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Sample records for silicide fuel behavior

  1. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Yacout, Abdellatif; Harp, Jason

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  2. Comparison of irradiation behavior of different uranium silicide dispersion fuel element designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, G.L.; Rest, J.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of fuel swelling of U{sub 3}SiAl-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} were performed for various dispersion fuel element designs. Breakaway swelling criteria in the form of critical fuel volume fractions were derived with data obtained from U{sub 3}SiAl-Al plate irradiations. The results of the analysis show that rod-type elements remain well below the pillowing threshold. However, tubular fuel elements, which behave essentially like plates, will likely develop pillows or blisters at around 90% {sup 235}U burnup. The U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al compounds demonstrate stable swelling behavior throughout the entire burnup range for all fuel element designs.

  3. Some recent observations on the radiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    Addition of B{sub 4}C burnable poison results in higher plate swelling in both U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and U{sub 3}Si-Al dispersion fuel plates and also decreases the blister threshold temperature of these plates. Prolonged annealing of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel plates produced no blister after 696 hours at 400{degrees}C. Blister formation started between 257 hours and 327 hours at 425{degrees}C and between 115 hours and 210 hours at 450{degrees}C. Operation with breached cladding resulted in pillowing of an U{sub 3}Si-Al fuel plate due to reaction of the fuel core with coolant water. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Status of the atomized uranium silicide fuel development at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Park, H.D.; Kuk, I.H.

    1997-08-01

    While developing KMRR fuel fabrication technology an atomizing technique has been applied in order to eliminate the difficulties relating to the tough property of U{sub 3}Si and to take advantage of the rapid solidification effect of atomization. The comparison between the conventionally comminuted powder dispersion fuel and the atomized powder dispersion fuel has been made. As the result, the processes, uranium silicide powdering and heat treatment for U{sub 3}Si transformation, become simplified. The workability, the thermal conductivity and the thermal compatibility of fuel meat have been investigated and found to be improved due to the spherical shape of atomized powder. In this presentation the overall developments of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuel and the planned activities for applying the atomizing technique to the real fuel fabrication are described.

  5. Dual fuel gradients in uranium silicide plates

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, B.W.

    1997-08-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been able to achieve dual gradient plates with good repeatability in small lots of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates. Improvements in homogeneity and other processing parameters and techniques have allowed the development of contoured fuel within the cladding. The most difficult obstacles to overcome have been the ability to evaluate the bidirectional fuel loadings in comparison to the perfect loading model and the different methods of instilling the gradients in the early compact stage. The overriding conclusion is that to control the contour of the fuel, a known relationship between the compact, the frames and final core gradient must exist. Therefore, further development in the creation and control of dual gradients in fuel plates will involve arriving at a plausible gradient requirement and building the correct model between the compact configuration and the final contoured loading requirements.

  6. Postirradiation analysis of experimental uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide dispersion fuel plates were irradiated to maximum burnups of 96% of /sup 235/U. Fuel plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ behaved very well up to this burnup. Plates containing 33 v/o U/sub 3/Si-Al pillowed between 90 and 96% burnup of the fissile atoms. More highly loaded U/sub 3/Si-Al plates, up to 50 v/o were found to pillow at lower burnups. Plates containing 40 v/o U/sub 3/Si showed an increase swelling rate around 85% burnup. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Mei, Zhigang; Hofman, Gerard; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  8. Fuel loading and homogeneity analysis of HFIR design fuel plates loaded with uranium silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfeld, P.E.

    1995-08-01

    Twelve nuclear reactor fuel plates were analyzed for fuel loading and fuel loading homogeneity by measuring the attenuation of a collimated X-ray beam as it passed through the plates. The plates were identical to those used by the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) but were loaded with uranium silicide rather than with HFIR`s uranium oxide fuel. Systematic deviations from nominal fuel loading were observed as higher loading near the center of the plates and underloading near the radial edges. These deviations were within those allowed by HFIR specifications. The report begins with a brief background on the thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor that motivated a statistical description of fuel loading and homogeneity. The body of the report addresses the homogeneity measurement techniques employed, the numerical correction required to account for a difference in fuel types, and the statistical analysis of the resulting data. This statistical analysis pertains to local variation in fuel loading, as well as to ``hot segment`` analysis of narrow axial regions along the plate and ``hot streak`` analysis, the cumulative effect of hot segment loading variation. The data for all twelve plates were compiled and divided into 20 regions for analysis, with each region represented by a mean and a standard deviation to report percent deviation from nominal fuel loading. The central regions of the plates showed mean values of about +3% deviation, while the edge regions showed mean values of about {minus}7% deviation. The data within these regions roughly approximated random samplings from normal distributions, although the chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) test for goodness of fit to normal distributions was not satisfied.

  9. Neutronic study on conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.; Pond, R.; Hanan, N.; Matos, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper marks the initial study into the technical and economic feasibility of converting the SAFARI-1 reactor in South Africa to LEU silicide fuel. Several MTR assembly geometries and LEU uranium densities have been studied and compared with MEU and HEU fuels. Two factors of primary importance for conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU fuel are the economy of the fuel cycle and the performance of the incore and excore irradiation positions.

  10. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinbin; Ye, Bei; Hofman, Gerard; Yacout, Abdellatif; Gamble, Kyle; Mei, Zhi-Gang

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  11. Oxidation behavior of molybdenum silicides and their composites

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Deevi, S. C.

    2000-04-03

    A key materials issue associated with the future of high-temperature structural silicides is the resistance of these materials to oxidation at low temperatures. Oxidation tests were conducted on Mo-based silicides over a wide temperature range to evaluate the effects of alloy composition and temperature on the protective scaling characteristics and testing regime for the materials. The study included Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} alloys that contained several concentrations of B. In addition, oxidation characteristics of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites that contained 20--80 vol.% Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were evaluated at 500--1,400 C.

  12. The whole-core LEU silicide fuel demonstration in the JMTR

    SciTech Connect

    Aso, Tomokazu; Akashi, Kazutomo; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    1997-08-01

    The JMTR was fully converted to LEU silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel with cadmium wires as burnable absorber in January, 1994. The reduced enrichment program for the JMTR was initiated in 1979, and the conversion to MEU (enrichment ; 45%) aluminide fuel was carried out in 1986 as the first step of the program. The final goal of the program was terminated by the present LEU conversion. This paper describes the results of core physics measurement through the conversion phase from MEU fuel core to LEU fuel core. Measured excess reactivities of the LEU fuel cores are mostly in good agreement with predicted values. Reactivity effect and burnup of cadmium wires, therefore, were proved to be well predicted. Control rod worth in the LEU fuel core is mostly less than that in the MEU fuel core. Shutdown margin was verified to be within the safety limit. There is no significant difference in temperature coefficient of reactivity between the MEU and LEU fuel cores. These results verified that the JMTR was successfully and safely converted to LEU fuel. Extension of the operating cycle period was achieved and reduction of spend fuel elements is expected by using the fuel with high uranium density.

  13. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  14. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, Jason M.; Lessing, Paul A.; Hoggan, Rita E.

    2015-11-01

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ± 0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. Pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  15. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Harp, Jason Michael; Lessing, Paul Alan; Hoggan, Rita Elaine

    2015-06-21

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinationsmore » that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ±0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scaning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. As a result, pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.« less

  16. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    SciTech Connect

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  17. Status of core conversion with LEU silicide fuel in JRR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Teruo; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Shirai, Eiji

    1997-08-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) is a light water moderated and cooled, 93% enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used and swimming pool type reactor with thermal output of 3.5MW. Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been used for shielding experiments, radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses, training for reactor engineers and so on for about 30 years. Within the framework of the RERTR Program, the works for conversion to LEU fuel are now under way, and neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations emphasizing on safety and performance aspects are being carried out. The design and evaluation for the core conversion are based on the Guides for Safety Design and Evaluation of research and testing reactor facilities in Japan. These results show that the JRR-4 will be able to convert to use LEU fuel without any major design change of core and size of fuel element. LEU silicide fuel (19.75%) will be used and maximum neutron flux in irradiation hole would be slightly decreased from present neutron flux value of 7x10{sup 13}(n/cm{sup 2}/s). The conversion works are scheduled to complete in 1998, including with upgrade of the reactor building and utilization facilities.

  18. Mechanistic interpretation of an observed rate dependence of low temperature swelling of irradiated uranium silicide dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J; Hofman, G L

    1990-06-01

    Recent experimental observations on low temperature swelling of irradiated uranium silicide dispersion fuels have indicated that the growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate. The swelling curve of the material exhibits a distinct knee'' that shifts to higher fission density with increased fission rate due to higher enrichments. Current state-of-the-art models for fission gas behavior do not predict such a dependence. Indirect evidence from various experiments leads the present authors to speculate that a dense network of subgrain boundaries forms at a dose corresponding to the knee'' in the swelling curve, upon which gas bubbles nucleate and then grow at an accelerated rate compared to those in the bulk material. A theoretical formulation is presented wherein the stored energy in the material is concentrated on a network of crystallization'' sites which diminish with dose due to interaction with radiation produced defects (vacancy-impurity pairs). Recrystallization is induced by statistical fluctuations when the energy per site is high enough such that the creation of grain boundary surfaces is offset by the creation of strain free volumes with a resultant net decrease in the free energy of the material. This formulation is shown to provide a reasonable interpretation of the observed phenomena. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  19. In-pile test results of U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-7Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, J. M.; Lee, K. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Ryu, H. J.; Ye, B.

    2014-11-01

    U-silicide or U-nitride coated U-Mo particle dispersion fuel in Al (U-Mo/Al) was in-pile tested to examine the effectiveness of the coating as a diffusion barrier between the U-7Mo fuel kernels and Al matrix. This paper reports the PIE data and analyses focusing on the effectiveness of the coating in terms of interaction layer (IL) growth and general fuel performance. The U-silicide coating showed considerable success, but it also provided evidence for additional improvement for coating process. The U-nitride coated specimen showed largely inefficient results in reducing IL growth. From the test, important observations were also made that can be utilized to improve U-Mo/Al fuel performance. The heating process for coating turned out to be beneficial to suppress fuel swelling. The use of larger fuel particles confirmed favorable effects on fuel performance.

  20. Phase diagram and electrical behavior of silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allevato, C. E.; Vining, Cronin B.

    1992-01-01

    The iridium-silicon phase diagram on the silicon-rich side was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, density, differential thermal analysis, metalography, microprobe analysis, and electrical resistivity. Attempts were made to prepare eight previously reported silicon-rich iridium silicide compounds by arc melting and Bridgman-like growth. However, microprobe analysis identified only four distinct compositions: IrSi, Ir3Si4, Ir3Si5 and IrSi sub about 3. The existence of Ir4Si5 could not be confirmed in this study, even though the crystal structure has been previously reported. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) in conjunction with X-ray powder diffraction confirm polymorphism in IrSi sub about 3, determined to have orthorhombic and monoclinic unit cells in the high and low temperature forms. A eutectic composition alloy of 83 +/- 1 atomic percent silicon was observed between IrSi sub about 3 and silicon. Ir3Si4 exhibits distinct metallic behavior while Ir3Si5 is semiconducting. Both and IrSi and IrSi sub about 3 exhibit nearly temperature independent electrical resistivities on the order of 5-10 x 10 exp -6 ohms-m.

  1. Oxidation behavior of niobium aluminide intermetallics protected by aluminide and silicide diffusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Rapp, R.A.

    1999-06-01

    The isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of a new class of damage-tolerant niobium aluminide (Nb{sub 3}Al-xTi-yCr) intermetallics is studied between 650 C and 850 C. Protective diffusion coatings were deposited by pack cementation to achieve the siliciding or aluminizing of substrates with or without intervening Mo or Ni layers, respectively. The compositions and microstructures of the resulting coatings and oxidized surfaces were characterized. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation kinetics indicate that uncoated Nb-40Ti-15Al-based intermetallics may be used up to {approximately}750 C. Alloying with Cr improves the isothermal oxidation resistance between 650 C and 850 C. The most significant improvement in oxidation resistance is achieved by the aluminization of electroplated Ni interlayers. The results suggest that the high-temperature limit of niobium aluminide-based alloys may be increased to 800 C to 850 C by aluminide-based diffusion coatings on ductile Ni interlayers. Indentation fracture experiments also indicate that the ductile nickel interlayers are resistant to crack propagation in multilayered aluminide-based coatings.

  2. A Study on the Oxidation Behavior of Nb Alloy (Nb-1 pct Zr-0.1 pct C) and Silicide-Coated Nb Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanadh, B.; Naina, R. H.; Majumdar, S.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G. K.

    2013-05-01

    In the current work, silicide coatings were produced on the Nb alloy (Nb-1 pct Zr-0.1 pct C) using the halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique. Coating parameters (temperature and time) were optimized to produce a two-layer (Nb5Si3 and NbSi2) coating on the Nb alloy. Subsequently, the oxidation behavior of the Nb alloy (Nb-1 pct Zr-0.1 pct C) and silicide-coated Nb alloy was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isothermal weight gain oxidation experiments. Phase identification and morphological examinations were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. TGA showed that the Nb alloy started undergoing accelerated oxidation at and above 773 K (500 °C). Isothermal weight gain experiments carried out on the Nb alloy under air environment at 873 K (600 °C) up to a time period of 16 hours exhibited a linear growth rate law of oxidation. In the case of silicide-based coatings, TGA showed that oxidation resistance of silicide coatings was retained up to 1473 K (1200 °C). Isothermal weight gain experiments on the silicide coatings carried out at 1273 K (1000 °C) in air showed that initially up to 8 hours, the weight of the sample increased, and beyond 8 hours the weight of the sample remained constant. The oxide phases formed on the bare samples and on the coated samples during oxidation were found to be Nb2O5 and a mixture of SiO2 and Nb2O5 phases, respectively. SEM showed the formation of nonprotective oxide layer on the bare Nb alloy and a protective (adherent, nonporous) oxide layer on silicide-coated samples. The formation of protective SiO2 layer on the silicide-coated samples greatly improved the oxidation resistance at higher temperatures.

  3. Bibliography on silicides. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilp, B.F.; Desai, P.D.; Ho, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    This report is an annotated bibliography of over 750 documents on silicides. Documents published from 1952 to early 1993 are covered. Bibliographic information is organized in alphabetical order by silicide type, i.e. chromium silicides, cobalt silicides, etc. Within each chapter information is reported for specific silicides. A miscellaneous section contains silicides which are neither specifically identified nor warrant a separate section. Chapters are also included for commercially designated silicides and for those silicides which are neither properly identified nor have enough data to warrant a separate chapter. Each section is complete and selfcontained for efficient use. Bibliography, Silicides, Coatings, Molybdenum silicides, Tantalum silicides, Titanium silicides, Tungsten silicides, Vanadium silicides, Chromium silicides, Zirconium silicides, Iron silicides, Niobium silicides.

  4. Safety evaluation report related to the evaluation of low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion fuel for use in non-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    Low-enriched uranium silicide-aluminum dispersion plate-type fuels have been extensively researched and developed under the international program, Reduced Enrichment in Research and Test Reactors. The international effort was led by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States. This evaluation is based primarily on reports issued by ANL that discuss and summarize the developmental tests and experiments, including postirradiation examinations, of both miniature and full-sized plates of prototypical fuel compositions. This evaluation concludes that plate-type fuels suitable and acceptable for use in research and test reactors can be fabricated with U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al dispersion compacts with uranium densities up to 4.8 g/cm/sup 3/. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Oxidation and interdiffusion behavior of a germanium-modified silicide coating on an Nb-Si-based alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-long; Wang, Wan; Zhou, Chun-gen

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the interdiffusion behavior of Ge-modified silicide coatings on an Nb-Si-based alloy substrate, the coating was oxidized at 1250°C for 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 h. The interfacial diffusion between the (Nb,X)(Si,Ge)2 (X = Ti, Cr, Hf) coating and the Nb-Si based alloy was also examined. The transitional layer is composed of (Ti,Nb)5(Si,Ge)4 and a small amount of (Nb,X)5(Si,Ge)3. With increasing oxidation time, the thickness of the transitional layer increases because of the diffusion of Si from the outer layer to the substrate, which obeys a parabolic rate law. The parabolic growth rate constant of the transitional layer under oxidation conditions is 2.018 μm·h-1/2. Moreover, the interdiffusion coefficients of Si in the transitional layer were determined from the interdiffusion fluxes calculated directly from experimental concentration profiles.

  6. High-pressure high-temperature behavior of iron silicide (Fe5Si3) to 58 GPa and 2400K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, C. P.; Kavner, A.; Santamaria, D.

    2015-12-01

    Silicon is an important candidate for the light element in the outer core. Here we present new measurements of the equation-of-state, thermal expansion, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity of iron silicide (Fe5Si3) at high pressures and temperatures. We performed a series of X-ray diffraction experiments in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell on Fe5Si3 at ALS beamline 12.2.2. Diffraction patterns and temperature-versus-laser power curves were measured in situ at pressures up to 58 GPa and temperatures up to 2300 K. In one set of experiments both NaCl and Ne were used as the pressure transmitting, thermal insulator and pressure calibrant. In a second set of experiments, only NaCl was present and served those three purposes. The measurements yield a new thermoelastic equation of state for Fe5Si3, including bulk modulus, high-pressure thermal expansion, and the Grüneisen parameter. In addition, we have determined a lower bound on the melting behavior up to 58 GPa. This information helps constrain compositionally-sensitive models describing the density, compressibility, and dynamics of Earth's core. The temperature-versus-laser power measurements provide information about the heat flow environment in the diamond anvil cell. A comparison of the temperature-versus-laser power measurements for pure iron and Fe5Si3 yields a measure of how the presence of Si influences the thermal conductivity of iron at high pressures and temperatures. Our measurements also show a jump in thermal conductivity of NaCl across the B1- B2 phase transition. This information is important for interpreting thermal conductivity values in the present work and also has broader implications for experimental design and data interpretation in laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

  7. High temperature structural silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  8. Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.

