseline levels continued to the 12-month time point in all parameters. The percentages of immune recovery ranged from 6% to 76% of the patients, varying among immune parameters. Overall, immune recovery was poorer for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, lymphocyte proliferation and NKCA than for CD subsets and IL-6. The type of cancer adjuvant therapy, not cancer stage, showed selective influence on immune recovery. Chemotherapy or chemo- and radiotherapy combination significantly delayed IL-2 recovery, whereas radiotherapy significantly delayed IL-4 recovery. Discussion Immune recovery following breast cancer adjuvant therapy is delayed significantly for an extended time period in numerous immune parameters. The type of cancer adjuvant therapy has selective influence on immune recovery. Future investigations are warranted to elucidate the time course of immune

  12. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs.

  13. Significantly shorter Fe–S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    DOE PAGES

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; ...

    2015-08-03

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C–H bonds. In this paper, to provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe–S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe–S bond lengths can be understood in terms ofmore » variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the ‘cys-pocket’ (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe–S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. Finally, this observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C–H bond activation.« less

  14. Significantly shorter Fe–S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-08-03

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C–H bonds. In this paper, to provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe–S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe–S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the ‘cys-pocket’ (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe–S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. Finally, this observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C–H bond activation.

  15. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate ligated heme proteins that catalyze the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I with variable temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in hydrogen bonding patterns within the “cys-pocket” (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial-thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation. PMID:26291940

  16. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  17. Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

  18. Diabetic cornea wounds produce significantly weaker electric signals that may contribute to impaired healing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yunyun; Pfluger, Trisha; Ferreira, Fernando; Liang, Jiebing; Navedo, Manuel F.; Zeng, Qunli; Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Wounds naturally produce electric signals which serve as powerful cues that stimulate and guide cell migration during wound healing. In diabetic patients, impaired wound healing is one of the most challenging complications in diabetes management. A fundamental gap in knowledge is whether diabetic wounds have abnormal electric signaling. Here we used a vibrating probe to demonstrate that diabetic corneas produced significantly weaker wound electric signals than the normal cornea. This was confirmed in three independent animal models of diabetes: db/db, streptozotocin-induced and mice fed a high-fat diet. Spatial measurements illustrated that diabetic cornea wound currents at the wound edge but not wound center were significantly weaker than normal. Time lapse measurements revealed that the electric currents at diabetic corneas lost the normal rising and plateau phases. The abnormal electric signals correlated significantly with impaired wound healing. Immunostaining suggested lower expression of chloride channel 2 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in diabetic corneal epithelium. Acute high glucose exposure significantly (albeit moderately) reduced electrotaxis of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro, but did not affect the electric currents at cornea wounds. These data suggest that weaker wound electric signals and impaired electrotaxis may contribute to the impaired wound healing in diabetes. PMID:27283241

  19. Diabetic cornea wounds produce significantly weaker electric signals that may contribute to impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunyun; Pfluger, Trisha; Ferreira, Fernando; Liang, Jiebing; Navedo, Manuel F; Zeng, Qunli; Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2016-06-10

    Wounds naturally produce electric signals which serve as powerful cues that stimulate and guide cell migration during wound healing. In diabetic patients, impaired wound healing is one of the most challenging complications in diabetes management. A fundamental gap in knowledge is whether diabetic wounds have abnormal electric signaling. Here we used a vibrating probe to demonstrate that diabetic corneas produced significantly weaker wound electric signals than the normal cornea. This was confirmed in three independent animal models of diabetes: db/db, streptozotocin-induced and mice fed a high-fat diet. Spatial measurements illustrated that diabetic cornea wound currents at the wound edge but not wound center were significantly weaker than normal. Time lapse measurements revealed that the electric currents at diabetic corneas lost the normal rising and plateau phases. The abnormal electric signals correlated significantly with impaired wound healing. Immunostaining suggested lower expression of chloride channel 2 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in diabetic corneal epithelium. Acute high glucose exposure significantly (albeit moderately) reduced electrotaxis of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro, but did not affect the electric currents at cornea wounds. These data suggest that weaker wound electric signals and impaired electrotaxis may contribute to the impaired wound healing in diabetes.

  20. Brief report: Inner speech impairment in children with autism is associated with greater nonverbal than verbal skills.

    PubMed

    Lidstone, Jane S M; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2009-08-01

    We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal > verbal (NV > V) skills profile would show the greatest inner speech impairment. CWA and typically developing controls (n = 23 in each group) undertook a timed mathematical task-switching test, known to benefit from inner speech use. Participants completed the task with and without articulatory suppression (AS), which disrupts inner speech. The hypothesis was supported: AS interference varied with cognitive profile among CWA but not among controls. Only the NV > V autism group showed no AS interference, indicating an inner speech impairment.

  1. Alzheimer's disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer's patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Chad S; Spaniol, Maggie; O'Connor, Maureen K; Deason, Rebecca G; Ally, Brandon A; Budson, Andrew E

    2011-07-01

    We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer's patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring.

  2. Significant bone microarchitecture impairment in premenopausal women with active celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Costa, Florencia; Longobardi, Vanesa; Longarini, Gabriela; Mazure, Roberto Martín; Moreno, María Laura; Vázquez, Horacio; Silveira, Fernando; Niveloni, Sonia; Smecuol, Edgardo; Temprano, María de la Paz; Hwang, Hui Jer; González, Andrea; Mauriño, Eduardo César; Bogado, Cesar; Zanchetta, Jose R; Bai, Julio César

    2015-07-01

    a greater bone microarchitectural deficit than those with subclinical CD. HR-pQCT was used to successfully identify significant deterioration in the microarchitecture of trabecular and cortical compartments of peripheral bones. Impairment was characterized by lower trabecular number and thickness-which increased trabecular network heterogeneity-and lower cortical density and thickness. In the prospective follow-up of this group of patients we expect to be able to assess whether bone microarchitecture recovers and to what extend after gluten-free diet.

  3. Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-08-30

    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation.

  4. Rethinking stimulation of brain in stroke rehabilitation: Why higher-motor areas might be better alternatives for patients with greater impairments

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B; Cunningham, David; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Stimulating the brain to drive its adaptive plastic potential is promising to accelerate rehabilitative outcomes in stroke. Ipsilesional Primary Motor Cortex (M1) is invariably facilitated. However, evidence supporting its efficacy is divided, indicating we may have over-generalized its potential. Since M1 and its corticospinal output are frequently damaged, in patients with serious lesions and impairments, ipsilesional premotor areas (PMA) could be useful alternates instead. We base our premise on their higher probability of survival, greater descending projections, and an adaptive potential, which is causal for recovery across the seriously impaired. Using a conceptual model, we describe how chronically stimulating PMA would strongly affect key mechanisms of stroke motor recovery, such as facilitating plasticity of alternate descending output, restoring inter-hemispheric balance, and establishing widespread connectivity. Although at this time it is difficult to predict whether PMA would be ‘better’, it is important to at least investigate whether they are reasonable substitutes for M1. Even if stimulation of M1 may benefit those with maximum recovery potential, while that of PMA may only help the more disadvantaged, it may still be reasonable to achieve some recovery across the majority rather than stimulate a single locus fated to be inconsistently effective across all. PMID:24951091

  5. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  6. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

  7. Greater default-mode network abnormalities compared to high order visual processing systems in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: an integrated multi-modal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bosch, Beatriz; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Rami, Lorena; Bargalló, Núria; Junqué, Carme; Molinuevo, José-Luis; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an integrated multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study based on functional MRI (fMRI) data during a complex but cognitively preserved visual task in 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) patients and 15 Healthy Elders (HE). Independent Component Analysis of fMRI data identified a functional network containing an Activation Task Related Pattern (ATRP), including regions of the dorsal and ventral visual stream, and a Deactivation Task Related Pattern network (DTRP), with high spatial correspondence with the default-mode network (DMN). Gray matter (GM) volumes of the underlying ATRP and DTRP cortical areas were measured, and probabilistic tractography (based on diffusion MRI) identified fiber pathways within each functional network. For the ATRP network, a-MCI patients exhibited increased fMRI responses in inferior-ventral visual areas, possibly reflecting compensatory activations for more compromised dorsal regions. However, no significant GM or white matter group differences were observed within the ATRP network. For the DTRP/DMN, a-MCI showed deactivation deficits and reduced GM volumes in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, excessive deactivations in the inferior parietal lobe, and less fiber tract integrity in the cingulate bundles. Task performance correlated with DTRP-functionality in the HE group. Besides allowing the identification of functional reorganizations in the cortical network directly processing the task-stimuli, these findings highlight the importance of conducting integrated multi-modal MRI studies in MCI based on spared cognitive domains in order to identify functional abnormalities in critical areas of the DMN and their precise anatomical substrates. These latter findings may reflect early neuroimaging biomarkers in dementia.

  8. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant…

  9. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed.

  10. The manic phase of Bipolar disorder significantly impairs theory of mind decoding.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Emily R; Harkness, Kate L; Lazowski, Lauren K; Summers, David; Khoja, Nida; Gregory, James Gardner; Milev, Roumen

    2016-05-30

    Bipolar disorder is associated with significant deficits in the decoding of others' mental states in comparison to healthy participants. However, differences in theory of mind decoding ability among patients in manic, depressed, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder is currently unknown. Fifty-nine patients with bipolar I or II disorder (13 manic, 25 depressed, 20 euthymic) completed the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Task (Eyes task) and the Animals Task developed to control for non-mentalistic response demands of the Eyes Task. Patients also completed self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression, mania, and anxiety symptoms. Patients in the manic phase were significantly less accurate than those in the depressed and euthymic phases at decoding mental states in the Eyes task, and this effect was strongest for eyes of a positive or neutral valence. Further Eyes task performance was negatively correlated with the symptoms of language/thought disorder, pressured speech, and disorganized thoughts and appearance. These effects held when controlling for accuracy on the Animals task, response times, and relevant demographic and clinical covariates. Results suggest that the state of mania, and particularly psychotic symptoms that may overlap with the schizophrenia spectrum, are most strongly related to social cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder.

  11. Cost and effectiveness of an eye care adherence program for Philadelphia children with significant visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Snitzer, Melanie; Amos, Tony; Prioli, Katherine M; Steele, Deon; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The follow-up rate among children with vision problems in the authors' outreach programs has been <5%. The authors therefore developed a social worker (SW) intervention, the Children's Eye Care Adherence Program (CECAP), for Philadelphia school children. The objective of this study was to measure CECAP's effectiveness and cost, as well as to identify barriers to care through a conceptual framework and geomapping software. A SW reviewed records to identify children needing follow-up and phoned families to identify and resolve barriers to eye care and scheduled appointments. Effectiveness was defined as the percent completing ≥ 1 follow-up visit within the physician-recommended time frame. Cost was measured for SW time (SW wage rates+benefits) and additional materials (forms, postage, phone charges). Barriers were organized into a conceptual framework depicting predisposing factors, system factors, and financial factors. Geomapping software was used to illustrate follow-up rates. In all, 120 patients required additional pediatric ophthalmic care; 71 patients were contacted and returned for care (59.2%); 49 patients were contacted but did not return (40.8%). SW time was 3h rs/patient for those who returned and 2 hrs/patient for those who did not return. Based on the CECAP program total cost ($14,249) and the reimbursement payment ($6265.66), the net cost of the CECAP program was $7983.59. Predisposing factors were the primary barrier theme for patients who did not follow up. CECAP significantly improved adherence to eye care but comes at an additional cost. Future efforts should focus on reducing operational efficiencies and targeting CECAP based on predictors of follow-up.

  12. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michelle B; Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  13. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Schier, Lindsey A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  14. Higher education is not associated with greater cortical thickness in brain areas related to literacy or intelligence in normal aging or mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Jagan A; McEvoy, Linda K; Hagler, Donald J; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into high (≥18 years) and low (≤13 years) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early-life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve.

  15. RAGE Deficiency Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Murine Staphylococcal Sepsis, but Has No Significant Impact on Staphylococcal Septic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Majd; Na, Manli; Welin, Amanda; Svensson, Mattias N. D.; Ali, Abukar; Jin, Tao; Pullerits, Rille

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic arthritis is a serious joint disease often caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) has an important role in several infections. We sought to investigate the role of RAGE in staphylococcal septic arthritis and sepsis in mice. Methods Wild-type (WT) and RAGE deficient (RAGE-/-) mice were intra-articularly or intravenously inoculated with an arthritic or septic dose of S. aureus LS-1 strain. Clinical arthritis, weight development and mortality were monitored for 14 days. Serum levels of cytokines, kidney bacterial loads as well as micro-CT and histopathology of the joints were assessed. Results RAGE-/- mice with septic arthritis had significantly lower IL-17A and higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to the control group. However, no significant differences between the groups were observed regarding the weight loss, the severity and frequency of arthritis, and bacterial loads in the kidneys. In mice with sepsis, the overall mortality rate was similar in RAGE-/- (39%) and in WT mice (45%). However, RAGE-/- mice with sepsis had significantly higher bacterial load in their kidneys compared to the WT controls. In line with data from hematogenous S. aureus arthritis, RAGE deficiency had no impact on arthritis severity in local joint infection. Conclusions Our results indicate that lack of RAGE has no significant impact on septic arthritis. However, RAGE-/- mice had significantly higher BMD compared to WT mice, which coincided with lower IL-17A in RAGE-/- mice. In sepsis, RAGE deficiency impairs bacterial kidney clearance. PMID:27907047

  16. Clinical significance of cell population data (CPD) on Sysmex XN-9000 in septic patients with our without liver impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Michela; Vavassori, Mauro; Dominoni, Paola; Apassiti Esposito, Sara; Manenti, Barbara; Mecca, Tommaso; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Castellucci, Enrico; Azzarà, Giovanna; Ottomano, Cosimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the clinical significance of cell population data (CPD) parameters obtained on Sysmex XN-9000 in septic patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and stratified according to liver function. Methods The study population consisted in 84 patients, 44 of whom did not develop sepsis (NS), whereas the remaining 40 developed sepsis (SE) (n=24) or septic shock (SS) (n=16). Two hundred ostensibly healthy blood donors [healthy subjects (HS)], undergoing routine blood testing before a regular blood donation, were studied. Results Except for neutrophils and lymphocytes cell size (NE-FCS and LY-Z), all other CPD values were significantly different in ICU patients compared to HS. Neutrophils and monocytes fluorescence intensity (NE-SFL and MO-X) values were significantly higher in SS compared to sepsis and not develop sepsis patients. The value of many parameters was also different according to liver function. Overall, MO-X and neutrophils fluorescence intensity (NE-SFL) exhibited the best performance for diagnosing sepsis in all patients (AUC, 0.75 and 0.72), as well as in those with (AUC, 0.95 and 0.89) or without (AUC, 0.72 for both) liver impairment. These parameters were also significantly correlated with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. Conclusions This study suggested that some novel CPD parameters (namely NE-SFL and MO-X) may provide useful information for diagnosis and management of sepsis. PMID:27942509

  17. Highly Significant Linkage to the SLI1 Locus in an Expanded Sample of Individuals Affected by Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are ⩾1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

  18. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  19. HLA-B27 Selects for Rare Escape Mutations that Significantly Impair Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Require Compensatory Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Neumann-Haefelin, Christoph; Oniangue-Ndza, Cesar; Kuntzen, Thomas; Schmidt, Julia; Nitschke, Katja; Sidney, John; Caillet-Saguy, Célia; Binder, Marco; Kersting, Nadine; Kemper, Michael W.; Power, Karen A.; Ingber, Susan; Reyor, Laura L.; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Kim, Arthur Y.; Lauer, Georg M.; Lohmann, Volker; Sette, Alessandro; Henn, Matthew R.; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Thimme, Robert; Allen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    HLA-B27 is associated with spontaneous viral clearance in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral escape within the immunodominant HLA-B27 restricted HCV-specific CD8+ T cell epitope NS5B2841-2849 (ARMILMTHF) has been shown to be limited by viral fitness costs as well as broad T cell cross-recognition, suggesting a potential mechanism of protection by HLA-B27. Here, we studied the subdominant HLA-B27 restricted epitope NS5B2936-2944 (GRAAICGKY) in order to further define the mechanisms of protection by HLA-B27. We identified a unique pattern of escape mutations within this epitope in a large cohort of HCV genotype 1a infected patients. The predominant escape mutations represented conservative substitutions at the main HLA-B27 anchor residue or a T cell receptor contact site, neither of which impaired viral replication capacity as assessed in a subgenomic HCV replicon system. In contrast, however, in a subset of HLA-B27+ subjects rare escape mutations arose at the HLA-B27 anchor residue R2937, which nearly abolished viral replication. Notably, these rare mutations only occurred in conjunction with the selection of two equally rare, and structurally proximal, upstream mutations. Co-expression of these upstream mutations with the rare escape mutations dramatically restored viral replication capacity from <5% to ≥70% of wild-type levels. Conclusion The selection of rare CTL escape mutations in this HLA-B27 restricted epitope dramatically impairs viral replicative fitness unless properly compensated. These data support a role for the targeting of highly-constrained regions by HLA-B27 in its ability to assert immune control of HCV and other highly variable pathogens. PMID:22006856

  20. Ascites’ neutrophil function is significantly impaired in patients with decompensated cirrhosis but can be restored by autologous plasma incubation

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Cornelius; Becker, Christina; Boldt, Andreas; Herta, Toni; Boehlig, Albrecht; Splith, Katrin; Schmelzle, Moritz; Mueller, Niklas; Krohn, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael; Sack, Ulrich; Berg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Systemic immune cell dysfunction is a typical feature of liver diseases and increases the risk of bacterial infection, especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. We evaluated functional properties of neutrophil granulocytes in blood and ascites of patients both with and without decompensated cirrhosis. We collected blood and ascites samples from 63 patients with cirrhosis and eight without cirrhosis. Phagocytosis activity (PA) and oxidative burst activity (OBA) were evaluated after ex vivo stimulation with E. coli, while fluorescence signals were measured by flow cytometry. Ascites’ neutrophil function tests were repeated after incubation with autologous plasma. Ascites’ neutrophils showed an impaired PA and OBA (median blood PA 98.1% (86.8–99.8) vs. ascites’ PA 50.5% (0.4–97.3), p < 0.0001; median blood OBA 98.7% (27.5–100) vs. ascites’ OBA 27.5% (0.3–96.7), p < 0.0001). Patients with non-cirrhotic ascites showed higher PA but equally suppressed OBA. Ascites’ neutrophil function could be partially restored after incubation with autologous plasma (median increase PA: 22.5% (−49.7 – +93.2), p = 0.002; OBA: 22.8% (−10.4 – +48.8), p = 0.002). Ascites’ neutrophils of patients with cirrhosis are functionally impaired, but could be partially restored after incubation with plasma. Further investigations are needed to identify the factors in ascites that are associated with neutrophils’ function. PMID:27917877

  1. Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

    2009-11-15

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging.

  2. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  3. Metabolomics reveals significant impairments in the immune system of the APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Vitorica, Javier; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory processes and other failures related to the immune system are common features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in both brain and the peripheral system. Thus, the study of the main organs of the immune system may have a great potential for the elucidation of pathological mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. This is the first metabolomic investigation performed in spleen and thymus from transgenic mice of AD. Tissues were fingerprinted using a metabolomic platform comprising GC-MS and ultra-HPLC-MS. Multivariate statistics demonstrated significant differences in numerous metabolites between the APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, and it was proven that multiple biochemical pathways are disturbed in these organs including abnormal metabolism of phospholipids, energy deficiencies, altered homeostasis of amino acids, oxidative stress, and others. Therefore, these findings highlight the importance of the proper metabolic functioning of peripheral immune system in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

  4. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  5. Subendocardial viability ratio as an index of impaired coronary flow reserve in hypertensives without significant coronary artery stenoses.

    PubMed

    Tsiachris, D; Tsioufis, C; Syrseloudis, D; Roussos, D; Tatsis, I; Dimitriadis, K; Toutouzas, K; Tsiamis, E; Stefanadis, C

    2012-01-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), calculated through pulse wave analysis, is an index of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between coronary flow reserve (CFR) and SEVR in 36 consecutive untreated hypertensives (aged 57.9 years, 12 males, all Caucasian) with indications of myocardial ischaemia and normal coronary arteries in coronary angiography. CFR was calculated by a 0.014-inch Doppler guidewire (Flowire, Volcano, San Diego, CA, USA) in response to bolus intracoronary administration of adenosine (30-60 μg). SEVR was calculated by radial applanation tonometry, while diastolic function was evaluated by means of transmitral flow and tissue Doppler imaging. Hypertensive patients with low CFR (n=24) compared with those with normal CFR (n=12) exhibited significantly decreased SEVR by 24.5% (P=0.002). In hypertensives with low CFR, CFR was correlated with SEVR (r=0.651, P=0.001). After applying multivariate linear regression analysis, age, left ventricular mass index, Em/Am, 24-h diastolic blood pressure (BP) and SEVR turned out to be the only independent predictors of CFR (adjusted R(2)=0.718). Estimation of SEVR by using applanation tonometry may provide a reliable tool for the assessment of coronary microcirculation in essential hypertensives with indications of myocardial ischaemia and normal coronary arteries.

  6. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes. I - Source counts at /b/greater than 60 deg and evidence for a north-south anisotropy of cosmological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Walker, D.; Chester, T.; Soifer, T.; Fairclough, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the IRAS sky at b with an absolute value greater than 60 deg is conducted. Source counts at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns are presented, and it is shown that emission from interstellar dust at 100 microns is localized to a few small areas of tathe galactic polar caps. At 12 and 25 microns, the sky is dominated by stars; at 60 and 100 microns, by galaxies. Comparison with the minisurvey source counts indicates the 12and 25-micron source denstiy is lower at the present latitude than at a latitude whereby the absolute value of b equals 10-40 deg. Due to the greatly reduced effects of emission from interstellar dust, the 100 micron survey reaches a factor 1.6 deeper in flux at the present latitude than the minisurvey. An anisotropy significant at the 4-sigma level was found between the north and south galactic polar caps at 60 and 100 microns, after exclusion of the Virgo cluster and of the few remaining areas significantly affected by interstellar-dust emission. It is suggested that this anisotropy represents a cosmologically significant anisotropy in the galaxy distribution. The scale of associated inhomogeneity is of the order of at least 100(50/H)Mpc.

  7. Areca Nut Chewing and an Impaired Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate as Significant Risk Factors for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Xu, Ran; Zhao, Xiaokun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xuan; Wu, Shuiqing; Ai, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the predictive value of preoperative clinicopathological variables, with a special focus on areca nut chewing, on disease recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Data from 242 patients diagnosed with NMIBC between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Fifteen clinicopathological variables were analyzed to evaluate their prognostic value. During a mean observation period of 21 months, disease recurrence occurred in 140 patients (57.9%). On multivariate analysis, heavy-areca nut chewing (HR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.37–3.47), current smoking (HR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.99–4.80), moderately impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.09–2.83), severely impaired eGFR (HR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.70–6.48) and tumor grade (HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.36–2.77) were independent factors for recurrence, based on which a risk factor model was developed to stratify patients into high, medium and low risk groups. In conclusion, our study suggests that in addition to quitting smoking, quitting areca nut chewing may also reduce the risk of first recurrence in NMBIC patients, monitoring and preserving their renal function may be beneficial as well. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the prognostic significance of these factors and the risk stratification model in this population. PMID:27385379

  8. Disruption of interleukin-27 signaling results in impaired gamma interferon production but does not significantly affect immunopathology in murine schistosome infection.

    PubMed

    Shainheit, Mara G; Saraceno, Rosita; Bazzone, Lindsey E; Rutitzky, Laura I; Stadecker, Miguel J

    2007-06-01

    In schistosomiasis mansoni, parasite eggs cause hepatointestinal granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis mediated by CD4 T cells specific for egg antigens. The severity of disease varies extensively in humans and among mouse strains. Marked disease exacerbation induced in typically low-pathology C57BL/6 mice by immunization with schistosome egg antigens (SEA) in complete Freund's adjuvant (SEA/CFA) correlates with elevated production of the proinflammatory cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are regulated by IL-12 and IL-23, respectively. Here we examined the effect on the schistosome infection of a third member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, IL-27, using SEA/CFA-immunized and unimmunized mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor chain WSX-1 (WSX-1(-/-)). SEA-stimulated bulk mesenteric lymph node cells or CD4 T cells from 7-week-infected WSX-1(-/-) mice produced significantly less IFN-gamma than did those from C57BL/6 mice, even though there was no difference between these mice in exacerbated hepatic egg-induced granulomatous inflammation or in the levels of IL-17 induced by immunization with SEA/CFA. A fraction of the cells in the granulomas stained positive for IL-27, but there were no significant differences between WSX-1(-/-) and BL/6 mice, nor were there differences in the number of CD4 T cells and eosinophils. A 24-week chronic infection resulted in markedly reduced levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-gamma, in WSX-1(-/-) mice, but again the magnitude of immunopathology was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings indicate that despite the impaired IFN-gamma production, IL-27 signaling has no significant effect on either the magnitude of egg-induced immunopathology or on its closest in vitro correlate, IL-17.

  9. ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2005-02-25

    We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  11. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans.

  12. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  13. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  14. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H; Haslam, Stuart M; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-10-16

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed "limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates". CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells.

  15. Stress impairs the efficacy of immune stimulation by CpG-C: Potential neuroendocrine mediating mechanisms and significance to tumor metastasis and the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Levi, B; Matzner, P; Goldfarb, Y; Sorski, L; Shaashua, L; Melamed, R; Rosenne, E; Page, G G; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2016-08-01

    We recently reported that immune stimulation can be compromised if animals are simultaneously subjected to stressful conditions. To test the generalizability of these findings, and to elucidate neuroendocrine mediating mechanisms, we herein employed CpG-C, a novel TLR-9 immune-stimulating agent. Animals were subjected to ongoing stress (20-h of wet cage exposure) during CpG-C treatment, and antagonists to glucocorticoids, β-adrenoceptor, COX2, or opioids were employed (RU486, nadolol, etodolac, naltrexone). In F344 rats, marginating-pulmonary NK cell numbers and cytotoxicity were studied, and the NK-sensitive MADB106 experimental metastasis model was used. In Balb/C mice, experimental hepatic metastases of the CT-26 colon tumor were studied; and in C57BL/6J mice, survival rates following excision of B16 melanoma was assessed - both mouse tumor models involved surgical stress. The findings indicated that simultaneous blockade of glucocorticoid and β-adrenergic receptors improved CpG-C efficacy against MADB106 metastasis. In mice bearing B16 melanoma, long-term survival rate was improved by CpG-C only when employed simultaneously with blockers of glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Prolonged stress impaired CpG-C efficacy in potentiating NK activity, and in resisting MADB106 metastasis in both sexes, as also supported by in vitro studies. This latter effect was not blocked by any of the antagonists or by adrenalectomy. In the CT26 model, prolonged stress only partially reduced the efficacy of CpG-C. Overall, our findings indicate that ongoing behavioral stress and surgery can jeopardize immune-stimulatory interventions and abolish their beneficial metastasis-reducing impacts. These findings have implications for the clinical setting, which often involve psychological and physiological stress responses during immune-stimulation.

  16. Visual Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  17. Cadmium chloride treatment of rats significantly impairs membrane integrity of mesenchymal stem cells via electrolyte imbalance and lipid peroxidation, a possible explanation of Cd related osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Abnosi, Mohammad Husein; Golami, Someyeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in bone health. Cadmium causes osteoporosis, but the exact mechanisms of its effect on MSCs are not known. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with cadmium chloride (40 mg/l) in drinking water for six weeks, and then the biochemical and morphological studies on MSCs were carried out as a cellular backup for osteoblasts. Viability and proliferation properties of the cells were evaluated using MTT assay, trypan blue, population doubling number, and colony forming assay. Morphology of the cells and biochemical parameters including activity of metabolic (ALP, AST, and ALT) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and POX) as well as the MDA level (as an indication of lipid peroxidation) were investigated. In addition, intracellular calcium, potassium, and sodium content were estimated. Data was analyzed statistically and P<0.05 was taken as the level of significance. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in viability and proliferation ability of extracted cells when compared to the controls. In addition, it was revealed that the cadmium treatment of rats caused a significant reduction in nuclear diameter and cytoplasm area. Also, there was significant increase in (ALT) and (AST) activity and intracellular calcium and potassium content but no change was observed with sodium content and ALP activity. The results showed [a] significant reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activity and increases in the MDA level. Conclusion: Based on the present study, reduction of viability and proliferation ability of MSCs might be a causative factor of osteoporosis in industrial areas. PMID:28392900

  18. History of autoimmune disease is associated with impaired survival in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Ebba K; Landgren, Ola; Lund, Sigrún H; Turesson, Ingemar; Hultcrantz, Malin; Goldin, Lynn; Björkholm, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y

    2017-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder preceded by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Incidence of MM and MGUS is higher among patients with autoimmune disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether a history of autoimmunity has an impact on survival in MM and MGUS. Using high-quality national Swedish registries, we identified 8367 patients with MM, 18,768 patients with MGUS, and 110,251 matched control subjects, and obtained information on previous autoimmune disease in patients and controls. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients with MM and a prior autoimmune disease, the risk of death was significantly increased, HR = 1.2 (95 % CI 1.2-1.3) compared to MM patients with no history of autoimmunity. In MGUS patients, a prior autoimmune disease was associated with a significantly 1.4-fold elevated risk of death (95 % CI 1.3-1.4). When analyzing different types of autoimmune diseases, a history of ulcerative colitis had a stronger impact on survival in MM than in controls. Our findings that a history of autoimmune disease has a negative impact on survival in MM and MGUS could be due to shared underlying common genetic factors, or that patients with a history of autoimmunity develop more severe cases of MM and MGUS, or cumulative comorbidity in the individual. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to comorbidity as a prognostic factor in MGUS and MM, and underlines the need for studies aimed at tailoring therapy according to comorbidity.