  9. Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Ting; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-05-01

    Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing

  10. Phase transformations in ion-irradiated silicides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, C. A.; Lau, S. S.; Suni, I.; Hung, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation has three objectives. The first is concerned with the phase transformation of CoSi2 under ion implantation and the subsequent crystallization characteristics during annealing, taking into account epitaxial and nonepitaxial recrystallization behavior. The second objective is related to a study of the general trend of implantation-induced damage and crystallization behavior for a number of commonly used silicides. The last objective involves a comparison of the recrystallization behavior of cosputtered refractory silicides with that of the ion-implanted silicides. It was found that epitaxial regrowth of ion-irradiated CoSi2 occurred for samples with an epitaxial seed left at the Si/CoSi2 interface. A structural investigation of CoSi2 involving transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that after high-dose implantation CoSi2 is amorphous.

  11. Ceramic-silicide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    The area of ceramic-silicide composites represents a merging of structural ceramics and structural silicides. Such ceramic-silicide composites can possess the desirable characteristics of both classes of compounds. Important structural ceramics are materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZrO{sub 2}, which possess covalent, ionic, or mixed covalent-ionic atomic bonding. An important structural silicide is MoSi{sub 2}, which possesses mixed covalent-metallic bonding. The arena of ceramic-silicide composites encompasses both composites where the structural silicide is the matrix and the structural ceramic is the reinforcement, and composites where the structural ceramic is the matrix and the structural silicide is the reinforcement. In the former area, MoSi{sub 2}-SiC, MoSi{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are discussed. In the latter area, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-MoSi{sub 2} composites are described.

  12. Stochastic modelling of power reactor fuel behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Shahid Nawaz

    An understanding of the in-reactor behavior of nuclear fuel is essential to the safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant. It is no longer possible to achieve this without computer code calculations. A state of art computer code, FRODO, for Fuel ROD Operation, has been developed to model the steady state behavior of fuel pins in a light water reactor and to do sensitivity analysis. FRODO concentrates on the thermal performance, fission product release and pellet-clad interaction and can be used to predict the fuel failure under the prevailing conditions. FRODO incorporates the numerous uncertainties involved in fuel behavior modeling, using statistical methods, to ascertain fuel failures and their causes. Sensitivity of fuel failure to different fuel parameters and reactor conditions can be easily evaluated. FRODO has been used to analyze the sensitivities of fuel failures to coolant flow reductions. It is found that the uncertainties have pronounced effects on conclusions about fuel failures and their causes.

  13. A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

    2007-10-18

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

  14. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  15. Correlation between annealing and irradiation behavior of dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studying the effects of annealing of scaled-down aluminum matrix dispersion fuel plates is an important part of the data base for fuel performance. One of the most critical aspects of fuel performance is the stability of a fuel/matrix dispersion, which is usually measured by volumetric changes of the fuel zone. The preferred response of any fuel under irradiation would be no change in volume or a small, steady predictable change. These volume changes decrease the cooling gap channels and restrict the useful life of an element. Previous studies have defined the degree of volumetric change in current high-loading uranium silicide test reactor fuels. It has been demonstrated that some fuels behave well under irradiation, while others go into a breakaway swelling mode. A correlation has been proposed that fission-induced amorphization is responsible for the instability of the fuel and that such transformations can be predicted by the thermodynamic properties of the fuel. To complement this theory, it is proposed that annealing studies may be used as a screening test for new fuels for which no thermodynamic properties have been measured and/or no irradiation data are available. Irradiation performance could be estimated faster and without the expense of irradiating the fuels under investigation.

  16. Hydride fuel behavior in LWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Donald R.; Ng, Marowen

    2005-11-01

    The U-Zr hydride U 0.31ZrH 1.6 offers a number of advantages over oxide fuel for light-water reactors. Fission-gas release appears to be very small (release fraction ˜10 -4) up to 600 °C, which is close to the maximum fuel temperature. Initial irradiation-induced swelling can be as large as 5% for temperatures exceeding 650 °C. Hydrogen redistributes due to the non-uniform temperature in the fuel from the as-fabricated H/Zr of 1.6 to one that is higher at the pellet periphery than at the centerline. Radial redistribution produces 'hydrogen' stresses in the pellet which add to the usual thermal stresses. In a helium-bonded fuel rod, the total stresses are less than the fracture stress; in a liquid-metal-bonded fuel rod, the fracture stress is exceeded in the central portion of the pellet, but the surface remains in compression. Axial redistribution moves substantial quantities of hydrogen from the middle portion of the fuel stack to the ends. The neutronic effect of this displacement of the moderator is unknown.

  17. Surface morphology of erbium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, S. S.; Pai, C. S.; Wu, C. S.; Kuech, T. F.; Liu, B. X.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of rare-earth silicides (Er, Tb, etc.), formed by the reaction of thin-film metal layers with a silicon substrate, is typically dominated by deep penetrating, regularly shaped pits. These pits may have a detrimental effect on the electronic performance of low Schottky barrier height diodes utilizing such silicides on n-type Si. This study suggests that contamination at the metal-Si or silicide-Si interface is the primary cause of surface pitting. Surface pits may be reduced in density or eliminated entirely through either the use of Si substrate surfaces prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions prior to metal deposition and silicide formation or by means of ion irradiation techniques. Silicide layers formed by these techniques possess an almost planar morphology.

  18. Spent fuel behavior in dry storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. B., Jr.; Pankaskie, P. J.; Gilbert, E. R.

    1982-02-01

    Dry storage is emerging as an attractive and timely alternative to complement wet storage, and assist utilities to meet interim storage needs. Spent fuel is handled and stored under dry conditions. Dry storage of irradiated Zircaloy clad fuel in metal casks, drywells, silos and vaults is demonstrated. Hot cell and laboratory studies also are underway to investigate specific phenomena related to cladding behavior in dry storage. A substantial fraction of the LWR spent fuel inventory has aged for relatively long times and has relatively low decay heats. This suggests that much of the fuel inventory can be stored at relatively low temperatures. Alternatively, rod consolidation of the older can be considered without exceeding maximum cladding temperatures.

  19. Silicide surface phases on gold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    The crystalline silicide layers formed on (111) and (100) surfaces of Au films on various Si single-crystal substrates are studied by LEED and AES in conjunction with sputter-depth profiling as a function of annealing temperature. On the (111) surface, three basic silicide structures are obtained corresponding to layers of various thicknesses as obtained by different preparation conditions. The (100) surface shows only two different structures. None of the structures is compatible with the various bulk silicide structures deduced from X-ray diffraction. Using LEED as a criterion for the presence or absence of silicide on the surface, smaller layer thicknesses are obtained than reported previously on the basis of AES studies.

  20. The mechanism behind the calcium aluminum silicide ternary structural preference and the origin of its semimetal behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semi, Torey Elizabeth

    CaAl2Si2 is the prototype of the CaAl 2Si2 class of Zintl structures established to be useful as thermoelectrics. We propose that CaAl2Si2 be interpreted as an ordinary covalently bonded, tetrahedrally coordinated quasi-semiconductor consisting of a large distortion of the wurtzite structure with the almost fully ionized Ca inserted at an interstitial site. We support this interpretation via a structural mapping and calculations for both a charged binary primitive cell and a Si4primitive cell. Our intent is to explain the unusual structure of the CaAl2Si 2 class of semiconductors, the origin of its semimetallic behavior, the basis for its stability and the effect of substituting other column II atoms for Ca on these properties. To be clear, this work does not examine the nature of the true band gap, or the transport coefficients of CaAl 2Si2. GW corrections are not discussed, in view of the focus on the origins of stability of this peculiar structure.

  1. Composition of CVD tungsten silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Takahashi, H.; Ishizawa, Y.

    1987-05-01

    The composition of tungsten silicide (WSi/sub x/) deposited by chemical vapor deposition on silicon and silicon dioxide substrates was studied. The composition x changed from 2.7 to 2.2 with varying WF/sub 6/ flow rate from 6 to 20 cm/sup 3//min in the deposition on silicon. When annealing was performed at 1000C, the dissociation of excess silicon occurred from the nonstoichiometric silicide in the layer on the silicon. As a result, the composition of each layer, which was different when deposited, tended toward the same composition of around 2.1. This result indicated the formation of near-stoichiometric silicide as a result of annealing.

  2. Fuel cladding behavior under rapid loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, K.; Karlsson, J.; Stjärnsäter, J.; Schrire, D.; Ledergerber, G.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Hallstadius, L.

    2016-02-01

    A modified burst test (MBT) was used in an extensive test program to characterize fuel cladding failure behavior under rapid loading conditions. The MBT differs from a normal burst test with the use of a driver tube to simulate the expansion of a fuel pellet, thereby producing a partial strain driven deformation condition similar to that of a fuel pellet expansion in a reactivity insertion accident (RIA). A piston/cylinder assembly was used to pressurize the driver tube. By controlling the speed and distance the piston travels the loading rate and degree of sample deformation could be controlled. The use of a driver tube with a machined gauge section localizes deformation and allows for continuous monitoring of the test sample diameter change at the location of maximum hoop strain, during each test. Cladding samples from five irradiated fuel rods were tested between 296 and 553 K and loading rates from 1.5 to 3.5/s. The test rods included variations of Zircaloy-2 with different liners and ZIRLO, ranging in burn-up from 41 to 74 GWd/MTU. The test results show cladding ductility is strongly temperature and loading rate dependent. Zircaloy-2 cladding ductility degradation due to operational hydrogen pickup started to recover at approximately 358 K for test condition used in the study. This recovery temperature is strongly loading rate dependent. At 373 K, ductility recovery was small for loading rates less than 8 ms equivalent RIA pulse width, but longer than 8 ms the ductility recovery increased exponentially with increasing pulse width, consistent with literature observations of loading rate dependent brittle-to-ductile (BTD) transition temperature. The cladding ductility was also observed to be strongly loading rate/pulse width dependent for BWR cladding below the BTD temperature and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) cladding at both 296 and 553 K.

  3. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985.

  4. Silicide-matrix materials for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Meschter, P.J.; Schwartz, D.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Intermetallic-matrix composites are attractive alternatives to carbon/carbon and ceramic/ceramic composities for applications up to 1,600 C. Recent work on the intermetallic compounds MoSi2 and Ti5Si3 has included determination of their mechanical properties and deformation behavior, selection of thermodynamically compatible high-strength and ductile reinforcements, and strengthening and toughening mechanisms in silicide-matrix composites for high-temperature service. 11 refs.

  5. Improved high-temperature silicide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, W. D.; Stephens, J. R.; Stetson, A. R.; Wimber, R. T.

    1969-01-01

    Special technique for applying silicide coatings to refractory metal alloys improves their high-temperature protective capability. Refractory metal powders mixed with a baked-out organic binder and sintered in a vacuum produces a porous alloy layer on the surface. Exposing the layer to hot silicon converts it to a silicide.

  6. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  7. Synthetic Development of Metal Silicide Nanowires for Thermoelectric and Spintronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Jeremy Michael

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials, including nanowires (NWs), are a new class of materials with the potential to lead to major changes in many aspects of human society. Innumerable applications for nanomaterials are envisioned or are being realized now. However, such new functionalities are and will continue to be predicated on our ability to precisely synthesize nanomaterials, a skill yet undeveloped in a majority of chemical systems. Metal silicides are a class of refractory intermetallic compounds composed of abundant elements with widely varying properties that are currently employed in a large range of technological applications. In this thesis, I describe my exploration of metal silicide NWs, particularly those in the Mn-Si binary system, in order to develop rational synthetic strategies for accessing binary and ternary silicide NWs and characterize their potential for thermoelectric and spintronic applications. Chapter 1 develops a common set of ideas and a common language before reviewing the current "state of the art" in silicide NW synthesis, exploring a number of the mysteries still surrounding silicide NW synthesis, and presenting silicide NW applications. Chapter 2 depicts the use of Mn(CO) 5SiCl3 as the vapor phase precursor to synthesize higher manganese silicide NWs (also known as HMS, MnSi˜1.7 MnSi2--x) for the first time, the identification of the NW subphase as Mn19Si33, and conductivity measurement on HMS NWs revealing bulk-like behavior. Chapter 3 describes employing MnCl 2 as the precursor for the first successful synthesis of MnSi NWs and transverse magnetoresistance measurements on these MnSi NWs to observe the signatures of helimagnetism in NWs for the first time. Chapter 4 is a systematic examination of silicide NW synthesis by single source precursor chemical vapor deposition, highlighting the complex interplay of substrate diffusion and vapor phase reactivity giving rise to material incorporation in silicide NWs. Chapter 5 details the direct reaction of Mn

  8. Rocket-propellant burn tests of silicide-coated niobium and tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, P.G.; Krikorian, O.H.; Helm, F.H.

    1988-04-20

    Coatings designed to protect refractory metals in fire situations were tested on niobium and tantalum in a furnace and in a rocket-fuel flame. The best performance was obtained from Cr-Si-type silicide coatings applied by the pack-cementation process. The main mode of failure of the coated parts was corrosion by molten stainless steel rather than oxidation.

  9. Steady-state fuel behavior modeling of nitride fuels in FRAPCON-EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Karahan, Aydın; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2012-08-01

    Fuel material properties and mechanistic fission gas models in FRAPCON-EP were updated to model the steady-state behavior of high-porosity nitride fuel operating at temperatures below half of the melting point. The fuel thermal conductivity and fuel thermal expansion models were updated with correlations for UN and (U,Pu)N fuels. Hot-pressing of the as-fabricated porosity was modeled as a function of the hydrostatic pressure and creep rate. The solid fission product swelling was assumed to increase linearly with burnup. Fission gas swelling constitutive models were updated to appropriately capture the intragranular gas bubble evolution in nitride fuel. Intergranular gas swelling was neglected due to the assumed high porosity of the fuel. The fission gas release behavior was modeled by fitting the fission gas diffusion coefficient in UN to FRAPCON's default fission gas release model. This fitted gas diffusion coefficient reflects the effects of porosity, burnup, operating temperature, fission rate, and bubble sink strength. Fission gas release and fuel swelling benchmarks against irradiation data were performed. The updated code was applied to UN fuel in typical PWR geometry and operating conditions, with an extended cycle length of 24 months. The results show that swelling of the nitride fuel up to 60 MWd/kg burnup did not lead to excessive straining of the cladding. Furthermore, this study showed that a porous (>15% porosity) nitride fuel pellet could achieve a much higher margin to failure from the cladding collapse and grid-to-rod fretting.

  10. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1998-11-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  11. (UA1 reactor fuels safety and performance)

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1990-07-13

    The traveler visited several reactor and hot cell experimental facilities connected with JAERI at the Oarai and Tokai establishments. Uranium silicide fission product release experimental data and related acquisition systems were discussed. A presentation was made by the traveler on analysis and modeling of fission product release from UAl reactor fuels. Data obtained by JAERI thus far were offered to the traveler for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) review and analysis. This data confirmed key aspects of ORNL theoretical model predictions and will be useful for Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) design. The Oarai establishment expressed their interest and willingness to pursue ORNL/JAERI cooperative efforts in understanding volatile fission product release behavior from silicide fuels. The traveler also presented a perspective overview on ORNL severe accident analysis technology and identified areas for cooperation in JAERI's forthcoming transient testing program. JAERI staff presented plans for evaluating silicide fuel performance under transient reactivity insertion accident conditions in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) facility. A surprise announcement was made concerning JAERI's most recent initiative relating to the construction of a safety demonstration reactor (SDR) at the Tokai site. The purpose of this reactor facility would be to demonstrate operational safety of both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) in support of Japan's nuclear power industry.

  12. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  13. Thermal compatibility studies of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum. [Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1984-09-01

    Powder metallurgy dispersions of uranium silicides in an aluminum matrix have been developed by the international Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program as a new generation of proliferation-resistant fuels. A major issue of concern is the compatibility of the fuel with the matrix material and the dimensional stability of this fuel type. A total of 45 miniplate-type fuel plates were annealed at 400/sup 0/C for up to 1981 hours. A data base for the thermal compatibility of unirradiated uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum was established. No modification tested of a standard fuel plate showed any significant reduction of the plate swelling. The cause of the thermal growth of silicide fuel plates was determined to be a two-step process: (1) the reaction of the uranium silicide with aluminum to form U(AlSi)/sub 3/ and (2) the release of hydrogen and subsequent creep and pillowing of the fuel plate. 9 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  14. Dopant diffusion in tungsten silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, P.; Hsieh, N.; Geipel, H.J. Jr.; Slusser, G.J.

    1982-04-01

    The dopant (B, P, and As) redistribution in a silicide on polycrystalline silicon structure after annealing at 800 and 1000 /sup 0/C was studied. The distribution of boron was found to be quite different from these of phosphorus and arsenic. At 1000 /sup 0/C, the distribution coefficient for boron at the WSi/sub 2//polycrystalline silicon interface was found to be 2.7. The solubilities of phosphorus and arsenic in WSi/sub 2/ at 1000 /sup 0/C were estimated to be 6 x 10/sup 19/ and 1.6 x 10/sup 19/ atoms/cm/sup 3/, respectively. At 800 /sup 0/C, the diffusion coefficient for the dopants was found to be equal to, or greater than 3.3 x 10/sup -12/ cm/sup 2//s, which is at least three orders of magnitude larger than in silicon.

  15. Composition and Behavior of Fuel Ethanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol usage in the United States has increased due in part to the elimination of methyl tert-butyl ether from the fuel supply and to the mandates of Congress. Two samples, one each from a wet mill and a dry mill ethanol plant, were obtained before denaturing. Each of these ...

  16. Nanomaterials of silicides and silicon for energy conversion and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczech, Jeannine Robin

    Our consumption of fossil fuels can be reduced to address the pressing concerns of global climate change by maximizing the efficiency of conversion technologies. Since many of the alternative fuel sources also being examined are intermittent in nature, it is imperative that high capacity and high power density storage devices are also developed. The conversion efficiency of current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials is too low to meet our needs, but it may be possible to increase the conversion efficiency of thermoelectric materials by moving from the bulk to the nanoscale. The transition metal silicides, including CrSi2, beta-FeSi2 , Mg2Si and MnSi1.7, have been explored as environmentally friendly non-toxic thermoelectric materials. I began my research in the group synthesizing silicide nanowires via chemical vapor transport (CVT), and later expanded my research to include the synthesis of silicide nanocomposites for thermoelectrics and mesoporous silicon nanocomposites for use as high capacity lithium battery electrodes. Nanoscale thermoelectrics and the enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT reported by thermoelectric researchers are reviewed in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 reviews the progress being made in the research community with nanoscale and nanostructured silicon battery anodes. The synthesis and characterization of CrSi2 nanowires synthesized via CVT is detailed in Chapter 3, followed by hyperbranched epitaxial FeSi nanostructures exhibiting merohedral twinning in Chapter 4. Nanowires are fundamentally interesting and provide insight into the changes in materials properties compared to the bulk. The synthesis of interesting nanostructured silicide materials are detailed in Chapter 5, where the conversion of diatoms into a nanostructured thermoelectric Mg2Si/MgO nanocomposite that retains the basic diatom structure after conversion is detailed. This reaction was then modified to use mesoporous silica instead of diatoms to reduce the nanocrystalline

  17. METHOD OF FORMING TANTALUM SILICIDE ON TANTALUM SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, M.G.; Krikorian, N.H.

    1961-10-01

    A method is described for forming a non-corrosive silicide coating on tantalum. The coating is made through the heating of trirhenium silicides in contact with the tantalum object to approximately 1400 deg C at which temperature trirhenium silicide decomposes into rhenium and gaseous silicons. The silicon vapor reacts with the tantalum surface to form a tantalum silicide layer approximately 10 microns thick. (AEC)

  18. Novel Accident-Tolerant Fuel Meat and Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Mariani; Pavel G Medvedev; Douglas L Porter; Steven L Hayes; James I. Cole; Xian-Ming Bai

    2013-09-01

    A novel accident-tolerant fuel meat and cladding are here proposed. The fuel meat design incorporates annular fuel with inserts and discs that are fabricated from a material having high thermal conductivity, for example niobium. The inserts are rods or tubes. Discs separate the fuel pellets. Using the BISON fuel performance code it was found that the peak fuel temperature can be lowered by more than 600 degrees C for one set of conditions with niobium metal as the thermal conductor. In addition to improved safety margin, several advantages are expected from the lower temperature such as decreased fission gas release and fuel cracking. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed. An enrichment of only 7.5% fully compensates the lost reactivity of the displaced UO2. Slightly higher enrichments, such as 9%, allow uprates and increased burnups to offset the initial costs for retooling. The design has applications for fast reactors and transuranic burning, which may accelerate its development. A zirconium silicide coating is also described for accident tolerant applications. A self-limiting degradation behavior for this coating is expected to produce a glassy, self-healing layer that becomes more protective at elevated temperature, with some similarities to MoSi2 and other silicides. Both the fuel and coating may benefit from the existing technology infrastructure and the associated wide expertise for a more rapid development in comparison to other, more novel fuels and cladding.

  19. A MULTIDIMENSIONAL AND MULTIPHYSICS APPROACH TO NUCLEAR FUEL BEHAVIOR SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; S. R. Novascone; M. R. Tonks; D. R. Gaston; C. J. Permann; D. Andrs; R. C. Martineau

    2012-04-01

    Important aspects of fuel rod behavior, for example pellet-clad mechanical interaction (PCMI), fuel fracture, oxide formation, non-axisymmetric cooling, and response to fuel manufacturing defects, are inherently multidimensional in addition to being complicated multiphysics problems. Many current modeling tools are strictly 2D axisymmetric or even 1.5D. This paper outlines the capabilities of a new fuel modeling tool able to analyze either 2D axisymmetric or fully 3D models. These capabilities include temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of fuel; swelling and densification; fuel creep; pellet fracture; fission gas release; cladding creep; irradiation growth; and gap mechanics (contact and gap heat transfer). The need for multiphysics, multidimensional modeling is then demonstrated through a discussion of results for a set of example problems. The first, a 10-pellet rodlet, demonstrates the viability of the solution method employed. This example highlights the effect of our smeared cracking model and also shows the multidimensional nature of discrete fuel pellet modeling. The second example relies on our the multidimensional, multiphysics approach to analyze a missing pellet surface problem. As a final example, we show a lower-length-scale simulation coupled to a continuum-scale simulation.

  20. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  1. Electronic properties of Co and Ni silicides: a theoretical approach using extended Huckel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvan, D. H.; Posada Amarillas, A.; Samaniego Reyna, J. C.; García-Méndez, M.; Farías, M. H.

    2004-11-01

    Calculations of electronic structure, total and projected density of states (DOS), crystal orbital overlap population (COOP), and average net charge, and also Mulliken population analysis, were performed to study electronic properties of Co and Ni silicides. Analysis of the energy bands depicts metallic behavior for both silicides.The projected DOS yields an indication that hybridization occurs for Co and Ni silicides. The hybridized band in CoSi2 is composed of Co d and p orbitals and Si p and s orbitals, while in NiSi2 the hybridized band is formed by Ni d and p orbitals with Si p orbitals. The fact that the Fermi energy crosses a small part of the DOS, as is the case of CoSi2, yields an indication of the different electronic properties of CoSi2 when compared to NiSi2. The hybridization is stronger in CoSi2 than in NiSi2. Mulliken population analysis provides an indication that a smaller charge distribution exists in NiSi2 when compared to CoSi2. This difference in charge distribution accounts for the different electronic behavior, in agreement with the DOS analysis. Moreover, COOP analysis provides an indication of the existence of covalent bonding between M and Si (M = Ni, Co), this being stronger in Co than in Ni silicides. Furthermore, the average net charge in both compounds yields an indication that there is a charge transfer from M towards Si.

  2. Temperature-dependent structure and phase variation of nickel silicide nanowire arrays prepared by in situ silicidation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hailong; She, Guangwei; Mu, Lixuan; Shi, Wensheng

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlight: ► Nickel silicides nanowire arrays prepared by a simple in situ silicidation method. ► Phases of nickel silicides could be varied by tuning the reaction temperature. ► A growth model was proposed for the nickel silicides nanowires. ► Diffusion rates of Ni and Si play a critical role for the phase variation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report an in situ silicidizing method to prepare nickel silicide nanowire arrays with varied structures and phases. The in situ reaction (silicidation) between Si and NiCl{sub 2} led to conversion of Si nanowires to nickel silicide nanowires. Structures and phases of the obtained nickel silicides could be varied by changing the reaction temperature. At a relatively lower temperature of 700 °C, the products are Si/NiSi core/shell nanowires or NiSi nanowires, depending on the concentration of NiCl{sub 2} solution. At a higher temperature (800 °C and 900 °C), other phases of the nickel silicides, including Ni{sub 2}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, and NiSi{sub 2}, were obtained. It is proposed that the different diffusion rates of Ni and Si atoms at different temperatures played a critical role in the formation of nickel silicide nanowires with different phases.

  3. Chromium silicide formation by ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreter, U.; So, F. C. T.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of CrSi2 by ion mixing was studied as a function of temperature, silicide thickness and irradiated interface. Samples were prepared by annealing evaporated couples of Cr on Si and Si on Cr at 450 C for short times to form Si/CrSi2/Cr sandwiches. Xenon beams with energies up to 300 keV and fluences up to 8 x 10 to the 15th per sq cm were used for mixing at temperatures between 20 and 300 C. Penetrating only the Cr/CrSi2 interface at temperatures above 150 C induces further growth of the silicide as a uniform stoichiometric layer. The growth rate does not depend on the thickness of the initially formed silicide at least up to a thickness of 150 nm. The amount of growth depends linearly on the density of energy deposited at the interface. The growth is temperature dependent with an apparent activation energy of 0.2 eV. Irradiating only through the Si/CrSi2 interface does not induce silicide growth. It is concluded that the formation of CrSi2 by ion beam mixing is an interface-limited process and that the limiting reaction occurs at the Cr/CrSi2 interface.

  4. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  5. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet; Baumann, Frieder; Klymko, Nancy; Nummy, Karen; Sun, Bing; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yu, Jian; Zhu, Frank; Narasimha, Shreesh; Chudzik, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  6. Behavioral economic analysis of demand for fuel in North America.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Partington, Scott W; Kaplan, Brent A; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research clearly indicates that human behavior is contributing to climate change, notably, the use of fossil fuels as a form of energy for everyday behaviors. This dependence on oil in North America has led to assertions that the current level of demand is the social equivalent to an "addiction." The purpose of this study was to apply behavioral economic demand curves-a broadly applicable method of evaluating relative reinforcer efficacy in behavioral models of addiction-to North American oil consumption to examine whether such claims of oil addiction are warranted. Toward this end, we examined government data from the United States and Canada on per capita energy consumption for transportation and oil prices between 1995 and 2008. Our findings indicate that consumption either persisted or simultaneously increased despite sharp increases in oil price per barrel over the past decade.

  7. Multi-Dimensional Simulation of LWR Fuel Behavior in the BISON Fuel Performance Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. L.; Capps, N. A.; Liu, W.; Rashid, Y. R.; Wirth, B. D.

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear fuel operates in an extreme environment that induces complex multiphysics phenomena occurring over distances ranging from inter-atomic spacing to meters, and times scales ranging from microseconds to years. To simulate this behavior requires a wide variety of material models that are often complex and nonlinear. The recently developed BISON code represents a powerful fuel performance simulation tool based on its material and physical behavior capabilities, finite-element versatility of spatial representation, and use of parallel computing. The code can operate in full three dimensional (3D) mode, as well as in reduced two dimensional (2D) modes, e.g., axisymmetric radial-axial ( R- Z) or plane radial-circumferential ( R- θ), to suit the application and to allow treatment of global and local effects. A BISON case study was used to illustrate analysis of Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction failures from manufacturing defects using combined 2D and 3D analyses. The analysis involved commercial fuel rods and demonstrated successful computation of metrics of interest to fuel failures, including cladding peak hoop stress and strain energy density. In comparison with a failure threshold derived from power ramp tests, results corroborate industry analyses of the root cause of the pellet-clad interaction failures and illustrate the importance of modeling 3D local effects around fuel pellet defects, which can produce complex effects including cold spots in the cladding, stress concentrations, and hot spots in the fuel that can lead to enhanced cladding degradation such as hydriding, oxidation, CRUD formation, and stress corrosion cracking.

  8. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the ‘core/shell’ interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon. PMID:22548846

  9. Silicidation of Ni(Yb) Film on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jia; Jiang, Yu-Long; Ru, Guo-Ping; Li, Bing-Zong; Chu, Paul K.

    2008-03-01

    The influence of the addition of Yb to Ni on the silicidation of Ni was investigated. The Ni(Yb) film was deposited on a Si(001) substrate by co-sputtering, and silicidation was performed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). After silicidation, the sheet resistance of the silicide film was measured by the four-point probe method. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy were employed to identify the silicide phases, and the redistribution of Yb after RTA was characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. The influence of the Yb addition on the Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the silicide/Si diode was examined by current voltage measurements. The experimental results reveal that the addition of Yb can suppress the formation of the high-resistivity Ni2Si phase, but the formation of low-resistivity NiSi phase is not affected. Furthermore, after silicidation, most of the Yb atoms accumulate in the surface layer and only a small number of Yb atoms pile up at the silicide/Si(001) interface. It is believed that the accumulation of a small amount of Yb at the silicide/Si(001) interface results in the SBH reduction observed in the Ni(Yb)Si/Si diode.

  10. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A.

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Application of Phase Field Simulations to Fuel Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B; Clarno, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    The application of the phase filed method to simulate the formation and the stress induced re-orientation of zirconium hydride during dry storage of the spent fuel and clad assembly is discussed. The phase field technique is able to capture qualitatively the effect of external stress on the hydride orientation in Zr-H system. However, the modeling effort to-date is far from adequate and several issues remain to be addressed before the simulations can be used as a predictive tool for the behavior of the clad during long time dry storage.

  12. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, N J; Lanning, D D; Panisko, F E

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors.

  13. Fusion silicide coatings for tantalum alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the performance of fusion silicide coatings under simulated atmospheric reentry conditions to a maximum temperature of 1810 K (2800 F). Both recently developed and commercially available coatings are included. Data are presented on oxidation rate with and without intentional defecting, the influence of the coatings on the ductile-brittle bend transition temperature, and the mechanical properties. Coatings appear capable of affording protection for at least 100 simulated cycles to 2600 F and 63 cycles to 2800 F.

  14. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    SciTech Connect

    Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Kubicki, Milan; Dähne, Mario; Reiß, Paul; Niermann, Tore; Lehmann, Michael; Schubert, Markus Andreas

    2016-01-04

    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain due to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires.

  15. Silicide formation and the generation of point defects in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, B. G.; Aboelfotoh, M. O.; Lindström, J. L.

    1991-06-01

    The annealing behavior of the divacancy (V2) acceptor levels in silicon is investigated with the use of Schottky-barrier structures formed by the deposition of copper on n-type silicon irradiated with 2-MeV electrons. At temperatures below ~150 °C an anomalously high annealing rate of the V2 centers is observed, and we believe that the fast-diffusing interstitial Cu+ passivates their electrical activity and forms neutral complexes. In the temperature range 150-200 °C, where the metal-rich silicide η'-Cu3Si forms, the concentration of V2 remains almost constant, and we find no evidence for the injection of silicon self-interstitials during the formation of η'-Cu3Si, in contrast to recent experiments.

  16. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  17. Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

  18. Practical field repair of fused slurry silicide coating for space shuttle t.p.s.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reznik, B. D.

    1971-01-01

    Study of short-time high-temperature diffusion treatments as part of a program of development of methods of reapplying fused slurry silicide coating in the field. The metallographic structure and oxidation behavior of R512E applied to Cb-752 coated under simulated field repair conditions was determined. Oxidation testing in reduced pressure environment has shown that performance equivalent to furnace-processed specimens can be obtained in a two-minute diffusion at 2700 F.

  19. Development of custom fire behavior fuel models from FCCS fuelbeds for the Savannah River fuel assessment project.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Joe, H.

    2009-07-23

    The purpose of this project is to create fire behavior fuel models that replicate the fire behavior characteristics (spread rate and fireline intensity) produced by 23 candidate FCCS fuelbeds developed for the Savannah River National Wildlife Refuge. These 23 fuelbeds were created by FERA staff in consultation with local fuel managers. The FCCS produces simulations of surface fire spread rate and flame length (and therefore fireline intensity) for each of these fuelbeds, but it does not produce maps of those fire behavior characteristics or simulate fire growth—those tasks currently require the use of the FARSITE and/or FlamMap software systems. FARSITE and FlamMap do not directly use FCCS fuelbeds, but instead use standard or custom fire behavior fuel models to describe surface fuel characteristics for fire modeling. Therefore, replicating fire growth and fire behavior potential calculations using FCCS-simulated fire characteristics requires the development of custom fuel models that mimic, as closely as possible, the fire behavior characteristics produced by the FCCS for each fuelbed, over a range of fuel moisture and wind speeds.

  20. Initial development of high-temperature titanium silicide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Lee, E.H.; Henson, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanical and metallurgical properties of Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ and its alloys were studied for the purpose of developing high-temperature silicides for structural use. Titanium silicides are extremely hard and brittle. Microcracks that formed transgranularly were observed in the silicide and its alloys, indicating a poor cleavage strength for Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/. Microalloying with boron and carbon gave no apparent beneficial effect. The tendency for cracking can be reduced by lowering the silicon content or by alloying with 2 to 4% Cr and 4% Zr. In particular, almost no cracks were observed in the alloy Ti-33Si-4Zr-4Cr (at. %). Titanium silicide has a hardness of 980 dph. The hardness shows a slight increase with zirconium additions and a decrease with chromium additions. Tensile tests indicate that the silicide and its alloys are brittle even at 1000/degree/C. All alloys fractured with a strength less than 100 MPa. Among the silicides tested, the alloys containing 4 to 8% Cr have better fracture strength. The fracture mode of the silicide alloys is mainly transgranular with a cleavage appearance. The silicides showed basically a parabolic oxidation rate at 800/degree/C, with an oxidation rate higher by an order of magnitude than that of nickel aluminides. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Formation, structure, and orientation of gold silicide on gold surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, A. K.; Bauer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of gold silicide on Au films evaporated onto Si(111) surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). Surface condition, film thickness, deposition temperature, annealing temperature, and heating rate during annealing are varied. Several oriented crystalline silicide layers are observed.