  19. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  20. Cognitive impairments in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed Central

    Fein, G; Bachman, L; Fisher, S; Davenport, L

    1990-01-01

    Impaired cognitive functioning in alcoholics is widespread during the first months of detoxification. Between half and two thirds of abstinent alcoholics exhibit cognitive impairments during this period, with residual deficits persisting for years after detoxification in some patients. The most severe deficits have been observed in visuospatial abilities, perceptual-motor integration, abstract reasoning, and new learning. The most significant predictors of cognitive dysfunction in persons recovering from alcoholism are the time elapsed since the last drink and the person's age. Surprisingly, the pattern and duration of a patient's alcohol abuse are relatively weak determinants of neuropsychological impairment during abstinence. Research investigating the hypothesis that cognitive impairments may be related to alcoholic persons resuming drinking has yielded mixed results, but a higher level of neuropsychological functioning is associated with increased rates of completing treatment programs and with greater success in the work environment after discharge from treatment. The possibility of cognitive limitations should be taken into account in planning treatment programs for alcoholism. PMID:2190421

  1. Significance of corneal arcus.

    PubMed

    Raj, K Mohan; Reddy, P Arun Subhash; Kumar, Vikram Chella

    2015-04-01

    The corneal arcus consists of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. As serum triglyceride is one of the accurate of lipid metabolic state, greater importance was given, and it was found to be elevated in 72% of patients and a positive correlation with increasing age. This suggests a strong correlation between impairment of lipid metabolism and incidence of corneal arcus.

  2. Significance of corneal arcus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, K. Mohan; Reddy, P. Arun Subhash; Kumar, Vikram Chella

    2015-01-01

    The corneal arcus consists of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. As serum triglyceride is one of the accurate of lipid metabolic state, greater importance was given, and it was found to be elevated in 72% of patients and a positive correlation with increasing age. This suggests a strong correlation between impairment of lipid metabolism and incidence of corneal arcus. PMID:26015693

  3. Cognitive impairment in affective psychoses: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bora, Emre; Yücel, Murat; Pantelis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that cognitive impairment should be included in the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia. One of the main arguments in support of this suggestion has been the hope that cognitive impairment can help distinguish schizophrenia from bipolar disorder (BD). However, recent evidence shows that cognitive deficits occur in BD and persist beyond euthymia. Further, mood disorders with psychotic features might be expected to manifest greater cognitive impairment, which further complicates the potential to differentiate these disorders. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude and characteristics of cognitive impairments in affective psychoses (AP). A systematic search of the existing literature sourced 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. These studies compared cognitive performances of 763 patients with AP (550 BD and 213 major depressive disorder) and 1823 healthy controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were used to examine the effects of moderator variables. Meta-analyses of these studies showed that patients with AP were impaired in all 15 cognitive tasks with large effect sizes for most measures. There were no significant differences between the magnitude of impairments between the BD and major depressive disorder groups. The largest effect size was found for symbol coding, stroop task, verbal learning, and category fluency, reflecting impairments in elementary and complex aspects of attentional processing, as well as learning and memory. In general, the pattern of cognitive impairments in AP was similar to reported findings in euthymic patients with BD, but relatively more pronounced.

  4. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  5. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePlus

    Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a ... texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For your safety and the safety of others, ...

  6. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  7. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  8. ABCB4 missense mutations D243A, K435T, G535D, I490T, R545C, and S978P significantly impair the lipid floppase and likely predispose to secondary pathologies in the human population.

    PubMed

    Andress, Edward J; Nicolaou, Michael; McGeoghan, Farrell; Linton, Kenneth J

    2017-02-20

    Bile salts are natural detergents required to solubilise dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins. They are synthesised in hepatocytes and secreted into the luminal space of the biliary tree by the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the canalicular membrane. BSEP deficiency causes cytotoxic accumulation of bile salts in the hepatocyte that results in mild-to-severe forms of cholestasis. The resulting inflammation can also progress to hepatocellular cancer via a novel mechanism involving upregulation of proliferative signalling pathways. A second ABC transporter of the canalicular membrane is also critical for bile formation. ABCB4 flops phosphatidylcholine into the outer leaflet of the membrane to be extracted by bile salts in the canalicular space. These mixed micelles reduce the detergent action of the bile salts and protect the biliary tree from their cytotoxic activity. ABCB4 deficiency also causes cholestasis, and might be expected to cause cholangitis and predispose to liver cancer. Non-synonymous SNPs in ABCB4 have now been described in patients with liver cancer or with inflammatory liver diseases that are known to predispose to cancer, but data showing that the SNPs are sufficiently deleterious to be an etiological factor are lacking. Here, we report the first characterisation at the protein level of six ABCB4 variants (D243A, K435T, G535D, I490T, R545C, and S978P) previously found in patients with inflammatory liver diseases or liver cancer. All significantly impair the transporter with a range of phenotypes exhibited, including low abundance, intracellular retention, and reduced floppase activity, suggesting that ABCB4 deficiency is the root cause of the pathology in these cases.

  9. Physical Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  10. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the ... Ethnicity 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for ...

  11. Functional impairment and mental health functioning among Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942

  12. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  13. Global Sensory Impairment among Older Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Huisingh-Scheetz, Megan; Kern, David W.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K.; Pinto, Jayant M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age-related decline of the five classical senses (vision, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) poses significant burdens on older adults. The co-occurrence of multiple sensory deficits in older adults is not well characterized and may reflect a common mechanism resulting in global sensory impairment. Design, Setting, and Participants The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a representative, population-based study of community dwelling older US adults (57-85 years of age), collected biomarkers, social and health history, and other physiological measures, including sensory function. Measurements We estimated the frequency with which impairment co-occurred across the five senses as an integrated measure of sensory aging. We hypothesized that multisensory deficits would be common and reflect global sensory impairment which would largely explain the effects of age, gender, and race on sensory dysfunction. Results Two thirds (67%) of the older US population suffer from two or more sensory deficits, 27% from just one, and only 6% had none. Impairment of the sense of taste was the most common (74%); 70% had a poor sense of touch; 22% had poor sense of smell; 20% had impaired corrected vision; and 18% had poor corrected hearing. Older adults, men, African Americans, and Hispanics had greater multisensory impairment (all P<0.01). Global sensory impairment largely accounted for the effects of age, gender, and race on the likelihood of impairment of each of the five senses. Conclusion Multisensory impairment is prevalent in older US adults. These data support the concept of a common process that underlies sensory aging across the five senses. Clinicians assessing patients with a sensory deficit should consider further evaluation for additional cooccurring sensory deficits. PMID:26889840

  14. Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition.

  15. Clinical differences among mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weis, Holly; Stebbins, Glenn; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G

    2012-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a construct in Parkinson's disease (PD) and occurs in about 25% of nondemented PD patients. Although executive dysfunction is the most frequent type of cognitive deficit in PD, the cognitive phenotype of PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is broad. PD-MCI subtypes are represented by amnestic and nonamnestic domain impairment as well as single- and multiple-domain impairment. However, it is unclear whether patients with different PD-MCI subtypes also differ in other clinical characteristics in addition to cognitive profile. We studied 128 PD-MCI subjects at our Movement Disorders center, comparing clinical, motor, and behavioral characteristics across the PD-MCI subtypes. We found varying proportions of impairment subtypes: nonamnestic single domain, 47.7%; amnestic multiple domain, 24.2%; amnestic single domain, 18.8%; and nonamnestic multiple domain, 9.5%. Attentional/executive functioning and visuospatial abilities were the most frequently impaired domains. PD-MCI subtypes differed in their motor features, with nonamnestic multiple-domain PD-MCI subjects showing particularly pronounced problems with postural instability and gait. Differences among PD-MCI subtypes in age, PD duration, medication use, mood or behavioral disturbances, and vascular disease were not significant. Thus, in addition to differing cognitive profiles, PD-MCI subtypes differed in motor phenotype and severity but not in mood, behavioral, or vascular comorbidities. Greater postural instability and gait disturbances in the nonamnestic multiple-domain subtype emphasize shared nondopaminergic neural substrates of gait and cognition in PD. Furthermore, increased burden of cognitive dysfunction, rather than type of cognitive deficit, may be associated with greater motor impairment in PD-MCI.

  16. Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep are Associated with Greater Cognitive Decline in Older Men without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yue; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Hoang, Tina D.; Redline, Susan; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) and change in selected aspects of cognition in community-dwelling older men. Methods: We studied 2,636 older men without dementia who underwent in-home polysomnography with measurement of the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) and periodic limb movement arousal index (PLMAI) using piezoelectric sensors. Random-effects models and logistic regression were used to examine the association between PLMI, PLMAI, and 3- to 4-y change in cognition. Results: After multivariable adjustment, men with a high PLMI had greater decline on the Trail Making Test – Part B (P trend = 0.02); those with a PLMI ≥ 30 were 48% more likely (odds ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.05–2.07) to experience the development of significant cognitive impairment (≥ 1 SD above mean change). Further adjustment for sleep efficiency, nocturnal hypoxemia, or dopaminergic medication use and analysis among men without Parkinson disease (n = 2,607) showed similar findings. No significant association was found for PLMAI or for Modified Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Conclusions: Among older men without dementia, higher PLMS frequency was associated with greater decline in cognition, particularly in executive function. Citation: Leng Y, Blackwell T, Stone KL, Hoang TD, Redline S, Yaffe K. Periodic limb movements in sleep are associated with greater cognitive decline in older men without dementia. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1807–1810. PMID:27568800

  17. Risk factors for pain in children with severe cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Breau, Lynn M; Camfield, Carol S; McGrath, Patrick J; Finley, G Allen

    2004-06-01

    Diagnosing cause of pain in children with severe cognitive impairments is difficult due to their problems with communication. Identification of risk factors for specific pain etiologies might help professionals in this task. The aim of this study was to determine whether child-related characteristics increase risk for specific types of pain. Participants were the caregivers of 41 females and 53 males with moderate to profound mental retardation, who were aged 3 to 18 years 8 months (mean 10:1, SD 4:4) but who communicated at the level of a typical child of 13.8 months (SD 10 months): 44 of the children had cerebral palsy (CP) and 59 a seizure disorder. Caregivers reported the cause of children's episodes of pain for four 1-week periods over 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict occurrence of specific types of pain using children's demographic, medical, and physical characteristics. Children had 406 episodes of pain due to accident, gastrointestinal conditions, musculoskeletal problems, infection, recurrent conditions, and common childhood causes. Results indicated that a unique set of risk factors predicted each pain type in this sample. Significant risk factors for pain included: lack of visual impairment and leg impairment (accidental pain); seizures, leg impairment, and greater number of medications (non-accidental pain); being male and tube fed (musculoskeletal pain); age <7 years, absence of CP, visual impairment, and less frequent medical monitoring (infection pain); being female and with arm impairment (gastrointestinal pain); and being tube fed and taking fewer medications (common childhood pains). In most cases, models were more specific than sensitive, indicating that the significant predictors are more useful for eliminating potential pain causes. These results suggest that population risk factors may be helpful in structuring diagnostic investigations for individual children with severe cognitive impairments.

  18. Visual Field Abnormalities among Adolescent Boys with Hearing Impairments

    PubMed Central

    KHORRAMI-NEJAD, Masoud; HERAVIAN, Javad; SEDAGHAT, Mohamad-Reza; MOMENI-MOGHADAM, Hamed; SOBHANI-RAD, Davood; ASKARIZADEH, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the visual field (VF) categorizations (based on the severity of VF defects) between adolescent boys with hearing impairments and those with normal hearing. This cross-sectional study involved the evaluation of the VF of 64 adolescent boys with hearing impairments and 68 age-matched boys with normal hearing at high schools in Tehran, Iran, in 2013. All subjects had an intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70. The hearing impairments were classified based on severity and time of onset. Participants underwent a complete eye examination, and the VFs were investigated using automated perimetry with a Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer. This device was used to determine their foveal threshold (FT), mean deviation (MD), and Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT) results. Most (50%) of the boys with hearing impairments had profound hearing impairments. There was no significant between-group difference in age (P = 0.49) or IQ (P = 0.13). There was no between-group difference in the corrected distance visual acuity (P = 0.183). According to the FT, MD, and GHT results, the percentage of boys with abnormal VFs in the hearing impairment group was significantly greater than that in the normal hearing group: 40.6% vs. 22.1%, 59.4% vs. 19.1%, and 31.2% vs. 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The mean MD in the hearing impairment group was significantly worse than that in the normal hearing group (-0.79 ± 2.04 and -4.61 ± 6.52 dB, respectively, P < 0.0001), and the mean FT was also significantly worse (38.97 ± 1.66 vs. 35.30 ± 1.43 dB, respectively, P <0.0001). Moreover, there was a significant between-group difference in the GHT results (P < 0.0001). Thus, there were higher percentages of boys with VF abnormalities and higher mean MD, FT, and GHT results among those with hearing impairments compared to those with normal hearing. These findings emphasize the need for detailed VF assessments for patients with hearing impairments. PMID:28293650

  19. Evaluation of Impaired Driving Assessments and Special Management Reviews in Reducing Impaired Driving Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James; Auld-Owens, Amy; Snowden, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, State Impaired-Driving Assessments (IDAs) and Special Management Reviews (SMRs) have been conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to serve as a mechanism to assess the impaired-driving problem in the State, document the existing system, recommend improvements, and garner both political and public support to fund and implement improvements. Did these assessments and reviews serve the States as intended and provide a catalyst to reduce impaired driving? Almost half of the priority recommendations from IDAs in seven States and 60% of the priority recommendations in SMR States were implemented. Barriers to the implementation of some recommendations are discussed. IDAs and SMRs implemented at varying times were examined using logistic regression analyses of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1990 to 2008 to determine the effect they may have triggered on impaired driving rates in fatal crashes. States receiving IDAs and SMRs were compared to similar States not receiving them. Paired comparisons of similar States (e.g. IDA-State vs. non-IDA State) did not reveal any significant differences in impaired driving rates, but IDA and SMR States as a group showed significantly greater impaired driving declines in fatal crashes compared to non-IDA and non-SMR States as a group. IDAs and SMRs appear to provide a mechanism to examine the State’s impaired-driving program by an external team of experts and reveal areas where improvement is needed and confirm strategies that appear to be effective. PMID:24406944

  20. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Donal

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life. PMID:27994885

  1. Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Gaul, David; Mat, Arimin; O'Shea, Donal; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether obesity alters the sensory motor integration process and movement outcome during a visual rhythmic coordination task. Methods. 88 participants (44 obese and 44 matched control) sat on a chair equipped with a wrist pendulum oscillating in the sagittal plane. The task was to swing the pendulum in synchrony with a moving visual stimulus displayed on a screen. Results. Obese participants demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher values for continuous relative phase (CRP) indicating poorer level of coordination, increased movement variability (p < 0.05), and a larger amplitude (p < 0.05) than their healthy weight counterparts. Conclusion. These results highlight the existence of visual sensory integration deficiencies for obese participants. The obese group have greater difficulty in synchronizing their movement with a visual stimulus. Considering that visual motor coordination is an essential component of many activities of daily living, any impairment could significantly affect quality of life.

  2. Sensory Contributions to Impaired Emotion Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Pamela D.; Abeles, Ilana Y.; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E.; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective. PMID:19793797

  3. Sensory contributions to impaired emotion processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Pamela D; Abeles, Ilana Y; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2009-11-01

    Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective.

  4. Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Long, Jeffery D; Paulsen, Jane S; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A

    2014-03-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington's disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed.

  5. Cortical Visual Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  6. Facial emotion recognition impairments are associated with brain volume abnormalities in individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T

    2015-04-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities.

  7. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions.

  8. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-05-01

    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001). The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  9. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    PubMed

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  10. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2013-04-01

    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  11. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    PubMed

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS.

  12. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs.

  13. Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

  14. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  15. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  16. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  17. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  18. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter C; Handrakis, John P; Gendy, Joseph; Salama, Mina; Kwon, Dae; Brooks, Richard; Salama, Nardine; Southard, Veronica

    2011-12-01

    Douris, PC, Handrakis, JP, Gendy, J, Salama, M, Kwon, D, Brooks, R, Salama, N, and Southard, V. Fatiguing upper body aerobic exercise impairs balance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3299-3305, 2011-There are many studies that have examined the effects of selectively fatiguing lower extremity muscle groups with various protocols, and they have all shown to impair balance. There is limited research regarding the effect of fatiguing upper extremity exercise on balance. Muscle fiber-type recruitment patterns may be responsible for the difference between balance impairments because of fatiguing aerobic and anaerobic exercise. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect that aerobic vs. anaerobic fatigue, upper vs. lower body fatigue will have on balance, and if so, which combination will affect balance to a greater degree. Fourteen healthy subjects, 7 men and 7 women (mean age 23.5 ± 1.7 years) took part in this study. Their mean body mass index was 23.6 ± 3.2. The study used a repeated-measures design. The effect on balance was documented after the 4 fatiguing conditions: aerobic lower body (ALB), aerobic upper body (AUB), anaerobic lower body, anaerobic upper body (WUB). The aerobic conditions used an incremental protocol performed to fatigue, and the anaerobic used the Wingate protocol. Balance was measured as a single-leg stance stability score using the Biodex Balance System. A stability score for each subject was recorded immediately after each of the 4 conditions. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with the pretest score as a covariate was used to analyze the effects of the 4 fatiguing conditions on balance. There were significant differences between the 4 conditions (p = 0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed that there were significant differences between the AUB, mean score 4.98 ± 1.83, and the WUB, mean score 4.09 ± 1.42 (p = 0.014) and between AUB and ALB mean scores 4.33 ± 1.40 (p = 0.029). Normative data for single-leg stability testing for

  19. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity.

  20. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  1. Does physical activity influence semantic memory activation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    PubMed

    Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Woodard, John L; Seidenberg, Michael; Verber, Matthew D; Durgerian, Sally; Antuono, Piero; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Lancaster, Melissa A; Rao, Stephen M

    2011-07-30

    The effect of physical activity (PA) on functional brain activation for semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) was examined using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during fame discrimination. Significantly greater semantic memory activation occurred in the left caudate of High- versus Low-PA patients, (P=0.03), suggesting PA may enhance memory-related caudate activation in aMCI.

  2. Impaired Waters and TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 303(d) program provides guidance and technical resources to assist States in submitting lists of impaired waterbodies and the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads of the pollutant causing the impairment.

  3. Cognitively-Related Basic Activities of Daily Living Impairment Greatly Increases the Risk of Death in Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chan, Wenyaw; Chen, Ping-Jen; Zimmerman, Carissa; Waring, Stephen; Doody, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients die without ever developing cognitively impaired basic activities of daily living (basic ADL), which may reflect slower disease progression or better compensatory mechanisms. Although impaired basic ADL is related to disease severity, it may exert an independent risk for death. This study examined the association between impaired basic ADL and survival of AD patients, and proposed a multistate approach for modeling the time to death for patients who demonstrate different patterns of progression of AD that do or do not include basic ADL impairment. Methods 1029 patients with probable AD at the Baylor College of Medicine Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Disorders Center met the criteria for this study. Two complementary definitions were used to define development of basic ADL impairment using the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale score. A weighted Cox regression model, including a time-dependent covariate (development of basic ADL impairment), and a multistate survival model were applied to examine the effect of basic ADL impairment on survival. Results As expected decreased ability to perform basic ADL at baseline, age at initial visit, years of education, and sex were all associated with significantly higher mortality risk. In those unimpaired at baseline, the development of basic ADL impairment was also associated with a much greater risk of death (hazard ratios 1.77–4.06) over and above the risk conferred by loss of MMSE points. A multi-state Cox model, controlling for those other variables quantified the substantive increase in hazard ratios for death conferred by the development of basic ADL impairment by two definitions and can be applied to calculate the short term risk of mortality in individual patients. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that the presence of basic ADL impairment or the development of such impairments are important predictors of death in AD patients, regardless of severity. PMID

  4. Independent effects of HIV infection and cocaine dependence on neurocognitive impairment in a community sample living in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Skalski, Linda M.; Robertson, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies have established that methamphetamine and HIV can have additive deleterious effects on neurocognitive functioning, but there has been relatively little research on other stimulants like cocaine. This study investigated the effects of cocaine and HIV on neurocognitive impairment in a large, well-characterized sample. Methods The sample included 193 adults across four groups: HIV-positive cocaine users (n=48), HIV-negative cocaine users (n=53), HIV-positive non-drug users (n=60), and HIV-negative non-drug users (n=32). Cocaine users met criteria for lifetime dependence and had past-month cocaine use. A comprehensive battery assessed substance abuse and neurocognitive functioning. Results Participants were mostly male (66%) and African-American (85%), with a mean age of 46.09 years. The rate of global impairment was 33%, with no significant main effects across groups on likelihood of impairment. There were main effects for cocaine on processing speed and executive functioning, with cocaine users having greater impairment (F=9.33 and F=4.22, respectively), and for HIV on attention, with HIV-infected persons having greater impairment (F=5.55). There was an interaction effect for executive functioning, with the three patient groups having greater impairment than controls (F=5.05). Nonparametric analyses revealed significant additive impairment in the presence of both HIV and cocaine for processing speed. Conclusions While cocaine does not appear to increase vulnerability to global HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, it does have independent adverse effects on executive functioning and processing speed. Given prior evidence that domain-specific deficits predict real-world impairments, our results may help explain the poorer behavioral and functional outcomes observed in HIV-infected cocaine users. PMID:25697913

  5. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  6. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues. Objective: To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV. Method: This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p < 0.05. Results: The global perception of QV was higher among adolescents with visual impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms. Conclusion: The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population. PMID:26029272

  7. Changes in brain function occur years before the onset of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Beason-Held, Lori L; Goh, Joshua O; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A; O'Brien, Richard J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-11-13

    To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by (15)O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function.

  8. Changes in Brain Function Occur Years before the Onset of Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function. PMID:24227712

  9. Impaired Pain Processing Correlates with Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Akinori; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Junichiro; Suzuki, Masashi; Hirayama, Masaaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Pain and cognitive impairment are important clinical features in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although pain processing is associated with the limbic system, which is also closely linked to the cognitive function, the association between pain and cognitive impairment in PD is still not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pain processing and cognitive impairment in patients with PD. Methods Forty-three patients with PD and 22 healthy subjects were studied. Pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were generated using a thin needle electrode to stimulate epidermal Aδ fibers. Cognitive impairment was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Frontal Assessment Battery, and Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J), and their correlation with pain-related SEPs was investigated. Results The N1/P1 amplitude was significantly lower in PD patients than the controls. N1/P1 peak-to-peak amplitudes correlated with the MMSE (r=0.66, p<0.001) and MoCA-J scores (r=0.38, p<0.01) in patients with PD. These amplitudes also strongly correlated with the domains of attention and memory in the MMSE (attention, r=0.52, p<0.001; memory, r=0.40, p<0.01) and MoCA-J (attention, r=0.45, p<0.005; memory, r=0.48, p<0.001), but not in control subjects. Conclusion A good correlation was observed between the decreased amplitudes of pain-related SEPs and an impairment of attention and memory in patients with PD. Our results suggest that pathological abnormalities of the pain pathway are significantly linked to cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:27803403

  10. Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard G; Lacomblez, Lucette; Landwehrmeyer, Bernard G; Bak, Thomas; Uttner, Ingo; Dubois, Bruno; Agid, Yves; Ludolph, Albert; Bensimon, Gilbert; Payan, Christine; Leigh, Nigel P

    2010-08-01

    This article reports the severity and profile of neuropsychological impairment on a prevalent cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of either multiple system atrophy (n=372) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n=311) from the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes cohort. The Dementia Rating Scale and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to assess global cognition and executive dysfunction. For the Dementia Rating Scale impairment was observed in approximately 57% of the progressive supranuclear palsy group and 20% of the multiple system atrophy group. In the former, impairment in a single cognitive domain was observed in 40%, with the same number showing impairment in multiple domains, while in the latter the figures were 28.6 and 13.5%, respectively. On the Frontal Assessment Battery, impairment was observed in 62.0% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and 31.8% of those with multiple system atrophy. Although the progressive supranuclear palsy group performed worse overall, the cognitive profiles of the two groups on the Dementia Rating Scale subscales were identical, with the main impairment of the Initiation and Perseveration subscale. The impaired patients in the two groups were largely indistinguishable, qualitatively and quantitatively. Impairment was associated with greater age and clinical disability in both groups and was evident even in the early stages (22% in multiple system atrophy and 50% in progressive supranuclear palsy). Where a pathological diagnosis was available, the original clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of cases, including those with significant cognitive impairment. The rate of impairment in those with a confirmed pathological diagnosis was comparable to that of the sample as a whole. These results demonstrate, in the largest prospectively recruited cohort of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy studied to date, the existence of a cognitive

  11. Use of the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulissi, Stephen Mark; Gibbins, Spencer

    1984-01-01

    Educational records of 40 hearing-impaired children (3-15 years old) given both the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Performance Scale, were reviewed. The Leiter had a standard deviation significantly greater than that reported in the examiner's manual. Care is suggested when…

  12. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  13. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  14. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim: To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design: Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods: Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis: Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results: The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion: Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense. PMID:19861747

  15. Primary torsion of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Moissinac, K

    2001-01-01

    Primary or idiopathic greater omental torsion remains a rare cause of acute surgical abdomen in adults and children. The aetiology is as yet unknown and the treatment of choice, once diagnosis is established, is resection of the torted omentum. We report our experience with three such cases encountered over the last five years, two of which were diagnosed and subsequently managed laparoscopically. The performance of diagnostic laparoscopy for acute abdominal pain of an undetermined origin may lead to an increased detection of this condition and subsequent therapeutic intervention.

  16. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  17. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    De Diego-Balaguer, R; Couette, M; Dolbeau, G; Dürr, A; Youssov, K; Bachoud-Lévi, A-C

    2008-11-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage Huntington's disease patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the 20 age- and education-matched controls. Huntington's disease patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly

  18. Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results from a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Reading impairment is more common in males, but the magnitude and origin of this gender difference are debated. In a large-scale study of reading impairment among 491,103 beginning second-graders, gender differences increased with greater severity of reading impairment, peaking at a ratio of 2.4:1 for a broad measure of fluency and a ratio of…

  19. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  20. MBS measurement tool for swallow impairment--MBSImp: establishing a standard.

    PubMed

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B; Michel, Yvonne; Castell, Donald O; Schleicher, Melanie; Sandidge, John; Maxwell, Rebekah; Blair, Julie

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliability, content, construct, and external validity of a new modified barium swallowing study (MBSS) tool (MBSImp) that is used to quantify swallowing impairment. Multiple regression, confirmatory factor, and correlation analyses were used to analyze 300 in- and outpatients with heterogeneous medical and surgical diagnoses who were sequentially referred for MBS exams at a university medical center and private tertiary care community hospital. Main outcome measures were the MBSImp and index scores of aspiration, health status, and quality of life. Inter- and intrarater concordance were 80% or greater for blinded scoring of MBSSs. Regression analysis revealed contributions of eight of nine swallow types to impressions of overall swallowing impairment (p < or = 0.05). Factor analysis revealed 13 significant components (loadings >/= 0.5) that formed two impairment groupings (oral and pharyngeal). Significant correlations were found between Oral and Pharyngeal Impairment scores and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores, and indexes of intake status, nutrition, health status, and quality of life. The MBSImp demonstrated clinical practicality, favorable inter- and intrarater reliability following standardized training, content, and external validity. This study reflects potential for establishment of a new standard for quantification and comparison of oropharyngeal swallowing impairment across patient diagnoses as measured on MBSS.

  1. Visuospatial working memory in specific language impairment: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vugs, Brigitte; Cuperus, Juliane; Hendriks, Marc; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-09-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of the data from studies comparing visuospatial working memory (WM) in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. The effect sizes of 21 studies (including 32 visuospatial storage tasks and 9 visuospatial central executive (CE) tasks) were identified via computerized database searches and the reference sections of the identified studies. Meta-analyses and moderator analyses were conducted to examine the magnitude of the differences in visuospatial storage and CE, and their relation to the inclusion criteria used for SLI and the age of the children. The results showed significant effect sizes for visuospatial storage (d=0.49) and visuospatial CE (d=0.63), indicating deficits in both components of visuospatial WM in children with SLI. The moderator analyses showed that greater impairment in visuospatial storage was associated with more pervasive language impairment, whereas age was not significant associated with visuospatial WM. The finding of deficits in visuospatial WM suggests domain-general impairments in children with SLI. It raises questions about the language-specificity of a diagnosis of SLI. Careful attention should thus be paid to both verbal and visuospatial WM in clinical practice, and especially in those children with pervasive language impairments.

  2. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that

  3. Editorial Commentary: Save the Subchondral Bone in Rotator Cuff Repair Greater Tuberosity Preparation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-04-01

    Results from a recent investigation into the practice of greater tuberosity decortication before rotator cuff repair showed that decortication significantly reduced the ultimate failure load. Although the potential of greater tuberosity treatment for solving the rotator cuff healing quandary still exists, the biomechanics are clear, one should not decorticate the greater tuberosity to cancellous bone.

  4. [Neuropsychological impairment in the early Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Traykov, L; Rigaud, A-S; Cesaro, P; Boller, F

    2007-01-01

    an interim phase known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI refers to the clinical condition in which persons experience memory loss to a greater extent than one would expect for age, yet they do not meet currently accepted criteria for clinically probable AD. Persons who experience this condition are at increased risk for the development of AD. In MCI, despite the comparable global cognitive functioning, the findings show more impaired retrieval from long-term storage than in NC. The cued recall improves slightly the total recall but the recognition is significantly impaired. Moreover, the data indicate that MCI patients had additional problems with response inhibition, switching and cognitive flexibility. This suggests, that MCI may be identified by using a more detailed procedure for the assessment of cognitive decline than the evaluation of memory alone. As preventive strategies are developed and new cognitive enhancing therapies emerge, these results may also help us to define which domains are expected to improve in MCI populations.

  5. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-03-08

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome.

  6. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  7. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. . Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. ); Dawson, R.N. )

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  8. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  9. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  10. Classroom Teachers' Impressions of Hearing Impaired and Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.

    1982-01-01

    Classroom teachers rated achievement and appearance characteristics of nine school-age hearing-impaired and deaf children on a semantic differential. A significant difference between normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects was noted. Hearing aids and the speech of the hearing-impaired and deaf subjects elicit more negative responses.…

  11. Education for the Hearing Impaired (Auditorily Impaired).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Education for the hearing impaired is discussed in nine conference papers. J. N. Howarth describes "The Education of Deaf Children in Schools for Hearing Pupils in the United Kingdom" and A.I.Dyachkov of the U.S.S.R. outlines Didactical Principles of Educating the Deaf in the Light of their Rehabilitation Goal." Seven papers from…

  12. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Bei-sha

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice. PMID:28058128

  13. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Tang, Bei-Sha; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice.