  3. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  4. Thermal Analysis of a Uranium Silicide Miniplate Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2009-09-01

    This paper outlines the thermal analysis for the irradiation of high density uranium-silicide (U3Si2 dispersed in an aluminum matrix and clad in aluminum) booster fuel for a Boosted Fast Flux Loop designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the ATR. The purpose of this experiment (designated as Gas Test Loop-1 [GTL-1]) is two-fold: (1) to assess the adequacy of the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel and the aluminum alloy 6061 cladding, and (2) to verify stability of the fuel cladding boehmite pre-treatment at nominal power levels in the 430 to 615 W/cm2 (2.63 to 3.76 Btu/s•in2) range. The GTL-1 experiment relies on a difficult balance between achieving a high heat flux, yet keeping fuel centerline temperature below a specified maximum value throughout an entire operating cycle of the reactor. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux levels and to reveal which experiment parameters place constraints on reactor operations. Analyses were performed to determine the bounding lobe power level at which the experiment could be safely irradiated, yet still provide meaningful data under nominal operating conditions. Then, simulations were conducted for nominal and bounding lobe power levels under steady-state and transient conditions with the experiment in the reactor. Reactivity changes due to a loss of commercial power with pump coast-down to emergency flow or a standard in-pile tube pump discharge break were evaluated. The time after shutdown for which the experiment can be adequately cooled by natural convection cooling was determined using a system thermal hydraulic model. An analysis was performed to establish the required in-reactor cooling time prior to removal of the experiment from the reactor. The inclusion of machining tolerances in the numerical model has a large effect on heat transfer.

  5. Cosine (Cobalt Silicide Growth Through Nitrogen-Induced Epitaxy) Process For Epitaxial Cobalt Silicide Formation For High Performance Sha

    DOEpatents

    Lim, Chong Wee; Shin, Chan Soo; Gall, Daniel; Petrov, Ivan Georgiev; Greene, Joseph E.

    2004-09-28

    A method for forming an epitaxial cobalt silicide layer on a MOS device includes sputter depositing cobalt in an ambient to form a first layer of cobalt suicide on a gate and source/drain regions of the MOS device. Subsequently, cobalt is sputter deposited again in an ambient of argon to increase the thickness of the cobalt silicide layer to a second thickness.

  6. The growth and applications of silicides for nanoscale devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Chen, Yu; Huang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at the nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we present a review of fabrication, growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction.Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at the nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we present a review of fabrication, growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction. This article was submitted as part of a collection highlighting papers on the `Recent Advances in Semiconductor Nanowires Research' from ICMAT 2011.

  7. Neutron irradiated uranium silicides studied by neutron diffraction and Rietveld analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Mueller, M.H.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The irradiation behavior of high-density uranium silicides has been a matter of interest to the nuclear industry for use in high power or low enrichment applications. Transmission electron microscopy studies have found that heavy ion bombardment renders U{sub 3}Si and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} amorphous at temperatures below about 250 C and that U{sub 3}Si becomes mechanically unstable suffering rapid growth by plastic flow. In this present work, crystallographic changes preceding amorphization by fission fragment damage have been studied by high-resolution neutron diffraction as a function of damage produced by uranium fission at room temperature. Initially, both silicides had tetragonal crystal structures. Crystallographic and amorphous phases were studied simultaneously by combining conventional Rietveld refinement of the crystallographic phases with Fourier-filtering analysis of the non-crystalline scattering component. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Thermodynamic properties of higher lanthanum silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Polotskaya, R.I.

    1988-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of lanthanum disilicide were examined for the first time in the 960-1050/sup 0/K range by measuring the electromotive force of a galvanic cell based on LaSn, the chlorides of potassium, sodium, and lanthanum, and lanthanum silicide and silicon. Reference electrodes were used to prevent lanthanum interaction with the electrolyte. The alloys were melted in an electric arc furnace in purified argon from lanthanum and silicon and followed by two-stage annealing. It was found that the resulting value of the enthalpy formation differed from the estimated value for lanthanum disilicide calculated by Miedema's model.

  9. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  10. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  11. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  12. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  13. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  14. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  15. Joule-assisted silicidation for short-channel silicon nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Mongillo, Massimo; Spathis, Panayotis; Katsaros, Georgios; Gentile, Pascal; Sanquer, Marc; De Franceschi, Silvano

    2011-09-27

    We report on a technique enabling electrical control of the contact silicidation process in silicon nanowire devices. Undoped silicon nanowires were contacted by pairs of nickel electrodes, and each contact was selectively silicided by means of the Joule effect. By a real-time monitoring of the nanowire electrical resistance during the contact silicidation process we were able to fabricate nickel-silicide/silicon/nickel-silicide devices with controlled silicon channel length down to 8 nm.

  16. Formation of titanium silicides by high dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, V. P.; Vidwans, S. V.; Rangwala, A. A.; Arora, B. M.; Kuldeep; Jain, Animesh K.

    1987-09-01

    We have investigated titanium silicide formation using high dose (˜ 2 × 10 21 ions/m 2) ion implantation of 30 keV, 48Ti + ions a room temperature into two different types of Si substrates: (a) n-type <111> single crystals and (b) amorphous Si films (˜ 200 nm thick) vacuum deposited onto a thermally grown SiO 2 layer. XRD and RBS techniques were employed to characterize various silicide phases and their depth distribution in as-implanted as well as in annealed samples. We find that a mixture of TiSi, TiSi 2 and Ti 5Si 4 silicides is formed by high dose implantation. Out of these, TiSi; was found to be the dominant phase. The composition of these silicide layers is practically uniform with depth and remains unaltered on heat treatment up to 750° C. The electrical properties of silicide layers have also been investigated using sheet resistance measurements. The resistivity of as-implanted layers is rather high ( ˜ 10 μΩ m), but drops sharply by nearly a factor of 20 after a post-implantation anneal above 800° C. The resistivity of silicide layers thus obtained compare well with silicides prepared by other techniques.

  17. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  18. Developing Custom Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Mediterranean Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Mario; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lovreglio, Raffaella; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    The dramatic increase of fire hazard in wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) has required more detailed fuel management programs to preserve ecosystem functions and human settlements. Designing effective fuel treatment strategies allows to achieve goals such as resilient landscapes, fire-adapted communities, and ecosystem response. Therefore, obtaining background information on forest fuel parameters and fuel accumulation patterns has become an important first step in planning fuel management interventions. Site-specific fuel inventory data enhance the accuracy of fuel management planning and help forest managers in fuel management decision-making. We have customized four fuel models for WUIs in southern Italy, starting from forest classes of land-cover use and adopting a hierarchical clustering approach. Furthermore, we provide a prediction of the potential fire behavior of our customized fuel models using FlamMap 5 under different weather conditions. The results suggest that fuel model IIIP (Mediterranean maquis) has the most severe fire potential for the 95th percentile weather conditions and the least severe potential fire behavior for the 85th percentile weather conditions. This study shows that it is possible to create customized fuel models directly from fuel inventory data. This achievement has broad implications for land managers, particularly forest managers of the Mediterranean landscape, an ecosystem that is susceptible not only to wildfires but also to the increasing human population and man-made infrastructures.

  19. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, M.K.; Akinc, M.

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is disclosed having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi{sub 2} heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} for structural integrity. 7 figs.

  20. Boron modified molybdenum silicide and products

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Mitchell K.; Akinc, Mufit

    1999-02-02

    A boron-modified molybdenum silicide material having the composition comprising about 80 to about 90 weight % Mo, about 10 to about 20 weight % Si, and about 0.1 to about 2 weight % B and a multiphase microstructure including Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 phase as at least one microstructural component effective to impart good high temperature creep resistance. The boron-modified molybdenum silicide material is fabricated into such products as electrical components, such as resistors and interconnects, that exhibit oxidation resistance to withstand high temperatures in service in air as a result of electrical power dissipation, electrical resistance heating elements that can withstand high temperatures in service in air and other oxygen-bearing atmospheres and can span greater distances than MoSi.sub.2 heating elements due to improved creep resistance, and high temperature structural members and other fabricated components that can withstand high temperatures in service in air or other oxygen-bearing atmospheres while retaining creep resistance associated with Mo.sub.5 Si.sub.3 for structural integrity.

  1. ITEP MEVVA ion beam for rhenium silicide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kulevoy, T.; Seleznev, D.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Yakushin, P.; Petrenko, S.; Gerasimenko, N.; Medetov, N.; Zaporozhan, O.

    2010-02-15

    The rhenium silicides are very attractive materials for semiconductor industry. In the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) at the ion source test bench the research program of rhenium silicide production by ion beam implantation are going on. The investigation of silicon wafer after implantation of rhenium ion beam with different energy and with different total dose were carried out by secondary ions mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. The first promising results of rhenium silicide film production by high intensity ion beam implantation are presented.

  2. Palladium silicide formation under the influence of nitrogen and oxygen impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. T.; Lien, C.-D.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of impurities on the growth of the Pd2Si layer upon thermal annealing of a Pd film on 100 line-type and amorphous Si substrates is investigated. Nitrogen and oxygen impurities are introduced into either Pd or Si which are subsequently annealed to form Pd2Si. The complementary techniques of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and N-15(p, alpha)C-12 or O-18(p, alpha)N-15 nuclear reaction, are used to investigate the behavior of nitrogen or oxygen and the alterations each creates during silicide formation. Both nitrogen and oxygen retard the silicide growth rate if initially present in Si. When they are initially in Pd, there is no significant retardation; instead, an interesting snow-plowing effect of N or O by the reaction interface of Pd2Si is observed. By using N implanted into Si as a marker, Pd and Si appear to trade roles as the moving species when the silicide front reaches the nitrogen-rich region.

  3. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  4. Analysis of burnable poison in Ford Nuclear Reactor fuel to extend fuel lifetime. Final report, August 1, 1994--September 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the project was to establish the feasibility of extending the lifetime of fuel elements for the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) by replacing current aluminide fuel with silicide fuel comprising a heavier uranium loading but with the same fissile enrichment of 19.5 wt% {sup 235}U. The project has focused on fuel designs where burnable absorbers, in the form of B{sub 4}C, are admixed with uranium silicide in fuel plates so that increases in the control reactivity requirements and peak power density, due to the heavier fuel loading, may be minimized. The authors have developed equilibrium cycle models simulating current full-size aluminide core configurations with 43 {approximately} 45 fuel elements. Adequacy of the overall equilibrium cycle approach has been verified through comparison with recent FNR experience in spent fuel discharge rates and simulation of reactor physics characteristics for two representative cycles. Fuel cycle studies have been performed to compare equilibrium cycle characteristics of silicide fuel designs, including burnable absorbers, with current aluminide fuel. These equilibrium cycle studies have established the feasibility of doubling the fuel element lifetime, with minimal perturbations to the control reactivity requirements and peak power density, by judicious additions of burnable absorbers to silicide fuel. Further study will be required to investigate a more practical silicide fuel design, which incorporates burnable absorbers in side plates of each fuel element rather than uniformly mixes them in fuel plates.

  5. Reactor Physics Behavior of Transuranic-Bearing TRISO-Particle Fuel in a Pressurized Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope; R. Sonat Sen; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Gilles Youinou; Brian Boer

    2012-04-01

    Calculations have been performed to assess the neutronic behavior of pins of Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel in otherwise-conventional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel pins. The FCM fuel contains transuranic (TRU)-only oxide fuel in tri-isotropic (TRISO) particles with the TRU loading coming from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Use of the TRISO particle fuel would provide an additional barrier to fission product release in the event of cladding failure. Depletion calculations were performed to evaluate reactivity-limited burnup of the TRU-only FCM fuel. These calculations showed that due to relatively little space available for fuel, the achievable burnup with these pins alone is quite small. Various reactivity parameters were also evaluated at each burnup step including moderator temperature coefficient (MTC), Doppler, and soluble boron worth. These were compared to reference UO{sub 2} and MOX unit cells. The TRU-only FCM fuel exhibits degraded MTC and Doppler coefficients relative to UO{sub 2} and MOX. Also, the reactivity effects of coolant voiding suggest that the behavior of this fuel would be similar to a MOX fuel of very high plutonium fraction, which are known to have positive void reactivity. In general, loading of TRU-only FCM fuel into an assembly without significant quantities of uranium presents challenges to the reactor design. However, if such FCM fuel pins are included in a heterogeneous assembly alongside LEU fuel pins, the overall reactivity behavior would be dominated by the uranium pins while attractive TRU destruction performance levels in the TRU-only FCM fuel pins is. From this work, it is concluded that use of heterogeneous assemblies such as these appears feasible from a preliminary reactor physics standpoint.

  6. Shallow-junction diode formation by implantation of arsenic and boron through titanium-silicide films and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.; Herbots, N. . Center for Materials Science and Engineering); Hoffman, D. ); Ma, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors have studied the performance of diodes fabricated on n-type and p-type Si substrates by implanting As or B through a low-resistivity titanium-silicide layer. The effects of varying the implant dose, energy, and post-implant thermal treatment were investigated. After implantation, a rapid thermal anneal was found to be sufficient in removing most of the implant damage and activating the dopants, which resulted in N{sup +} {minus} p and p{sup +} {minus} n junctions under a low-resistivity silicide layer. The n{sup +} {minus} p junctions were as shallow as 1000 {angstrom} with reverse leakage currents as low as 5.5 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. A conventional furnace anneal resulted in a further reduction of this leakage. Shallow p{sub +} {minus} n junctions could not be formed with boron implantation because of the large projected range of boron ions at the lowest available energy. Ti silicide films thinner than 600 {angstrom} exhibited a sharp rise in sheet resistivity after a furnace anneal, whereas thicker films exhibited more stable behavior. This is attributed to coalescence of the films. High-temperature furnace annealing diffused some of the dopants into the silicide film, reducing the surface concentrations at the TiSi{sub 2}-Si interface.

  7. OMCVD of cobalt and cobalt silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormans, G. J. M.; Meekes, G. J. B. M.; Staring, E. G. J.

    1991-11-01

    Cobalt and cobalt silicide layers were deposited by OMCVD using the Co precursors Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co 2(CO) 8, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4, and the Si precursors SiH 4 and Si 2H 6. Strongly textured (111)-β Co layers were grown from Co(C 5H 5) 2, Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 and CoCF 3(CO) 4 at temperatures above 300°C in H 2 at atmospheric pressure. Growth from Co(C 5H 5) 2 is inhibited on Si substrates. For temperatures ≥600°C the Co layers deposited from Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with the Si(100) substrate to form CoSi 2(00 l) aligned with the substrate orientation. Co 2(CO) 8 gives amorphous Co between 200 and 300°C. The upper temperature is set by the occurrence of homogeneous gas-phase reactions at atmospheric reactor pressure. Cobalt silicide layers can be grown from CO 2(CO) 8 and (di)silane at temperatures between 200 and 400°C. The Co/Si ratio in the layers decreases with increasing temperature and is independent of the gas-phase Co/Si ratio. Stoichiometric CoSi 2 is obtained at ~ 300°C. Both Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 react with (di)silane, leading to the incorporation of carbon in the layer. The Co/Si ration and the carbon content in the layers are practically independent of the deposition conditions. With CoCF 3(CO) 4 no contamination-free silicide could be grown. The carbon incorporation with Co(C 5H 5) 2 and Co(C 5H 5)(CO) 2 can be avoided by a pulsed growth method in which the Co precursor and the Si precursor are introduced alternately into the reactor. With Co(C 5H 5) 2 the growth is then inhibited on Si substrates.

  8. Behavior of Zr1%Nb Fuel Cladding under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Fero, E.; Hozer, Z.; Windberg, P.; Nagy, I.; Vimi, A.; Ver, N.; Matus, L.; Kunstar, M.; Novotny, T.; Horvath, M.; Gyori, Cs.

    2007-07-01

    The behavior of the VVER fuel (E110) cladding under accident conditions has been investigated at the AEKI in order to study the role of oxidation and hydrogen uptake on the cladding embrittlement and to understand the phenomena that took place during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident (2003). The test programme covered small scale tests and large scale tests with electrically heated 7-rod bundles in the CODEX (Core Degradation Experiment) facility. Since a hydrogen rich atmosphere could have been formed in the closed tank, the experiments were carried out in hydrogen-steam mixture. According to the results of the small scale tests, a former correlation for the ductile-brittle transitions of E110 in pure steam remained valid in hydrogen rich steam atmosphere as well. During the large scale tests the main conditions of the incident were reconstructed. The test characterized the high temperature oxidation and embrittlement of zirconium in hydrogen rich steam. The observed cladding failure phenomena and the extent of the damage of the test bundle in the quenching phase were very similar to those of the VVER assemblies in the incident. The simulation of the cleaning tank incident provided detailed information on the most probable scenario of the incident. (authors)

  9. Titanium silicide formation on boron-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, T.P.; Goehner, R.; Katz, W.; Smith, G.