  14. Development or Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  15. The Emancipation of Visually Impaired People in Social Science Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckett, Paul; Pratt, Rebekah

    2007-01-01

    In 1999 we began research, funded by the "Thomas Clinton Trust", to explore the opinions of visually impaired people on visual impairment research. We found people wanted greater inclusion of visually impaired people in such research and participatory, empowering and emancipatory research was a priority for them. We also found, through reviewing…

  16. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  17. Augmenting CPT to Improve Sleep Impairment in PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Blain, Leah M.; Elwood, Lisa; Gloth, Chelsea; Fletcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the success of empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep impairment frequently remains refractory following treatment for PTSD. This single-site, randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of sleep-directed hypnosis as a complement to an empirically supported psychotherapy for PTSD (cognitive processing therapy; CPT). Method Participants completed either 3 weeks of hypnosis (n = 52) or a symptom monitoring control condition (n = 56) before beginning standard CPT. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate differential patterns of change to determine whether hypnosis resulted in improvements in sleep, PTSD, and depression. An intervening variable approach was then used to determine whether improvements in sleep achieved during hypnosis augmented change in PTSD and depression during CPT. Results After the initial phase of treatment (hypnosis or symptom monitoring), the hypnosis condition showed significantly greater improvement than the control condition in sleep and depression, but not PTSD. After CPT, both conditions demonstrated significant improvement in sleep and PTSD; however, the hypnosis condition demonstrated greater improvement in depressive symptoms. As sleep improved, there were corresponding improvements in PTSD and depression, with a stronger relationship between sleep and PTSD. Conclusion Hypnosis was effective in improving sleep impairment, but those improvements did not augment gains in PTSD recovery during the trauma-focused intervention. Public Health Significance: This study suggests that hypnosis may be a viable treatment option in a stepped-care approach for treating sleep impairment in individuals suffering from PTSD. PMID:26689303

  18. Methamphetamine use parameters do not predict neuropsychological impairment in currently abstinent dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Cherner, Mariana; Suarez, Paola; Casey, Corinna; Deiss, Robert; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas; Vaida, Florin; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2010-01-15

    Methamphetamine (meth) abuse is increasingly of public health concern and has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Some previous studies have been hampered by background differences between meth users and comparison subjects, as well as unknown HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) status, which can also affect brain functioning. We compared the neurocognitive functioning of 54 meth dependent (METH+) study participants who had been abstinent for an average of 129 days, to that of 46 demographically comparable control subjects (METH-) with similar level of education and reading ability. All participants were free of HIV and HCV infection. The METH+ group exhibited higher rates of neuropsychological impairment in most areas tested. Among meth users, neuropsychologically normal (n=32) and impaired (n=22) subjects did not differ with respect to self-reported age at first use, total years of use, route of consumption, or length of abstinence. Those with motor impairment had significantly greater meth use in the past year, but impairment in cognitive domains was unrelated to meth exposure. The apparent lack of correspondence between substance use parameters and cognitive impairment suggests the need for further study of individual differences in vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

  19. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review*

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD. PMID:25909154

  20. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  1. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  2. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  3. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Shklyar, Irina; Lee, Hyang Woon; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Anaya, Joseph; Balakirsky, Samantha; Han, Xiao; Enamandram, Sheila; Men, Clara; Cheng, Joyce Y.; Nunn, Abigail; Mayer, Tanya; Francois, Czestochowa; Albrecht, Molly; Hutchison, Alan L.; Yap, Ee-Lynn; Ing, Kevin; Didebulidze, Gvantsa; Xiao, Bo; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Impaired consciousness in epileptic seizures has a major negative impact on patient quality of life. Prior work on epileptic unconsciousness has mainly used retrospective and nonstandardized methods. Our goal was to validate and to obtain initial data using a standardized prospective testing battery. Methods The responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES) was used on 52 patients during continuous video/EEG monitoring. RES begins with higher-level questions and commands, and switches adaptively to more basic sensorimotor responses depending on patient performance. RES continues after seizures and includes postictal memory testing. Scoring was conducted based on video review. Key Findings Testing on standardized seizure simulations yielded good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. We captured 59 seizures from 18 patients (35% of participants) during 1420 hours of RES monitoring. RES impairment was greatest during and after tonic-clonic seizures, less in partial seizures, and minimal in auras and subclinical seizures. In partial seizures, ictal RES impairment was significantly greater if EEG changes were present. Maximum RES impairment (lowest ictal score) was also significantly correlated with long postictal recovery time, and poor postictal memory. Significance We found that prospective testing of responsiveness during seizures is feasible and reliable. RES impairment was related to EEG changes during seizures, as well as to postictal memory deficits and recovery time. With a larger patient sample it is hoped that this approach can identify brain networks underlying specific components of impaired consciousness in seizures. This may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at preventing dysfunction in these networks. PMID:22150524

  4. Associations between Visual, Hearing, and Dual Sensory Impairments and History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement by Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kimberly A.; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between visual and hearing impairment and motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in older drivers. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting North central Alabama Participants Population-based sample of 2,000 licensed-drivers, age 70 and older. Measurements Visual acuity was measured using the Electronic Visual Acuity test. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Pelli-Robson chart. Presence of subjective hearing loss and other health conditions were determined using a general health questionnaire. Information regarding MVCs for all participants spanning the five years prior to study enrollment was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Results Following adjustment for age, race, gender, number of miles driven, number of medical conditions, general cognitive status, and visual processing speed, older drivers having both visual acuity and hearing impairment (rate ratio RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI 1.01–2.30), contrast sensitivity impairment alone (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00–2.02), and both contrast sensitivity and hearing impairment (RR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62–3.57) had elevated MVC rates, compared to drivers with no visual or hearing impairments. Drivers with visual acuity loss alone or hearing loss alone did not have significantly different MVC rates when compared to the no impairment group after adjustment for multiple variables. Conclusion Older drivers with dual sensory impairment are at greater MVC risk than those with only a visual acuity or a hearing deficit alone. A combined screening approach of screening for both hearing impairment and visual impairment may be a useful tool to identify older drivers at risk for MVC involvement. PMID:23350867

  5. Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dichgans, Martin; Leys, Didier

    2017-02-03

    Cerebrovascular disease typically manifests with stroke, cognitive impairment, or both. Vascular cognitive impairment refers to all forms of cognitive disorder associated with cerebrovascular disease, regardless of the specific mechanisms involved. It encompasses the full range of cognitive deficits from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In principle, any of the multiple causes of clinical stroke can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Recent work further highlights a role of microinfarcts, microhemorrhages, strategic white matter tracts, loss of microstructural tissue integrity, and secondary neurodegeneration. Vascular brain injury results in loss of structural and functional connectivity and, hence, compromise of functional networks within the brain. Vascular cognitive impairment is common both after stroke and in stroke-free individuals presenting to dementia clinics, and vascular pathology frequently coexists with neurodegenerative pathology, resulting in mixed forms of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Vascular dementia is now recognized as the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and there is increasing awareness that targeting vascular risk may help to prevent dementia, even of the Alzheimer type. Recent advances in neuroimaging, neuropathology, epidemiology, and genetics have led to a deeper understanding of how vascular disease affects cognition. These new findings provide an opportunity for the present reappraisal of vascular cognitive impairment. We further briefly address current therapeutic concepts.

  6. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  7. Assessing the geologic evolution of Greater Thaumasia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Don R.; Judice, Taylor; Karunatillake, Suniti; Rogers, Deanne; Dohm, James M.; Susko, David; Carnes, Lorraine K.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater Thaumasia region consists of three chemical provinces that include Syria, Solis, and Thaumasia Planae, the Corprates Rise, part of the Thaumasia Highlands, and the transition zone northwest of the Argyre basin. Chemical signatures obtained from the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer suggest low abundances of K and Th to the west, with low H abundances and high Si abundances to the east, relative to the bulk Martian crust at midlatitudes. These observations are confirmed and quantified with a modified box and whisker analysis that simultaneously captures the degree of deviation and significance of the regionally anomalous chemistry. Motivated by regionally unique chemistry, as well as its diverse geological history, we characterize Greater Thaumasia in terms of chemistry, mineralogy, and mapped geology to determine how such complementary data record the evolution of this region. Our observations are inconsistent with a proposed salt-lubricated landslide origin, particularly given the lack of chemical or mineralogical signatures to support near-surface salt deposits that should arise over geological timescales. Our observations instead support magmatic processes, such as mantle evolution over geological time, which may impart the Si-enriched signature of the eastern portion of Greater Thaumasia as well as the K and Th depletion of the southeastern flank of Syria Planum. While the observed trend of decreasing K and Th from Noachian to Hesperian lavas is inconsistent with previous models of Martian mantle evolution, we see an increase in Ca content at the Noachian-Hesperian boundary, consistent with predictions from thermodynamic modeling.

  8. Tracking Motor Impairments in the Progression of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeffery D.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington’s Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington’s disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

  9. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all

  10. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  11. Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  13. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  14. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  15. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003204.htm Speech impairment (adult) To use the sharing features on ... 2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  16. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... most important job. Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  17. Evaluation of hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, M H; Selesnick, S H

    2001-01-01

    Hearing impairment is among the most common medical condition presenting to health care professionals. Ear anatomy, physiology, and pathology resulting in hearing loss are discussed. A systematic approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is presented.

  18. Trunk sway in mildly disabled multiple sclerosis patients with and without balance impairment.

    PubMed

    Findling, Oliver; Sellner, Johann; Meier, Niklaus; Allum, John H J; Vibert, Dominique; Lienert, Carmen; Mattle, Heinrich P

    2011-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes a broad range of neurological symptoms. Most common is poor balance control. However, knowledge of deficient balance control in mildly affected MS patients who are complaining of balance impairment but have normal clinical balance tests (CBT) is limited. This knowledge might provide insights into the normal and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying stance and gait. We analysed differences in trunk sway between mildly disabled MS patients with and without subjective balance impairment (SBI), all with normal CBT. The sway was measured for a battery of stance and gait balance tests (static and dynamic posturography) and compared to that of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Eight of 21 patients (38%) with an Expanded Disability Status Scale of 1.0-3.0 complained of SBI during daily activities. For standing on both legs with eyes closed on a normal and on a foam surface, patients in the no SBI group showed significant differences in the range of trunk roll (lateral) sway angle and velocity, compared to normal persons. Patients in the SBI group had significantly greater lateral sway than the no SBI group, and sway was also greater than normal in the pitch (anterior-posterior) direction. Sway for one-legged stance on foam was also greater in the SBI group compared to the no SBI and normal groups. We found a specific laterally directed impairment of balance in all patients, consistent with a deficit in proprioceptive processing, which was greater in the SBI group than in the no SBI group. This finding most likely explains the subjective symptoms of imbalance in patients with MS with normal CBT.

  19. Smartphone-based system to improve transportation access for the cognitively impaired.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Shane M; Riehle, Timothy H; Lichter, Patrick A; Brown, Allen W; Panescu, Dorin

    2015-01-01

    This project developed and evaluated a smartphone-based system to improve mobility and transportation access for the cognitively impaired. The proposed system is intended to allow the cognitively impaired to use public transportation systems, community transportation and dedicated transportation services for the disabled with greater ease and safety. Individuals with cognitive disabilities are often unable to operate an automobile, or may require a prolonged recovery period before resuming driving. Public transportation systems represent a significant means to allow these individuals to maintain independence. Yet public transportation systems can pose significant challenges to individuals with cognitive impairment. The goal of this project is to develop a system to reduce these barriers via a technological solution consisting of components developed both for the cognitively impaired user and their caregiver or family member. The first component consists of a cognitive prosthetic device featuring traditional memory cueing and reminders as well as custom location-based transportation specific functions. This cognitive mobility assistant will leverage the computing power and GPS location determination capabilities of inexpensive, powerful smart phones. The second component consists of a management application which offers caregivers the ability to configure and program the reminder and transit functions remotely via the Internet. Following completion of the prototype system a pilot human test was performed with cognitively disabled individuals and family members or caregivers to assess the usability and acceptability of both system components.

  20. Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

    2007-01-01

    There is a strong genetic contribution to children’s language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

  1. Cognitive Impairment, Oral Self-care Function and Dental Caries Severity in Community-dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Clark, Jennifer JJ; Chen, Hong; Naorungroj, Supawadee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether oral self-care function mediates the associations between cognitive impairment and caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Background Cognitive impairment significantly affects activities of daily living and compromises oral health, systemic health and quality of life in older adults. However, the associations among cognitive impairment, oral self-care capacity and caries severity remain unclear. This increases difficulty in developing effective interventions for cognitively impaired patients. Materials and methods Medical, dental, cognitive and functional assessments were abstracted from the dental records of 600 community-dwelling elderly. 230 participants were selected using propensity score matching and categorised into normal, cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) and dementia groups based on their cognitive status and a diagnosis of dementia. Multivariable regressions were developed to examine the mediating effect of oral self-care function on the association between cognitive status and number of caries or retained roots. Results Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity were intercorrelated. Multivariable analysis showed that without adjusting for oral self-care capacity, cognition was significantly associated with the number of caries or retained roots (p = 0.003). However, the association was not significant when oral self-care capacity was adjusted (p = 0.125). In contrast, individuals with impaired oral self-care capacity had a greater risk of having a caries or retained root (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.15, 2.44). Conclusion Oral care capacity mediates the association between cognition and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23758583

  2. Oculomotor Impairments in Developmental Dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Gaymard, B; Giannitelli, M; Challes, G; Rivaud-Péchoux, S; Bonnot, O; Cohen, D; Xavier, J

    2017-04-01

    Children with developmental dyspraxia (DD) express impairments in the acquisition of various motor skills and in the development of their social cognition abilities. Although the neural bases of this condition are not fully understood, they are thought to involve frontal cortical areas, subcortical structures, and the cerebellum. Although cerebellar dysfunction is typically difficult to assess and quantify using traditional neurophysiological methods, oculomotor analysis may provide insight into specific cerebellar patterns. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in dyspraxic and typically developing subjects, various oculomotor saccade tasks specifically designed to reveal frontal and cerebellar dysfunction. In addition to evidence supporting prefrontal dysfunction, our results revealed increased variability of saccade accuracy consistent with cerebellar impairments. Furthermore, we found that dyspraxic patients showed decreased velocities of non-visually guided saccades. A closer analysis revealed significant differences in saccade velocity profiles with slightly decreased maximum saccade velocities but markedly prolonged deceleration phases. We show that this pattern was not related to a decreased state of alertness but was suggestive of cerebellar dysfunction. However, the clear predominance of this pattern in non-visually guided saccades warrants alternative hypotheses. In light of previous experimental and anatomical studies, we propose that this unusual pattern may be a consequence of impaired connections between frontal areas and cerebellar oculomotor structures.

  3. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  4. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  5. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be determined significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be addressed, if applicable. (c) The...

  6. Oro-facial impairment in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, M; Ono, T; Lam, O L T; Müller, F

    2017-01-27

    Stroke is considered one of the leading causes of death and acquired disability with a peak prevalence over the age of 80 years. Stroke may cause debilitating neurological deficiencies that frequently result in sensory deficits, motor impairment, muscular atrophy, cognitive deficits and psychosocial impairment. Oro-facial impairment may occur due to the frequent involvement of the cranial nerves' cortical representation areas, central nervous system pathways or motoneuron pools. The aim of this narrative, non-systematic review was to discuss the implications of stroke on oro-facial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Stroke patients demonstrate an impaired masticatory performance, possibly due to reduced tongue forces and disturbed oral sensitivity. Furthermore, facial asymmetry is common, but mostly discrete and lip restraining forces are reduced. Bite force is not different between the ipsi- and contra-lesional side. In contrast, the contra-lesional handgrip strength and tongue-palate contact during swallowing are significantly impaired. OHRQoL is significantly reduced mainly because of the functional impairment. It can be concluded that impaired chewing efficiency, dysphagia, facial asymmetry, reduced lip force and OHRQoL are quantifiable symptoms of oro-facial impairment following a stroke. In the absence of functional rehabilitation, these symptoms seem not to improve. Furthermore, stroke affects the upper limb and the masseter muscle differently, both, at a functional and a morphological level. The rehabilitation of stroke survivors should, therefore, also seek to improve the strength and co-ordination of the oro-facial musculature. This would in turn help improve OHRQoL and the masticatory function, subsequently preventing weight loss and malnutrition.

  7. Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area

    SciTech Connect

    Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

  8. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds.

  9. Impact of Major Depressive Disorder on Prediabetes by Impairing Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Shelton, Richard Charles; Chassan, Rachel Ann; Hammond, John Charles; Gower, Barbara Ann; Garvey, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Reports regarding the associations between major depressive disorder (MDD) and diabetes remain heterogeneous. Our aim was to investigate whether glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were impaired in the MDD patients and its mechanisms. A total of 30 patients with MDD and 30 matched controls were recruited. The oral glucose tolerance test and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan were performed in each participant. Insulin signaling in postmortem brain tissues from other depressive patients and controls (obtained from Alabama brain bank) was examined. Insulin sensitivity was reduced substantially in the MDD patients, however, the fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations remained within the normal range through compensatory insulin secretion. Despite increased insulin secretion, 1-h glucose concentrations in the MDD patients were significantly elevated compared with the controls. MDD patients had greater visceral fat mass but lower adiponectin levels compared with the controls. Furthermore, phosphorylated-AKT levels in insulin signaling were decreased in postmortem brain tissues in patients with MDD. These results suggest that MDD patients are at a greater risk for diabetes due to decreased insulin sensitivity, reduced disposition index, and impaired glucose tolerance as manifested by elevated 1-h glucose concentrations following an oral glucose challenge. Mechanistic studies reveal that decreased insulin sensitivity is associated with increased visceral fat mass, lower adiponectin levels and impaired insulin action in postmortem brain tissues in the MDD patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of screening depressive patients to identify susceptible individuals for developing future diabetes with the hope of improving their health outcomes. PMID:27274905

  10. Chronic stress impairs learning and hippocampal cell proliferation in senescence-accelerated prone mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Ting; Jia, Weiping; Sun, Xiaojiang; Liu, Xueyuan

    2011-02-25

    Chronic stress can induce cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether a higher susceptibility to chronic stress is associated with the progression of pathological brain aging. Senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 (SAMP8) is a naturally occurring animal model of accelerated brain aging. Senescence-accelerated resistant mouse 1 (SAMR1) is usually used as the normal control. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS) on learning in the Y-maze, hippocampal cell proliferation, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of 4-month-old SAMP8 and SAMR1. The results showed that exposure to CRS impaired learning and hippocampal cell proliferation in SAMP8 and SAMR1 but to a much greater extent in SAMP8. Furthermore, CRS significantly decreased the expression of BDNF protein and mRNA in the hippocampus of SAMP8 and SAMR1. These data indicated that SAMP8 is more sensitive to the deleterious effects of CRS on learning than SAMR1. A greater decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation caused by chronic stress may be part of the underlying mechanism for the more severe learning deficit observed in SAMP8. In addition, our findings suggested a role of BDNF in the stress-induced impairment of learning and hippocampal cell proliferation in both strains.

  11. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  12. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    PubMed

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor.

  13. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  14. Perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and affective disturbance in relation to clinical impairment in college-age women at high risk for or with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Meghan E; Eichen, Dawn M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) demonstrate impaired quality of life; however, less than one-third report severe clinical impairment. Thus, it is important to determine factors that may identify those who are most likely to report marked impairment. Perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and aspects of affective disturbance, such as anxiety and depression, are independently associated with eating pathology and clinical impairment in eating and other disorders. However, little research has explored these three factors concurrently in relation to eating pathology. It is possible that the combined interaction effect of these constructs could be especially harmful. The current study examined the influence of these constructs and their interactions on clinical impairment in college-aged women at high risk for or with a DSM-5 clinical or subclinical ED. Although the three-way interaction of perfectionism, emotion dysregulation, and affective disturbance (i.e., anxiety or depression) was not significant, the two-way interaction between perfectionism and emotion dysregulation was significant such that those who were high in both perfectionism and emotion dysregulation reported the highest levels of clinical impairment. This suggests that the combination of perfectionism and emotion dysregulation may be especially problematic for those with or at high risk for EDs. Interestingly, perfectionism alone was not a predictor of clinical impairment when accounting for the other constructs, implying that perfectionism may have a greater impact when in conjunction with emotion dysregulation. Understanding the impact of combined perfectionistic tendencies and emotion dysregulation on clinical impairment may better inform treatment and more directly target contributors to impaired quality of life.

  15. Communication impairments in people with progressive supranuclear palsy: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; McCann, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurological condition, whose main features include supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent falls, bradykinesia, axial rigidity, cognitive decline and communication impairments. Even though communication impairments are early and prominent manifestations, there is a significant lack of research on the nature of these impairments in PSP and the role of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This tutorial article aims to describe the communication impairments observed in people with PSP; provide clinical guidelines for SLPs when assessing motor speech, language and other communication impairments; and to present facilitation and compensation approaches to treatment for people with PSP. The predominant motor speech impairment is mixed dysarthria, but there is a lack of consensus about the classification of language impairments. The involvement of SLPs in the assessment and treatment of people with PSP should be early, on-going and in collaboration with other health professionals, with the primary focus of maintaining quality of life for these patients and their family members.

  16. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  17. Patients with Huntington's disease have impaired awareness of cognitive, emotional, and functional abilities.

    PubMed

    Hoth, Karin F; Paulsen, Jane S; Moser, David J; Tranel, Daniel; Clark, Lee Anna; Bechara, Antoine

    2007-05-01

    The clinical literature in Huntington's disease (HD) suggests that unawareness of deficits is prevalent among HD patients. However, few studies have characterized unawareness of different types of impairment within this neuropsychiatric disorder. The purpose of the current study was to examine self-awareness of functioning across symptom domains in HD patients and to explore the association between impaired awareness and cognitive dysfunction. A total of 66 pairs of HD patients and collaterals of the patients completed symptom-rating measures regarding both the patients' and the collaterals' behavior. A subset of 19 patients also underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessments. The results indicated that patients lacked awareness across symptom domains (i.e., behavioral control, emotional control, activities of daily living), which was significantly greater for their perception of their own behavior than for their perception of their collateral's behavior. Exploratory analyses revealed associations between impaired self-awareness, global cognition, and deficits in executive functioning and memory. The current findings underscore the importance of examining different types of impaired awareness including both over- and underreporting of abilities. Future studies will benefit also from examining the association between awareness and cognition in larger samples.

  18. Functional impairment and cognitive performance in mood disorders: A community sample of young adults.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Amanda N; Cardoso, Taiane A; Jansen, Karen; Mondin, Thaíse C; Souza, Luciano D M; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Kapczinski, Flavio; Silva, Ricardo A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the global functioning and cognitive performance in a community sample of young adults with mood disorders versus community controls. This was a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort study with a community sample. Data was collected from February 2012 to June 2014; specifically, at a mean of five years after the first phase, all young adults were invited to participate in a re-evaluation. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview - PLUS (MINI-PLUS) was used for the diagnosis of mood disorders. The Functional Assessment Short Test (FAST) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were used to assess the global functioning, and cognitive performance, respectively. Were included 1258 subjects. Functional impairment was greater in subjects with bipolar disorder when compared to community controls, and there were no differences between major depressive disorder and community controls. There were no significant differences in cognitive performance between young adults with mood disorders when compared to community controls. Functional impairment is a marker for bipolar disorder in young adults; however, gross cognitive impairment assessed by a screening test is not, possibly because cognition is impaired in more advanced stages of the disorder.

  19. Neurocognitive impairment and medication adherence in HIV patients with and without cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Conn, Nina A.; Skalski, Linda M.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine abuse among HIV patients is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. This study examined the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication adherence in HIV patients with (n= 25) and without (n= 39) current cocaine dependence. Active users had greater neurocognitive impairment (mean T-score= 35.16 vs. 40.97, p < .05) and worse medication adherence (mean z-score= −0.44 vs. 0.27, p < .001). In a multiple regression model, neurocognitive functioning (β= .33, p < .01) and cocaine dependence (β= −.36, p < .01) were predictive of poorer adherence. There was a significant indirect effect of cocaine dependence on medication adherence through neurocognitive impairment (estimate= −0.15, p < .05), suggesting that neurocognitive impairment partially mediated the relationship between cocaine dependence and poorer adherence. These results confirm that cocaine users are at high risk for poor HIV outcomes and underscore the importance of treating both neurocognitive impairment and cocaine dependence among HIV patients. PMID:20857187

  20. The Effect of Impaired Angiogenesis on Intestinal Function Following Massive Small Bowel Resection

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Sun, Raphael; Choi, Pamela; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Mei, Junjie; Worthen, G. Scott; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation involves villus lengthening, crypt deepening, and increased capillary density following small bowel resection (SBR). Mice lacking the proangiogenic chemokine CXCL5 have normal structural adaptation but impaired angiogenesis. This work evaluates the impact of incomplete adaptive angiogenesis on the functional capacity of the intestine after SBR. Methods CXCL5 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent 50% SBR. Magnetic resonance imaging measured weekly body composition. Intestinal absorptive capacity was evaluated through fecal fat analysis. Gene expression profiles for select macronutrient transporters were measured via RT-PCR. Postoperative crypt and villus measurements assessed for structural adaptation. Submucosal capillary density was measured through CD31 immunohistochemistry. Results Comparable postoperative weight gain occurred initially. Diminished weight gain, impaired fat absorption, and elevated steatorrhea occurred in KO mice after instituting high-fat diet. Greater postoperative upregulation of ABCA1 fat transporter occurred in WT mice, while PEPT1 protein transporter was significantly downregulated in KO mice. KO mice had impaired angiogenesis but intact structural adaptation. Conclusion After SBR, KO mice display an inefficient intestinal absorption profile with perturbed macronutrient transporter expression, impaired fat absorption, and slower postoperative weight gain. In addition to longer villi and deeper crypts, an intact angiogenic response may be required to achieve functional adaptation to SBR. PMID:25818317

  1. Correlation between functional mobility and cognitive performance in older adults with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Borges, Sheila de Melo; Radanovic, Márcia; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente

    2016-12-09

    Association between cognitive impairment and gait performance occurs in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly under "divided attention" conditions, leading to a greater risk of falls. We studied 36 controls, 42 MCI, and 26 mild AD patients, using the Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG) under four conditions: TUG single - TUG1; TUG cognitive - TUG2; TUG manual -TUG3; TUG cognitive and manual - TUG4. Cognition was assessed using the MMSE, SKT, Exit25, and TMT (A and B). We found significant correlations between cognitive scores and TUG2 [r values (MMSE: -0.383, TMT-A: 0.430, TMT-B: 0.386, Exit25: 0.455, SKT: 0.563)] and TUG4 [(MMSE: -0.398, TMT-A: 0.384, TMT-B: 0.352,Exit25: 0.466, SKT: 0.525)] in the AD group, and between all TUG modalities and SKT in MCI and AD. Our results revealed that functional mobility impairment in cognitive dual tasks correlated to cognitive decline in AD patients and to attention and memory impairment in MCI.

  2. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  3. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and

  4. Piracetam treatment in patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mukund G; Holla, Bharath; Varambally, Shivarama; Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-01-01

    Piracetam is a cognitive-enhancing agent that is used for the treatment of cognitive impairments of various etiologies. Little is known about its side effect profile, especially in those with psychiatric illness. We herewith present two cases with cognitive impairment who had contrasting responses to piracetam. One of them with organic amnestic syndrome had significant improvement, whereas the other who had an organic personality change as well as a family history of mental illness had significant worsening of behavioral problems after piracetam was introduced. This report highlights the need for caution in the use of piracetam, especially in those with past or family history of psychiatric illness.

  5. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    A curriculum is presented for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility procedures and exit criteria. It contains job descriptions for…

  6. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    The Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District curriculum for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students is presented. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility…

  7. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  8. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... children with true language impairments. After studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a ... trying out an intervention program with a small group of bilingual first graders with SLI to find techniques and strategies to help them succeed academically. Diagnostic ...

  9. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  10. Cognitive impairment after sudden cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jaszke-Psonka, Magdalena; Piegza, Magdalena; Pudlo, Robert; Piegza, Jacek; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Hese, Robert T.; Gorczyca, Piotr W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders. Material and methods The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised 31 survivors of myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest, and the control group comprised 30 healthy subjects. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Digit Span test from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Lauretta Bender’s Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) were used to assess the presence of cognitive impairment. An original questionnaire developed by the author was used for overall mental state assessment. Results The Bender test demonstrated a significant difference in the presence and severity of visual-motor skills between the study group and the control group, while BVRT and MMSE revealed increased incidence of cognitive impairment in the study group. The Bender and BVRT (D/D)/SS (version D, method D, scaled score) scales indicated cognitive impairment in 53.3% of these patients, while the BVRT (C/A)/SS test indicated cognitive impairment in 40%. For the reference group, the values were 32.3% and 12.9%, respectively. No correlation was found between the severity of cognitive impairment and the duration of cardiac arrest. Conclusions Impairment of visual-motor skills, short-term visual memory, concentration, and visual-motor coordination occurs much more frequently and is more severe in individuals after SCA than in healthy individuals. Impairment of memory trace storage and recall after delay occurs more frequently in patients after SCA than in patients after myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest and in healthy

  11. Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Poirier, Martin P.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J.; Malcolm, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness. Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W. Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ≥400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training. PMID:25505030

  12. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  13. Age exacerbates chronic catecholamine-induced impairments in contractile reserve in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liles, John T; Ida, Kevin K; Joly, Kristin M; Chapo, Joseph; Plato, Craig F

    2011-08-01

    Contractile reserve decreases with advancing age and chronic isoproterenol (ISO) administration is a well-characterized model of cardiac hypertrophy known to impair cardiovascular function. This study evaluated whether nonsenescent, mature adult rats are more susceptible to detrimental effects of chronic ISO administration than younger adult rats. Rats received daily injections of ISO (0.1 mg/kg sc) or vehicle for 3 wk. ISO induced a greater impairment in contractile reserve [maximum of left ventricular pressure development (Δ+dP/dt(max))] in mature adult ISO-treated (MA-ISO) than in young adult ISO-treated rats (YA-ISO) in response to infusions of mechanistically distinct inotropes (digoxin, milrinone; 20-200 μl·kg(-1)·min(-1)), while basal and agonist-induced changes in heart rate and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were not different across groups. ISO decreased expression of the calcium handling protein, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-2a, in MA-ISO compared with YA, YA-ISO, and MA rats. Chronic ISO also induced greater increases in cardiac hypertrophy [left ventricular (LV) index: 33 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 5%] and caspase-3 activity (34 vs. 5%) in MA-ISO relative to YA-ISO rats. Moreover, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression was significantly elevated in MA-ISO. These results demonstrate that adult rats develop greater impairments in systolic performance than younger rats when exposed to chronic catecholamine excess. Reduced contractile reserve may result from calcium dysregulation, increased caspase-3 activity, or increased β-MHC and ANF expression. Although several studies report age-related declines in systolic performance in older and senescent animals, the present study demonstrates that catecholamine excess induces reductions in systolic performance significantly earlier in life.