    1985-08-01

    Thin film interaction between Ti and boron-implanted silicon substrates at 650/sup 0/-900/sup 0/ C was investigated. The compositional properties were examined with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry, the structural properties with x-ray diffraction, and the electrical properties with sheet resistance measurements. At 650/sup 0/ C, incomplete Ti/Si reaction led to significant amounts of intermediate silicide phases (Ti/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ and TiSi) and hence higher sheet resistance. Annealing at 700/sup 0/ C or higher resulted in conversion of the titanium film into predominantly TiSi/sub 2/ and a lower sheet resistance. Boron was found to redistribute into the silicide layer during annealing, leading to an accumulation on the surface and a depletion at the silicide/silicon interface. The diffusion kinetics of boron through titanium silicide are compared with those of other p- and n-type dopants.

  10. Growth and stability of copper silicide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymes, Stephen William

    1999-11-01

    Copper silicide has been investigated as a candidate material in copper-based multilevel interconnects (MLI)for application in Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI). The selective formation of a passivating copper silicide surface layer on a copper thin film is achieved by exposure of the copper film to a dilute silane mixture at elevated temperature. The morphology and kinetics of the surface silicide and subsequent thermal stability in inert and oxidizing ambient were investigated using RBS, XRD and other conventional characterization techniques. Consequently, a preliminary evaluation of this material for application in future microelectronics is made. With respect to growth product formation and morphology, a continuous, uniform, homogenous eta'' -Cu3Si film is formed in the presence of an in-situ 30 sec, 50 watt 3% H2/Ar preclean and silane exposure above 200 C. Silane exposure of the copper film above 300 C leads to the initial formation of gamma-Cu 5Si, as the Cu3Si is no longer stable in the presence of excess underlying copper, until such time that no unreacted copper remains at which point eta''-Cu3 Si again nucleates and grows at the expense of the more copper-rich silicide. The growth kinetics of this surface silicide were also determined. A kinetically limited growth above 1000 sccm of 2% SiH4/Ar is evidenced by saturation of the growth thickness dependence on flow rate. A linear time dependence exists over the low temperature regime corresponding to eta ''-Cu3Si growth. The temperature dependence indicates a reaction rate which is Arrhenius with an apparent activation energy of Ea = 0.87 +/- 0.19 eV. The partial pressure exponent, q, for silane is found to be q = 0.13 +/- .10 while no dependence on the growth rate is found upon total pressure. Evaluation of the silicide surface layer was then performed with respect to stability in inert and oxidizing media. As-formed copper silicide/copper bilayers were annealed in a static air ambient and the oxidation

  11. Reducing uncertainties affecting the assessment of the long-term corrosion behavior of spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Fanghänel, Thomas; Rondinella, Vincenzo V; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Wiss, Thierry; Wegen, Detlef H; Gouder, Thomas; Carbol, Paul; Serrano-Purroy, Daniel; Papaioannou, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    Reducing the uncertainties associated with extrapolation to very long term of corrosion data obtainable from laboratory tests on a relatively young spent nuclear fuel is a formidable challenge. In a geologic repository, spent nuclear fuel may come in contact with water tens or hundreds of thousands of years after repository closure. The corrosion behavior will depend on the fuel properties and on the conditions characterizing the near field surrounding the spent fuel at the time of water contact. This paper summarizes the main conclusions drawn from multiyear experimental campaigns performed at JRC-ITU to study corrosion behavior and radionuclide release from spent light water reactor fuel. The radionuclide release from the central region of a fuel pellet is higher than that from the radial periphery, in spite of the higher burnup and the corresponding structural modifications occurring at the pellet rim during irradiation. Studies on the extent and time boundaries of the radiolytic enhancement of the spent fuel corrosion rate indicate that after tens or hundreds of thousands of years have elapsed, very small or no contribution to the enhanced corrosion rate has to be expected from α radiolysis. A beneficial effect inhibiting spent fuel corrosion due to the hydrogen overpressure generated in the near field by iron corrosion is confirmed. The results obtained so far point toward a benign picture describing spent fuel corrosion in a deep geologic repository. More work is ongoing to further reduce uncertainties and to obtain a full description of the expected corrosion behavior of spent fuel.

  12. A promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.; Mccormack, Joseph A.; Zoltan, Andrew; Zoltan, Leslie D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts directed toward increasing thermoelectric figure of merit values by a factor of 2 or 3 have been encouraging in several respects. An accurate and detailed theoretical model developed for n-type silicon-germanium (SiGe) indicates that ZT values several times higher than currently available are expected under certain conditions. These new, high ZT materials are expected to be significantly different from SiGe, but not unreasonably so. Several promising candidate materials have been identified which may meet the conditions required by theory. One such candidate, ruthenium silicide, currently under development at JPL, has been estimated to have the potential to exhibit figure of merit values 4 times higher than conventional SiGe materials. Recent results are summarized.

  13. Valence photoelectron spectroscopy of Gd silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. ); Puppin, E.; Lindau, I. ); Iandelli, A.; Olcese, G.L.; Palenzona, A. )

    1990-02-15

    Gd{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, GdSi, and Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 3} were investigated with photoemission spectroscopy in the photon-energy range 40.8--149 eV by exploiting the energy dependence of the photoemission cross sections and the valence resonance at the crossing of the Gd 4{ital d}-4{ital f} threshold. The modification of the spectra versus photon energy, along with their stoichiometry dependence, show the relevance of covalent mixed Gd 5{ital d}--Si 3{ital sp} states in the formation of the chemical bond. In the region close to the Fermi level an increase of the {ital d} contribution is observed. These points are discussed in connection with the existing models of the silicide bond.

  14. Application of Thermochemical Modeling to Assessment/Evaluation of Nuclear Fuel Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, Theodore M; McMurray, Jake W; Simunovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of new fuel compositions and higher burn-ups envisioned for the future means that representing fuel properties will be much more important, and yet more complex. Behavior within the oxide fuel rods will be difficult to model owing to the high temperatures, and the large number of elements generated and their significant concentrations that are a result of fuels taken to high burn-up. This unprecedented complexity offers an enormous challenge to the thermochemical understanding of these systems and opportunities to advance solid solution models to describe these materials. This paper attempts to model and simulate that behavior using an oxide fuels thermochemical description to compute the equilibrium phase state and oxygen potential of LWR fuel under irradiation.

  15. Nano-structured silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation and integration of silver metallization with thin film silicide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitan, Martin M.

    Nano-structured silicide formation was mediated through ion implantation. Silicide structures with dimensions of 170 nm were produced on (100) silicon substrates by ion implantation of 200 KeV As++ through a thin cobalt film on SiO2/Si structure. A selective reaction barrier at the Si/Co interface comprising of a thin (˜2 nm) oxide (SiO 2) prevents unwanted reactions. Ion-beam mixing was instrumental in the fracturing of the oxide layer, thereby allowing the migration of metal atoms across the SiO2/Co boundary for the silicidation reaction to proceed during subsequent rapid thermal anneal (RTA) treatments. A threshold dose of 3 x 1015 cm-2 was required for process initiation. Four-terminal resistance test structures were formed for electrical measurements. Resistivity values obtained ranged from 12 to 23 muO-cm, improving with increased ion dose. Application of this method can facilitate a wide variety of silicide structures. Part two of this study focused on the reliability study of silver metalization with silicides. Silicide thin films of CoSi2 and NiSi were prepared by solid phase reactions utilizing the bi-layer technique. Silver thin films were then deposited on the silicides to evaluate the thermal stability of the films during vacuum annealing. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry of annealed films revealed Ag film changes to occur at 700°C. No changes in the silicide thin films could be detected. Scanning electron microscopy of annealed films shows grain coarsening of the Ag film with increasing anneal temperature. At 650°C, voids begin to appear in the film. Increasing anneal temperature up to 700°C agglomerates the film. X-ray diffraction glancing angle scans revealed no phase changes in annealed films. The as-deposited case and 700°C both show the same reflection peaks being present. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiling revealed trace amounts of Ag at the silicide/silicon interface following a heat treatment. This occurrence appears to

  16. Developing custom fire behavior fuel models from ecologically complex fuel structures for upper Atlantic Coastal Plain forests.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    Currently geospatial fire behavior analyses are performed with an array of fire behavior modeling systems such as FARSITE, FlamMap, and the Large Fire Simulation System. These systems currently require standard or customized surface fire behavior fuel models as inputs that are often assigned through remote sensing information. The ability to handle hundreds or thousands of measured surface fuelbeds representing the fine scale variation in fire behavior on the landscape is constrained in terms of creating compatible custom fire behavior fuel models. In this study, we demonstrate an objective method for taking ecologically complex fuelbeds from inventory observations and converting those into a set of custom fuel models that can be mapped to the original landscape. We use an original set of 629 fuel inventory plots measured on an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. From models linking stand conditions to component fuel loads, we impute fuelbeds for over 6000 stands. These imputed fuelbeds were then converted to fire behavior parameters under extreme fuel moisture and wind conditions (97th percentile) using the fuel characteristic classification system (FCCS) to estimate surface fire rate of spread, surface fire flame length, shrub layer reaction intensity (heat load), non-woody layer reaction intensity, woody layer reaction intensity, and litter-lichen-moss layer reaction intensity. We performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the stands based on the values of the fire behavior parameters. The resulting 7 clusters were the basis for the development of 7 custom fire behavior fuel models from the cluster centroids that were calibrated against the FCCS point data for wind and fuel moisture. The latter process resulted in calibration against flame length as it was difficult to obtain a simultaneous calibration against both rate of spread and flame length. The clusters based on FCCS fire behavior

  17. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  18. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  19. Neutronic analysis of the JMTR with LEU fuel and burnable poison

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Yoshiharu; Oyamada, Rokuro; Matos, J.E.; Woodruff, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of neutronics calculations are presented for the JMTR equilibrium core with LEU silicide fuel, boron and cadmium burnable poisons in the sideplates, and a cycle length of 24 days instead of 11 days with the current HEU fuel. The data indicate that several options are feasible provided that silicide fuels with high uranium densities are successfully demonstrated and licensed. 2 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Comparison of ash behavior of different fuels in fluidised bed combustion using advanced fuel analysis and global equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zevenhoven-Onderwater, M.; Blomquist, J.P.; Skrifvars, B.J.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.

    1999-07-01

    The behavior of different ashes is predicted by means of a combination of an advanced fuel analysis and global equilibrium calculations. In order to cover a broad spectrum of fuels a coal, a peat, a forest residue and Salix (i.e. willow) are studied. The latter was taken with and without soil contamination, i.e. with a high and low content of silica , respectively. It is shown that mineral matter in fossil and biomass fuels can be present in the matrix of the fuel itself or as included minerals. Using an advanced fuel analysis, i.e. a fractionation method, this mineral content can be divided into four fractions. The first fraction mainly contains those metal ions, that can be leached out of the fuel by water and mainly contains alkali sulfates, carbonates and chlorides. The second fraction mainly consists of those ions leached out by ammonium acetate and covers those ions, that are connected to the organic matrix. The third fraction contains the metals leached out by hydrochloric acid and contains earth alkali carbonates and sulfates as well as pyrites. The rest fraction contains those minerals, that are not leached out by any of the above mentioned solvents, such as silicates. A global equilibrium analysis is used to predict the thermal and chemical behavior of the combined first and second fractions and of the combined third and rest fractions under pressurized and/or atmospheric combustion conditions. Results of both the fuel analysis and the global equilibrium analysis are discussed and practical implications for combustion processes are pointed out.

  1. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-08-11

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  2. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume I: executive summary. Final report Oct 77-Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.; Manski, C.F.; Ginn, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    This report assesses consumer behavior towards fuel-efficient vehicles designed to meet recently mandated federal fuel economy standards. The study involves a comprehensive evaluation of existing nationwide survey data as well as the development of a major new econometric forecasting model of household vehicle type choice. As a result, the report describes both an assessment of consumers' current reported sentiments toward fuel-efficient vehicles and insights into expected future changes in household vehicle purchase behavior in response to changes in vehicle designs and prices, demographics, and the energy environment.

  3. Modeling and simulation of the dynamic behavior of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerramalla, Sampath; Davari, Asad; Feliachi, Ali; Biswas, Tamal

    The focus of this paper is to develop a mathematical model for investigating the dynamic performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The model in this work is based on physical laws having clear significance in replicating the fuel cell system and can easily be used to set up different operational strategies. Simulation results display the transient behavior of the voltage within each single cell, and also within a number of such single cells combined into a fuel cell stack system. A linear as well as a nonlinear analysis of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system has been discussed in order to present a complete and comprehensive view of this kind of modeling. Also, a comparison of the two kinds of analysis has been performed. Finally, the various characteristics of the fuel cell system are plotted in order to help us understand its dynamic behavior. Results indicate that there is a considerable amount of error in the modeling process if we use a linear model of the fuel cell. Thus, the nonlinearities present in the fuel cell system should be taken into account in order to obtain a better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system.

  4. Advancements in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements and related structures

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.; Head, J.L.; ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA; Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich )

    1989-01-01

    An important aspect of the design and analysis of nuclear reactors is the ability to predict the behavior of fuel elements in the adverse environment of a reactor system. By understanding the thermomechanical behavior of the different materials which constitute a nuclear fuel element, analysis and predictions can be made regarding the integrity and reliability of fuel element designs. The SMiRT conference series, through the division on fuel elements and the post-conference seminars on fuel element modeling, provided technical forums for the international participation in the exchange of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical modeling of fuel elements. This paper discusses the technical advances in the behavioral modeling of fuel elements presented at the SMiRT conference series since its inception in 1971. Progress in the areas of material properties and constitutive relationships, modeling methodologies, and integral modeling approaches was reviewed and is summarized in light of their impact on the thermomechanical modeling of nuclear fuel elements. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  6. Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson

    2011-08-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  7. Double-Fueled Janus Swimmers with Magnetotactic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Schattling, Philipp S; Ramos-Docampo, Miguel A; Salgueiriño, Verónica; Städler, Brigitte

    2017-03-29

    Self-propelled particles attract a great deal of attention due to the auspicious range of applications for which nanobots can be used. In a biomedical context, self-propelled swimmers hold promise to autonomously navigate to a desired location in an attempt to counteract cell/tissue defects either by releasing drugs or by performing surgical tasks. The vast majority of prior reports deal with single engine assemblies, often utilizing fuel molecules which are considered to be highly cytotoxic. Herein, we introduce two engines: (1) a motor which couples enzymes (i.e., glucose oxidase) and inorganic nanoparticles (i.e., platinum nanoparticles) to gain power and (2) a peptide-fueled trypsin motor. We demonstrate that both engines can induce enhanced diffusion properties of (Janus) particles using bioavailable and completely harmless fuel molecules. By combining both engines on the same carrier, we show self-propelled particles employing two independent engines, using two different fuels. A collaborative enhancement of the swimmer's diffusion properties upon powering-up both engines simultaneously is observed. Additionally, the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles allows for the swimmer to move in a magnetic gradient upon applying an external magnetic field, yielding in directional motion of the double-fueled particles. These multiple-fueled biocompatible swimmers are a significant contribution to make them applicable in a biomedical context.

  8. Modeling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of mixed oxide fuel for sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to model the irradiation behavior of UO2-PuO2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named fuel engineering and structural analysis tool (FEAST-OXIDE). FEAST-OXIDE has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe: (1) fission gas release and swelling, (2) fuel chemistry and restructuring, (3) temperature distribution, (4) fuel-clad chemical interaction and (5) fuel-clad mechanical analysis. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST-OXIDE can analyze fuel and cladding thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis transient scenarios. The code was written in FORTRAN-90 program language. The mechanical analysis module implements the LIFE algorithm. Fission gas release and swelling behavior is described by the OGRES and NEFIG models. However, the original OGRES model has been extended to include the effects of joint oxide gain (JOG) formation on fission gas release and swelling. A detailed fuel chemistry model has been included to describe the cesium radial migration and JOG formation, oxygen and plutonium radial distribution and the axial migration of cesium. The fuel restructuring model includes the effects of as-fabricated porosity migration, irradiation-induced fuel densification, grain growth, hot pressing and fuel cracking and relocation. Finally, a kinetics model is included to predict the clad wastage formation. FEAST-OXIDE predictions have been compared to the available FFTF, EBR-II and JOYO databases, as well as the LIFE-4 code predictions. The agreement was found to be satisfactory for steady-state and slow-ramp over-power accidents.

  9. Silicide Nanowires for Low-Resistance CMOS Transistor Contacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollner, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Transition metal (TM) silicide nanowires are used as contacts for modern CMOS transistors. (Our smallest wires are ˜20 nm thick and ˜50 nm wide.) While much research on thick TM silicides was conducted long ago, materials perform differently at the nanoscale. For example, the usual phase transformation sequences (e.g., Ni, Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2) for the reaction of thick metal films on Si no longer apply to nanostructures, because the surface and interface energies compete with the bulk energy of a given crystal structure. Therefore, a NiSi film will agglomerate into hemispherical droplets of NiSi by annealing before it reaches the lowest-energy (NiSi2) crystalline structure. These dynamics can be tuned by addition of impurities (such as Pt in Ni). The Si surface preparation is also a more important factor for nanowires than for silicidation of thick TM films. Ni nanowires formed on Si surfaces that were cleaned and amorphized by sputtering with Ar ions have a tendency to form NiSi2 pyramids (``spikes'') even at moderate temperatures (˜400^oC), while similar Ni films formed on atomically clean or hydrogen-terminated Si form uniform NiSi nanowires. Another issue affecting TM silicides is the barrier height between the silicide contact and the silicon transistor. For most TM silicides, the Fermi level of the silicide is aligned with the center of the Si band gap. Therefore, silicide contacts experience Schottky barrier heights of around 0.5 eV for both n-type and p-type Si. The resulting contact resistance becomes a significant term for the overall resistance of modern CMOS transistors. Lowering this contact resistance is an important goal in CMOS research. New materials are under investigation (for example PtSi, which has a barrier height of only 0.3 eV to p-type Si). This talk will describe recent results, with special emphasis on characterization techniques and electrical testing useful for the development of silicide nanowires for CMOS contacts. In collaboration

  10. Epitaxial silicide formation on recoil-implanted substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shin; Egashira, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoya; Etoh, Ryuji; Hata, Yoshifumi; Tung, R. T.

    2005-01-15

    An epitaxy-on-recoil-implanted-substrate (ERIS) technique is presented. A disordered surface layer, generated by forward recoil implantation of {approx}0.7-3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} of oxygen during Ar plasma etching of surface oxide, is shown to facilitate the subsequent epitaxial growth of {approx}25-35-nm-thick CoSi{sub 2} layers on Si(100). The dependence of the epitaxial fraction of the silicide on the recoil-implantation parameters is studied in detail. A reduction in the silicide reaction rate due to recoil-implanted oxygen is shown to be responsible for the observed epitaxial formation, similar to mechanisms previously observed for interlayer-mediated growth techniques. Oxygen is found to remain inside the fully reacted CoSi{sub 2} layer, likely in the form of oxide precipitates. The presence of these oxide precipitates, with only a minor effect on the sheet resistance of the silicide layer, has a surprisingly beneficial effect on the thermal stability of the silicide layers. The agglomeration of ERIS-grown silicide layers on polycrystalline Si is significantly suppressed, likely from a reduced diffusivity due to oxygen in the grain boundaries. The implications of the present technique for the processing of deep submicron devices are discussed.

  11. Silicide/Silicon Hetero-Junction Structure for Thermoelectric Applications.

    PubMed

    Jun, Dongsuk; Kim, Soojung; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Junsoo; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated silicide/silicon hetero-junction structured thermoelectric device by CMOS process for the reduction of thermal conductivity with the scatterings of phonons at silicide/silicon interfaces. Electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, power factors, and temperature differences are evaluated using the steady state analysis method. Platinum silicide/silicon multilayered structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and power factor characteristics, which was considered for p-leg element. Also, erbium silicide/silicon structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient, which was considered for an n-leg element. Silicide/silicon multilayered structure is promising for thermoelectric applications by reducing thermal conductivity with an enhanced Seebeck coefficient. However, because of the high thermal conductivity of the silicon packing during thermal gradient is not a problem any temperature difference. Therefore, requires more testing and analysis in order to overcome this problem. Thermoelectric generators are devices that based on the Seebeck effect, convert temperature differences into electrical energy. Although thermoelectric phenomena have been used for heating and cooling applications quite extensively, it is only in recent years that interest has increased in energy generation.

  12. Hafnium silicide formation on Si(100) upon annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Siervo, A. de; Fluechter, C. R.; Weier, D.; Schuermann, M.; Dreiner, S.; Westphal, C.; Carazzolle, M. F.; Pancotti, A.; Landers, R.; Kleiman, G. G.

    2006-08-15

    High dielectric constant materials, such as HfO{sub 2}, have been extensively studied as alternatives to SiO{sub 2} in new generations of Si based devices. Hf silicate/silicide formation has been reported in almost all literature studies of Hf based oxides on Si, using different methods of preparation. A silicate interface resembles close to the traditional Si/SiO{sub 2}. The silicate very likely forms a very sharp interface between the Si substrate and the metal oxide, and would be suitable for device applications. However, the thermal instability of the interfacial silicate/oxide film leads to silicidation, causing a dramatic loss of the gate oxide integrity. Despite the importance of the Hf silicide surface and interface with Si, only a few studies of this surface are present in the literature, and a structural determination of the surface has not been reported. This paper reports a study of the Hf silicide formation upon annealing by using a combination of XPS, LEED, and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) analyses. Our results clearly indicate the formation of a unique ordered Hf silicide phase (HfSi{sub 2}), which starts to crystallize when the annealing temperature is higher than 550 deg. C.

  13. Metal silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes for uncooled microbolometers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nickel silicide Schottky diodes formed on polycrystalline Si 〈P〉 films are proposed as temperature sensors of monolithic uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays. The structure and composition of nickel silicide/polycrystalline silicon films synthesized in a low-temperature process are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy. The Ni silicide is identified as a multi-phase compound composed of 20% to 40% of Ni3Si, 30% to 60% of Ni2Si, and 10% to 30% of NiSi with probable minor content of NiSi2 at the silicide/poly-Si interface. Rectification ratios of the Schottky diodes vary from about 100 to about 20 for the temperature increasing from 22℃ to 70℃; they exceed 1,000 at 80 K. A barrier of around 0.95 eV is found to control the photovoltage spectra at room temperature. A set of barriers is observed in photo-electromotive force spectra at 80 K and attributed to the Ni silicide/poly-Si interface. Absolute values of temperature coefficients of voltage and current are found to vary from 0.3%℃ to 0.6%/℃ for forward bias and around 2.5%/℃ for reverse bias of the diodes. PMID:23594606

  14. Ferromagnetic properties of manganese doped iron silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Reyes, Angel; Fonseca, Luis F.; Sabirianov, Renat

    We report the synthesis of high quality Iron silicide (FeSi) nanowires via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The materials exhibits excellent magnetic response at room temperature, especially when doped with manganese showing values of 2.0 X 10-04 emu for the FexMnySi nanowires. SEM and TEM characterization indicates that the synthesized nanowires have a diameter of approximately 80nm. MFM measurements present a clear description of the magnetic domains when the nanowires are doped with manganese. Electron Diffraction and XRD measurements confirms that the nanowires are single crystal forming a simple cubic structure with space group P213. First-principle calculations were performed on (111) FeSi surface using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The exchange correlations were treated under the Ceperley-Alder (CA) local density approximation (LDA). The Brillouin Zone was sampled with 8x8x1 k-point grid. A total magnetic moment of about 10 μB was obtained for three different surface configuration in which the Iron atom nearest to the surface present the higher magnetization. To study the effect of Mn doping, Fe atom was replaced for a Mn. Stronger magnetization is presented when the Mn atom is close to the surface. The exchange coupling constant have been evaluated calculating the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic configurations.

  15. Epitaxial titanium silicide islands and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhian; Stevens, M.; Smith, David J.; Bennett, P. A.

    2003-02-01

    The growth of titanium silicide islands formed by reactive deposition of Ti on Si(1 1 1) at T˜850 °C has been studied using atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The predominant shape is very long and narrow, and can be considered to be a nanowire (NW). Other flat-topped structures coexist with the NWs, including small equilateral triangles and large rectangular plates. Most NWs are oriented along Si <2 2 0> directions, with typical dimensions 20 nm wide, 10 nm high and several microns long. A minority of NWs are oriented along Si <2 2 4> . These latter tend to break up into chains of small segments with regular size and spacing. Growth at lower temperature or higher deposition rate results in smaller and more numerous NWs. Length appears to be limited by intersection with other NWs oriented 120° apart. The junction between NWs appears to be incoherent in most cases. The triangular islands are positively identified as fully relaxed C54 TiSi 2, while the chains are relaxed C49 TiSi 2. The dominant NW structure is incommensurate and is tentatively identified as C49 TiSi 2.

  16. Nano-Borides and Silicide Dispersed Composite Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Laser-Assisted HVOF Spray Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2014-10-01

    The study concerned a detailed microstructural investigation of nano-borides (Cr2B and Ni3B) and nano-silicide (Ni2Si) dispersed γ-nickel composite coating on AISI 304 stainless steel by HVOF spray deposition of the NiCrBSi precursor powder and subsequent laser surface melting. A continuous wave diode laser with an applied power of 3 kW and scan speed of 20 mm/s in argon shroud was employed. The characterization of the surface in terms of microstructure, microtexture, phases, and composition were carried out and compared with the as-coated (high-velocity oxy-fuel sprayed) surface. Laser surface melting led to homogenization and refinement of microstructures with the formation of few nano-silicides of nickel along with nano-borides of nickel and chromium (Ni3B, Cr2B, and Cr2B3). A detailed microtexture analysis showed the presence of no specific texture in the as-sprayed and laser-melted surface of Cr2B and Ni3B phases. The average microhardness was improved to 750-900 VHN as compared to 250 VHN of the as-received substrate. Laser surface melting improved the microhardness further to as high as 1400 VHN due to refinement of microstructure and the presence of silicides.

  17. On the interdiffusion in multilayered silicide coatings for the vanadium-based alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaia, N.; Portebois, L.; Mathieu, S.; David, N.; Vilasi, M.

    2017-02-01

    To provide protection against corrosion at high temperatures, silicide diffusion coatings were developed for the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, which can be used as the fuel cladding in next-generation sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The multilayered coatings were prepared by halide-activated pack cementation using MgF2 as the transport agent and pure silicon (high activity) as the master alloy. Coated pure vanadium and coated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were studied and compared as substrates. In both cases, the growth of the silicide layers (V3Si, V5Si3, V6Si5 and VSi2) was controlled exclusively by solid-state diffusion, and the growth kinetics followed a parabolic law. Wagner's analysis was adopted to calculate the integrated diffusion coefficients for all silicides. The estimated values of the integrated diffusion coefficients range from approximately 10-9 to 10-13 cm2 s-1. Then, a diffusion-based numerical approach was used to evaluate the growth and consumption of the layers when the coated substrates were exposed at critical temperatures. The estimated lifetimes of the upper VSi2 layer were 400 h and 280 h for pure vanadium and the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, respectively. The result from the numeric simulation was in good agreement with the layer thicknesses measured after aging the coated samples at 1150 °C under vacuum.

  18. Model development of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to predict steady and unsteady behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bikash

    Fuel cells are promising technology to meet the energy need of the future. This alternative energy source is clean and efficient, and with the continuous decrease in fossil fuel resources, one of the best bets towards sustaining our power needs. Fuel cells are being used in automobiles as well as to fulfill portable power needs. In this work a computational model has been developed for fuel cells which can be used to simulate traditional as well as passive proton exchange membrane fuel cell behavior. The model is unsteady, two phase, nonisothermal in nature, and also capable of handling natural convection or buoyancy driven flows. The model also takes into account electrochemical reactions at catalyst sites. The model has been implemented and validated against experiments. It is used to carry out unsteady simulations to study start-up characteristic of proton exchange membrane fuel cells and to follow the behavior of liquid water as well as heat transfer within the cell. The buoyancy model is used to simulate a natural convection region and a passive fuel cell (used for portable applications). Design of passive fuel cells is driven by high temperature regimes and that issue has been further explored.

  19. Oxidation resistance of composite silicide coatings on niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gloshko, P.I.; Kurtsev, N.F.; Lisichenko, V.I.; Nadtoka, V.N.; Petrenko, M.I.; Zmii, V.I.

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports the oxidation of NbSi/sub 2/-MoSi/sub 2/ composite silicide coatings produced by diffusive siliconizing of molybdenum films on a niobium surface. Molybdenum-coated niobium was siliconized and an x-ray microspectral analysis of the composite silicide coating showed the phase composition to be an ca 80-um-thick outer molybdenum disilicide film with a characteristic coarsely crystalline columnar structure, and inner ca 20-um film of niobium disilicide consisting of the tiny columnar crystals, and a substrate/coating interface comprising a thin, 2-3 um film of lower silicide, i.e., Nb/sub 5/Si/sub 3/. The average grain sizes, unit cell parameters, and x-ray determined densities of the Mo films obtained by various methods are shown.

  20. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  1. Fuel Breeding and Core Behavior Analyses on In Core Fuel Management of Water Cooled Thorium Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Subhki, Muhamad Nurul; Ismail,

    2010-12-23

    Thorium fuel cycle with recycled U-233 has been widely recognized having some contributions to improve the water-cooled breeder reactor program which has been shown by a feasible area of breeding and negative void reactivity which confirms that fissile of 233U contributes to better fuel breeding and effective for obtaining negative void reactivity coefficient as the main fissile material. The present study has the objective to estimate the effect of whole core configuration as well as burnup effects to the reactor core profile by adopting two dimensional model of fuel core management. About more than 40 months of cycle period has been employed for one cycle fuel irradiation of three batches fuel system for large water cooled thorium reactors. All position of fuel arrangement contributes to the total core conversion ratio which gives conversion ratio less than unity of at the BOC and it contributes to higher than unity (1.01) at the EOC after some irradiation process. Inner part and central part give the important part of breeding contribution with increasing burnup process, while criticality is reduced with increasing the irradiation time. Feasibility of breeding capability of water-cooled thorium reactors for whole core fuel arrangement has confirmed from the obtained conversion ratio which shows higher than unity. Whole core analysis on evaluating reactivity change which is caused by the change of voided condition has been employed for conservative assumption that 100% coolant and moderator are voided. It obtained always a negative void reactivity coefficient during reactor operation which shows relatively more negative void coefficient at BOC (fresh fuel composition), and it becomes less negative void coefficient with increasing the operation time. Negative value of void reactivity coefficient shows the reactor has good safety properties in relation to the reactivity profile which is the main parameter in term of criticality safety analysis. Therefore, this

  2. Passivation of copper by silicide formation in dilute silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymes, S.; Murarka, S. P.; Shepard, C.; Lanford, W. A.

    1992-05-01

    The formation of copper silicide by reaction of silane with sputtered copper films has been observed at temperatures as low as 300 °C. The growth kinetics have been monitored by both sheet resistance and x-ray diffraction techniques. Cu5Si is the first phase to form followed next by Cu3Si, coincident with the loss of the original copper layer. The silicide layer provides significant oxidation protection for the underlying copper up to 550 °C in air.

  3. The Vaporization Behavior of a Fuel Drop on a Hot Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    evaporation behavior of fuel drops 99 Figure 36. Effect of surface cleanliness on drop evaporation lifetime .. ......... . 101 Figure 37. Effect of drop...C, CD 0 C) - -C) -H _______________C_ 100 procedures that were considered during the evaluation included the surface cleanliness , fuel drop size and...evaporating surface heating rate. The effect of the studied variables on the test results was found to be as follow: Surface Cleanliness As indicated

  4. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-03-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the resistance of the Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire to be a little higher and much lower than that of Si nanowire. An O2 sensing device was formed from a nanowire that was mounted on Pt electrodes. When the nanowires exposed to O2, the increase in current in the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire was much larger than that in the other nanowires. The Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire device had the highest sensitivity. The phenomenon can be explained by the formation of a Schottky junction at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in these two types of Ni-Silicide/Si nanowire and the formation of a hole channel at the silicon nanowire/native oxide interface after exposing the nanowires to O2.

  5. Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Feng; Chen, Chun-An; Liu, Shang-Wu; Tang, Chun-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ni-silicide/Si nanowires were fabricated by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation on silicon-on-insulator substrates, selective wet etching, and reactive deposition epitaxy. Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire were formed by low- and high-coverage depositions of Ni, respectively. The Ni-silicide/Si Schottky junction and Ni-silicide region were attributed high- and low-resistance parts of nanowire, respectively, causing the resistance of the Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire and the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire to be a little higher and much lower than that of Si nanowire. An O2 sensing device was formed from a nanowire that was mounted on Pt electrodes. When the nanowires exposed to O2, the increase in current in the Ni-silicide/Si heterostructure multi-stacked nanowire was much larger than that in the other nanowires. The Ni-silicide nanocrystal-modified Si nanowire device had the highest sensitivity. The phenomenon can be explained by the formation of a Schottky junction at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in these two types of Ni-Silicide/Si nanowire and the formation of a hole channel at the silicon nanowire/native oxide interface after exposing the nanowires to O2.

  6. Vibration behavior of fuel-element vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D. W.; Fiero, I. B.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary shock and vibration tests were performed on vibration suppressors for the advanced power reactor for space application. These suppressors position the fuel pellets in a pin type fuel element. The test determined the effect of varying axial clearance on the behavior of the suppressors when subjected to shock and vibratory loading. The full-size suppressor was tested in a mockup model of fuel and clad which required scaling of test conditions. The test data were correlated with theoretical predictions for suppressor failure. Good agreement was obtained. The maximum difference with damping neglected was about 30 percent. Neglecting damping would result in a conservative design.

  7. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  8. Analysis of Ignition Behavior in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Dual Fuel Engine Using Propane and Methane as Primary Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2013-05-24

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (© pilot ¼ 0.2-0.6 and © overall ¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant © pilot (> 0.5), increasing © overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing © overall (at constant © pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  9. Modified fused silicide coatings for tantalum (Ta-10W) reentry heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packer, C. M.; Perkins, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of a program of research to develop a reliable, high performance, fused slurry silicide coating for the Ta-10W alloy. The effort was directed toward developing new and improved formulations for use at 2600 to 2800 F (1700 to 1811 K) in an atmospheric reentry thermal protection system with a 100-mission capability. Based on a thorough characterization of isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior, bend transition temperatures, room- and elevated-temperature tensile properties, and creep behavior, a 2.5 Mn-33Ti-64.5Si coating (designated MTS) provides excellent protection for the Ta-10W alloy in simulated reentry environments. An extensive analysis of the oxidation behavior and characteristics of the MTS coating in terms of fundamental mechanisms also is presented.