  14. Vestibular disorders and dual task performance: Impairment when walking a straight path

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jess C.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion is impaired in some people with vestibular disorders. Performance on cognitive tasks is also impaired in many people with vestibular disorders. The goal of this study was to determine if patients with vestibular disorders have decreased ability to complete a dual task performance involving a cognitive task, an additional motor task or both tasks, combined along a linear path. Subjects were normal, had benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or had various vestibular disorders that caused unilateral weakness. They were asked to walk 7.62 m in a straight line with eyes open or closed, without extra tasks, and while nodding the head, naming things, and both nodding and naming. The patients walked significantly slower than controls, especially when performing the cognitive task. Patients had greater ataxia and began veering sooner than normals. The subjects’ veering increased significantly with the addition of cognitive tasks. The patient groups did not differ significantly from each other. The changes in velocity did not affect the veering. These data suggest that patients with vestibular disorders are impaired in their ability to complete a linear path when cognitive tasks are added. PMID:21558642

  15. Chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment in breast cancer patients with different hormone receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Gan, Chen; Lv, Yue; Wang, Shanghu; Cheng, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate prospective memory impairment in patients with breast cancer with different expression of hormone receptors, including the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR). A total of 120 patients with breast cancer who underwent chemotherapy following surgery were divided into 2 groups. The A group included 60 patients with ER−/PR− status, and the B group included 60 patients with ER+/PR+ status. After 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, all patients were administered neuropsychological and prospective memory tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency test (VFT), and digit span test (DST), as well as examination of event-based prospective memory (EBPM) and time-based prospective memory (TBPM). As the neuropsychological background test results showed, there were no significant differences in MMSE, DST, and TBPM scores (∗:P > 0.05) between patients with breast cancer in the ER−/PR− and ER+/PR+ groups, while the VFT and EBPM scores were significantly greater in patients with breast cancer with ER+/PR+ status than in those with ER−/PR− status (∗∗: P < 0.01), indicating that patients with ER−/PR− status have significant impairment in EBPM, although not in TBPM. The results of the present study indicate that different hormone receptor expression in patients with breast cancer may be associated with heterogeneity of chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment. PMID:28353608

  16. Impaired motion sensitivity as a predictor of subsequent field loss in glaucoma suspects: the Roscommon Glaucoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Coffey, M; Reidy, A; Wormald, R

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To determine if impaired motion sensitivity is a significant predictor of subsequent field loss in glaucoma suspects.
METHOD—A population based prospective study; a 5 year follow up of all glaucoma suspects who had been identified from a population based random sample survey in the west of Ireland. 78 glaucoma suspects whose visual field function was annually measured by Henson CFS 2000 and for whom data on family history of glaucoma, ocular status, and motion impairment had been recorded. Visual field loss was defined as Henson visual field survival score of 94 or less.
RESULTS—18 people developed visual field loss in at least one eye. Motion impairment at baseline was associated with a 2-18 times greater risk of development of the visual field loss (p<0.001). This association was independent of sex, family history of glaucoma, intraocular pressure, and C/D ratio at baseline. The Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed the above results after adjustment for age and the C/D ratio.
CONCLUSION—Motion impairment is an independent predictor of visual field loss in glaucoma suspects, although it is not clear how long motion impairment precedes visual field loss.

 Keywords: glaucoma; perimetry; screening; motion PMID:9713062

  17. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  18. Atypical Structural Connectome Organization and Cognitive Impairment in Young Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Shelli R; Gugel, Meike; Huston-Warren, Emily; Watson, Christa

    2016-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for cognitive impairments that disrupt everyday functioning and decrease quality of life. The specific biological mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment following ALL remain largely unclear, but previous studies consistently demonstrate significant white matter pathology. We aimed to extend this literature by examining the organization of the white matter connectome in young patients with a history of ALL treated with chemotherapy only. We applied graph theoretical analysis to diffusion tensor imaging obtained from 31 survivors of ALL age 5-19 years and 39 matched healthy controls. Results indicated significantly lower small-worldness (p = 0.007) and network clustering coefficient (p = 0.019), as well as greater cognitive impairment (p = 0.027) in the ALL group. Regional analysis indicated that clustered connectivity in parietal, frontal, hippocampal, amygdalar, thalamic, and occipital regions was altered in the ALL group. Random forest analysis revealed a model of connectome and demographic variables that could automatically classify survivors of ALL as having cognitive impairment or not (accuracy = 0.89, p < 0.0001). These findings provide further evidence of brain injury in young survivors of ALL, even those without a history of central nervous system (CNS) disease or cranial radiation. Efficiency of local information processing, reorganization of hub connectivity, and cognitive reserve may contribute to cognitive outcome in these children. Certain connectome properties showed U-shaped relationships with cognitive impairment suggesting an optimal range of regional connectivity.

  19. Grammatical Impairments in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Mack, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Grammatical impairments are commonly observed in the agrammatic subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G), whereas grammatical processing is relatively preserved in logopenic (PPA-L) and semantic (PPA-S) subtypes. Aims We review research on grammatical deficits in PPA and associated neural mechanisms, with discussion focused on production and comprehension of four aspects of morphosyntactic structure: grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures. We also address assessment of grammatical deficits in PPA, with emphasis on behavioral tests of grammatical processing. Finally, we address research examining the effects of treatment for progressive grammatical impairments. Main Contribution PPA-G is associated with grammatical deficits that are evident across linguistic domains in both production and comprehension. PPA-G is associated with damage to regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and dorsal white matter tracts, which have been linked to impaired comprehension and production of complex sentences. Detailing grammatical deficits in PPA is important for estimating the trajectory of language decline and associated neuropathology. We, therefore, highlight several new assessment tools for examining different aspects of morphosyntactic processing in PPA. Conclusions Individuals with PPA-G present with agrammatic deficit patterns distinct from those associated with PPA-L and PPA-S, but similar to those seen in agrammatism resulting from stroke, and patterns of cortical atrophy and white matter changes associated with PPA-G have been identified. Methods for clinical evaluation of agrammatism, focusing on comprehension and production of grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures are recommended and tools for this are emerging in the literature. Further research is needed to investigate the real

  20. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  1. Memory impairments: forgetfulness versus amnesia.

    PubMed

    Boss, B J

    1988-06-01

    Two varieties of memory disorders can be distinguished--those characterized by the phenomenon of forgetfulness and those characterized by the presence of an amnesic state. Although these two conditions may appear similar, they have different anatomical correlates and functional significance. States of forgetfulness and amnesia arise from different etiologies, have different prognoses and require different therapeutic regimes. The purpose of this article is to distinguish these two varieties of memory disorders and contrast them as to anatomical features, functional differences, etiologies, prognoses and therapeutic management regimes. This should assist the neuroscience nurse to better understand relevant nursing assessment features and plan appropriate therapeutic nursing interventions for the client. Teaching protocols for families and significant others as well as clients with memory impairments should also be enhanced.

  2. Butalbital and driving impairment.

    PubMed

    Yeakel, Jillian K; Logan, Barry K

    2013-07-01

    Butalbital (Fiorinal(®)), used in the treatment of migraines and muscle pain, is the most commonly encountered barbiturate in impaired driving cases. It has central nervous system (CNS) depressant properties, including sedation, drowsiness, and feelings of intoxication, which can contribute to driving impairment. Twenty-six driving under the influence cases are reviewed including results from field sobriety tests and toxicology testing. Blood samples were screened using enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique immunoassay, and the presence of butalbital was confirmed and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, or gas chromatography nitrogen/phosphorus detection. Butalbital concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 30.2 mg/L, with a mean and median of 16.0 mg/L. General impairment indicators in these cases included horizontal and vertical nystagmus, lack of convergence, poor motor coordination, and balance and speech problems, which are common to CNS depressant intoxication, similar to that associated with alcohol. These findings indicate the importance of toxicological testing for butalbital in cases where CNS depressants are indicated.

  3. Neurological Impairment: Nomenclature and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Catherine E.; Weber, Robert E.

    Neurological impairment as discussed includes a range of disabilities referred to as neurological impairment: minimal brain dysfunction/damage, developmental disability, perceptual handicap, learning disability, hyperkinetic behavioral syndrome, and others. Defined are causes of neurological impairment and methods of diagnosis. Symptoms…

  4. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  5. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    minister of Greece, “neither race, nor language, nor skull could be used as the basis for determining the nationality and that national conscience...Serbia, in particular, has been very active in spreading propaganda about the danger posed by the prospect of Greater Albania. The term, alien to the...greater Albania plot.”62 However, for Albanians, despite of their living place, the term “Greater Albania” is alien .63 Instead, they use the term

  6. Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-23

    Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending Gold Coast Conference Tim Dowd Director for Contracts Space and Naval...Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Obtaining Greater Efficiency and Productivity in Defense Spending ” 5   Present a competitive strategy at each program milestone *   Remove

  7. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ≥ 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify

  8. [Pragmatic language impairment in children].

    PubMed

    Ptok, M

    2005-11-01

    When a child's language development does not follow the normal developmental course for no known reasons specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed. In contrast, pragmatic language impairment (PLI) refers to children who experience significant difficulties with the use of language. Clinical accounts of PLI have suggested that unlike children with more typical SLI, children with PLI have adequate syntax and phonology and are often verbally fluent. However, they may exhibit a range of linguistic and communicative deficits such as comprehension deficits for connected speech, conversational inadequacies, poor turn-taking, atypical word choices, literal interpretation of figurative language, and poor topic maintenance. There also may be fundamental deficits in social cognition, such as appreciating the thoughts and feelings of others. PLI may be found in SLI children, children with learning disabilities, autism and traumatic brain injuries. Here we review aspects of pragmatic communication skills, the development of emotion recognition, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Otolaryngologists have to be aware of PLI in case children with communication problems are referred to them. This may enable a timely diagnosis and early intervention.

  9. A possible contributory mechanism for impaired idiom perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sela, Tal; Lavidor, Michal; Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2015-09-30

    In this review, we focus on the ability of people with schizophrenia to correctly perceive the meaning of idioms; figurative language expressions in which intended meaning is not derived from the meaning of constituent words. We collate evidence on how idiom perception is impaired, ascertain the clinical relevance of this impairment, and consider possible psychological and neural mechanisms behind the impairment. In reviewing extant literature, we searched the PubMed database, from 1975-2014, focussing on articles that directly concerned schizophrenia and idioms, with follow up searches to explore the viability of possible underlying mechanisms. We learn that there is clear evidence of impairment, with a tendency to err towards literal interpretations unless the figurative meaning is salient, and despite contextual cues to figurative interpretations. Given the importance of idioms in everyday language, the potential impact is significant. Clinically, impaired idiom perception primarily relates to positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but also to negative symptoms. The origins of the impairment remain speculation, with impaired executive function, impaired semantic functions, and impaired context processing all proposed to explain the phenomenon. We conclude that a possible contributory mechanism at the neural level is an impaired dorsolateral prefrontal cortex system for cognitive control over semantic processing.

  10. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time.

  11. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  12. DoD Force Mix Issues: Greater Reliance on Civilians in Support Roles Could Provide Significant Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    because, with (’ulrent downsizing , )()th po:;itions muight he lost, B~udget allocations an(d (’ivyianl per-soniel requiremnents decisions often have...often made independently of each other. Local commanuders fear that, because of downsizing , they might not receive adequate funds to hi-e civilian...dart, due to downsizing , before cmrilians could be hired. When funds are aliocated to replace rnilitary personnel with civilians in support positions

  13. Greater volumes of static and dynamic stretching within a warm-up do not impair star excursion balance performance.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria-Turki, L; Chaouachi, A; Turki, O; Hammami, R; Chtara, M; Amri, M; Drinkwater, E J; Behm, D G

    2014-06-01

    Based on the conflicting static stretching (SS) literature and lack of dynamic stretching (DS) literature regarding the effects of differing volumes of stretching on balance, the present study investigated the effects of 4, 8, and 12 sets of SS and DS following a 5 min aerobic running warm-up on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The objective was to examine an optimal stretch modality and volume to enhance dynamic balance. A randomized, within-subjects experimental design with repeated measures for stretching (SS and DS) versus no-stretching treatment was used to examine the acute effects of 10 (4 sets), 20 (8 sets), and 30 (12 sets) min, of 15s repetitions per muscle of SS and/or DS following a 5 min aerobic warm-up on the performance of the SEBT. Results indicated that a warm-up employing either SS or DS of any volume generally improves SEBT by a "small" amount with effect sizes ranging from 0.06 to 0.50 (11 of 18 conditions>75% likely to exceed the 1.3-1.9% smallest worthwhile change). Secondly, the difference between static and dynamic warm-up on this observed improvement with warm-up improvement was "trivial" to "moderate" (d=0.04 to 0.57) and generally "unclear" (only two of nine conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). Finally, the effect of increasing the volume of warm-up on the observed improvement with a warm-up is "trivial" to "small" (d<0.40) and generally "unclear" (only three of 12 conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). In summary, an aerobic running warm-up with stretching that increases core and muscle temperature whether it involves SS or DS may be expected to provide small improvements in the SEBT.

  14. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

  15. The Effects of Visual Impairment on Adolescents' Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examined relationships between visual impairment and adolescents' self-concept, utilizing 15 visually impaired and 15 sighted adolescents in an urban environment. Findings suggest significant differences in global self-concept, as well as in specific components of self-concept between the groups. (DB)

  16. Screening for Vision Problems in Children with Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchak, MaryAnn; Elquist, Marty

    Vision problems occur at higher rates in the deaf and hearing impaired population than in the general population. When an individual has a hearing impairment, vision becomes more significant in the instructional and learning process, as well as in social and communicative exchanges. Regular comprehensive visual screening of hearing impaired…

  17. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  18. Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ≥140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ≤10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention. PMID:19465316

  19. Visual impairment, verbal humor, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Tait, P E

    1986-03-01

    Through a cerebral hemispheric specialization model, I speculated that the reported discrepancy between visually impaired children's competency in language development and lags in cognition may be explained by the use of visual-spatial measurements of cognition. The performance of 51 visually impaired and 51 sighted children, ages 7 to 15 years, on a task of joke comprehension and conservation of weight scores was analyzed. I hypothesized that the ability to comprehend verbal humor would reflect the function of the left hemisphere of the brain and the ability to perform a Piagetian visual-spatial task would reflect the function of the right hemisphere. The findings indicate that although age and IQ contributed significantly to predicting joke comprehension, the ability to conserve did not have a unique contribution. In conclusion, I suggest that the cerebral hemispheric specialization model be considered when investigating language and cognition of visually impaired children.

  20. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... or regulation. (d) The entitlements under sections 6381 through 6387 of title 5, United States...

  1. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  2. Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

  3. Chronic Hyponatremia Causes Neurologic and Psychologic Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Haruki; Takagi, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Izumida, Hisakazu; Nakashima, Kohtaro; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Seiji; Kiyota, Atsushi; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Iwama, Shintaro; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Yukio; Murata, Yoshiharu; Oiso, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common clinical electrolyte disorder. Once thought to be asymptomatic in response to adaptation by the brain, recent evidence suggests that chronic hyponatremia may be linked to attention deficits, gait disturbances, risk of falls, and cognitive impairments. Such neurologic defects are associated with a reduction in quality of life and may be a significant cause of mortality. However, because underlying diseases such as adrenal insufficiency, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and cancer may also affect brain function, the contribution of hyponatremia alone to neurologic manifestations and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone rat model, we show here that sustained reduction of serum sodium ion concentration induced gait disturbances; facilitated the extinction of a contextual fear memory; caused cognitive impairment in a novel object recognition test; and impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3–CA1 synapses. In vivo microdialysis revealed an elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the hippocampus of chronically hyponatremic rats. A sustained low extracellular sodium ion concentration also decreased glutamate uptake by primary astrocyte cultures, suggesting an underlying mechanism of impaired long-term potentiation. Furthermore, gait and memory performances of corrected hyponatremic rats were equivalent to those of control rats. Thus, these results suggest chronic hyponatremia in humans may cause gait disturbance and cognitive impairment, but these abnormalities are reversible and careful correction of this condition may improve quality of life and reduce mortality. PMID:26376860

  4. Impaired lymphatic function accelerates cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Steinskog, Eli Sihn Samdal; Sagstad, Solfrid Johanne; Wagner, Marek; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Yang, Ning; Markhus, Carl Erik; Yndestad, Synnøve; Wiig, Helge; Eikesdal, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymphangiogenesis is a common feature of cancer development and progression, yet the influence of impaired lymphangiogenesis on tumor growth is elusive. C3HBA breast cancer and KHT-1 sarcoma cell lines were implanted orthotopically in Chy mice, harboring a heterozygous inactivating mutation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, resulting in impaired dermal lymphangiogenesis. Accelerated tumor growth was observed in both cancer models in Chy mice, coinciding with reduced peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. An impaired lymphatic washout was observed from the peritumoral area in Chy mice with C3HBA tumors, and the number of macrophages was significantly reduced. While fewer macrophages were detected, the fraction of CD163+ M2 macrophages remained constant, causing a shift towards a higher M2/M1 ratio in Chy mice. No difference in adaptive immune cells was observed between wt and Chy mice. Interestingly, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophage-associated cytokines were reduced in C3HBA tumors, pointing to an impaired innate immune response. However, IL-6 was profoundly elevated in the C3HBA tumor interstitial fluid, and treatment with the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab inhibited breast cancer growth. Collectively, our data indicate that impaired lymphangiogenesis weakens anti-tumor immunity and favors tumor growth at an early stage of cancer development. PMID:27329584

  5. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  6. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury.

  7. Wechsler performance IQ greater than Verbal IQ index in a forensic sample: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    DeWolfe, A S; Ryan, J J

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationships of the Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than Verbal IQ (VIQ) to type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 adult males incarcerated on felony charges. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign was not related to Full Scale IQ or to violent vs. nonviolent crime, per se. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign showed a trend toward association with Ethnicity (black vs. white) and was related significantly to reading disability, with the reading disabled inmates more likely to show the sign, and to type of crime, with perpetrators of sex crimes most likely (87%) to show the sign and those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder least likely (33%) to show it. The difference in the proportion of inmates who showed the sign in these two classes of violent crimes (murder and sex crimes) was significant, and further analysis showed that with murder excluded, PIQ greater than VIQ occurred significantly more frequently in those accused of violent crimes than for nonviolent crimes. The latter findings suggested that differences between studies in the relationship of PIQ greater than VIQ and violence may be the result of differences in the proportion of murderers in the violent samples. Additional analyses indicated that the significant relationships between PIQ greater than VIQ and both type of crime and reading disability were most likely independent of ethnicity and each other.

  8. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  9. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  10. Validation of a Talking Pedometer for Adolescents with Visual Impairments in Free-Living Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haegele, Justin A.; Porretta, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Because school-aged individuals with visual impairments are less physically active than peers without visual impairments, they are at greater risk for developing health-related conditions. One instrument that provides an objective, cost-effective measure of physical activity by counting the total number of steps taken is the pedometer (Albright…

  11. Comparative analysis of cognitive impairments in lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Preobrazhenskaya, I S; Mkhitaryan, E A; Yakhno, N N

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies of 50 patients with Lewy body dementia (LBD) and 50 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were performed to assess the characteristics of the cognitive impairments in these diseases. In patients with dementias of similar severities, patients with LBD showed greater impairment of executive and visuospatial functions and had more marked neurodynamic dysfunction. Patients with AD showed more profound memory disorders.

  12. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  13. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the

  14. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  15. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  16. Caffeine counteracts impairments in task-oriented psychomotor performance induced by chlorpheniramine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments.

  17. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition.

  18. Assessing cognitive impairment following stroke.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Michelle N; Bryan, Janet; Smith, Ashleigh E; Esterman, Adrian J

    2011-11-01

    The assessment of cognitive function is often neglected following stroke, with no consensus on the optimal method to assess poststroke cognition. We evaluated the ability of a brief protocol to detect cognitive impairment in community-dwelling people with chronic stroke compared to healthy controls and its ability to detect changes in cognition in stroke participants undergoing an exercise intervention. Four tests of cognition were able to detect differences between the groups in the domains of executive function, memory, and information-processing speed. Stroke survivors undergoing exercise over a 5-month period showed significantly improved memory and speed of information processing. Results suggest that exercise may have the potential to improve cognition in long-term stroke survivors and that these tests are sensitive measures of poststroke cognition.

  19. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning

  20. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  1. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition.

  2. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  3. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kuźba-Kryszak, Tamara; Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Żyromska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient's sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning. PMID:27647982

  4. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    PubMed Central

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  5. Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, J M; Estruch, R; Salamero, M; Orteu, N; Fernandez-Solà, J; Sacanella, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of chronic ethanol intake on the central nervous system, we studied 40 asymptomatic, well-nourished, chronic alcoholics (mean age, 42.6 +/- 9.1 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects. Studies included neuropsychological testing, visual and short-latency auditory evoked potentials, and morphometric analysis of computed tomography scans. The mean daily ethanol consumption of the alcoholics was 204 gm over an average of 26.4 years. Compared to control subjects, chronic alcoholics exhibited a significant prolongation of the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials, and a prolongation and reduction in the amplitude of the latency of the V wave of short-latency auditory evoked potentials. These abnormalities were related to the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed. Brain morphometric analysis showed that alcoholics had a significantly greater degree of brain shrinkage with age, compared to control subjects. The cortical atrophy index correlated significantly with the lifetime ethanol consumption. Neuropsychological testing in alcoholics compared to controls revealed a significant impairment of frontal skills that was related to age, degree of scholarship, and the presence of frontal atrophy. In conclusion, well-nourished chronic alcoholics exhibited significant brain impairment, as demonstrated by neuropsychological testing, evoked potentials, and brain morphometric analysis, which was correlated with the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed.

  6. Effectiveness of Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks in Migraine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    İNAN, Nurten; İNAN, Levent E.; COŞKUN, Özlem; TUNÇ, Tuğba; İLHAN, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral nerve blocks have been used in primary headache treatment since a long time. In this study, we aimed to examine the efficiency of greater occipital nerve (GON) block in migraine prophylaxis. Methods Data from migraine without aura patients who had GON block were collected and divided into two groups: Group PGON (n=25), which included patients who were under medical prophylaxis and had GON block, and Group GON (n=53), which included patients who had only GON blocks. Migraine was diagnosed using International Headache Society (IHS) classification. Data of 78 patients were analyzed. Headache attack frequency, headache duration, and severity were compared between and within groups in a 3-month follow-up period. Results The decrease in headache parameters after GON block in both groups was significantly similar. Headache attack frequency decreased from 15.73±7.21 (pretreatment) to 4.52±3.61 (3rd month) in Group GON and from 13.76±8.07 to 3.28±2.15 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache duration decreased from 18.51±9.43 to 8.02±5.58 at 3rd month in Group GON and from 15.20±9.16 to 7.20±4.16 in Group PGON (p<0.05). Headache severity decreased from 8.26±1.32 to 5.16±2.64 in Group GON and from 8.08±0.90 to 5.96±1.20 in Group PGON (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in 3rd month after treatment (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed significant decreases in headache parameters in both groups. As GON blocks were performed in patients unresponsive to medical prophylaxis, a decrease in the headache parameters in Group PGON similar to that in Group GON can be attributed to GON blocks. Consequently, these results show that repeated GON blocks with local anesthetic can be an effective alternative treatment in migraine patients who are unresponsive to medical prophylaxis or who do not prefer to use medical prophylaxis. PMID:28360765

  7. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  8. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  9. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  10. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  11. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  12. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  13. Relation between cognitive impairment and early death in the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Eagles, J M; Beattie, J A; Restall, D B; Rawlinson, F; Hagen, S; Ashcroft, G W

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To study the association between cognitive impairment and early death in elderly patients living in the community. DESIGN--Case-control study of 410 patients assessed by the mental status questionnaire and followed up after three years. SETTING--A general practice in Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, with 14,000 patients. PATIENTS--205 Patients aged greater than or equal to 65 with cognitive impairment according to the mental status questionnaire (score less than or equal to 8) and 205 patients scoring greater than 8 on the questionnaire matched for age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death. RESULTS--The relative risk of death in the cognitively impaired patients overall was 3.5. Those patients who scored less than or equal to 7 on the mental status questionnaire were five times more likely to die than their controls. There was no difference in risk of death between those with severe or moderate cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS--Cognitive impairment is associated with early death. PMID:2106935

  14. [Multilingualism and specific language impairment].

    PubMed

    Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment.

  15. Cimetidine impairs nitrazepam clearance.

    PubMed

    Ochs, H R; Greenblatt, D J; Gugler, R; Müntefering, G; Locniskar, A; Abernethy, D R

    1983-08-01

    The effect of cimetidine on hepatic clearance of the benzodiazepine derivative nitrazepam was evaluated in healthy subjects. Six received a single 5- or 10-mg oral nitrazepam dose in the drug-free state and again with therapeutic cimetidine doses. Nitrazepam kinetics were determined from multiple serum concentrations measured during the 72 hr after each dose. Cimetidine had no effect on nitrazepam absorption kinetics, since peak serum nitrazepam concentration and time of peak concentration were not altered. Cimetidine did not alter nitrazepam volume of distribution, but cimetidine consistently reduced nitrazepam clearance, from a mean of 1.41 ml/min/kg in the control state to 1.17 ml/min/kg during cimetidine treatment. This resulted in prolongation of nitrazepam elimination t1/2 from 22.2 to 27.8 hr. Thus the ability of cimetidine to impair drug oxidation in man extends to the capacity for clearance of nitrazepam, a compound biotransformed mainly by nitroreduction.

  16. From the prodrome to chronic schizophrenia: the neurobiology underlying psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Howes, O D; Fusar-Poli, P; Bloomfield, M; Selvaraj, S; McGuire, P

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder that remains a considerable cause of global disease burden. Cognitive impairments are common and contribute significantly to the morbidity of the disorder. Over the last two decades or so molecular imaging studies have refined understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the development of psychosis and cognitive impairments. Firstly they have consistently implicated presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in the disorder, finding that dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine release and baseline dopamine levels are increased in the illness. Secondly recent findings show that dopamine synthesis capacity is elevated in those that go on to develop psychosis in the following year, but not in those that do not, and appears to increase further with the development of psychosis. Thirdly evidence links greater dopamine synthesis capacity to poorer cognitive performance and altered frontal cortical function measured using functional imaging during cognitive tasks. Finally they have provided data on the nature of other neurofunctional alterations in the disorder, in particular in the serotonergic system and neuroinflammation. We review these findings and discuss their implications for understanding the neurobiology of psychosis and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

  17. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  18. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A; Gambertoglio, J G

    1997-01-01

    Grepafloxacin is mainly (approximately 90%) excreted by nonrenal mechanisms. The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin was evaluated in an open-label study involving 20 adults, 15 of whom had some degree of renal impairment (creatinine clearance 7.5 to 64.0 ml/min). Of these 15, 3 had mild renal impairment, 6 had moderate renal impairment, and 6 had severe renal impairment. Grepafloxacin 400 mg was administered orally once daily for 7 days, and pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on days 1 and 7. The results show that both renal clearance and the amount of grepafloxacin excreted unchanged in urine, on day 1 and day 7, were significantly lower in individuals with severe renal impairment compared with those who were healthy. Renal clearance was 0.50 +/- 0.05 ml/min/kg in healthy individuals vs 0.15 +/- 0.05 ml/min/kg in patients with severe renal impairment on day 1, while the corresponding values on day 7 were 0.46 +/- 0.04 ml/min/kg vs 0.14 +/- 0.08 ml/min/kg, respectively. The percentage of grepafloxacin excreted unchanged in urine on day 1 was 5.1 +/- 3.0 in the healthy individuals and 1.5 +/- 0.7 in those with severe renal impairment. On day 7, the corresponding values were 7.9 +/- 1.9 and 2.9 +/- 2.2. No other significant pharmacokinetic differences occurred between the 2 groups. Accumulation during multiple dose administration did not vary with the degree of renal impairment. We conclude that the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin are not significantly different in individuals with varying degrees of renal impairment. Hence, dose adjustment is not necessary during treatment of patients with renal dysfunction.

  19. Neonatal Hypoxia, Hippocampal Atrophy, and Memory Impairment: Evidence of a Causal Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine M.; Gadian, David G.; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W. Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  20. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life.

  1. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were tested both in their spatial and nonspatial meanings. Participants with SLI were compared to same-age peers and younger typically developing children matched on receptive vocabulary scores ( VC children ). Results show that although case-marking errors are very rare in spontaneous speech in Hungarian children with SLI, the number of case marked nouns and of different case markers is significantly lower in children with SLI. In the elicited production task, overall performance of the children with SLI was significantly below that of VC children, but children with SLI and VC children scored higher with spatial than with nonspatial meanings. The results are in line with expectations based on processing accounts which posit greater difficulties with less transparent details of grammar. PMID:25995530

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome impairs index finger responses to unpredictable perturbations.

    PubMed

    Grandy, Emily L; Xiu, Kaihua; Marquardt, Tamara L; Li, Chengliu; Evans, Peter J; Li, Zong-Ming

    2017-03-16

    The fine-tuning of digit forces to object properties can be disrupted by carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS' effects on hand function have mainly been investigated using predictable manipulation tasks; however, unpredictable perturbations are commonly encountered during manual tasks, presenting situations which may be more challenging to CTS patients given their hand impairments. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle and force responses of the index finger to unpredictable perturbations in patients with CTS. Nine CTS patients and nine asymptomatic controls were instructed to stop the movement of a sliding plate by increasing index finger force following an unexpected perturbation. The electrical activity of the first dorsal interosseous muscle and forces exerted by the index finger were recorded. CTS patients demonstrated 20.9% greater muscle response latency and 12.0% greater force response latency compared to controls (p<0.05). The duration of plate sliding was significantly different between groups (p<0.05); the CTS group's duration was 142.2±5.8ms compared to the control group's duration of 133.1±8.4ms. Although CTS patients had increased muscle and force response durations comparatively, these differences were not statistically significant. Findings from this study suggest CTS-induced sensorimotor deficits interfere with accurate detection, processing and response to unpredictable perturbations. These deficits could be accounted for at multiple levels of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Delayed and decreased responses may indicate inefficient object manipulation by CTS patients and may help to explain why CTS patients tend to drop objects.