  10. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  11. Misconceptions concerning the behavior, fate and transport of the fuel oxygenates TBA and MTBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Sloan, R.

    2003-04-01

    The release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and the subsequent appearance of dissolved constituents in drinking water has focused attention on the use of MTBE in reformulated fuels. Natural biodegradation of MTBE in soil, photo-oxidation in the atmosphere or chemical oxidation during remediation of gasoline releases can produce the intermediate tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). TBA is also a fuel oxygenate and can be found as a co-product in MTBE synthesized from methanol and TBA. Because the physical properties of ethers and alcohols differ somewhat from the predominant hydrocarbon compounds in gasoline, misconceptions have developed about the behavior of fuel oxygenates in storage and in the subsurface. Critical review of several misconceptions about MTBE and TBA in gasoline reveals the concepts were conceived to rationalize early field observations and/or incomplete data sets. Closer scrutiny, in light of recent laboratory investigations, field data, case studies and world literature, clarifies these misconceptions and assumptions about the behavior of ether oxygenates and their degradation products in the environment. Commonly held misconceptions focus on four general areas of fuel and fuel oxygenate management: storage/dispensing, hydrology, remediation, and health effects. Storage/dispensing misconceptions address materials stability to ethers and alcohols in fuel and the environmental forensics of fuel systems failure. Groundwater and hydrology misconceptions deal with plume dynamics and the impact of fuel on drinking water resources. Remediation misconceptions focus on the performance of traditional hydrocarbon remediation technologies, recent developments in biodegradation and natural attenuation, drivers of remedial design and remediation costs. Health effects misconceptions address both acute and chronic exposure risk evaluations by national and international health agencies. Generally MTBE and TBA are manageable by the same processes and

  12. Deposition of aluminide and silicide based protective coatings on niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S.; Arya, A.; Sharma, I. G.; Suri, A. K.; Banerjee, S.

    2010-11-01

    We compare aluminide and alumino-silicide composite coatings on niobium using halide activated pack cementation (HAPC) technique for improving its oxidation resistance. The coated samples are characterized by SEM, EDS, EPMA and hardness measurements. We observe formation of NbAl3 in aluminide coating of Nb, though the alumino-silicide coating leads to formation primarily of NbSi2 in the inner layer and a ternary compound of Nb-Si-Al in the outer layer, as reported earlier (Majumdar et al. [11]). Formation of niobium silicide is preferred over niobium aluminide during alumino-silicide coating experiments, indicating Si is more strongly bonded to Nb than Al, although equivalent quantities of aluminium and silicon powders were used in the pack chemistry. We also employ first-principles density functional pseudopotential-based calculations to calculate the relative stability of these intermediate phases and the adhesion strength of the Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces. NbSi2 exhibits much stronger covalent character as compared to NbAl3. The ideal work of adhesion for the relaxed Al/Nb and Si/Nb interfaces are calculated to be 3226 mJ/m2 and 3545 mJ/m2, respectively, indicating stronger Nb-Si bonding across the interface.

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis of technologically important transition metal silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidhyanathan, B.; Rao, K.J.

    1997-12-01

    A novel, simple, clean and fast microwave assisted method of preparing important transition metal silicides (MoSi{sub 2}, WSi{sub 2}, CoSi{sub 2}, and TiSi{sub 2}) has been described. Amorphous carbon is used both as a microwave susceptor and as a preventer of oxidation. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  14. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  15. Analysis of Nickel Silicides by SIMS and LEAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ronsheim, Paul; McMurray, Jeff; Flaitz, Philip; Parks, Christopher

    2007-09-26

    Ni-silicides formed by a variety of processing techniques were studied with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and local electrode atom probe (LEAP registered ) analysis. SIMS provided 1-D chemical analysis over an approximately 60 micron diameter area. LEAP provided 3-D atom identities and locations over an approximately 100-150 nm diameter area. It was determined that the 200 deg. C drive-in anneal results in a Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2} phase, which is converted to NiSi at temperatures between 360 deg. C-400 deg. C. LEAP detects no As or Pt segregation after the 200 deg. C drive-in anneal, but did quantify As segregation of up to 7% of the material composition just inside the NiSi-Si interface after the phase-formation anneal. The presence of oxygen at the interface results in a silicide chemical surface roughness of up to 3.5 nm as compared to 0.5 nm with a clean, non-oxidized surface. Silicide stability was demonstrated over the phase-formation-temperature range of 360 deg. C - 400 deg. C including when a second rapid thermal anneal step was used. LEAP analysis was also able to quantify the surface roughness of the interface as a function of anneal temperature and the non-uniform Pt and As distribution across the silicide surface as viewed in 2-D surface projection.

  16. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  17. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  18. Kinetics of silicide formation over a wide range of heating rates spanning six orders of magnitude

    SciTech Connect

    Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Lopeandía, Aitor F.; Gonzalez-Silveira, Marta; Garcia, Gemma; Clavaguera-Mora, Maria T.; Peral, Inma; Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2014-07-07

    Kinetic processes involving intermediate phase formation are often assumed to follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence. This behavior is usually inferred from limited data over narrow temperature intervals, where the exponential dependence is generally fully satisfied. However, direct evidence over wide temperature intervals is experimentally challenging and data are scarce. Here, we report a study of silicide formation between a 12 nm film of palladium and 15 nm of amorphous silicon in a wide range of heating rates, spanning six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10{sup 5 }K/s, or equivalently more than 300 K of variation in reaction temperature. The calorimetric traces exhibit several distinct exothermic events related to interdiffusion, nucleation of Pd{sub 2}Si, crystallization of amorphous silicon, and vertical growth of Pd{sub 2}Si. Interestingly, the thickness of the initial nucleation layer depends on the heating rate revealing enhanced mass diffusion at the fastest heating rates during the initial stages of the reaction. In spite of this, the formation of the silicide strictly follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence over the whole temperature interval explored. A kinetic model is used to fit the calorimetric data over the complete heating rate range. Calorimetry is complemented by structural analysis through transmission electron microscopy and both standard and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

  19. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schutter, B.; De Keyser, K.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2016-09-01

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi2, C54-TiSi2, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si1-xGex in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  20. Structural Behavior of Monolithic Fuel Plates During Hot Isostatic Pressing and Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel G. Medvedev; Hakan Ozaltun

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results of the stress analysis in the monolithic fuel plates during thermal transients performed using COMSOL finite element analysis software. Large difference in the thermal expansion between the U-Mo foil and Al cladding is the main load origin during heating and cooling of the fuel plates. In addition, the mechanical behavior of the plate is affected by the difference in yield points between the foil and the cladding. This is manifested by the plastic deformation and permanent strains in the cladding, and elastic deformation of the foil. The results show existence of the critical temperature points at which the stresses change from compressive to tensile. The paper highlights principal differences in mechanical behavior between monolithic and dispersion fuel plates, underlines the need for mechanical property data, especially for the U-Mo alloys, and discusses the methodology for mechanical analysis of the monolithic plates.

  1. Multifractal behavior of commodity markets: Fuel versus non-fuel products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbianco, Fernando; Tohmé, Fernando; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2016-09-01

    We investigate multifractal properties of commodity time series using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). We find that agricultural and energy-related commodities exhibit very similar behavior, while the multifractal behavior of daily and monthly commodity series is rather different. Daily series demonstrate overall uncorrelated behavior, lower degree of multifractality and the dominance of small fluctuations. On the other hand, monthly commodity series show overall persistent behavior, higher degree of multifractality and the dominance of large fluctuations. After shuffling the series, we find that the multifractality is due to a broad probability density function for daily commodities series, while for monthly commodities series multifractality is caused by both a broad probability density function and long term correlations.

  2. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert; Tomé, Carlos; Liu, Wenfeng; Alankar, Alankar; Subramanian, Gopinath; Stanek, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. CASL has endeavored to improve upon this approach by incorporating a microstructurally-based, atomistically-informed, zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability into the BISON-CASL engineering scale fuel performance code. Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tome´ [2], has been coupled with BISON-CASL to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of the cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON-CASL and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  3. Expected behavior of plutonium in the IFR fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steunenberg, R. K.; Johnson, I.

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a metal-fueled, sodium-cooled reactor that will consist initially of a U-Zr alloy core in which the enriched uranium will be replaced gradually by plutonium bred in a uranium blanket. The plutonium is concentrated to the required level by extraction from the molten blanket material with a CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing MgCl2 as an oxidant (halide slagging). The CaCl2-BaCl2 salt containing dissolved PuCl3 and UCl3 is added to the core process where fission products are removed by electrorefining, using a liquid cadmium anode, a metal cathode, and a LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2-BaCl2 molten salt electrolyte. The product is recovered as a metallic deposit on the cathode. The Halide slagging step is operated at about 1250 deg and the electrorefining step at about 450 C. These processes are expected to give low fission-product decontamination factors of the order of 100.

  4. Investigation into Self-Organizational Tendencies of Cobalt- and Titanium-Silicide Nanostructures on Si Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    properties , directly affects interaction with the deposited metal adatoms, and in conjunction with the metal deposition method, determines the silicide ...formation kinetics and the properties of the silicide /silicon interface. Morphological and statistical characteristics, and the resulting collective...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 - 01-Apr-08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-Organization of Cobalt Silicide Nanostructures into 2D

  5. Fuel moisture content enhances nonadditive effects of plant mixtures on flammability and fire behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Luke G; Wensink, Niki; Bakker, Lisette; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Fire behavior of plant mixtures includes a complex set of processes for which the interactive contributions of its drivers, such as plant identity and moisture, have not yet been unraveled fully. Plant flammability parameters of species mixtures can show substantial deviations of fire properties from those expected based on the component species when burnt alone; that is, there are nonadditive mixture effects. Here, we investigated how fuel moisture content affects nonadditive effects in fire behavior. We hypothesized that both the magnitude and variance of nonadditivity in flammability parameters are greater in moist than in dry fuel beds. We conducted a series of experimental burns in monocultures and 2-species mixtures with two ericaceous dwarf shrubs and two bryophyte species from temperate fire-prone heathlands. For a set of fire behavior parameters, we found that magnitude and variability of nonadditive effects are, on average, respectively 5.8 and 1.8 times larger in moist (30% MC) species mixtures compared to dry (10% MC) mixed fuel beds. In general, the moist mixtures caused negative nonadditive effects, but due to the larger variability these mixtures occasionally caused large positive nonadditive effects, while this did not occur in dry mixtures. Thus, at moister conditions, mixtures occasionally pass the moisture threshold for ignition and fire spread, which the monospecific fuel beds are unable to pass. We also show that the magnitude of nonadditivity is highly species dependent. Thus, contrary to common belief, the strong nonadditive effects in mixtures can cause higher fire occurrence at moister conditions. This new integration of surface fuel moisture and species interactions will help us to better understand fire behavior in the complexity of natural ecosystems. PMID:26380709

  6. Fuel moisture content enhances nonadditive effects of plant mixtures on flammability and fire behavior.

    PubMed

    Blauw, Luke G; Wensink, Niki; Bakker, Lisette; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-09-01

    Fire behavior of plant mixtures includes a complex set of processes for which the interactive contributions of its drivers, such as plant identity and moisture, have not yet been unraveled fully. Plant flammability parameters of species mixtures can show substantial deviations of fire properties from those expected based on the component species when burnt alone; that is, there are nonadditive mixture effects. Here, we investigated how fuel moisture content affects nonadditive effects in fire behavior. We hypothesized that both the magnitude and variance of nonadditivity in flammability parameters are greater in moist than in dry fuel beds. We conducted a series of experimental burns in monocultures and 2-species mixtures with two ericaceous dwarf shrubs and two bryophyte species from temperate fire-prone heathlands. For a set of fire behavior parameters, we found that magnitude and variability of nonadditive effects are, on average, respectively 5.8 and 1.8 times larger in moist (30% MC) species mixtures compared to dry (10% MC) mixed fuel beds. In general, the moist mixtures caused negative nonadditive effects, but due to the larger variability these mixtures occasionally caused large positive nonadditive effects, while this did not occur in dry mixtures. Thus, at moister conditions, mixtures occasionally pass the moisture threshold for ignition and fire spread, which the monospecific fuel beds are unable to pass. We also show that the magnitude of nonadditivity is highly species dependent. Thus, contrary to common belief, the strong nonadditive effects in mixtures can cause higher fire occurrence at moister conditions. This new integration of surface fuel moisture and species interactions will help us to better understand fire behavior in the complexity of natural ecosystems.

  7. Gas cluster ion beam assisted NiPt germano-silicide formation on SiGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Lavoie, Christian; Alptekin, Emre; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Zhu, Frank; Leith, Allen; Pfeifer, Brian D.; LaRose, J. D.; Russell, N. M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the formation of very uniform and smooth Ni(Pt)Si on epitaxially grown SiGe using Si gas cluster ion beam treatment after metal-rich silicide formation. The gas cluster ion implantation process was optimized to infuse Si into the metal-rich silicide layer and lowered the NiSi nucleation temperature significantly according to in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. This novel method which leads to more uniform films can also be used to control silicide depth in ultra-shallow junctions, especially for high Ge containing devices, where silicidation is problematic as it leads to much rougher interfaces.

  8. High-temperature properties of a silicon nitride-intermetallic silicide composite

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, R.L.K.; Weaver, G.G.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic composites composed of a silicon nitride matrix containing a dispersed silicide phase have been fabricated. While many silicides are brittle at room temperature, they become ductile at high temperatures as they undergo a brittle-to-ductile transition. In contrast to composites having silicides as the matrix phase, the material examined contains dispersed cobalt silicide particulates and has room temperature toughness of 10 MPa sq rt m. The toughness increases to 12 MPa sq rt m at 800 C. When the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature is exceeded, the toughness at 1100 C drops to 6 MPa sq rt m. 13 refs.

  9. Schottky Barrier Inhomogeneities in Nickel Silicide Transrotational Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Alessandra; Roccaforte, Fabrizio; Libertino, Sebania; Bongiorno, Corrado; La Magna, Antonino

    2011-11-01

    Ni-silicide/silicon Schottky contacts have been realised by promoting low-temperature Ni-Si interdiffusion during deposition (˜50 °C) and reaction (450 °C) on an oxygen-free [001] silicon surface. A 14 nm transrotational NiSi layer was produced made of extremely flat pseudo-epitaxial domains (˜200 nm in diameter). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics (340-80 K) have indicated the presence of structural inhomogeneities which lower the Schottky barrier by Δ≈0.1 eV. They have been associated with the core regions of the trans-domains (wherein the silicide lattice is epitaxially aligned to that of Si) since their density (˜2.5×109 cm-2) and dimension (˜10 nm) fit the I-V curves vs temperature following the Tung's approach.

  10. Titanium-based silicide quantum dot superlattices for thermoelectrics applications.

    PubMed

    Savelli, Guillaume; Stein, Sergio Silveira; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent; Dilhaire, Stefan; Pernot, Gilles

    2015-07-10

    Ti-based silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) are grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. They are made of titanium-based silicide nanodots scattered in an n-doped SiGe matrix. This is the first time that such nanostructured materials have been grown in both monocrystalline and polycrystalline QDSLs. We studied their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the size and the density of the quantum dots. The thermoelectric properties of the QDSLs are measured and compared to equivalent SiGe thin films to evaluate the influence of the nanodots. Our studies revealed an increase in their thermoelectric properties-specifically, up to a trifold increase in the power factor, with a decrease in the thermal conductivity-making them very good candidates for further thermoelectric applications in cooling or energy-harvesting fields.

  11. Use of multiscale zirconium alloy deformation models in nuclear fuel behavior analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Robert; Tomé, Carlos; Liu, Wenfeng; Alankar, Alankar; Subramanian, Gopinath; Stanek, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cladding mechanical behavior is a key aspect of modeling nuclear fuel behavior, especially for conditions of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), reactivity-initiated accidents (RIA), and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Current approaches to fuel performance modeling rely on empirical constitutive models for cladding creep, growth and plastic deformation, which are limited to the materials and conditions for which the models were developed. To improve upon this approach, a microstructurally-based zirconium alloy mechanical deformation analysis capability is being developed within the United States Department of Energy Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Specifically, the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity modeling approach, developed by Lebensohn and Tomé [1], has been coupled with the BISON engineering scale fuel performance code to represent the mechanistic material processes controlling the deformation behavior of light water reactor (LWR) cladding. A critical component of VPSC is the representation of the crystallographic nature (defect and dislocation movement) and orientation of the grains within the matrix material and the ability to account for the role of texture on deformation. A future goal is for VPSC to obtain information on reaction rate kinetics from atomistic calculations to inform the defect and dislocation behavior models described in VPSC. The multiscale modeling of cladding deformation mechanisms allowed by VPSC far exceed the functionality of typical semi-empirical constitutive models employed in nuclear fuel behavior codes to model irradiation growth and creep, thermal creep, or plasticity. This paper describes the implementation of an interface between VPSC and BISON and provides initial results utilizing the coupled functionality.

  12. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  13. Characteristics of a promising new thermoelectric material - Ruthenium silicide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohta, Toshitaka; Vining, Cronin B.; Allevato, Camillo E.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary study on arc-melted samples has indicated that ruthenium silicide has the potential to obtain figure-of-merit values four times higher than that of conventional silicon-germanium material. In order to realize the high figure-of-merit values, high-quality crystal from the melt is needed. A Bridgman-like method has been employed and has realized much better crystals than arc-melted ones.