  4. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions). Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29 years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease. PMID:22998680

  5. Force control of quadriceps muscle is bilaterally impaired in subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2011-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that force variability and error during maintenance of submaximal isometric knee extension are greater in subacute stroke patients than in controls and are related to motor impairments. Contralesional (more-affected) and ipsilesional (less-affected) legs of 33 stroke patients with sufficiently high motor abilities (62 ± 13 yr, 16 ± 2 days postinjury) and the dominant leg of 20 controls (62 ± 10 yr) were tested in sitting position. After peak knee extension torque [maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] was established, subjects maintained 10, 20, 30, and 50% of MVC as steady and accurate as possible for 10 s by matching voluntary force to the target level displayed on a monitor. Coefficient of variation (CV) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) were used to quantify force variability and error, respectively. The MVC was significantly smaller in the more-affected than less-affected leg, and both were significantly lower than in controls. The CV was significantly larger in the more-affected than less-affected leg at 20 and 50% MVC, whereas both were significantly larger compared with controls across all force levels. Both more-affected and less-affected legs of patients showed significantly greater RMSE than controls at 30 and 50% MVC. The CV and RMSE were not related to the Fugl-Meyer motor score or to the Rivermead Mobility Index. The CV negatively correlated with MVC in controls but only in the less-affected leg of patients. It is concluded that isometric knee extension strength and force control are bilaterally impaired soon after stroke but more so in the more-affected leg. Future studies should examine possible mechanisms and the evolution of these changes.

  6. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power.

  7. Development of Communicative Function in Young Hearing-Impaired and Normally Hearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Johanna G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that, although normally hearing children produced more communicative acts than 9 agemates (age 14-34 months) with severe hearing impairments, the hearing-impaired children produced more than hearing children matched for verbal language age. Results reveal that preverbal hearing-impaired children make significant strides that can…

  8. Impaired Competence for Pretense in Children with Autism: Exploring Potential Cognitive Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigham, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when…

  9. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  10. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study.

  11. Hyperglycemia impairs atherosclerosis regression in mice.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Nathalie; Kumar, Nikit; Olivas, Victor R; Eberlé, Delphine; Stephens, Kyle; Raffai, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic patients are known to be more susceptible to atherosclerosis and its associated cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of hyperglycemia on atherosclerosis regression remain unclear. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia impairs atherosclerosis regression by modulating the biological function of lesional macrophages. HypoE (Apoe(h/h)Mx1-Cre) mice express low levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and develop atherosclerosis when fed a high-fat diet. Atherosclerosis regression occurs in these mice upon plasma lipid lowering induced by a change in diet and the restoration of apoE expression. We examined the morphological characteristics of regressed lesions and assessed the biological function of lesional macrophages isolated with laser-capture microdissection in euglycemic and hyperglycemic HypoE mice. Hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin treatment impaired lesion size reduction (36% versus 14%) and lipid loss (38% versus 26%) after the reversal of hyperlipidemia. However, decreases in lesional macrophage content and remodeling in both groups of mice were similar. Gene expression analysis revealed that hyperglycemia impaired cholesterol transport by modulating ATP-binding cassette A1, ATP-binding cassette G1, scavenger receptor class B family member (CD36), scavenger receptor class B1, and wound healing pathways in lesional macrophages during atherosclerosis regression. Hyperglycemia impairs both reduction in size and loss of lipids from atherosclerotic lesions upon plasma lipid lowering without significantly affecting the remodeling of the vascular wall.

  12. Greater loss of object than spatial mnemonic discrimination in aged adults.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Ho, Huy D; Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Chun, Amanda; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies across species have established that the aging process adversely affects certain memory-related brain regions earlier than others. Behavioral tasks targeted at the function of vulnerable regions can provide noninvasive methods for assessing the integrity of particular components of memory throughout the lifespan. The present study modified a previous task designed to separately but concurrently test detailed memory for object identity and spatial location. Memory for objects or items is thought to rely on perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices, among the first targets of Alzheimer's related neurodegeneration. In line with prior work, we split an aged adult sample into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups on the basis of a standardized word-learning task. The "impaired" group showed widespread difficulty with memory discrimination, whereas the "unimpaired" group showed difficulty with object, but not spatial memory discrimination. These findings support the hypothesized greater age-related impacts on memory for objects or items in older adults, perhaps even with healthy aging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Use by Older Adults Is Associated with Greater Functional Responses to Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Manini, Todd M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Cesari, Matteo; Anton, Stephen D.; Nayfield, Susan; Stafford, Randall S.; Church, Timothy S.; Pahor, Marco; Carter, Christy S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the association between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and improvements in the physical function of older adults in response to chronic exercise training. DESIGN Secondary analysis of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study, a multisite randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of chronic exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for mobility disability. SETTING Four academic research centers within the United States. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred twenty-four individuals aged 70 to 89 with mild to moderate functional impairments categorized for this analysis as ACEi users, users of other antihypertensive drugs, or antihypertensive nonusers. INTERVENTION A 12-month intervention of structured physical activity (PA) or health education promoting successful aging (SA). MEASUREMENTS Change in walking speed during a 400-m test and performance on a battery of short-duration mobility tasks (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)). RESULTS Physical activity significantly improved the adjusted walking speed of ACEi users (P < .001) but did not of nonusers. PA improved the adjusted SPPB score of ACEi users (P < .001) and of persons who used other antihypertensive drugs (P = .005) but not of antihypertensive nonusers (P = .91). The percentage of ACEi users deriving clinically significant benefit from exercise training for walking speed (30%) and SPPB score (48%) was dramatically higher than for nonusers (14% and 12%, respectively). CONCLUSION For older adults at risk for disability, exercise-derived improvements in physical function were greater for ACEi users than users of other antihypertensive drugs and antihypertensive nonusers. PMID:22726232

  14. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  15. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  16. Treatment of symptomatic greater trochanteric fracture after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Jeffrey I; Chuang, Michael J; Cerynik, Douglas L; Johanson, Norman A

    2009-08-01

    Isolated greater trochanter fractures after total hip arthroplasty are associated with major comorbidities such as debilitating weakness, pain, and dislocation. No definitive standard of care has been established for these fracture. However, it is well known that reestablishing osseous union in these patients is strongly associated with return of functional status. We report a case of an elderly patient with multiple hip revision surgeries now presenting with unilateral greater trochanter fracture. Treatment incorporated the use of a trochanteric claw plate, cerclage wiring, and adjuvant demineralized bone matrix allograft to achieve successful osseous union. This is the first reported use of adjuvant demineralized bone matrix for fixing these fractures.

  17. Oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnoea is greater in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Render, Jacqueline N; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Sheel, A William

    2015-01-01

    We compared the oxygen cost of breathing () in healthy men and women over a wide range of exercise ventilations (). Eighteen subjects (nine women) completed 4 days of testing. First, a step-wise maximal cycle exercise test was completed for the assessment of spontaneous breathing patterns. Next, subjects were familiarized with the voluntary hyperpnoea protocol used to estimate . During the final two visits, subjects mimicked multiple times (four to six) the breathing patterns associated with five or six different exercise stages. Each trial lasted 5 min, and on-line pressure–volume and flow–volume loops were superimposed on target loops obtained during exercise to replicate the work of breathing accurately. At ∼55 l min−1 , was significantly greater in women. At maximal ventilation, the absolute was not different (P > 0.05) between the sexes, but represented a significantly greater fraction of whole-body in women (13.8 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.1% ). During heavy exercise at 92 and 100% , the unit cost of was +0.7 and +1.1 ml O2 l−1 greater in women (P < 0.05). At , men and women who developed expiratory flow limitation had a significantly greater than those who did not (435 ± 44 vs. 331 ± 30 ml O2 min−1). In conclusion, women have a greater for a given , and this represents a greater fraction of whole-body . The greater in women may have implications for the integrated physiological response to exercise. PMID:25652549

  18. Perceptual and associative knowledge in category specific impairment of semantic memory: a study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, M; Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E

    1993-12-01

    We report two head-injured patients whose knowledge of living things was selectively disrupted. Their semantic knowledge was tested with naming and verbal comprehension tasks and a verbal questionnaire. In all of them there was consistent evidence that knowledge of living things was impaired and that of non-living things was relatively preserved. The living things deficit emerged irrespective of whether the question tapped associative or perceptual knowledge or required visual or non visual information. In all tasks the category effect was still significant after the influence on the performance of the following variables was partialled out: word frequency, concept familiarity, prototypicality, name agreement, image agreement and visual complexity. In the verbal questionnaire dissociations were still significant even after adjustment for the difficulty of questions for normals, that had proven greater for living things. Besides diffuse brain damage, both patients presented with a left posterior temporo-parietal lesion.

  19. Population-based survey of prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment in an aging Chinese metropolitan population

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-Yan; Yan, Liang; Chen, Yong-Dong; Du, Xin-Hua; Li, Ting-Ting; Liu, De-An; Xu, Dong-Hong; Huang, Yi-Min; Wu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence, causes, and risk factors for blindness and visual impairment among elderly (≥60 years of age) Chinese people in a metropolitan area of Shanghai, China. METHODS Random cluster sampling was conducted to identify participants among residents ≥60 years of age living in the Xietu Block, Xuhui District, Shanghai, China. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were checked by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual chart. All eligible participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. Blindness and visual impairment were defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. RESULTS A total of 4190 persons (1688 men and 2502 women) participated in the study, and the response rate was 91.1%. Based on PVA, the prevalence of blindness was 1.1% and that of visual impairment was 7.6%. Based on BCVA, the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment decreased to 0.9% and 3.9%, respectively. Older (≥80 years of age) women, with low educational levels and smoking habits, exhibited a significantly greater chance for blindness and visual impairment than did those with high educational levels and no smoking habits (P<0.05). Based on PVA and BCVA, the main causes of blindness were cataract, myopic maculopathy, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CONCLUSION Our findings help to identify the population in need of intervention, to highlight the need for additional eye healthcare services in urban China. PMID:28149791

  20. The visually impaired patient.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eric A; Sperazza, Laura C

    2008-05-15

    Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting.

  1. VOT and hearing impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Harlan; Perkell, Joseph

    2001-05-01

    When deafened adults recover some hearing after receiving a cochlear implant, numerous changes in their speech occur at both phonemic and suprasegmental levels. If a change toward normative values is observed for some phonemic parameter, it may be attributed to the restored hearing; however, it may be a by-product of a suprasegmental change. Consistent with results reported for speakers with normal hearing, Lane et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3096-3106 (1995)] observed in implant users that VOT varies approximately linearly with syllable duration. Therefore, in comparing pre- and postimplant measures of VOT in five speakers, each token's VOT was adjusted for the change in syllable duration of that token relative to the mean syllable duration in a baseline session (called VOTc). Preimplant, the deaf speakers characteristically uttered plosives with abnormally short VOTc. With some hearing restored, four of the five lengthened VOTc. Changes in voiced plosives' VOTc with restored hearing were correlated with changes in SPL. Some of the reliable VOTc increases that were not correlated with SPL may have been caused by auditory validation of an internal model for phoneme production. Recent studies of VOT in hearing-impaired speakers will be reviewed in this light. [Work supported by NIDCD, NIH.

  2. Cognitive impairment in HIV and HCV co-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Bucur, Mihaela; Fisher, Martin; Whale, Richard; Rusted, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive impairment has been well documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections. However, in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection the research is more limited. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the characteristics of cognitive impairment in HIV/HCV co-infection and to examine the differences in cognitive performance between HIV/HCV and HIV and HCV mono-infected patients. Of the 437 records initially screened, 24 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies indicated that HIV/HCV co-infected patients had a higher level of cognitive impairment than HIV mono-infected patients. Meta-analysis also indicated that HIV mono-infected patients had a significantly lower global deficit score than co-infected patients. The results also indicated that co-infected patients were more likely to be impaired in information processing speed than HIV mono-infected patients. These findings can be challenged by biasing factors such as the small number of included studies, heterogeneity of the samples and a large diversity of methodological procedures. Future research with consistent and comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and covering a greater diversity of risk factors is needed, in order to clarify the effects of both viruses on cognitive function and the mechanisms that underlie these effects. Because cognitive impairments may pose significant challenges to medication adherence, quality of life and overall functioning, such knowledge may have important implications to the planning and implementation of effective interventions aimed at optimising the clinical management of these infections.

  3. Cognitive impairment in HIV and HCV co-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Bucur, Mihaela; Fisher, Martin; Whale, Richard; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-11-05

    Cognitive impairment has been well documented in HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infections. However, in the context of HIV/HCV co-infection the research is more limited. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the characteristics of cognitive impairment in HIV/HCV co-infection and to examine the differences in cognitive performance between HIV/HCV and HIV and HCV mono-infected patients. Of the 437 records initially screened, 24 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies indicated that HIV/HCV co-infected patients had a higher level of cognitive impairment than HIV mono-infected patients. Meta-analysis indicated, however, that HIV mono-infected patients had a significantly higher global deficit score than co-infected patients. The results also indicated that co-infected patients were more likely to be impaired in information processing speed than HIV mono-infected patients. These findings can be challenged by biasing factors such as the small number of studies, heterogeneity of the samples, and a large diversity of methodological procedures. Future research with consistent and comprehensive neuropsychological batteries and covering a greater diversity of risk factors is needed, in order to clarify the effects of both viruses on cognitive function and the mechanisms that underlie these effects. Because cognitive impairments may pose significant challenges to medication adherence, quality of life and overall functioning, such knowledge may have important implications to the planning and implementation of effective interventions aimed at optimising the clinical management of these infections.

  4. DOD Joint Bases: Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Joint Bases Realign Fort Eustis, VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Langley AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by...the installation management functions to L·mglcy AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Commander...DOD JOINT BASES Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies Report to Congressional Addressees

  5. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  6. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  7. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional,…

  8. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  9. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  10. Couples' attributions about behaviours modulated by hearing impairment: links with relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Donnah L; Noble, William

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the link between the nature of attributions made by partners about behaviours modulated by hearing loss, and overall relationship satisfaction. Forty-three hearing-impaired males and 23 hearing-impaired females together with their partners, each rated the hearing-impaired person's hearing ability, their own relationship satisfaction, and their attributions for hypothetical behaviours typically associated with impaired hearing. Attributions covered perceived causes of behaviour and perceived responsibility. The extent to which the behaviours typically associated with impaired hearing, were attributed to personal causes and responsibilities was inversely correlated with relationship satisfaction. Female partners (more than male partners, or females with impaired hearing) made attributions that accentuated the unpleasant implications of behaviour. Where attributions and ratings of degree of hearing loss were greater in partners than in the person with the loss, relationship satisfaction was lower. Implications for rehabilitation counselling are discussed.

  11. Association between impairment, function, and daily life task management in children and adolescents with autism

    PubMed Central

    KAO, YING-CHIA; KRAMER, JESSICA M; LILJENQUIST, KENDRA; COSTER, WENDY J

    2014-01-01

    AIM This cross-sectional study examined whether impairments or functional skills are associated with the level of responsibility for life tasks for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHOD Parents of 263 children and adolescents with ASDs (215 males; 48 females; mean age 12y 6mo [SD 4y 6mo], range 3y to 21y) completed an online survey that included the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test – Autism Spectrum Disorders (PEDI-CAT-ASD) Daily Activities, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains, a demographic questionnaire, and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Current. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework guided the selection of model variables. We used hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationship between impairment and functional skill predictor variables and the outcome variable, Responsibility. Age was entered in step 1 to control for the impact of development. SCQ Current, IQ, and remaining PEDI-CAT-ASD domains were then entered in step 2. RESULTS After controlling for age, the model showed that step 2 predictor variables representing both impairments and functional skill improved the model (p <0.001). All variables except the SCQ score were significant predictors of Responsibility. The variance explained by the Daily Activities (2.7%) and Social/ Cognitive (4.8%) domain scores was greater than IQ (0.3%). INTERPRETATION The functional skills of Daily Activities and Social/Cognitive domains were more strongly associated with the management of life tasks than impairments after controlling for age. PMID:25312547

  12. Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses

  13. Physical Function Impairment of Older, HIV-Infected Adults Is Associated with Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin Response

    PubMed Central

    Allshouse, Amanda A.; Rapaport, Eric; Palmer, Brent E.; Wilson, Cara C.; Weinberg, Adriana; MaWhinney, Samantha; Campbell, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with poor outcomes, including physical function impairment, in older HIV-uninfected adults. Whether CMV is associated with physical functional impairment in HIV-infected adults is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between CMV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses with functional impairment in well-controlled HIV infection. In a case-control study, low-function cases were matched by age, gender, and time from HIV diagnosis to high-function controls. Quantitative CMV IgG and %CMV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells (interferon-γ expression following CMV pp65 stimulation) were used to estimate physical function. Among 30 low-function cases and 48 high-function matched controls, CMV IgG ranged from <10 to 8,830 EU/ml, including four controls with results <10 EU/ml. Each log10 increase in CMV IgG was associated with 5-fold greater odds of low function (p=0.01); these findings were robust to adjustment for concomitant CD4+ count, tobacco use, and age; to exclusion of subjects with CMV IgG <10 EU/ml; and to adjustment for hepatitis C viremia. %CMV-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were not associated with low function. In bivariable models, the relationship between CMV IgG and physical function was attenuated and was no longer significant when including IL-6, CD4/CD8 ratio, or the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Index score. High levels of CMV-specific IgG were associated with impaired physical function. Attenuation of the strength of this association in bivariable models suggests an indirect relationship mediated by systemic inflammation and immune suppression. PMID:26061347

  14. Impaired placentation in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, F; Elwood, G; Longato, L; Tong, M; Feijoo, A; Carlson, R I; Wands, J R; de la Monte, S M

    2008-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the key features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and IUGR can be mediated by impaired placentation. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) regulate placentation due to stimulatory effects on extravillous trophoblasts, which are highly motile and invasive. Previous studies demonstrated that extravillous trophoblasts express high levels of aspartyl-(asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase (AAH), a gene that is regulated by IGF and has a critical role in cell motility and invasion. The present study examines the hypothesis that ethanol impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol by caloric content. Placentas harvested on gestation day 16 were used for histopathological, mRNA, and protein studies to examine AAH expression in relation to the integrity of placentation and ethanol exposure. Chronic ethanol feeding prevented or impaired the physiological conversion of uterine vessels required for expansion of maternal circulation into placenta, a crucial process for adequate placentation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated significant reductions in IRS-1, IRS-2, and significant increases in IGF-II and IGF-II receptor mRNA levels in ethanol-exposed placentas. These abnormalities were associated with significantly reduced levels of AAH expression in trophoblastic cells, particularly within the mesometrial triangle (deep placental bed) as demonstrated by real time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining. Ethanol-impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. This effect of chronic gestational exposure to ethanol may contribute to IUGR in FAS.

  15. Category and design fluency in mild cognitive impairment: Performance, strategy use, and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Peter, Jessica; Kaiser, Jannis; Landerer, Verena; Köstering, Lena; Kaller, Christoph P; Heimbach, Bernhard; Hüll, Michael; Bormann, Tobias; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    The exploration and retrieval of words during category fluency involves different strategies to improve or maintain performance. Deficits in that task, which are common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), mirror either impaired semantic memory or dysfunctional executive control mechanisms. Relating category fluency to tasks that place greater demands on either semantic knowledge or executive functions might help to determine the underlying cognitive process. The aims of this study were to compare performance and strategy use of 20 patients with aMCI to 30 healthy elderly controls (HC) and to identify the dominant component (either executive or semantic) for better task performance in category fluency. Thus, the relationship between category fluency, design fluency and naming was examined. As fluency tasks have been associated with the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and the temporal pole, we further explored the relationship between gray matter volume in these areas and both performance and strategy use. Patients with aMCI showed significantly lower performance and significantly less strategy use during fluency tasks compared to HC. However, both groups equally improved their performance when repeatedly confronted with the same task. In aMCI, performance during category fluency was significantly predicted by design fluency performance, while in HC, it was significantly predicted by naming performance. In HC, volume of the SFG significantly predicted both category and design fluency performance, and strategy use during design fluency. In aMCI, the SFG and the IFG predicted performance during both category and design fluency. The IFG significantly predicted strategy use during category fluency in both groups. The reduced category fluency performance in aMCI seems to be primarily due to dysfunctional executive control mechanisms rather than impaired semantic knowledge. This finding is directly relevant to

  16. Cerebral versus Ocular Visual Impairment: The Impact on Developmental Neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Martín, Maria B C; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Martín-Hernández, Juan; López-Miguel, Alberto; Maldonado, Miguel; Baladrón, Carlos; Bauer, Corinna M; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2016-01-01

    Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is clinically defined as significant visual dysfunction caused by injury to visual pathways and structures occurring during early perinatal development. Depending on the location and extent of damage, children with CVI often present with a myriad of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity and impaired visual field function. Most striking, however, are impairments in visual processing and attention which have a significant impact on learning, development, and independence. Within the educational arena, current evidence suggests that strategies designed for individuals with ocular visual impairment are not effective in the case of CVI. We propose that this variance may be related to differences in compensatory neuroplasticity related to the type of visual impairment, as well as underlying alterations in brain structural connectivity. We discuss the etiology and nature of visual impairments related to CVI, and how advanced neuroimaging techniques (i.e., diffusion-based imaging) may help uncover differences between ocular and cerebral causes of visual dysfunction. Revealing these differences may help in developing future strategies for the education and rehabilitation of individuals living with visual impairment.

  17. Cerebral versus Ocular Visual Impairment: The Impact on Developmental Neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Maria B. C.; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Martín-Hernández, Juan; López-Miguel, Alberto; Maldonado, Miguel; Baladrón, Carlos; Bauer, Corinna M.; Merabet, Lotfi B.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is clinically defined as significant visual dysfunction caused by injury to visual pathways and structures occurring during early perinatal development. Depending on the location and extent of damage, children with CVI often present with a myriad of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity and impaired visual field function. Most striking, however, are impairments in visual processing and attention which have a significant impact on learning, development, and independence. Within the educational arena, current evidence suggests that strategies designed for individuals with ocular visual impairment are not effective in the case of CVI. We propose that this variance may be related to differences in compensatory neuroplasticity related to the type of visual impairment, as well as underlying alterations in brain structural connectivity. We discuss the etiology and nature of visual impairments related to CVI, and how advanced neuroimaging techniques (i.e., diffusion-based imaging) may help uncover differences between ocular and cerebral causes of visual dysfunction. Revealing these differences may help in developing future strategies for the education and rehabilitation of individuals living with visual impairment. PMID:28082927

  18. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes.

  19. Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN β-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n = 108; 22 µg, n = 93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p = 0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN β-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

  20. Do memory-impaired individuals report stable attitudes?

    PubMed

    Haddock, Geoffrey; Newson, Margaret; Haworth, Judy

    2011-06-01

    This research explored whether individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease report stable attitudes. Two groups of participants (16 memory-impaired individuals with dementia and 16 matched controls without memory impairment) were presented with photos of various common objects and asked to indicate their attitude towards each object. Participants completed this task on two occasions, separated by 1 week. The results of the experiment revealed that memory-impaired individuals showed significant stability across time in their attitudes, although their level of attitude stability was less pronounced than that demonstrated by the matched controls. Theoretical and applied implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Impaired glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Fragachan, F; Perez-Acuña, F; Monsalve, P; Sanabria, A

    1990-01-01

    We have studied glucose tolerance under carefully controlled conditions in 79 patients with arterial hypertension. The results show that, in patients with arterial hypertension but without clinical diabetes mellitus, the glucose tolerance was abnormal in 77.3% and normal in 22.3%. The corresponding figure in the control group of normotensive subjects was 0%. In each test the responses to glucose administration were analyzed by plotting the logarithm of the blood glucose concentration against time. For the points between 60 and 120 min, corresponding to the periods following glucose administration, a linear relationship was obtained and showed a decline at an exponential rate, as noted by other observers. An estimate of the volume of distribution of glucose was obtained as follows. Values observed in hypertensives with a pathological percent fall in blood glucose per minute (Kg) were 29.8 +/- 12.0 (mean +/- SD) liters and those in normal subjects with normal Kg values had a mean of 14.35 +/- 2.98, the difference being highly significant (p less than 0.0001). The results of the theoretical glucose concentration are also presented. Those obtained from subjects with normal Kg values (359.0 +/- 58.4 mg/dl) are significantly higher than in subjects with pathological Kg values (257.6 +/- 51.3 mg/dl; p less than 0.0001). All patients with either pathological or normal Kg values had normal glucose concentration levels, fasting blood sugar and no glucose in the urine specimen. The difference between pathological Kg values (107.0 +/- 25.8 mg/dl) and normal Kg values (90.6 +/- 13.0 mg/dl) was not found to be statistically different (p greater than 0.05). The distribution and means of glucose half time in controls with normal Kg values and hypertensives with pathological Kg values were: 63.5 +/- 11.5 and 137.8 +/- 48.1 min, respectively. The difference between normal and pathological Kg values being statistically significant at a confidence level above 99.5%. We also studied

  2. Machine-based, self-guided home therapy for individuals with severe arm impairment after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zondervan, DK; Augsburger, R; Bodenhoefer, B; Friedman, N; Reinkensmeyer, DJ; Cramer, SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the Resonating Arm Exerciser - RAE) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke, and explored RAE use for patients with subacute stroke. Methods Sixteen participants with severe upper extremity impairment (mean Fugl-Meyer (FM) score = 21.4 ± 8.8 out of 66) > 6 months post stroke were randomized to three-weeks of exercise with RAE or conventional exercises. Primary outcome measure was FM score one month post-therapy. Secondary outcome measures included MAL, Visual Analog Pain scale, and Ashworth spasticity scale. After a one-month break, individuals in the conventional group also received a three-week course of RAE therapy. Results The change in FM score was significant in both the RAE and conventional groups after training (2.6 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 2.4, p = 0.008 and 0.016, respectively). These improvements were not significant at one-month. Exercise with RAE led to significantly greater improvements in distal FM score than conventional therapy at the one-month follow-up (p = 0.02). In a separate cohort of patients with subacute stroke, RAE was found feasible for exercise. Discussion In subjects with severe arm impairment after chronic stroke, home-based training with RAE was feasible and significantly reduced impairment without increasing pain or spasticity. Gains with RAE were comparable to those found with conventional training, and also included distal arm improvement. PMID:25273359

  3. Wisconsin card sorting test as a measure of executive function impairments in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jodzio, Krzysztof; Biechowska, Daria

    2010-10-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is among the most frequently administered neuropsychological tests. It is assumed that successful completion of this test requires engagement of executive functions (EF). One of the most common origins of EF impairments is ischemic stroke. The present study intends to evaluate the diagnostic use of the WCST as a measure of these impairments in poststroke patients. Forty-four patients (8 women and 36 men) who had recent unilateral stroke (22 left hemisphere, 22 right hemisphere) participated in the study. The overall accuracy of the WCST in classifying stroke survivors as having executive disorders was poor. Nevertheless, statistical analysis revealed its negative predictive power to be greater than positive predictive power (i.e., normal scores on the WCST reliably indicated the absence of executive disorders in 8 or more out of 10). Performance on the WCST is clearly influenced by severity of the executive disorders. Namely, patients with severe impairment of EF (as measured by go/no-go, fluency, and other EF tests) performed more poorly on the WCST than patients with lesser impairment or those with no impairment at all, the latter group's results being indistinguishable. In addition, this study highlights a three-factor solution to the WCST, which accounted for 90.3% of the variance. The scores that most strongly loaded on Factors 1 to 3 were, in order: percentage of conceptual-level responses, number of trials to complete the first category, and failures to maintain the set of responses. Finally, an analysis using multivariate analysis of variance, with the anterior versus posterior site and left versus right side of the lesion as independent variables, revealed a relatively weak effect of lesion location on the WCST performance. In particular, with respect to all test scores, there is only one significant interaction between the site and side of lesion was obtained (F(₁(,)₂₄) = 4.12; p < .05; i.e., the number of

  4. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  5. Impaired orofacial motor functions on chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia Lúcia Pimenta; Machado, Bárbara Cristina Zanandréa; Borges, Carina Giovana Pissinatti; Rodrigues Da Silva, Marco Antonio M; Sforza, Chiarella; De Felício, Cláudia Maria

    2014-08-01

    Because temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) rehabilitation continues to be a challenge, a more comprehensive picture of the orofacial functions in patients with chronic pain is required. This study assessed the orofacial functions, including surface electromyography (EMG) of dynamic rhythmic activities, in patients with moderate-severe signs and symptoms of chronic TMD. It was hypothesized that orofacial motor control differs between patients with moderate-severe chronic TMD and healthy subjects. Seventy-six subjects (46 with TMD and 30 control) answered questionnaires of severity of TMD and chewing difficulties. Orofacial functions and EMG during chewing were assessed. Standardized EMG indices were obtained by quantitative analysis of the differential EMG signals of the paired masseter and temporal muscles, and used to describe muscular action during chewing. TMD patients showed significant greater difficulty in chewing; worse orofacial scores; longer time for free mastication; a less accurate recruitment of the muscles on the working and balancing sides, reduced symmetrical mastication index (SMI) and increased standardized activity during EMG test than healthy subjects. SMI, TMD severity and orofacial myofunctional scores were correlated (P<0.01). Impaired orofacial functions and increased activity of the muscles of balancing sides during unilateral chewing characterized the altered orofacial motor control in patients with moderate-severe chronic TMD. Implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  6. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  7. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  8. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  9. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  10. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hunn, Benjamin H M; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Spillantini, Maria-Grazia; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an insidious and incurable neurodegenerative disease, and represents a significant cost to individuals, carers, and ageing societies. It is defined at post-mortem by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra together with the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We examine here the role of α-synuclein and other cellular transport proteins implicated in PD and how their aberrant activity may be compounded by the unique anatomy of the dopaminergic neuron. This review uses multiple lines of evidence from genetic studies, human tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and refined animal models to argue that prodromal PD can be defined as a disease of impaired intracellular trafficking. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic synapse heralds trafficking impairment.

  11. Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment.

    PubMed

    Christie, Anita D; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G; DeBlois, Jacob P; Kent, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24±1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73±2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74±1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm(-2)·mM ATP(-1)). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P≤0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P≥0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P≥0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P≤0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P≤0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility.

  12. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  13. Psychiatric Issues in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Dag; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, hallucinations and apathy commonly occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have major clinical consequences including a negative impact on quality of life. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and treatment issues of NPS in PD and related disorders in the perspective of cognitive impairment, focusing on depression, anxiety, visual hallucinations, apathy, sleep disturbances, impulse control disorder and non-motor fluctuations. The majority of NPS are more common in PD patients with dementia, possibly related to shared underlying pathologies. Recent studies also suggest that NPS are associated with mild cognitive impairment in PD, in particular with the amnestic type. Accurate diagnosis of NPS is important but can be difficult, due to overlapping symptoms and similar appearance of symptoms of motor symptoms of parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and apathy. There are few systematic studies focusing on the management of NPS in PD with cognitive impairment. PMID:24757113

  14. 303(d) Listed Impaired Waters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Geospatial data for 303(d) Impaired Waters are available as prepackaged national downloads or as GIS web and and data services. EPA provides geospatial data in the formats: GIS compatible shapefiles and geodatabases and ESRI and OGC web mapping.

  15. Central nervous system penetration effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs and neuropsychological impairment in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalhal, Adriana; Gill, M John; Letendre, Scott L; Rachlis, Anita; Bekele, Tsegaye; Raboud, Janet; Burchell, Ann; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-06-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the incidence of severe HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment has declined significantly, whereas the prevalence of the milder forms has increased. Studies suggest that better distribution of cART drugs into the CNS may be important in reducing viral replication in the CNS and in reducing HIV-related brain injury. Correlates of neuropsychological (NP) performance were determined in 417 participants of the Ontario HIV Treatment Cohort Study (OCS). All participants were on three cART drugs for at least 90 days prior to assessment. Multiple logistic and linear regression methods were used. Most participants were Caucasian men with mean age of 47 years. About two thirds had a nadir CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/μL and 92 % had an undetectable plasma HIV viral load. The median CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) score was 7. Sixty percent of participants had neuropsychological impairment. Higher CPE values significantly correlated with lower prevalence of impairment in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In this cross-sectional analysis of HIV+ adults who had a low prevalence of comorbidities and were taking three-drug cART regimens, greater estimated distribution of cART drugs into the CNS was associated with better NP performance.

  16. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  17. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  18. Relationship between Quantitative Adverse Plaque Features from Coronary CT Angiography and Downstream Impaired Myocardial Flow Reserve by 13N-Ammonia Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Damini; Zamudio, Mariana Diaz; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Orozco, Luis Eduardo Juarez; Otaki, Yuka; Gransar, Heidi; Li, Debiao; Germano, Guido; Achenbach, Stephan; Berman, Daniel S.; Meave, Aloha; Alexanderson, Erick; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship of quantitative plaque features from coronary CT Angiography (CTA) and coronary vascular dysfunction by impaired myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by 13N-Ammonia Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Methods and Results Fifty-one patients (32 men, 62.4±9.5 years) underwent combined rest-stress 13N-ammonia PET and CTA scans by hybrid PET/CT. Regional MFR was measured from PET. From CTA, 153 arteries were evaluated by semi-automated software, computing arterial non-calcified plaque (NCP), low-density NCP (NCP<30 HU), calcified and total plaque volumes, and corresponding plaque burden (plaque volumex100%/vessel volume), stenosis, remodeling index, contrast density difference (maximum difference in luminal attenuation per unit area in the lesion), and plaque length. Quantitative stenosis, plaque burden and myocardial mass were combined by boosted ensemble machine-learning algorithm into a composite risk score to predict impaired MFR (MFR≤2.0) by PET, in each artery. Nineteen patients (37%) had impaired regional MFR in at least one territory, (41/153 vessels). Patients with impaired regional MFR had higher arterial NCP (32.4 vs.17.2 %), low-density NCP (7 vs 4 %) and total plaque burden (37 vs 19.3 %, p<0.02). In multivariable analysis with 10-fold cross-validation, NCP burden was the most significant predictor of impaired MFR (Odds Ratio 1.35, p=0.021). For prediction of impaired MFR with 10-fold cross-validation, receiver-operating-characteristics-area-under-the-curve for the composite score was 0.83 (95%CI:0.79–0.91), greater than for quantitative stenosis (0.66, 95%CI:0.57–0.76, p = 0.005). Conclusions Compared to stenosis, arterial NCP burden and a composite score combining quantitative stenosis and plaque burden from CTA significantly improves identification of downstream regional vascular dysfunction. PMID:26467104

  19. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  20. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  1. Efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for patients with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C.; Soobiah, Charlene; Berliner, Shirra; Ho, Joanne M.; Ng, Carmen H.; Ashoor, Huda M.; Chen, Maggie H.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Straus, Sharon E.

    Background: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effectiveness for mild cognitive impairment is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Our eligibility criteria were studies of the effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine on mild cognitive impairment reporting cognition, function, behaviour, global status, and mortality or harms. We identified relevant material by searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, Embase), the references of included studies, trial registries and conference proceedings, and by contacting experts. Two reviewers independently screened the results of the literature search, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results: We screened 15 554 titles and abstracts and 1384 full-text articles. Eight randomized clinical trials and 3 companion reports met our inclusion criteria. We found no significant effects of cognitive enhancers on cognition (Mini–Mental State Examination: 3 randomized clinical trials [RCTs], mean difference [MD] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.22 to 0.50; Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale — cognition subscale: 3 RCTs, standardized MD −0.07, 95% CI−0.16 to 0.01]) or function (Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study activities of daily living inventory: 2 RCTs, MD 0.30, 95% CI −0.26 to 0.86). Cognitive enhancers were associated with higher risks of nausea, diarrhea and vomiting than placebo. Interpretation: Cognitive enhancers did not improve cognition or function among patients with mild cognitive impairment and were associated with a greater risk of gastrointestinal harms. Our findings do not support the use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24043661

  2. Mental Rotation as an Indicator of Motor Representation in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bourrelier, Julien; Kubicki, Alexandre; Rouaud, Olivier; Crognier, Lionel; Mourey, France

    2015-01-01

    This internal representation of movement of part(s) of the body is involved during Implicit Motor Imagery tasks (IMI); the same representations are employed in the laterality judgment task. Few studies have looked at the consequences of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on the processes of motor preparation but none showed evidence of an alteration of action representation in patient with amnestic MCI. In the present study, the IMI task was used to assess the action representation abilities in MCI patients and healthy counterparts. A total of 24 elderly participants aged between 65 and 90 years old (12 women, 73.4 ± 6 years, mean ± S.D.) were recruited: 12 patients with MCI (MCI group) and 12 healthy aged adults (HAA group). The results showed that MCI patients have significantly a greater response time (RT) than HAA subjects only in IMI task and more precisely when performing their mental rotation at the challenging conditions. Furthermore, the IMI task related to the non-dominant hand induced a significant increase of RT only in MCI subjects. At the light of these results, we assume that MCI patients are able to engage themselves in IMI processes, still showing a compelling impairment of this mental ability across its complexity. PMID:26779010

  3. Minimizing impairment-related youth traffic deaths: the need for comprehensive provincial action.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Erika A L; Solomon, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    Despite the progress made between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s, traffic crashes remain the single largest cause of death among 15-24 year-old Canadians. In recent years, approximately 45% of these deaths have been alcohol-related and, no doubt, additional youth crash deaths are drug-related. While young people are significantly overrepresented in impairment-related deaths as drivers, their overrepresentation is even greater as passengers, pedestrians, bicyclists, and users of recreational vehicles. These crashes are not simply a function of young people's immaturity and lack of driving experience; they also reflect young people's hazardous patterns of alcohol and drug use. Under the Canadian constitution, the provinces have extensive legislative authority over driver and vehicle licensing, traffic enforcement, liquor licensing, and off-premise alcohol sales. Moreover, research in Canada and abroad has identified legislative initiatives that can significantly reduce impairment-related youth traffic deaths. Consequently, the provinces are well positioned to protect Canadian youth from such preventable harm. The provinces need to adopt a broad approach, including a comprehensive graduated licensing program, a zero blood-alcohol restriction on drivers under 21, enhanced police powers, and more rigorous enforcement of the existing licensing legislation.

  4. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. PMID:15640920

  5. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems.

  6. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  7. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-05-12

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.

  8. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite.

  9. Greater Coordination Required in Defense Planning for Intratheather Airlift Needs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-09

    AD-AIOI 292 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC PROCUREMENT -ETC F/6 15/5 GREATER COORDINATION REQUIRED IN DEFENSE PLANNING FOR INTRATHEA-(ETC(U...JUL 81 UNCLASSIFIED GAO/PLR-81-42 BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE Report To The Secretary Of Defense Q reater Coordination Required In Defense...11~~~I~ LF’A RD-1-42/ I1CCU4S JULY 9, 1981’ / 81 7 13 331 I Request for copies of GAO reports should be sent to: U.S. General Accounting Office

  10. Impaired procedural learning in language impairment: results from probabilistic categorization.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Ferenc; Lukacs, Agnes

    2010-03-01

    The Weather Prediction (WP) Task is a classical task of probabilistic category learning generally used for examining the dissociation of procedural and declarative memory. The current study focuses on performance of children with language impairment (LI) and compares their performance to that of typically developing (TD) children and adults with the aim of testing the procedural deficit hypothesis of LI (PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005), which states that language impairment is not a specific linguistic phenomenon, but results from the dysfunction of a more general cognitive system: the procedural system. To test the generality of the procedural impairment, we needed a task that is dissimilar from language in that it does not build on sequential information. Children with language impairment show deficient learning on the Weather Prediction Task, which already appears at the early stages of the task. These results, in line with the PDH, point to the deficit of the procedural system in language impairment going beyond the language system. Whether this deficit is selective to the procedural system or is complemented by deficits in the declarative system is the subject of future studies.

  11. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  12. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  13. Quality of life and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease: does subtype matter?

    PubMed

    Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Khoo, Tien K; Breen, David P; Barker, Roger A; Collerton, Daniel; Taylor, John-Paul; Burn, David J

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the association between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes and quality of life (QoL) in 219 newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia. Participants completed neuropsychological tests of attention, executive function, visuospatial function, memory, and language, and reported QoL using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. Impairments were most common in executive function, memory and attention. MCI subtypes were classified according to Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria. More severe cognitive impairment was associated with poorer quality of life (p = 0.01), but subtype of impairment was not (p > 0.10), suggesting that the nature of cognitive impairment is less significant than its severity.

  14. An investigation of the career development of high school adolescents with hearing impairments in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Furlonger, B

    1998-07-01

    Although the need for better-skilled workers has been signaled by the marketplace, people with hearing impairments generally are employed in unskilled or semiskilled jobs. They are, therefore, at heightened risk of unemployment and underemployment. Compounding this risk are the levels of vocational preparation and job awareness of adolescents with hearing impairments, which are generally considered inadequate. With a view to improving prevocational programs for hearing impaired adolescents, the researcher collected information on career awareness and vocational maturity. Significant differences were identified between hearing impaired and hearing adolescents on a range of career measures. In particular, adolescents with hearing impairments were identified as having less career awareness.

  15. Vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING): the contribution of cerebrovascular pathology to cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Skrobot, Olivia A; Attems, Johannes; Esiri, Margaret; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Ironside, James W; Kalaria, Rajesh N; King, Andrew; Lammie, George A; Mann, David; Neal, James; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2016-09-02

    There are no generally accepted protocols for post-mortem assessment in cases of suspected vascular cognitive impairment. Neuropathologists from seven UK centres have collaborated in the development of a set of vascular cognitive impairment neuropathology guidelines (VCING), representing a validated consensus approach to the post-mortem assessment and scoring of cerebrovascular disease in relation to vascular cognitive impairment. The development had three stages: (i) agreement on a sampling protocol and scoring criteria, through a series of Delphi method surveys; (ii) determination of inter-rater reliability for each type of pathology in each region sampled (Gwet's AC2 coefficient); and (iii) empirical testing and validation of the criteria, by blinded post-mortem assessment of brain tissue from 113 individuals (55 to 100 years) without significant neurodegenerative disease who had had formal cognitive assessments within 12 months of death. Fourteen different vessel and parenchymal pathologies were assessed in 13 brain regions. Almost perfect agreement (AC2 > 0.8) was found when the agreed criteria were used for assessment of leptomeningeal, cortical and capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microhaemorrhage, larger haemorrhage, fibrinoid necrosis, microaneurysms, perivascular space dilation, perivascular haemosiderin leakage, and myelin loss. There was more variability (but still reasonably good agreement) in assessment of the severity of arteriolosclerosis (0.45-0.91) and microinfarcts (0.52-0.84). Regression analyses were undertaken to identify the best predictors of cognitive impairment. Seven pathologies-leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy, large infarcts, lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, arteriolosclerosis, perivascular space dilation and myelin loss-predicted cognitive impairment. Multivariable logistic regression determined the best predictive models of cognitive impairment. The preferred model included moderate

  16. The Preconscious: Locus for Significant Written Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Alvin D.

    1979-01-01

    The author suggests that the preconscious is the true locus of significant prose because of its greater amount of freedom to gather, compare, and rearrange ideas, and that the ultimate challenge to teachers of composition is to give freedom to their students' preconscious processes. (KC)

  17. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses.

  18. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  19. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  20. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  1. BBilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation with Greater Tuberosity Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Tejas; Bhatnagar, Abhinav; Mehta, Sonu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Shoulder dislocations are a very common entity in routine orthopaedic practice. Chronic unreduced anterior dislocations of the shoulder are not very common. Neurological and vascular complications may occur as a result of an acute anterior dislocation of the shoulder or after a while in chronic unreduced shoulder dislocation. Open reduction is indicated for most chronic shoulder dislocations. We report a case of neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral displaced greater tuberosity fracture. To the best of our knowledge, only a handful cases have been reported in literature with bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation with bilateral fractures. Delayed diagnosis/reporting is a scenario which makes the list even slimmer and management all the more challenging. Case Report: We report a case of a 35-year-old male who had bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and bilateral greater tuberosity fracture post seizure and failed to report it for a period of 30 days. One side was managed conservatively with closed reduction and immobilization and the other side with open reduction. No neurovascular complications pre or post reduction of shoulder were seen. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations should always be suspected post seizures and if found should be treated promptly. Treatment becomes difficult for any shoulder dislocation that goes untreated for considerable period of time PMID:27703939

  2. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Carbone, S; Postacchini, F

    2009-02-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks.

  3. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  4. Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas.

  5. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  6. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

  7. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  8. Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi; Campen, Matthew J; Zhang, Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C; Sopori, Mohan L

    2008-11-01

    Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (VE) and VE chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m(-3) (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). VE and VE responses to hypercapnia (7% CO2) or hypoxia (10% O2) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic VE to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline VE (30%; P<0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. VE impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline RL. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the VE responses. Thus, LC50 sarin causes a reversible impairment of VE that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in RL.

  9. Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jianguo; Xu Fadi Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2008-11-01

    Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (V{sub E}) and V{sub E} chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m{sup -3} (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). V{sub E} and V{sub E} responses to hypercapnia (7% CO{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10% O{sub 2}) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (R{sub L}) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic V{sub E} to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline V{sub E} (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. V{sub E} impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline R{sub L}. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the V{sub E} responses. Thus, LC{sub 50} sarin causes a reversible impairment of V{sub E} that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in R{sub L}.

  10. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase.

    PubMed

    Sletten, Tracey L; Segal, Ahuva Y; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual's circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation.

  11. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  12. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  13. Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed.

  14. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 416.923 Section 416.923... DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... the combined effect of all of your impairments without regard to whether any such impairment,...

  15. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less

  16. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly

  17. Association of impaired reality processing with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Chun, Ji Won; Lee, Sang-hoon; Kang, Dong-Il; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2013-12-30

    Reality evaluation (i.e., the discrimination of things existing outside of oneself and figments of others' imagination) may be impaired in patients with schizophrenia, and impairment in reality evaluation may be related to psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. In this study, we investigated the nature of impairment of reality processing and its relationship with hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed the reality evaluation task, in which subjects judged whether scenes in a series of drawings were real or unreal and whether they were familiar or novel. The patient group exhibited significantly lower accuracy in reality evaluation than the control group, and lower accuracy in the patient group was related to more severe hallucinations and delusions. These findings provide preliminary evidence that impaired reality evaluation is related to the formation or maintenance of hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia.

  18. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

  19. Gadobutrol in Renally Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Michaely, Henrik J.; Aschauer, Manuela; Deutschmann, Hannes; Bongartz, Georg; Gutberlet, Matthias; Woitek, Ramona; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hammerstingl, Renate; De Cobelli, Francesco; Rosenberg, Martin; Balzer, Thomas; Endrikat, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 908 patients were enrolled, including 586 with moderate and 284 with severe renal impairment who are at highest risk for developing NSF. The mean time since renal disease diagnosis was 1.83 and 5.49 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 184 patients (20.3%) underwent further contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based contrast agents within the 2-year follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF. Conclusions No safety concerns with gadobutrol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment were identified. There were no NSF cases. PMID:27529464

  20. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse.

  1. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  2. Lakes in the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danielson, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of an inventory of the lakes in the central one-third of the Colorado Front Range Urban Corridor. This inventory provides information that might be helpful in planning the best and most beneficial use of lakes in an area of rapid population growth. The report includes data on lake size and water quality. Size data are included on most of the lakes of 2 hectares (20,000 m2, or about 5 acres) or greater, and water-quality data are provided on most lakes larger than 10 hectares (about 25 acres). Bodies of water resulting form excavation of gravel (borrow pits) were generally not included in the inventory.

  3. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  4. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  5. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    PubMed

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  6. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  7. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  8. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  9. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  10. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability.

  11. Can use of positive religious coping predict greater distress? An examination of Army soldiers on deployment.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Marilyn A; Lannin, Daniel G; Wade, Nathaniel G; Martinez, Melisa

    2017-04-01

    Although positive religious coping is generally viewed as an adaptive, functional coping pattern, some studies have actually found positive religious coping to be associated with more distress in military populations. In the current study, we examined the role of positive religious coping on distress across 2 time points. Participants in this study were 192 Army soldiers (men = 90.4%) who were stationed in Iraq for a 1-year deployment in 2005. Using structural equation modeling, we conducted a cross-lag analysis of positive religious coping and distress. Results indicated that greater use of positive religious coping significantly predicted greater distress 1 month later, whereas distress at T1 did not predict positive religious coping 1 month later. Combat exposure was also a significant predictor of distress 1 month later. Implications of these results include the need to inquire about clients' use of religious coping and whether such coping methods are having the desired effect for them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

    2013-03-01

    In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare.

  13. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare. PMID:23131895

  14. Acquisition of spoken and signed English by hearing-impaired children of hearing-impaired or hearing parents.

    PubMed

    Geers, A E; Schick, B

    1988-05-01

    This study examines the degree to which hearing-impaired children of hearing-impaired parents (HIP) demonstrate an advantage in their acquisition of signed and spoken English over hearing-impaired children of hearing parents (HP). A subset from the normative sample of the Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language, 50 HIP children and 50 HP children, were matched in terms of their educational program, hearing level, and age. Results indicate that both groups had comparably poor expressive English language ability at 5 and 6 years of age. However, at age 7 and 8 HIP children demonstrated a significant linguistic advantage in both their spoken and signed English over HP children. Because the production of English by HIP children closely resembled that of orally educated hearing-impaired children of hearing parents, consistent language stimulation throughout the child's early years may be a critical factor in the development of English, regardless of the language or mode of expression.

  15. Effects of Ganglioside on Working Memory and the Default Mode Network in Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yujin; Kim, Binna; Kim, Jieun E; Kim, Bori R; Ban, Soonhyun; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kwon, Oran; Rhie, Sandy Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examined whether the administration of ganglioside, an active ingredient of deer bone extract, can improve working memory performance by increasing gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Seventy-five individuals with subjective cognitive impairment were chosen to receive either ganglioside (330[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day or 660[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]g/day) or a placebo for 8 weeks. Changes in working memory performance with treatment of either ganglioside or placebo were assessed as cognitive outcome measures. Using voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analyses, changes in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN were also assessed as brain outcome measures. Improvement in working memory performance was greater in the ganglioside group than in the placebo group. The ganglioside group, relative to the placebo group, showed greater increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN. A significant relationship between increased functional connectivity of the precuneus and improved working memory performance was observed in the ganglioside group. The current findings suggest that ganglioside has cognitive-enhancing effects in individuals with subjective cognitive impairment. Ganglioside-induced increases in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in the DMN may partly be responsible for the potential nootropic effects of ganglioside. The clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02379481).

  16. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species.

  17. Visitation arrangements for impaired parents.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen A; Street, David F

    2011-07-01

    Forensic mental health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate the parenting skills of divorcing parents because the court seeks help in determining the custody, visitation, and parenting time arrangements for the children. When one of the parents is impaired, the court wants to know the way to help the children have a good relationship with that parent and keep the children safe. There is little empirical research to answer such questions. In this article, the authors describe their methodology for providing useful clinical information to the court to help guide their decisions regarding visitation with impaired parents.

  18. Hippocampal damage and memory impairment in congenital cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, Mónica; Hoskote, Aparna; Chadwick, Martin J; Dzieciol, Anna M; Gadian, David G; Chong, Kling; Banks, Tina; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal hypoxia can lead to hippocampal atrophy, which can lead, in turn, to memory impairment. To test the generalizability of this causal sequence, we examined a cohort of 41 children aged 8-16, who, having received the arterial switch operation to correct for transposition of the great arteries, had sustained significant neonatal cyanosis but were otherwise neurodevelopmentally normal. As predicted, the cohort had significant bilateral reduction of hippocampal volumes relative to the volumes of 64 normal controls. They also had significant, yet selective, impairment of episodic memory as measured by standard tests of memory, despite relatively normal levels of intelligence, academic attainment, and verbal fluency. Across the cohort, degree of memory impairment was correlated with degree of hippocampal atrophy suggesting that even as early as neonatal life no other structure can fully compensate for hippocampal injury and its special role in serving episodic long term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hippocampal damage and memory impairment in congenital cyanotic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoskote, Aparna; Chadwick, Martin J.; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Gadian, David G.; Chong, Kling; Banks, Tina; de Haan, Michelle; Baldeweg, Torsten; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha‐Khadem, Faraneh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neonatal hypoxia can lead to hippocampal atrophy, which can lead, in turn, to memory impairment. To test the generalizability of this causal sequence, we examined a cohort of 41 children aged 8‐16, who, having received the arterial switch operation to correct for transposition of the great arteries, had sustained significant neonatal cyanosis but were otherwise neurodevelopmentally normal. As predicted, the cohort had significant bilateral reduction of hippocampal volumes relative to the volumes of 64 normal controls. They also had significant, yet selective, impairment of episodic memory as measured by standard tests of memory, despite relatively normal levels of intelligence, academic attainment, and verbal fluency. Across the cohort, degree of memory impairment was correlated with degree of hippocampal atrophy suggesting that even as early as neonatal life no other structure can fully compensate for hippocampal injury and its special role in serving episodic long term memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28032672

  20. Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP)

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Galluzzi, Samantha; Ferrari, Clarissa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Van Berckel, Bart; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte; Wall, Anders E.; Carter, Stephen F.; Schöll, Michael; Choo, Il Han; Grimmer, Timo; Redolfi, Alberto; Nordberg, Agneta; Scheltens, Philip; Drzezga, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF β-amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A− and N+/N− based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A−N+ cases. Results: The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A−N−, A+N−, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N− and A+N+ groups (p ≤ 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A−N−, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N− patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N− and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile. PMID:25568301

  1. Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouel, Dimitrios S.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.; Katz, Adrian I.

    1974-01-01

    The ability to excrete an oral water load and the renal diluting mechanism were studied in hypothyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Hypothyroid animals excreted a significantly smaller fraction of a 50-ml/kg oral water load than controls, demonstrating the same limited ability to excrete free water as thyroid-deficient man. During hypotonic (0.45%) saline infusion, absolute sodium delivery to the diluting segment and free water clearance were markedly lower in hypothyroid rats. However, both fractional distal sodium delivery and fractional free water clearance were similar in hypothyroid and control animals, suggesting that the reduced absolute free water formation in hypothyroid rats was due to decreased net distal delivery. In support of this hypothesis was the observation that fractional distal sodium reabsorption was equal or higher in thyroid-deficient rats, which indicates that the sodium reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment was preserved in these animals. The results cannot be attributed to incomplete suppression of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) since they were identical in diabetes insipidus rats, nor to different rates of non-ADH-dependent backflux of filtrate since tissue osmolality and solute concentrations in the cortex, medulla, and papilla were similar in hypothyroid and control rats of both Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro strains. The functional integrity of the diluting segment in hypothyroid rats was further demonstrated in experiments in which distal delivery was increased by contralateral nephrectomy or by administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which decrease proximal sodium reabsorption. In both studies, fractional free water clearance increased markedly reaching levels significantly greater than in euthyroid controls. These results demonstrate that the impaired ability of the hypothyroid rat to excrete a water load is not due to incomplete suppression of ADH or decreased reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment

  2. Damage to left frontal regulatory circuits produces greater positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Eckart, Janet A; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (pFWE < .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p < .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that

  3. Cognitive Impairment Precedes and Predicts Functional Impairment in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Siemers, Eric; Price, Karen; Han, Baoguang; Selzler, Katherine J.; Henley, David; Sundell, Karen; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey; Raskin, Joel; Mohs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The temporal relationship of cognitive deficit and functional impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not well characterized. Recent analyses suggest cognitive decline predicts subsequent functional decline throughout AD progression. Objective: To better understand the relationship between cognitive and functional decline in mild AD using autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel analyses in several clinical trials. Methods: Data included placebo patients with mild AD pooled from two multicenter, double-blind, Phase 3 solanezumab (EXPEDITION/2) or semagacestat (IDENTITY/2) studies, and from AD patients participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Cognitive and functional outcomes were assessed using AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living instrumental subscale (ADCS-iADL), or Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), respectively. ARCL panel analyses evaluated relationships between cognitive and functional impairment over time. Results: In EXPEDITION, ARCL panel analyses demonstrated cognitive scores significantly predicted future functional impairment at 5 of 6 time points, while functional scores predicted subsequent cognitive scores in only 1 of 6 time points. Data from IDENTITY and ADNI programs yielded consistent results whereby cognition predicted subsequent function, but not vice-versa. Conclusions: Analyses from three databases indicated cognitive decline precedes and predicts subsequent functional decline in mild AD dementia, consistent with previously proposed hypotheses, and corroborate recent publications using similar methodologies. Cognitive impairment may be used as a predictor of future functional impairment in mild AD dementia and can be considered a critical target for prevention strategies to limit future functional decline in the dementia process. PMID:26402769

  4. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p < 0.0001) and no change in performance on an additional task (delayed logical memory). In this study, although insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND

  5. The functional significance of sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis in Reiter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, L E; Hart, H H; Gow, P J; Kidd, B L; Grigor, R R; Moore, T E

    1985-01-01

    The frequent development of sacroiliitis and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in patients suffering from Reiter's Syndrome (RS) has been stressed by a number of authors. This study was designed to ascertain the frequency of these problems in our RS patients, whether they were related to other clinical features of RS and what was the extent of the resulting disability. Fifty-five patients (50 men and 5 women) with RS with a mean duration of 9.3 years were assessed radiologically to determine the prevalence of sacroiliitis and thoracolumbar syndesmophyte formation. These radiological findings were correlated with HLA-B27, clinical features and functional status. Sacroiliitis was found in 22 patients (40%) but was mild in severity, frequently asymmetrical and very rarely associated with syndesmophyte formation. Sacroiliitis occurred significantly more commonly in patients with iritis and/or a prolonged disease duration (p less than 0.05) but although it was also found more frequently in HLA-B27 positive patients this was not significant (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). Some restriction in back movement was observed in 31 patients (56.3%) but only two patients satisfied New York criteria for AS and just one was functionally impaired by his back disease. Although the frequent finding of sacroiliitis in RS may provide an interesting insight into the interrelationship between RS and AS, our study shows that this sacroiliitis is commonly asymptomatic and does not provide a problem in management.

  6. Analyses of sexual dimorphism of reconstructed pelvic computed tomography images of contemporary Japanese using curvature of the greater sciatic notch, pubic arch and greater pelvis.

    PubMed

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tomabechi, Makiko

    2012-06-10

    Three-dimensional pelvic images were reconstructed from multi-slice CT data of contemporary Japanese (males: 124; females: 104, 25-92 years old), and curvature analysis to examine sexual dimorphism was carried out in the great sciatic notch (GSN), the pubic arch and the greater pelvis in the images. Reconstructed pelvic CT images were visualized fairly well and anatomical landmarks were easily recognizable. When calculating the radii (curvature radii) of the best-fit circles for the spline curve lines set along the edges of the GSNs and of the pubic arches, sexes from these regions were correctly identified in 89.1% (males: 93.8%; females: 83.7%) and 94.7% (males: 97.3%; females: 91.8%) of cases, respectively, by setting an appropriate cut-off value. Furthermore, sexing was possible even in deeper regions of the GSN which are relatively resistant to postmortem damage. Curvature radii of the best-fit spheres of greater pelves showed no significant difference between sexes. However, curvature of the best-fit sphere for the left iliac fossa was significantly larger than that of the right one (p<10(-24)) in males, and the ratios were >1.0 in 88% of all male specimens analyzed. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed among female samples. Although some left-sided dominancy has been reported in 2-dimensional measurements of the human pelvis, this 3-dimensional laterality in males was much more significant, and is a potential index of sex difference.

  7. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  8. The Length of the Greater Palatine Canal in a Lebanese Population: a Radio-anatomical Study

    PubMed Central

    Aoun, Georges; Nasseh, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the length of the greater palatine canal in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Material and methods: In this study, we measured the length of 148 greater palatine canals in 74 CBCT images of Lebanese adult patients (38 females and 36 males). The data obtained was analyzed statistically to determine 1) if age is related to the length of the canal, 2) if the length of the left side tends to be systematically larger or smaller than the length of the right side, and 3) if the mean length of the canals in females is different than the one in males. Results: In a sagittal plane, the average length of the greater palatine canal was 30.62 (30.64 mm on the right and 30.60 mm on the left). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample in a Lebanese population, the length of the greater palatine canal does not significantly vary according to age, gender, and side. PMID:28077902

  9. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  10. Visual Impairment and Eye Care among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Haymes, Sharon A.; Leston, Jessica D.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Etzel, Ruth A.; Lanier, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, eye disease and eye care in the Alaska Native (AN) population, by demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of 3,793 Alaska Native (AN) adults aged 18-94 years enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from March 2004-March 2006. Data on self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and previous dilated eye examinations were collected using audio computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. Results The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.9-9.7), cataract 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.7), glaucoma 2.5% (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) and diabetic eye disease 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.7). In all cases, age-sex adjusted prevalence estimates for the AN population were greater than available estimates for the general U.S. population. Prevalence of visual impairment and each eye disease increased with age (P < 0.01). Additional factors associated with visual impairment were education and annual household income. Overall, 70.0% (95% CI: 68.5-71.6) of participants reported a dilated eye examination within the previous two years. Dilated eye examination within the previous two years was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001). However, men and participants with lower formal education were less likely to report recent dilated eye examination. Among those with diabetes, only 67.7% (95% CI: 60.8-74.1) reported a dilated eye examination within the recommended previous one year. Conclusions Self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease are prevalent in the AN population. These data may be useful in healthcare planning and education programs. PMID:19437311

  11. Evaluation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine in patients with impaired renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.; Christian, P.E.; Milton, W.

    1987-02-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), a new radiopharmaceutical shown to have biological properties similar to iodine-131 o-iodohippurate (OIH) in animals and healthy volunteers, was compared with OIH in 15 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. The Tc-99m MAG3 images were uniformly superior, regardless of the serum creatinine level. There was no significant difference in the 30-minute blood clearance of OIH and MAG3. MAG3 protein binding (78.6%) was greater than that of OIH (53.1%) (P less than or equal to .01), and the volume of distribution of MAG3 (7.06 liters) was less than that of OIH (10.78 liters) (P less than or equal to .01). In six patients the 30-minute urinary excretion of the two agents was essentially identical. The time to the peak height of the renogram curves was more rapid for MAG3 than for OIH using both cortical and whole-kidney regions of interest (P less than or equal to .02). In summary, preliminary results suggest that Tc-99m MAG3 performs well in patients with impaired renal function and may well be an acceptable replacement for OIH. A kit formulation is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  12. Relation of macroinvertebrate community impairment to catchment characteristics in New Jersey streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The level of macroinvertebrate community impairment was statistically related to selected basin and water-quality characteristics in New Jersey streams. More than 700 ambient biomonitoring stations were chosen to evaluate potential and known anthropogenic effects. Macroinvertebrate communities were assessed with a modified rapid-bioassessment approach using three impairment ratings (nonimpaired, moderately impaired, and severely impaired). Maximum-likelihood multiple logistic-regression analysis was used to develop equations defining the probability of community impairment above predetermined impairment levels. Seven of the original 140 explanatory variables were highly related to the level of community impairment. Explanatory variables found to be most useful for predicting severe macroinvertebrate community impairment were the amount of urban land and total flow of municipal effluent. Area underlain by the Reading Prong physiographic region and amount of forested land were inversely related to severe impairment. Nonparametric analysis of variance on rank-transformed bioassessment scores was used to evaluate differences in level of impairment among physiographic regions and major drainage areas simultaneously. Rejection of the null hypothesis indicated that the levels of impairment among all six physiographic regions and five major drainage areas were not equal. Physiographic regions located in the less urbanized northwest portion of New Jersey were not significantly different from each other and had the lowest occurrence of severely impaired macroinvertebrate communities. Physiographic regions containing urban centers had a higher probability of exhibiting a severely impaired macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of major drainage areas indicates that levels of impairment in the Atlantic Coastal Rivers drainage area differed significantly from those in the Lower Delaware River drainage area.

  13. Driving Simulator Performance Remains Impaired In Patients With Severe OSA after CPAP Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Antic, Nick A.; van den Heuvel, Cameron J.; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Design: Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). Interventions: CPAP Measurements and Results: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ∼3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ∼3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p < 0.001, while no significant steering changes were observed in the control group. Despite the improvement, steering deviation in the OSA group remained significantly higher than in controls (OSA group, 46.7 cm [CI, 40.6 to 52.8 cm] vs control group, 36.1 cm [CI, 29.3 to 42.9 cm], p = 0.025). Conclusions: While driving simulator performance improved after ∼3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive

  14. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  15. Recognising neuroplasticity in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a basis for greater collaboration between musculoskeletal and neurological physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Heneghan, Nicola R; Tsao, Henry; Stanwell, Peter T; Rivett, Darren A; Van Vliet, Paulette M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is emerging for central nervous system (CNS) changes in the presence of musculoskeletal dysfunction and pain. Motor control exercises, and potentially manual therapy, can induce changes in the CNS, yet the focus in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice is conventionally on movement impairments with less consideration of intervention-induced neuroplastic changes. Studies in healthy individuals and those with neurological dysfunction provide examples of strategies that may also be used to enhance neuroplasticity during the rehabilitation of individuals with musculoskeletal dysfunction, improving the effectiveness of interventions. In this paper, the evidence for neuroplastic changes in patients with musculoskeletal conditions is discussed. The authors compare and contrast neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinical paradigms in the context of the motor learning principles of experience-dependent plasticity: part and whole practice, repetition, task-specificity and feedback that induces an external focus of attention in the learner. It is proposed that increased collaboration between neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapists and researchers will facilitate new discoveries on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning sensorimotor changes in patients with musculoskeletal dysfunction. This may lead to greater integration of strategies to enhance neuroplasticity in patients treated in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice.

  16. Evidence of greater health care needs among older veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-08-01

    This study examined self-rated health, impairments in activities of daily living, and treatment for eight health conditions among Vietnam War-era veterans, comparing those who served in Vietnam with those who served elsewhere. Data were from the nationally representative 2001 National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,907; 3,923 veterans served in Vietnam). Age-stratified (<60 years versus > or =60 years) analyses included multivariate logistic regression. In adjusted analyses, among those <60 years of age, those who served in Vietnam had notably poorer self-rated health and higher stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-1.53); odds of most other conditions were lower. Among those > or =60 years of age, those who served in Vietnam had poorer self-rated health, higher cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.35), and more treatment for hypertension, lung conditions, stroke, and hearing loss. Results suggest greater resource use among older veterans who served in Vietnam. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should especially note their substantially higher cancer risk.

  17. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  18. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  19. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  20. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  1. Outreach impact study: the case of the Greater Midwest Region*

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jeffrey T; Kean, Emily B; Fitzgerald, Philip D; Altman, Trina A; Young, Zach G; Dupin, Katherine M; Leskovec, Jacqueline; Holst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to assess the impact that funding from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM), Greater Midwest Region (GMR), has on member institutions' ability to conduct outreach on behalf of NN/LM. Methods: The study employed both content analysis and survey methodologies. The final reports from select GMR-funded outreach projects (n = 20) were analyzed based on a set of evaluation criteria. Project principal investigators (n = 13) were then surveyed using the same evaluation criteria. Results: Results indicated that outreach projects supported by GMR funding improved access to biomedical information for professionals and the general public. Barriers to conducting outreach projects included time constraints or commitments, staffing, scheduling and absenteeism, inadequate space, and issues associated with technology (e.g., hardware and software, Internet connectivity and firewall issues, and creation and use of new technologies). Conclusions: The majority of project principal investigators indicated that their attempts to conduct outreach were successful. Moreover, most noted that outreach had a positive impact on professionals as well as the general public. In general, it seems that negative outcomes, as with most barriers to conducting outreach, can be mitigated by more thorough planning. PMID:22022223

  2. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  3. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  4. Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.

    PubMed

    Elias, Johannes; Schouls, Leo M; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C; Martin, Diana R; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-03-01

    Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

  5. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  6. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  7. Greater commitment to the domestic violence training is required.

    PubMed

    Leppäkoski, Tuija Helena; Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2015-05-01

    Domestic violence (DV) is a major public health problem with high health and social costs. A solution to this multi-faceted problem requires that various help providers work together in an effective and optimal manner when dealing with different parties of DV. The objective of our research and development project (2008-2013) was to improve the preparedness of the social and healthcare professionals to manage DV. This article focuses on the evaluation of interprofessional education (IPE) to provide knowledge and skills for identifying and intervening in DV and to improve collaboration among social and health care professionals and other help providers at the local and regional level. The evaluation data were carried out with an internal evaluation. The evaluation data were collected from the participants orally and in the written form. The participants were satisfied with the content of the IPE programme itself and the teaching methods used. Participation in the training sessions could have been more active. Moreover, some of the people who had enrolled for the trainings could not attend all of them. IPE is a valuable way to develop intervening in DV. However, greater commitment to the training is required from not only the participants and their superiors but also from trustees.

  8. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  9. Assessment of the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Joan B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessment of visually impaired students is traced historically, and current practices in visual functioning, movement and spatial awareness, cognition, tactile performance, and emotional/social development are noted. Federal requirements for assessment are discussed and recommended assessment practices for six major assessment domains are listed.…

  10. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  11. Facial Altered Sensation and Sensory Impairment After Orthognathic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Greg K.; Phillips, Ceib; Turvey, Timothy A.; Tucker, Myron

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether impairment of sensory function after trigeminal nerve injury differs in severity among patients who report qualitatively different altered sensations. Data were obtained from 184 patients. Before and at 1, 3 and 6 months after orthognathic surgery, patients were grouped as having no altered sensation, negative sensations only (hypoesthetic), mixed sensations (negative + active), or active sensations only (paresthetic or dysesthetic). Bias-free estimates of contact detection and two-point discrimination were obtained to assess, via ANOVA, whether patients in the four groups exhibited different levels of sensory impairment. Impairment in contact detection and two-point discrimination was found to differ significantly among the groups at 6 months but not at 1 month. At 6 months, patients who reported negative sensations only exhibited the greatest impairment, on average, in contact detection; in contrast, patients who reported mixed sensations exhibited the greatest impairment in two-point discrimination. The least residual impairment at 6 months was observed in patients who reported no altered sensation. It is recommended that clinical judgments regarding nerve injury-associated sensory dysfunction not be based on threshold testing results without consideration of patients’ subjective reports of altered sensation. PMID:17391920

  12. Care mapping in clinical neuroscience settings: Cognitive impairment and dependency.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Andrew James; O'Hanlon, Katie; Sheldrick, Russell; Surr, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2015-01-01

    Person-centred care can improve the well-being of patients and is therefore a key driver in healthcare developments in the UK. The current study aims to investigate the complex relationship between cognitive impairment, dependency and well-being in people with a wide range of acquired brain and spinal injuries. Sixty-five participants, with varied acquired brain and spinal injuries, were selected by convenience sampling from six inpatient clinical neuroscience settings. Participants were observed using Dementia Care Mapping - Neurorehabilitation (DCM-NR) and categorised based on severity of cognitive impairment. A significant difference in the behaviours participants engaged in, their well-being and dependency was found between the severe cognitive impairment group and the mild, moderate or no cognitive impairment groups. Dependency and cognitive impairment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in well-ill-being scores and 17.2% of the variance in potential for positive engagement. The current study highlights the impact of severe cognitive impairment and dependency on the behaviours patients engaged in and their well-being. It also affirms the utility of DCM-NR in providing insights into patient experience. Consideration is given to developing DCM-NR as a process that may improve person-centred care in neuroscience settings.

  13. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before.

  14. The heterogeneity of verbal short-term memory impairment in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; Artielle, Marie-Amélie; Van der Kaa, Marie-Anne

    2015-10-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairment represents a frequent and long-lasting deficit in aphasia, and it will prevent patients from recovering fully functional language abilities. The aim of this study was to obtain a more precise understanding of the nature of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by determining whether verbal STM impairment is merely a consequence of underlying language impairment, as suggested by linguistic accounts of verbal STM, or whether verbal STM impairment reflects an additional, specific deficit. We investigated this question by contrasting item-based STM measures, supposed to depend strongly upon language activation, and order-based STM measures, supposed to reflect the operation of specific, serial order maintenance mechanisms, in a sample of patients with single-word processing deficits at the phonological and/or lexical level. A group-level analysis showed robust impairment for both item and serial order STM aspects in the aphasic group relative to an age-matched control group. An analysis of individual profiles revealed an important heterogeneity of verbal STM profiles, with patients presenting either selective item STM deficits, selective order STM deficits, generalized item and serial order STM deficits or no significant STM impairment. Item but not serial order STM impairment correlated with the severity of phonological impairment. These results disconfirm a strong version of the linguistic account of verbal STM impairment in aphasia, by showing variable impairment to both item and serial order processing aspects of verbal STM.

  15. Clinical Correlates of Co-occurring Psychiatric and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Symptom-Induced Impairment in Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Perlman, Greg; Ramdhany, Lianne; de Ruiter, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric symptom severity and impairment are overlapping but nevertheless distinct illness parameters, little research has examined whether variables found to be associated with the severity are also correlated with symptom-induced impairment. Parents and teachers completed ratings of symptom-induced impairment for DSM-IV-referenced syndromes, and parents completed a background questionnaire for a consecutively referred sample of primarily male (81%) 6-to-12 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N = 221). Some clinical correlates (e.g., IQ < 70, maternal level of education, pregnancy complications, current use of psychotropic medication, season of birth) were associated with impairment for several disorders, whereas others were correlated with only a few syndromes (e.g., gender, co-morbid medical conditions) or were not related to impairment in any disorder (e.g., family psychopathology). There was little convergence in findings for parents' versus teachers' ratings. Some clinical correlates (e.g., season of birth, current psychotropic medication, maternal education) were unique predictors of three or more disorders. Pregnancy complications were uniquely associated with social anxiety and schizoid personality symptom-induced impairment. IQ was a unique predictor of schizophrenia, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder symptom-induced impairment. Children whose mothers had relatively fewer years of education had greater odds for symptom-induced impairment in social anxiety, depression, aggression, and mania and greater number of impairing conditions. Season of birth was the most robust correlate of symptom-induced impairment as rated by teachers but not by parents. Children born in fall evidenced higher rates of co-occurring psychiatric and ASD symptom-induced impairment and total number of impairing conditions. Many variables previously linked with symptom severity are also correlated with impairment.

  16. Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input.

    PubMed

    Blonde, Ginger; Jiang, Enshe; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2010-10-01

    Rats lacking input to the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating anterior tongue taste buds, show robust impairments in salt discrimination demonstrating its necessity. We tested the sufficiency of the CT for salt taste discrimination and whether the remaining input provided by the greater superficial petrosal (GSP) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating palatal taste buds, or by the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerve, innervating posterior tongue taste buds, could support performance after extended postsurgical testing. Rats presurgically trained and tested in a two-response operant task to discriminate NaCl from KCl were subjected to sham surgery or transection of the CT (CTx), GL (GLx), or GSP (GSPx), alone or in combination. While initially reduced postsurgically, performance by rats with an intact GSP after CTx + GLx increased to normal over 6 wk of testing. Rats with CTx + GSPx consistently performed near chance levels. In contrast, rats with GSPx + GLx were behaviorally normal. A subset of rats subjected to sham surgery and exposed to lower concentrations during postsurgical testing emulating decreased stimulus intensity after neurotomy showed no significant impairment. These results demonstrate that CTx changes the perceptual nature of NaCl and/or KCl, leading to severe initial postsurgical impairments in discriminability, but a "new" discrimination can be relearned based on the input of the GSP. Despite losing ∼75% of their taste buds, rats are unaffected after GSPx + GLx, demonstrating that the CT is not only necessary, but also sufficient, for maintaining salt taste discrimination, notwithstanding the unlikely contribution of the small percentage of taste receptors innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve.

  17. Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Comparison of “MCI Specific” Screening Instruments

    PubMed Central

    O’Caoimh, Rónán; Timmons, Suzanne; Molloy, D. William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sensitive and specific instruments are required to screen for cognitive impairment (CI) in busy clinical practice. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is widely validated but few studies compare it to tests designed specifically to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objective: Comparison of two “MCI specific” screens: the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment screen (Qmci) and MoCA. Methods: Patients with subjective memory complaints (SMC; n = 73), MCI (n = 103), or dementia (n = 274), were referred to a university hospital memory clinic and underwent comprehensive assessment. Caregivers, without cognitive symptoms, were recruited as normal controls (n = 101). Results: The Qmci was more accurate than the MoCA in differentiating MCI from controls, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 versus 0.80, p = 0.009. The Qmci had greater (AUC 0.81), albeit non-significant, accuracy than the MoCA (AUC 0.73) in separating MCI from SMC, p = 0.09. At its recommended cut-off (<62/100), the Qmci had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 87% for CI (MCI/dementia). Raising the cut-off to <65 optimized sensitivity (94%), reducing specificity (80%). At <26/30 the MoCA had better sensitivity (96%) but poor specificity (58%). A MoCA cut-off of <24 provided the optimal balance. Median Qmci administration time was 4.5 (±1.3) minutes compared with 9.5 (±2.8) for the MoCA. Conclusions: Although both tests distinguish MCI from dementia, the Qmci is particularly accurate in separating MCI from normal cognition and has shorter administration times, suggesting it is more useful in busy hospital clinics. This study reaffirms the high sensitivity of the MoCA but suggests a lower cut-off (<24) in this setting. PMID:26890758

  18. Memory Impairment at Initial Clinical Presentation in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Husain, Masud; Thompson, Sian; Kipps, Christopher; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-04-23

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by core visuospatial and visuoperceptual deficits, and predominant atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. The most common underlying pathology is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing diagnostic criteria suggest that episodic memory is relatively preserved. The aim of this study was to examine memory performance at initial clinical presentation in PCA, compared to early-onset AD patients (EOAD). 15 PCA patients and 32 EOAD patients, and 34 healthy controls were entered into the study. Patients were tested on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), consisting of subscales in memory and visuospatial skills. PCA and EOAD patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on the ACE total score (p < 0.001), visuospatial skills (p < 0.001), and memory (p < 0.001). Consistent with the salient diagnostic deficits, PCA patients were significantly more impaired on visuospatial skills compared to EOAD patients (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between patient groups in memory. Further analysis of learning, recall, and recognition components of the memory subscale showed that EOAD and PCA patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on all three components (p < 0.001), however, there was no significant difference between EOAD and PCA patients. The results of this study show that memory is impaired in the majority of PCA patients at clinical presentation. The findings suggest that memory impairment must be considered in assessment and management of PCA. Further study into memory in PCA is warranted, since the ACE-R is a brief screening tool and is likely to underestimate the presence of memory impairment.

  19. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

  20. [Effect of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive impairment in the elderly].

    PubMed

    López-Álvarez, Jorge; Zea Sevilla, María Ascensión; Agüera Ortiz, Luis; Fernández Blázquez, Miguel Ángel; Valentí Soler, Meritxell; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even in people with cognitive impairment. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed (anticholinergic effects, anticholinergic and dementia) to define the effects of anticholinergic drugs in the elderly. We emphasized the search in patterns of use, the combined use with AChEIs, the measurement of the Serum Anticholinergic Activity, and the short-term and long-term cognitive effects. The conclusions are that the use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even more so than the medical prescription of AChEIs in Alzheimer's disease. The use of anticholinergic drugs may result in cognitive impairment. In long-term use it may generate a worsening of cognitive functions. It can lead to a wrong diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, and they can also initiate signs of dementia. Greater cognitive effects appear when there is a previous deficit, but cognitive effects from anticholinergic drugs disappear in severe dementia. The presence of ApoEɛ4 increases the vulnerability for cognitive impairment when these drugs are employed.

  1. Impaired competence for pretense in children with autism: exploring potential cognitive predictors.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when interpreting pretense, thereby supporting a competence deficit hypothesis. They also showed impaired mentalising and response inhibition, but superior local processing indicating weak central coherence. Regression analyses revealed that mentalising significantly and independently predicted pretense. The results are interpreted as supporting the impaired mentalising theory and evidence against competing theories invoking impaired response inhibition or a local processing bias. The results of this study have important implications for treatment and intervention.

  2. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  3. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes. Method DD and control groups were familiarized with a continuous stream of syllables or sine-wave tones, the ordering of which was defined by high or low transitional probabilities across adjacent stimulus pairs. Participants subsequently judged two 3-stimulus test items with either high or low statistical coherence as being the most similar to the sounds heard during familiarization. Results As with control participants, the DD group was sensitive to the transitional probability structure of the familiarization materials as evidenced by above-chance performance. However, the performance of participants with DD was significantly poorer than controls across linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. In addition, reading-related measures were significantly correlated with statistical learning performance of both speech and nonspeech material. Conclusion Results are discussed in light of procedural learning impairments among participants with DD. PMID:25860795

  4. Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Uteri Greater Than One Kilogram

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Maria V.; Moawad, Gaby N.; Opoku-Anane, Jessica; Shu, Michael K. M.; Marfori, Cherie Q.; Robinson, James K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the feasibility and safety of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg. Methods: Clinical and surgical characteristics were collected for patients in an academic tertiary care hospital. Included were patients who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy by 1 of 3 fellowship-trained gynecologists from January 1, 2009, to July 1, 2015 and subsequently had confirmed uterine weights of 1 kg or greater on pathology report. Both robotic and conventional laparoscopic procedures were included. Results: During the study period, 95 patients underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy with confirmed uterine weight over 1 kg. Eighty-eight percent were performed with conventional laparoscopy and 12.6% with robot-assisted laparoscopy. The median weight (range) was 1326 g (range, 1000–4800). The median estimated blood loss was 200 mL (range, 50–2000), and median operating time was 191 minutes (range, 75–478). Five cases were converted to laparotomy (5.2%). Four cases were converted secondary to hemorrhage and one secondary to extensive adhesions. There were no conversions after 2011. Intraoperative transfusion was given in 6.3% of cases and postoperative transfusion in 6.3% of cases. However, after 2013, the rate of intraoperative transfusion decreased to 1.0% and postoperative transfusion to 2.1%. Of the 95 cases, there were no cases with malignancy. Conclusions: This provides the largest case series of hysterectomy over 1 kg completed by a minimally invasive approach. Our complication rate improved with experience and was comparable to other studies of minimally invasive hysterectomy for large uteri. When performed by experienced surgeons, minimally invasive hysterectomy for uteri >1 kg can be considered feasible and safe. PMID:28352147

  5. Deviance and resistance: Malaria elimination in the greater Mekong subregion.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Malaria elimination rather than control is increasingly globally endorsed, requiring new approaches wherein success is not measured by timely treatment of presenting cases but eradicating all presence of infection. This shift has gained urgency as resistance to artemisinin-combination therapies spreads in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) posing a threat to global health security. In the GMS, endemic malaria persists in forested border areas and elimination will require calibrated approaches to remove remaining pockets of residual infection. A new public health strategy called 'positive deviance' is being used to improve health promotion and community outreach in some of these zones. However, outbreaks sparked by alternative understandings of appropriate behaviour expose the unpredictable nature of 'border malaria' and difficulties eradication faces. Using a recent spike in infections allegedly linked to luxury timber trade in Thai borderlands, this article suggests that opportunities for market engagement can cause people to see 'deviance' as a means to material advancement in ways that increase disease vulnerability. A malaria outbreak in Ubon Ratchathani was investigated during two-week field-visit in November 2014 as part of longer project researching border malaria in Thai provinces. Qualitative data were collected in four villages in Ubon's three most-affected districts. Discussions with villagers focused primarily on changing livelihoods, experience with malaria, and rosewood cutting. Informants included ten men and two women who had recently overnighted in the nearby forest. Data from health officials and villagers are used to frame Ubon's rise in malaria transmission within moral and behavioural responses to expanding commodity supply-chains. The article argues that elimination strategies in the GMS must contend with volatile outbreaks among border populations wherein 'infectiousness' and 'resistance' are not simply pathogen characteristics but also

  6. Greater risks of chemotherapy toxicity in elderly patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Lazzaro

    2003-01-01

    Complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy are more common in older patients (65 years of age and older) with cancer than in younger patients, and the occurrence of myelosuppression, mucositis, cardiodepression, peripheral neuropathy, and central neurotoxicity can complicate treatment. Age-related physiologic changes that can increase the toxicity of chemotherapy are decreased stem-cell reserves, decreased ability to repair cell damage, progressive loss of body protein, and accumulation of body fat. A decline in organ function can alter the pharmacokinetics of many of the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in some elderly patients, making toxicity less predictable. Comorbidities increase the risk of toxicity through their effects on the body. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat comorbidities may interact with chemotherapeutic drugs, potentially increasing toxicity in elderly patients. Prospective trials in older patients with lymphoma or solid tumors have found that age is a risk factor for chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and its complications. Anemia may be present because of the disease or its treatment, and, if left uncorrected, it can alter drug activity and increase toxicity. Being able to predict which elderly patients are at greater risk of toxicity on the basis of pretreatment factors would be valuable, and there is a need for prospective trials to determine regimen- and patient-specific prognostic factors. Effective management of the toxicity associated with chemotherapy with appropriate supportive care is crucial, especially in the elderly population, to give them the best chance of cure and survival, or to provide palliation. For example, management of neutropenic complications with colony-stimulating factors makes treatment with standard-dose chemotherapy possible, which can lead to better outcomes. A better understanding of drug activity and toxicity in older patients is necessary for developing guidelines for safe and effective treatment. Few

  7. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  8. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  9. Body composition and weight dynamics of wintering greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Raveling, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    Adult greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) wintering in southern Oregon and California increased or maintained body weight in autumn, lost weight from autumn through winter, and rapidly increased in weight before spring migration in late April. We documented significant annual differences in body weights for both sexes. We related seasonal changes in body weight to changes in lipid levels, which were lowest (12-13% of wet wt in M and F) in mid-March and highest in late April (24% in F). Greater white-fronted geese maintained lipid levels during winter similar to those reported for large subspecies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), and greater than those reported for small subspecies of Canada geese and other small species of geese. Protein content of carcasses varied significantly in females; i.e., lowest in early October and highest in late October and late April. Differences among species in patterns of weight change and body composition during winter seem to be related to social organization, body size, food type, and foraging behavior. Females left spring staging areas weighing relatively less than most other species of geese and may have benefited from foraging opportunities on the nesting grounds.

  10. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  11. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  12. Localization of Impaired Kinesthetic Processing Post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kenzie, Jeffrey M.; Semrau, Jennifer A.; Findlater, Sonja E.; Yu, Amy Y.; Desai, Jamsheed A.; Herter, Troy M.; Hill, Michael D.; Scott, Stephen H.; Dukelow, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesthesia is our sense of limb motion, and allows us to gauge the speed, direction, and amplitude of our movements. Over half of stroke survivors have significant impairments in kinesthesia, which leads to greatly reduced recovery and function in everyday activities. Despite the high reported incidence of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, very little is known about how damage beyond just primary somatosensory areas affects kinesthesia. Stroke provides an ideal model to examine structure-function relationships specific to kinesthetic processing, by comparing lesion location with behavioral impairment. To examine this relationship, we performed voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and statistical region of interest analyses on a large sample of sub-acute stroke subjects (N = 142) and compared kinesthetic performance with stroke lesion location. Subjects with first unilateral, ischemic stroke underwent neuroimaging and a comprehensive robotic kinesthetic assessment (~9 days post-stroke). The robotic exoskeleton measured subjects' ability to perform a kinesthetic mirror-matching task of the upper limbs without vision. The robot moved the stroke-affected arm and subjects' mirror-matched the movement with the unaffected arm. We found that lesions both within and outside primary somatosensory cortex were associated with significant kinesthetic impairments. Further, sub-components of kinesthesia were associated with different lesion locations. Impairments in speed perception were primarily associated with lesions to the right post-central and supramarginal gyri whereas impairments in amplitude of movement perception were primarily associated with lesions in the right pre-central gyrus, anterior insula, and superior temporal gyrus. Impairments in perception of movement direction were associated with lesions to bilateral post-central and supramarginal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus and parietal operculum. All measures of impairment shared a common association with

  13. A prospective observational study of outcomes from rehabilitation of elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, Michael; Poynter, Lynn; Kwan, Joseph; Sharma, Jagdish C; Allen, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate rehabilitation outcomes in patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Rehabilitation unit for older people. Subjects: A total of 116 patients (70F) mean age (SD) 86.3 (6.4). Group 1: 89 patients with moderate cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 11–20); and Group 2: 27 patients with severe cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 0–10). Intervention: A personalised rehabilitation plan. Main measures: Barthel Activity of Daily Living score on admission and discharge, length of stay and discharge destination. Results: Of 116 patients, 64 (55.2%) showed an improvement in Barthel score. Mini-Mental State Examination was significantly higher in those who improved, 15.4 (SD 3.7) vs.13.2 (SD 5.1): p = 0.01. The mean Barthel score improved in both groups; Group 1 – 14.7 (SD 19.1) vs. Group 2 – 9.3 (SD 16.3): p = 0.17. Of 84 home admissions in Group 1, more patients returning home showed improvements of at least 5 points in the Barthel score compared with nursing/residential home discharges (32/37 – 86.5% vs. 10/28 – 35.7%: p = 0.0001). In Group 2 of 17 home admissions, 6/6 (100%) home discharges showed improvement compared with 3/7 (42.8%) discharges to nursing/residential home (p = 0.07). In Group 1, a discharge home was associated with significantly greater improvement in number of Barthel items than a nursing/residential home discharge (3.27 (SD 2.07) vs. 1.86 (SD 2.32): p = 0.007). A similar non-significant pattern was noted for severe cognitive impairment patients (3.5 (3.06) vs. 1.14 (1.06); p = 0.1). Conclusion: Patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment demonstrated significant improvements in Barthel score and Barthel items showing that such patients can and do improve with rehabilitation. PMID:27496699

  14. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  15. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina; Burr, David C

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind.

  16. Oxidative stress in severely obese persons is greater in those with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tinahones, Francisco J; Murri-Pierri, Mora; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; García-Almeida, Jose M; García-Serrano, Sara; García-Arnés, Juan; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2009-02-01

    The postprandial state seems to have a direct influence on oxidative status and insulin resistance. We determined the effect of an increase in plasma triglycerides after a high-fat meal on oxidative stress in severely obese patients with differing degrees of insulin resistance. The study was undertaken in 60 severely obese persons who received a 60-g fat overload with a commercial preparation. Measurements were made of insulin resistance, the plasma activity of various antioxidant enzymes, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the plasma concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The patients with greater insulin resistance had a lower plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P < 0.05) and a greater glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (P < 0.05). The high-fat meal caused a significant reduction in SOD activity and an increase in the plasma concentration of TBARS in all the patients. Only the patients with lower insulin resistance experienced a significant increase in plasma catalase activity (2.22 +/- 1.02 vs. 2.93 +/- 1.22 nmol/min/ml, P < 0.01), remaining stable in the patients with greater insulin resistance. These latter patients had a reduction in plasma TAC (6.92 +/- 1.93 vs. 6.29 +/- 1.80 mmol/l, P < 0.01). In conclusion, our results show a close association between the degree of insulin resistance and markers of oxidative stress, both before and after a high-fat meal. The postprandial state causes an important increase in oxidative stress, especially in severely obese persons with greater insulin resistance. However, we are unable to determine from this study whether there is first an increase in oxidative stress or in insulin resistance.

  17. Cognitive Impairment Associated with Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalantarian, Shadi; Stern, Theodore A.; Mansour, Moussa; Ruskin, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Purpose To complete a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between AF and cognitive impairment. Data Sources Electronic search of 5 large databases and hand search of article references. Study Selection Prospective and non-prospective studies reporting adjusted risk estimates for the relationship between AF and cognitive impairment. Data Extraction Two abstracters independently extracted data on study characteristics, risk estimates, methods of AF and outcome ascertainment, and methodological quality. Data Synthesis Twenty one studies were included in the meta-analysis. AF was significantly associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment independent of stroke history (relative risk (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] =1.34 [1.13, 1.58]), in patients with first-ever or recurrent stroke (RR [95%] =2.7 [1.82, 4.00]) and in a broader population including patients with or without a history of stroke (RR [95% CI] =1.4 [1.19, 1.64]). However, there was significant heterogeneity among studies of the broader population (I2 =69.4 %). Limiting the analysis to prospective studies yielded similar results (RR [95% CI] =1.36 [1.12, 1.65]). Restricting the analysis to studies of dementia eliminated the significant heterogeneity (P value =0.137) but did not alter the pooled estimate substantially (RR [95% CI] = 1.38 [1.22, 1.56]). Limitations There is an inherent bias due to confounding variables in observational studies. There was significant heterogeneity among included studies. Conclusions Evidence suggests that AF is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, with or without a history of clinical stroke. Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship between AF and subtypes of dementia as well as the etiology of cognitive impairment. PMID:23460057

  18. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  19. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. Methods: A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. Results: There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers – and irregular migrants in particular – face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. Conclusions: UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require

  20. Latin American perspectives on the individual and the greater community.

    PubMed

    Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1983-08-01

    betterment; social justice; and individual dignity. In all these questions, there are legitimate rationales for childbearing or for contraceptive use from the individual's perspective, but from the point of view of the global community, continued high fertility appears to be a longterm plan for disaster. By taking into account the greater good of the community, the exercise of individual choices takes on new meaning.

  1. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  2. Family stability in greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.

    1993-01-01

    I investigated the stability of parent-offspring bonds, and sibling-sibling bonds of neck-banded Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) during winters (September-May) in California and southern Oregon from 1979 to 1989. Geese captured at feeding sites were more likely to be in social groups than those captured at roosting sites. Offspring remained associated with their parents longer than reported for other geese, as 69% of yearlings, 39% of two-year-olds, and 38% of three-year-olds and older were observed with their parents during winter. The proportion of time offspring spent with their parents declined as they grew older, being 76% for juveniles, 32% for yearlings, and 15% for two-year-olds and older. The prevalence of extended family groups was corroborated by counts of landing groups of unmarked geese. Sibling bonds also persisted after the first year of life, with 74%, 50%, and 39% of siblings maintaining some degree of social contact at ages of one, two and three years or older, respectively. Older offspring were more likely to associate with brood mates than with parents. Intensive observations ended when the oldest known-age geese were 34 months old. Incidental sightings in subsequent years revealed that some offspring up to eight years of age still associated with their parents and/or siblings. The benefits of maintaining long-term family bonds were not readily apparent, as there was no difference in the reproductive success of parents with and without attendant offspring, and yearlings that associated with parents were not more likely to survive than yearlings that did not associate with parents. However, older offspring and their parents may benefit by remaining together if extended families are more dominant and have better access to limited food and safe roost sites. Parents benefit if their fitness is enhanced due to nest defense provided by older offspring, and subadults probably benefit from staying with their parents by learning

  3. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  4. Peculiarities of hearing impairment depending on interaction with acoustic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Myshchenko, Iryna; Nazarenko, Vasyl; Kolganov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Pavlo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The functional state of the auditory analyzer of several operators groups was study. The objective of this study was to determine some characteristics of hearing impairment in relation with features of acoustic stimuli and informative significance of noise. Materials and Methods: 236 employees (middle age 35.4 ± 0.74 years) were divided into four groups according to features of noise perception at the workplaces. The levels of permanent shifts of acoustic thresholds were estimated using audiometric method. Statistical Analysis Used: Common statistical methods were used in research. Mean quantity and mean absolute errors were calculated. Statistical significance between operators' groups was calculated with 0.05 confidential intervals. Results: The peculiarities of hearing impairment in observed groups were different. Operators differentiating acoustic signals had peak of hearing impairment in the field of language frequencies, while the employees who work with noise background at the workplaces had maximal hearing threshold on the 4000 Hz frequency (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Hearing impairment depends both on energy and human interaction with acoustic irritant. The distinctions in hearing impairment may be related with the necessity of recognizing of acoustic signals and their frequency characteristics. PMID:26957812

  5. Visual-perceptual impairment in children with periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Fazzi, Elisa; Bova, Stefania Maria; Uggetti, Carla; Signorini, Sabrina Giovanna; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio; Maraucci, Ilaria; Zoppello, Marina; Lanzi, Giovanni

    2004-12-01

    We set out to define visuo-perceptual impairment related to periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) using the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP). Correlations were sought between visual-perceptual deficits and DTVP profile and neuroradiological and neurophthalmological findings. The DTVP was administered to 20 children (m/f: 10/10), aged between 5 and 8 years (mean: 6.95 years), presenting with: spastic diplegia; PVL documented by brain MRI; normal or mildly impaired visual acuity; mild-moderate upper limb functional impairment. The mean General Visual-Perceptual Quotient was impaired, showing a great variability among the patients. Despite this, an uneven DTPV profile, characterised by a significant difference between the VMIQ and the Non-Motor Visual-Perceptual Quotient (P < 0.001) and a poor result on the Closure subtest (identification of whole figures from incomplete visual information) was observed in all the subjects. This profile reflects a deficit in eye-hand coordination and in praxic-constructional abilities and could be the expression of malfunctioning of the occipital-parietal pathway of visual integration, the so-called 'dorsal stream,' a hypothesis reinforced by the emergence of a statistically significant correlation between the neuroradiological data and the presence of visual-perceptual impairment.

  6. Significance of cocaine history in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sevy, S; Kay, S R; Opler, L A; van Praag, H M

    1990-10-01

    Fifty-one schizophrenic inpatients were divided into two groups, those with and without history of cocaine use, and compared on historical, demographic, cognitive, and psychopathological measures. Patients with a cocaine history were found to be significantly more depressed, less socialized, and more impaired in conceptual encoding and verbal memory, while less disordered in attention. The two groups did not differ in severity of illness or positive and negative syndromes. There were also no differences in control variables such as age, gender, education, intelligence, premorbid adjustment, neuroleptic dose, onset and chronicity of illness, continuity of hospitalization, paranoid subtype, and psychiatric illness in the family. Cocaine history was associated with multiple illicit drug use, but for other substances there was no increased liability for depression or cognitive deficits. The results suggest that the clinical presentation in schizophrenia is significantly associated with prior cocaine experience.

  7. Problem of visual impairment in children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, U C

    1992-01-01

    Visual impairment is a global problem which is more pronounced in developing countries. There are an estimated 40-45 million blind in the world today, equivalent to a 1% prevalence of global blindness. More than 80% of global blindness is either preventable or curable by simple techniques, if done in time. Blindness in Southeast Asian countries varies from about .3% in Korea to about 2.0% in bangladesh or Myanmar and 1.5% in India. The causes of visual impairment and blindness include infections such as trachoma, injuries, malnutrition (particularly vitamin A deficiency) and refractive anomalies including muscle imbalance. Nutrition blindness is common in almost all the developing countries, but it is not problem in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Korea. Various control and nutritional measures undertaken by national governments have significantly reduced the prevalence of trachoma. It is a serious problem in Bangladesh and some parts of India. While socioeconomic factors contribute to its prevalence, attacks of diarrhea or acute infections add to its gravity. Eye injuries or trauma are common in developing countries. Blindness is not a public health problem alone, but low educational, socioeconomic status, unscientific cultural practices, and poor environmental status play a major role. Health education for eye care in the community and primary intervention can control causes like infections, trauma, or malnutrition, while visual aids such as spectacles have to be used for the correction of refractive anomalies. The problem of visual impairment per se and in children in particular can be overcome with concerted efforts. The countries affected have initiated control efforts to modify people's socioeconomic status. Voluntary organizations collaborating with governments have also produced good results. The education of children about eye health and training of school teachers in early detection of visual problems can be effective.

  8. Estradiol prevents ozone-induced increases in brain lipid peroxidation and impaired social recognition memory in female rats.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Guzmán, R; Arriaga, V; Kendrick, K M; Bernal, C; Vega, X; Mercado-Gómez, O F; Rivas-Arancibia, S

    2009-03-31

    There is increasing concern about the neurodegenerative and behavioral consequences of ozone pollution in industrialized urban centers throughout the world and that women may be more susceptible to brain neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic (30 or 60 days) exposure to ozone on olfactory perception and memory and on levels of lipid peroxidation, alpha and beta estrogen receptors and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb in ovariectomized female rats. The ability of 17beta-estradiol to prevent these effects was then assessed. Results showed that ozone exposure for 30 or 60 days impaired formation/retention of a selective olfactory recognition memory 120 min after exposure to a juvenile stimulus animal with the effect at 60 days being significantly greater than at 30 days. They also showed impaired speed in locating a buried chocolate reward after 60 days of ozone exposure indicating some loss of olfactory perception. These functional impairments could all be prevented by coincident estradiol treatment. In the olfactory bulb, levels of lipid peroxidation were increased at both 30- and 60-day time-points and numbers of cells with immunohistochemical staining for alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase were reduced as were alpha and beta estrogen receptor protein levels. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Oxidative stress damage caused by chronic exposure to ozone does therefore impair olfactory perception and social recognition memory and may do so by reducing noradrenergic and estrogen receptor activity in the olfactory bulb. That these effects can be prevented by estradiol treatment suggests increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders in aging women may be contributed to by reduced estrogen levels post-menopause.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Green, Heather J.; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from −1.12 to 0.62 and −0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from −0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants’ cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  10. Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in women undergoing endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Boyden, T.W.; Pamenter, R.W.; Stanforth, P.; Rotkis, T.; Wilmore, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on body composition and the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in 29 healthy, young (mean age, 28.7 yr), regularly menstruating women. Women who were initially jogging a mean of 13.5 miles/week were selected for this study to minimize dropouts. Body composition, measured by hydrostatic weighing, and nonfasting plasma concentrations of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, TSH, and TRH-stimulated TSH, measured by RIA, were examined initially and after each subject's weekly mileage had increased to 30 miles (..delta..30, mean total body weight did not change, mean fat weight decreased (-1.02 kg/ P<0.005), and mean lean weight increased (+0.75 kg; P<0.05). T/sub 4/ and unstimulated TSH did not change. However, mean (+/- SE) T/sub 3/ decreased from 107.2 +/- 4.4 to 97.9 +/- 3.4 ng/dl (P<0.025), and mean rT/sub 3/ decreased from 170.9 +/- 13.9 to 154.6 +/- 13.2 pg/ml (P<0.025). The decrease in T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ were accompanied by significantly greater TSH responses to TRH stimulation (mean (+/- SE) area under TSH curve, 1381.4 +/- 123 vs. 1712.8 +/- 202 ..mu..IU/ml-min; P < 0.01). These results indicate that physically active women who undergo additional endurance training 1) become more lean without a change in total body weight, and 2) have changes in T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TRH-stimulated TSH indicative of mild thyroidal impairment.

  11. Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% < pred - 1.64 RSD, FEF50% < pred - 1.64 RSD, slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways.

  12. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    PubMed

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal.

  13. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  14. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  15. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study found the gestural activity of 15 adolescents with visual impairments differed from that of 15 adolescents with sight. Subjects with visual impairments used more adapters (especially finger-to-hand gestures) and fewer conversational gestures. Differences in gestural activity by degree of visual impairment and grade in school were also…

  16. Conceptions of Hearing Impairment in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Irma; Ronnberg, Jerker

    1991-01-01

    Twelve students (ages 10-18) with hearing impairment and 12 normal hearing students were interviewed to determine attitudes about hearing impairment and self-concept. Results showed that school-integrated hearing-impaired students possessed a positive self-perception, but they shared normal hearing students' negative view of hearing-impaired…

  17. Communication Skills and Learning in Impaired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliöz, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the communication skills of individuals with different disabilities with athletes and sedentary people and to examine their learning abilities which influence the development of communication. A total of 159 male subjects 31 sedentary, 30 visually impaired, 27 hearing impaired, 40 physically impaired and 31…

  18. 20 CFR 220.104 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 220.104 Section 220.104... DISABILITY Evaluation of Disability § 220.104 Multiple impairments. To determine whether the claimant's... impairments could be the basis of eligiblity under the law, the combined effect of all of the...

  19. Functional Disability in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindbergh, Cutter A; Dishman, Rodney K; Miller, L Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the pre-dementia syndrome mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by decrements in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The current review was a quantitative synthesis of the available literature to objectively characterize IADL disability in MCI while clarifying inconsistencies in findings across studies. It was hypothesized that individuals with MCI would display significantly greater functional impairment relative to cognitively intact controls. Candidate moderators specified a priori included functional assessment approach, MCI subtype, depressive symptoms, and language conducted. Online databases (PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and reference lists were searched to identify peer-reviewed publications assessing IADL in MCI compared to normal aging. A total of 151 effect sizes derived from 106 studies met inclusionary criteria (N = 62,260). Random effects models yielded a large overall summary effect size (Hedges' g = 0.76, 95 % confidence interval: 0.68 - 0.83, p < .001) confirmed in multi-level analyses adjusted for nesting of effect sizes within studies (g = 0.78, 95 % confidence interval: 0.69 - 0.87). Functional assessment strategy and MCI subtype were significant moderators of effect size, whereas depressive symptoms and language were not. Results convincingly demonstrate that MCI is associated with significant difficulties in the performance of complex everyday tasks. It appears that functional decline, like cognitive decline, exists on a continuum from healthy aging to dementia onset. Implications for clinical practice and research priorities are discussed.

  20. Longitudinal Alteration of Intrinsic Brain Activity in the Striatum in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ping; Lo, Raymond Y.; Chapman, Benjamin P.; Mapstone, Mark; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is a critical functional hub in understanding neurological disorders. However, the Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated striatal change is unclear, nor the relationship between striatal change and AD pathology. Three-year resting-state fMRI data from 15 healthy control (HC) and 20 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) participants were obtained. We analyzed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) (0.01–0.08 Hz) and two subdivided bands (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz). We calculated Aβ/pTau ratio using baseline cerebrospinal fluid pTau and beta-amyloid1–42 to represent AD pathology. Compared to HC, MCI participants showed greater decline in right putaminal ALFF, including the slow-4 band. Greater decline of ALFF in the right putamen was significantly related to the memory decline over time and lower baseline Aβ/pTau ratio regardless of age or group. The slow-4 band, relative to slow-5 band, showed a stronger correlation between Aβ/pTau ratio and decline of ALFF in the right putamen. The results suggest that the putaminal function declines early in the AD-associated neurodegeneration. The continuous decline in putaminal ALFF, especially slow-4 band, may be a sensitive marker of AD pathology such as Aβ/pTau ratio regardless of clinical diagnosis. PMID:27472880

  1. Impaired glucose tolerance in midlife and longitudinal changes in brain function during aging.

    PubMed

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Beason-Held, Lori L; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael; Metter, Jeffrey; Egan, Josephine; Ferrucci, Luigi; O'Brien, Richard; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in midlife subsequently show regionally specific longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) relative to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Sixty-four cognitively normal participants in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent serial (15)O-water positron emission tomography scans (age at first scan, 69.6 ± 7.5 years) and oral glucose tolerance tests 12 years earlier (age at first oral glucose tolerance test, 57.2 ± 11.1 years). Using voxel-based analysis, we compared changes in rCBF over an 8-year period between 15 participants with IGT in midlife and 49 with NGT. Significant differences were observed in longitudinal change in rCBF between the IGT and NGT groups. The predominant pattern was greater rCBF decline in the IGT group in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Some brain regions in the frontal and temporal cortices also showed greater longitudinal increments in rCBF in the IGT group. Our findings suggest that IGT in midlife is associated with subsequent longitudinal changes in brain function during aging even in cognitively normal older individuals.

  2. Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated with Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L.; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ >= 70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition, were associated with greater self-perceived autism-related impairments (n=48), greater rumination (n=21), and lower perceived social support (n=37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n=21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related Insistence on Sameness behaviors (n=18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  3. Relative Clause Constructions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience significant grammatical deficits. While much of the focus in the past has been on morphosyntactic difficulties, less is known about their acquisition of multi-clausal constructions such as those containing relative clauses. Aims: To investigate…

  4. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  5. Sustained Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finneran, Denise A.; Francis, Alexander L.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Information-processing limitations have been associated with language problems in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These processing limitations may be associated with limitations in attentional capacity, even in the absence of clinically significant attention deficits. In this study, the authors examined the performance…

  6. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  8. Emotional Status and Development in Children Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophir-Cohen, Michal; Ashkenazy, Eyal; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the developmental attainments of children with visual impairments, aged 6-59 months, with and without emotional deficits, behavioral deficits, or both. It found that an emotional or behavioral deficit was significantly related to gross motor and visual motor integration, expressive and receptive language, and social or personal…

  9. Clinical Pharmacology of Delafloxacin in Patients With Hepatic Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Randall; Marbury, Thomas C.; Preston, Richard A.; Quintas, Megan; Lawrence, Laura E.; Paulson, Susan K.; Cammarata, Sue K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Delafloxacin is a novel anionic fluoroquinolone with robust activity against Gram‐positive, Gram‐negative, atypical, and anaerobic bacteria, including methicillin‐resistant S aureus. Delafloxacin is currently being studied for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community‐acquired pneumonia. This was a phase 1, open‐label pharmacokinetic and safety study of a single intravenous dose of 300 mg delafloxacin in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment (Child‐Pugh class A, B, and C, respectively) compared with matched healthy controls. The effects of hepatic impairment were assessed by ANOVA of log‐transformed values for AUC0‐∞, Cmax, and systemic clearance, with hepatic group as a fixed effect. Mean AUC0‐∞ and Cmax in each impairment group were not significantly different from those of the pooled healthy subjects (P > 0.05). The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the percentage ratios of least‐squares means of AUC0‐∞ did not indicate significant differences between the impairment groups and pooled healthy controls: Child‐Pugh class A (mild) 114.4 (CI: 95.6, 137.0), Child‐Pugh class B (moderate) 114.8 (CI: 95.9, 137.4), and Child‐Pugh class C (severe) 115.1 (CI: 96.1, 137.8). A single IV infusion of delafloxacin was generally well tolerated in all treatment groups. The exposure and clearance of delafloxacin in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment did not significantly differ from those of pooled, matched healthy subjects. Based on these pharmacokinetic data, dose adjustment of delafloxacin in the presence of hepatic impairment is not needed. PMID:27570245

  10. The clinical significance of command hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, D; Frosch, W; Koenigsberg, H W

    1987-02-01

    Patients with command hallucinations (voices ordering particular acts, often violent or destructive ones) are commonly assumed to be at high risk for dangerous behavior. The authors reviewed 789 consecutive inpatient admissions. Of 151 patients with auditory hallucinations, 58 (38.4%) heard commands. The presence of auditory hallucinations was significantly associated with diagnosis, demographic variables, and use of maximal observation and seclusion. However, patients with command hallucinations were not significantly different from patients without commands on demographic and behavioral variables, including suicidal ideation or behavior and assaultiveness. These findings suggest that command hallucinations alone may not imply greater risk for acute, life-threatening behavior.

  11. Vestibular Impairment in Frontotemporal Dementia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Kadono, Kotarou; Koganezawa, Tadachika; Takiguchi, Mao; Terada, Makoto; Yamamoto, Fumiko; Moriyama, Tetsuya; Yanagiha, Kumi; Nohara, Seitaro; Tozaka, Naoki; Miyake, Zenshi; Aizawa, Satoshi; Furusho, Kentaro; Tamaoka, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background No studies to date have attempted to evaluate frontotemporal lobar degeneration from the perspective of the vestibular system. Objective The present study examined vestibular function in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) clinical syndrome and evaluated whether vestibular disorders are involved in the clinical symptoms due to FTD. Methods Fourteen patients with FTD syndrome, as well as healthy elderly controls without dementia, were included in the present study. All subjects underwent vestibular function tests using electronystagmography, such as caloric tests and visual suppression (VS) tests, in which the induced caloric nystagmus was suppressed by visual stimuli. The association between clinical symptoms and vestibular function in the FTD syndrome group was further examined. Results In the FTD syndrome group, caloric nystagmus was not necessarily suppressed during VS tests. Furthermore, VS was observed to be significantly impaired in FTD syndrome patients with gait disturbance as compared to those without such disturbance. Conclusion The present study revealed that impairment of VS in patients with FTD results in an inability to regulate vestibular function by means of visual perception, regardless of multiple presumed neuropathological backgrounds. This could also be associated with gait disturbance in patients with FTD syndrome. PMID:27350780

  12. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  13. Computational Medical Apportionment Determination for Impairment Ratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Jerry; Thompson, Marten; Alchemy, Md, John; Penn, Md, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Unique computational techniques are used to calculate apportionment percentages for Whole Person Impairment (WPI) Ratings for workers with job-related injuries/illnesses. This interdisciplinary project includes collaboration among physicists, engineers, and concerned medical professionals. Medical providers are often asked to medically determine multiple contributing factors to disease states (e.g. diabetes, obesity, arthritis, and prior injury) in the context of personal injury as it pertains to permanent impairment. The process of making this determination is referred to as ``apportionment''. The economic value of apportionment is far reaching and represents a significant impact to all stakeholders in the injury resolution and settlement arena. The process of apportionment is necessary to assign monetary value for the stakeholders when an injury occurs. The ultimate trier-of-fact is the judicial system. The medical provider's role in this capacity is to apply known medical scientific knowledge and present it in a format that is objective and reproducible for the stakeholders. In this presentation the traditional challenges of apportionment will be outlined, and a novel approach creating mathematical bounding and modeling of pathology-weighted data sets will be presented.

  14. Reduced Acute Recovery from Alcohol Impairment in Adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Prior research has found that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show increased sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol (Weafer et al. 2009). However, these studies have focused exclusively on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, and it is unclear whether these adults continue to show increased sensitivity during the later phase of the dose as BAC is declining. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that those with ADHD would display increased response to alcohol during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and less recovery from the impairing effects during the descending limb. Methods Adult social drinkers with ADHD and control adults completed measures of motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective intoxication twice following 0.64 g/kg alcohol and placebo. The measures were administered during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and again during the descending limb. Results During the ascending limb, alcohol reduced motor coordination, slowed reaction time (RT), and increased self-reports of subjective intoxication. Those with ADHD displayed greater impairment of motor coordination compared with controls. During the descending limb, controls reported diminished subjective intoxication and showed recovery from the impairing effects of alcohol on both their motor coordination and their RT. Those with ADHD showed reduced subjective intoxication and faster RT during this time, but they did not recover motor control. Conclusions The protracted time course of motor impairment in adults with ADHD despite reductions in subjective intoxication may contribute to poor decision making and diminished behavioral control in this group. PMID:23430161

  15. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater Augusta, Maine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W; Marvinney, Robert G; Loiselle, Marc C; Locke, Daniel B; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-04-15

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (10(0)-10(1) km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 microg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 microg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (approximately 40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%),the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (approximately 1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 microg/L arsenic in groundwater.

  16. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Dunbar, Michael; Klenk, Kaci; Bowen, Richard; Smeraski, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45-80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (10(3.2) plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 10(6.4) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.2) PFUs/ml, standard error of the mean [SEM]). Virus was shed cloacally and orally. Four of the five vaccinated grouse died, but survival time was increased (50% survival=9.5 days), with 1 grouse surviving to the end-point of the experiment (14 days) with no signs of illness. Mean peak viremia for the vaccinated birds was 10(2.3) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.6) PFUs/ml, SEM). Two birds cleared the virus from their blood before death or euthanasia. These data emphasize the high susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to infection with WNV.

  17. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 μg/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 μg/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 μg/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  18. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Relatedness and nesting dispersion within breeding populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Eadie, J.M.; Ely, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.

  20. Greater dyspnea is associated with lower health-related quality of life among European patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Gruenberger, Jean-Bernard; Vietri, Jeffrey; Keininger, Dorothy L; Mahler, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Objective Dyspnea is a defining symptom in the classification and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the degree of variation in burden among symptomatic COPD patients and the possible correlates of burden remain unclear. This study was conducted to characterize patients in Europe currently being treated for COPD according to the level of dyspnea in terms of sociodemographics, health-related quality of life, work productivity impairment, and health care resource use assessed by patient reports. Methods Data were derived from the 5-EU 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=62,000). Respondents aged ≥40 years who reported currently using a prescription for COPD were grouped according to their level of dyspnea as per the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines and compared on health status (revised Short Form 36 [SF-36]v2), work impairment (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire), and number of health care visits in the past 6 months using generalized linear models with appropriate distributions and link functions. Results Of the 768 respondents who met the inclusion criteria, 245 (32%) were considered to have higher dyspnea (equivalent to modified Medical Research Council score ≥2). Higher dyspnea was associated with decrements ranging from 3.9 to 8.2 points in all eight domains of the SF-36 health profile after adjustment for sociodemographics, general health characteristics, and length of COPD diagnosis; mental component summary scores and Short Form-6D health utility scores were lower by 3.5 and 0.06 points, respectively. Adjusted mean activity impairment (55% vs 37%, P<0.001) and number of emergency room visits (0.61 vs 0.40, P=0.030) were higher in patients with greater dyspnea. Conclusion Many European patients with COPD continue to experience dyspnea despite treatment and at levels associated with notable impairments in the patients’ ability to function across a multitude of

  1. Computer-assisted TKA: greater precision, doubtful clinical efficacy: affirms.

    PubMed

    Berend, Michael E

    2009-09-01

    Component and limb alignment are essential surgical variables that influence the long-term performance of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty failure remains multifactorial, and computer-assisted surgical techniques may address only part of the failure pathophysiology. Despite attempting to use computer-assisted surgical techniques to improve TKA alignment, recent evidence has reported that the entire nature of the computer-assisted experience is not particularly forgiving, as significant increases in time and complications remain problematic. It appears computer-assisted surgical techniques are not yet "ready for primetime" with reproducible and proven long-term benefits for patients. Further studies are needed to better determine the precise target toward which to aim computer-assisted surgery efforts.

  2. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Greater Lefkosia Area, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Richard W.; Newell, Wayne; Panayides, Ioannis; Stone, Byron; Tsiolakis, Efthymios; Necdet, Mehmet; Batihanli, Hilmi; Ozhur, Ayse; Lord, Alan; Berksoy, Okan; Zomeni, Zomenia; Schindler, J. Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The island of Cyprus has a long historical record of earthquakes that have damaged pre-Roman to modern human settlements. Because the recurrent damaging earthquakes can have a significant economic and social impact on Cyprus, this project was initiated to develop a seismic-hazard assessment for a roughly 400 square kilometer area centered on Cyprus' capital and largest city, whose European name is Nicosia and whose local name is Lefkosia. In addition, geologic and seismotectonic evaluations for the project extended beyond the perimeter of the geologic map. Additional structural, stratigraphic, and paleontological data were collected island-wide as well as data from literature research throughout the eastern Mediterranean region, in order to accurately place the geology and seismic hazards of the Lefkosia area in a regional tectonic framework.

  3. Offshore technology aims for reduced costs, greater safety

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.

    1985-04-01

    OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY continued to make headway last year, although dramatic breakthroughs were few and far between. Major oil companies have been spending heavily on acquisitions and the service companies, which historically have done much innovative work, have been forced to curtail their engineering budgets. The Weir hydraulic pump has been vetted for offshore service and a production model is being installed on a North Sea platform. A CO/sub 2/ fire-control system has been developed for both offshore and onshore applications, and Drilco's Trans-Wate pipe promises to extend drillstring life. And, perhaps most significantly, the Poseidon project is healthy and flourishing. If successful, Poseidon could cut development costs by more than half.

  4. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.

    2016-11-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.

  5. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    PubMed

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (P<.00005). In addition, mean (SD) ratio of trochanter widths to iliac wing widths was 1.09 (.06) in the bursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (P<.0005) in this regard as well. Having trochanters wider in relation to iliac wings was associated with the diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis.

  6. Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

  7. Trends Affecting the Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Demand for Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of people with visual impairment and trends affecting prevalence, including increased overall populations and a growth in the older population, greater ability to preserve lives of high-risk populations, improved fitness, medical advances in prevention, expanding role of computers among other increasing visual demands, and…

  8. Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairments: The Influence of Organizational Features and State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruneir, Andrea; Miller, Susan C.; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of specific nursing home features and state Medicaid policies on the risk of hospitalization among cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Design and Methods: We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospitalization among long-stay (greater than 90 days)…

  9. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  10. Physical Activity and Social Engagement Patterns during Physical Education of Youth with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Kozub, Francis M.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with visual impairments have a greater need to be physically fit because in comparison to sighted peers they have increased demands for energy to carry out everyday tasks (Lieberman & McHugh, 2001). Further, their level of vision influences many critical areas such as motor learning, ability to interact in games, and understanding of…

  11. Greater cognitive deterioration in women than men with Alzheimer's disease: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Karen; Laws, Keith R; Gale, Tim M; Kondel, Tejinder K

    2012-01-01

    Studies reporting on the cognitive abilities of men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are surprisingly rare. We carried out a meta-analysis of neurocognitive data from 15 studies (n = 828 men; 1,238 women), which revealed a consistent male advantage on verbal and visuospatial tasks and tests of episodic and semantic memory. Moderator regression analyses showed that age, education level, and dementia severity did not significantly predict the male advantage. Reasons posited for this advantage include a reduction of estrogen in postmenopausal women, sex differences in AD pathology, and greater cognitive reserve in men.

  12. Beauty is in the 'we' of the beholder: greater agreement on facial attrac