  14. Carbon nanotube cantilevers on self-aligned copper silicide nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parajuli, Omkar; Kumar, Nitin; Kipp, Dylan; Hahm, Jong-in

    2007-04-01

    In this letter, the authors describe both a growth method for self-aligning copper silicide (Cu3Si) nanobeams and their use as active catalysts for carbon nanotube (CNT) synthesis via chemical vapor deposition. In the unique geometry of these useful structures, CNT cantilevers are anchored firmly to the Cu3Si nanobeams. The resulting CNT-Cu3Si structures may improve accuracy and reliability of CNT applications in nanoelectromechanical systems.

  15. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  16. Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Multiphase Mo Silicide Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherly, L.; Liu, C.T.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-11-30

    Multiphase Mo silicide alloys containing T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}), Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo phases where prepared by both melting and casting (M and C) and powder metallurgical (PM) processes. Glassy phases are observed in PM materials but not in M and C materials. Microstructural studies indicate that the primary phase is Mo-rich solid solution in alloys containing {le}(9.4Si+13.8B, at. %) and T2 in alloys with {ge}(9.8Si+14.6B). An eutectic composition is estimated to be close to Mo-9.6Si-14.2B. The mechanical properties of multiphase silicide alloys were determined by hardness, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. The multiphase alloy MSB-18 (Mo-9.4Si-13.8B) possesses a flexure strength distinctly higher than that of MoSi{sub 2} and other Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicide alloys containing no Mo particles. Also, MSB-18 is tougher than MoSi{sub 2} by a factor of 4.

  17. Increasing the heat resistance of vanadium by siliciding

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutyi, E.M.; Tsvikilevich, O.S.; Shirokov, V.V.; Stepanishin, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the influence of modifier metals on the protective properties of silicide coatings in heating of vanadium in air and also on the mechanical properties of type VnM-2 unalloyed vanadium and VTsU alloy. Coatings were produced by diffusion impregnation from molten sodium with silicon or silicides of the modifying elements. The silicides of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, rhenium, and nickel were investigated using x-ray spectrometric and hardness investigations and x-ray diffractometric analysis. The protective properties of the coatings were determined from the relative change in weight of the samples with and without coatings during isothermal oxidation in air at 1073/sup 0/K and also by differential thermal analysis. The influence of the coating on the mechanical properties of the material was also investigated using a borosilicide coating. High-temperature vacuum annealing was assessed as a method for restoring the plastic properties and relieving the stresses of vanadium and VTsU alloy subsequent to coating.

  18. Silicidation of Niobium Deposited on Silicon by Physical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Coumba Ndoye, Kandabara Tapily, Marius Orlowski, Helmut Baumgart, Diefeng Gu

    2011-07-01

    Niobium was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) using e-beam evaporation on bare (100) silicon substrates and SiO2 surfaces. The formation of niobium silicide was investigated by annealing PVD Nb films in the temperatures range 400–1000°C. At all elevated annealing temperatures the resistivity of Nb silicide is substantially higher than that of Nb. The Nb silicidation as a function of temperature has been investigated and different NbXSiy compounds have been characterized. It has been observed that the annealing of the Nb film on Si is accompanied by a strong volume expansion of about 2.5 of the resulting reacted film. The films' structural properties were studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which was not previously presented in the context of the extant NbSi literature. The X-Ray diffraction characterization of the Nb on Si sample annealed at 1000°C, showed the presence of hexagonal Nb5Si3 phases, with a dominant peak at the (200) plane, and NbSi2 phases. Fractal dimension calculations indicate a distinct transition from Stranski-Krastanov to Volmer-Weber film growth for NbSi formation at the annealing temperature of 600°C and above.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Free-Standing Fuel Cell Electrodes on Water Surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanwi; Kim, Jae-Han; Oh, Jong-Gil; Jang, Kyung-Lim; Jeong, Byeong-Heon; Hong, Bo Ki; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2016-06-22

    Fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes as free-standing materials is essential to develop mechanically robust fuel cells. However, this has been a significant challenge due to critical difficulties, such as separating the pristine electrode from the substrate without damage and precisely measuring the mechanical properties of the very fragile and thin electrodes. We report the mechanical behavior of free-standing fuel cell electrodes on the water surface through adopting an innovative ice-assisted separation method to separate the electrode from decal transfer film. It is found that doubling the ionomer content in electrodes increases not only the tensile stress at the break and the Young's modulus (E) of the electrodes by approximately 2.1-3.5 and 1.7-2.4 times, respectively, but also the elongation at the break by approximately 1.5-1.7 times, which indicates that stronger, stiffer, and tougher electrodes are attained with increasing ionomer content, which have been of significant interest in materials research fields. The scaling law relationship between Young's modulus and density (ρ) has been unveiled as E ∼ ρ(1.6), and it is compared with other materials. These findings can be used to develop mechanically robust electrodes for fuel cell applications.

  20. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, J. D.; Novascone, S. R.; Perez, D. M.; Spencer, B. W.; Luzzi, L.; Van Uffelen, P.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code with a recently implemented physics-based model for fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information in the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior predictions with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, significantly higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Perez, Danielle M.; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Luzzi, Lelio; Uffelen, Paul Van; Williamson, Richard L.

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.

  3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of fission gas behavior in engineering-scale fuel modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Pastore, Giovanni; Swiler, L. P.; Hales, Jason D.; ...

    2014-10-12

    The role of uncertainties in fission gas behavior calculations as part of engineering-scale nuclear fuel modeling is investigated using the BISON fuel performance code and a recently implemented physics-based model for the coupled fission gas release and swelling. Through the integration of BISON with the DAKOTA software, a sensitivity analysis of the results to selected model parameters is carried out based on UO2 single-pellet simulations covering different power regimes. The parameters are varied within ranges representative of the relative uncertainties and consistent with the information from the open literature. The study leads to an initial quantitative assessment of the uncertaintymore » in fission gas behavior modeling with the parameter characterization presently available. Also, the relative importance of the single parameters is evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is carried out based on simulations of a fuel rod irradiation experiment, pointing out a significant impact of the considered uncertainties on the calculated fission gas release and cladding diametral strain. The results of the study indicate that the commonly accepted deviation between calculated and measured fission gas release by a factor of 2 approximately corresponds to the inherent modeling uncertainty at high fission gas release. Nevertheless, higher deviations may be expected for values around 10% and lower. Implications are discussed in terms of directions of research for the improved modeling of fission gas behavior for engineering purposes.« less

  4. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  5. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Kang

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  6. Silicide phase formation in Ni/Si system: Depth-resolved positron annihilation and Rutherford backscattering study

    SciTech Connect

    Abhaya, S.; Amarendra, G.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Nair, K.G.M.

    2006-02-01

    Silicidation in Ni/Si thin-film junction has been investigated using depth-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Identification of various silicide phases from an analysis of the positron annihilation parameters is consistent with the RBS results. Absence of vacancy defects in the silicide region is clearly brought out by PAS00.

  7. Impacts of climate on shrubland fuels and fire behavior in the Owyhee Basin, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Shi, H.; Hawbaker, T.; Li, Z.

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that wildland fire is increasing as a function of global change. However, fire activity is spatially, temporally and ecologically variable across the globe, and our understanding of fire risk and behavior in many ecosystems is limited. After a series of severe fire seasons that occurred during the late 1990's in the western United States, the LANDFIRE program was developed with the goals of providing the fire community with objective spatial fuel data for assessing wildland fire risk. Even with access to the data provided by LANDFIRE, assessing fire behavior in shrublands in sagebrush-dominated ecosystems of the western United States has proven especially problematic, in part due to the complex nature of the vegetation, the variable influence of understory vegetation including invasive species (e.g. cheatgrass), and prior fire history events. Climate is undoubtedly playing a major role, affecting the intra- and inter-annual variability in vegetation conditions, which in turn impacts fire behavior. In order to further our understanding of climate-vegetation-fire interactions in shrublands, we initiated a study in the Owyhee Basin, which is located in southwestern Idaho and adjacent Nevada. Our goals include: (1) assessing the relationship between climate and vegetation condition, (2) quantifying the range of temporal variability in grassland and shrubland fuel loads, (3) identifying methods to operationally map the variability in fuel loads, and (4) assessing how the variability in fuel loads affect fire spread simulations. To address these goals, we are using a wide variety of geospatial data, including remotely sensed time-series data sets derived from MODIS and Landsat, and climate data from DAYMET and PRISM. Remotely-sensed information is used to characterize climate-induced temporal variability in primary productivity in the Basin, where fire spread can be extensive after senescence when dry vegetation is added to dead fuel loads. Gridded

  8. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.-G.; Nagase, T.; Yasuda, H.; Mori, H.

    2015-05-21

    The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, α-Pt{sub 2}Si, was successfully formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface under 25–200 keV electron irradiation. This is of interest since any platinum silicide was not formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface by simple thermal annealing under no-electron-irradiation conditions. From the electron energy dependence of the cross section for the initiation of the silicide formation, it is clarified that the silicide formation under electron irradiation was not due to a knock-on atom-displacement process, but a process induced by electronic excitation. It is suggested that a mechanism related to the Knotek and Feibelman mechanism may play an important role in silicide formation within the solid. Similar silicide formation was also observed at the palladium/silicon oxide and nickel/silicon oxide interfaces, indicating a wide generality of the silicide formation by electronic excitation.

  9. Columnar and subsurface silicide growth with novel molecular beam epitaxy techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    We have found novel growth modes for epitaxial CoSi2 at high temperatures coupled with Si-rich flux ratios or low deposition rates. In the first of these modes, codeposition of metal and Si at 600-800 C with excess Si leads to the formation of epitaxial silicide columns surrounded by single-crystal Si. During the initial stages of the deposition, the excess Si grows homoepitaxially in between the silicide, which forms islands, so that the lateral growth of the islands is confined. Once a template layer is established by this process, columns of silicide form as a result of selective epitaxy of silicide on silicide and Si on Si. This growth process allows nanometer control over silicide particles in three dimensions. In the second of these modes, a columnar silicide seed layer is used as a template to nucleate subsurface growth of CoSi2. With a 100 nm Si layer covering CoSi2 seeds, Co deposited at 800C and 0.01 nm/s diffuses down to grow on the buried seeds rather than nucleating surface silicide islands. For thicker Si caps or higher deposition rates, the surface concentration of Co exceeds the critical concentration for nucleation of islands, preventing this subsurface growth mode from occurring. Using this technique, single-crystal layers of CoSi2 buried under single-crystal Si caps have been grown.

  10. Formation of low resistivity titanium silicide gates in semiconductor integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Ishida, Emi

    1999-08-10

    A method of forming a titanium silicide (69) includes the steps of forming a transistor having a source region (58), a drain region (60) and a gate structure (56) and forming a titanium layer (66) over the transistor. A first anneal is performed with a laser anneal at an energy level that causes the titanium layer (66) to react with the gate structure (56) to form a high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) having substantially small grain sizes. The unreacted portions of the titanium layer (66) are removed and a second anneal is performed, thereby causing the high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) to convert to a low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69). The small grain sizes obtained by the first anneal allow low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69) to be achieved at device geometries less than about 0.25 micron.

  11. Behavior or Nonmetallic Materials in Shale Oil Derived Jet Fuels and in High Aromatic and High Sulfur Petroleum Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Sealants (Noncuring Type) 30 6. Elastomeric Marmon Clamp Seals 34 7. Elastomeric O-Ring Materials 38 8. Fuel Cell Baffle Materials 42 9. Internal Fuel Cell...fuel bladder materials, bladder repair adhesives, groove sealants, elastomeric o-ring materials, elasto- meric Marmon clamp seals, fuel tank coatings...a. EC-2216 EC-2216 is a room temperature curing epoxy- polyamide struc- tural adhesive manufactured by 3M Company. The initial test results have

  12. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-01-02

    High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

  13. Irradiation behavior of the interaction product of U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in an Al matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.S.; Hofman, G.

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation performance of U-Mo fuel particles dispersed in Al matrix is stable in terms of fuel swelling and is suitable for the conversion of research and test reactors from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). However, tests of the fuel at high temperatures and high burnups revealed obstacles caused by the interaction layers forming between the fuel particle and matrix. In some cases, fission gas filled pores grow and interconnect in the interdiffusion layer resulting in fuel plate failure. Postirradiation observations are made to examine the behavior of the interdiffusion layers. The interdiffusion layers show a fluid-like behavior characteristic of amorphous materials. In the amorphous interdiffusion layers, fission gas diffusivity is high and the material viscosity is low so that the fission gas pores readily form and grow. Based on the observations, a pore formation mechanism is proposed and potential remedies to suppress the pore growth are also introduced.

  14. A new code for predicting the thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic fuels in sodium fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karahan, Aydın; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2010-01-01

    An engineering code to predict the irradiation behavior of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel pins and UO2-PuO2 mixed oxide fuel pins in sodium-cooled fast reactors was developed. The code was named Fuel Engineering and Structural analysis Tool (FEAST). FEAST has several modules working in coupled form with an explicit numerical algorithm. These modules describe fission gas release and fuel swelling, fuel chemistry and restructuring, temperature distribution, fuel-clad chemical interaction, and fuel and clad mechanical analysis including transient creep-fracture for the clad. Given the fuel pin geometry, composition and irradiation history, FEAST can analyze fuel and clad thermo-mechanical behavior at both steady-state and design-basis (non-disruptive) transient scenarios. FEAST was written in FORTRAN-90 and has a simple input file similar to that of the LWR fuel code FRAPCON. The metal-fuel version is called FEAST-METAL, and is described in this paper. The oxide-fuel version, FEAST-OXIDE is described in a companion paper. With respect to the old Argonne National Laboratory code LIFE-METAL and other same-generation codes, FEAST-METAL emphasizes more mechanistic, less empirical models, whenever available. Specifically, fission gas release and swelling are modeled with the GRSIS algorithm, which is based on detailed tracking of fission gas bubbles within the metal fuel. Migration of the fuel constituents is modeled by means of thermo-transport theory. Fuel-clad chemical interaction models based on precipitation kinetics were developed for steady-state operation and transients. Finally, a transient intergranular creep-fracture model for the clad, which tracks the nucleation and growth of the cavities at the grain boundaries, was developed for and implemented in the code. Reducing the empiricism in the constitutive models should make it more acceptable to extrapolate FEAST-METAL to new fuel compositions and higher burnup, as envisioned in advanced sodium reactors

  15. Progress in doping of ruthenium silicide (Ru2Si3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, C. B.; Allevato, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    Ruthenium silicide is currently under development as a promising thermoelectric material suitable for space power applications. Key to realizing the potentially high figure of merit values of this material is the development of appropriate doping techniques. In this study, manganese and iridium have been identified as useful p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Resistivity values have been reduced by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Anomalous Hall effect results, however, complicate interpretation of some of the results and further effort is required to achieve optimum doping levels.

  16. Transient and End Silicide Phase Formation in Thin Film Ni/polycrystalline-Si Reactions for Fully Silicided Gate Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kittl,J.; Pawlak, M.; Torregiani, C.; Lauwers, A.; Demeurisse, C.; Vrancken, C.; Absil, P.; Biesemans, S.; Coia, C.; et. al

    2007-01-01

    The Ni/polycrystalline-Si thin film reaction was monitored by in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp annealings, obtaining a detailed view of the formation and evolution of silicide phases in stacks of interest for fully silicided gate applications. Samples consisted of Ni (30-170 nm)/polycrystalline-Si (100 nm)/SiO2 (10-30 nm) stacks deposited on (100) Si. The dominant end phase (after full silicidation) was found to be well controlled by the deposited Ni to polycrystalline-Si thickness ratio (tNi/tSi), with formation of NiSi2 ( {approx} 600 C), NiSi ( {approx} 400 C), Ni3Si2 ( {approx} 500 C), Ni2Si, Ni31Si12 ( {approx} 420 C), and Ni3Si ( {approx} 600 C) in stacks with tNi/tSi of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.7, respectively. NiSi and Ni31Si12 were observed to precede formation of NiSi2 and Ni3Si, respectively, as expected for the phase sequence conventionally reported. Formation of Ni2Si was observed at early stages of the reaction. These studies revealed, in addition, the formation of transient phases that appeared and disappeared in narrow temperature ranges, competing with formation of the phases expected in the conventional phase sequence. These included the transient formation of NiSi and Ni31Si12 in stacks in which these phases are not expected to form (e.g., tNi/tSi of 1.7 and 0.9, respectively), at temperatures similar to those in which these phases normally grow.

  17. Work function characterization of solution-processed cobalt silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab Ullah, Syed; Robinson, Matt; Hoey, Justin; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2012-06-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films were prepared by spin-coating liquid cyclohexasilane-based inks onto silicon substrates followed by a thermal treatment. The work function of the solution-processed Co-Si was determined by both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as well as by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Variable frequency C-V of MOS structures with silicon oxide layers of variable thickness showed that solution-processed metal silicide films exhibit a work function of 4.36 eV with one Co-Si film on Si <1 0 0> giving a UPS-derived work function of 4.80 eV. Similar work function measurements were collected for vapor-deposited MOS capacitors where Al thin films were prepared according to standard class 100 cleanroom handling techniques. In both instances, the work function values established by the electrical measurements were lower than those measured by UPS and this difference appears to be a consequence of parasitic series resistance.

  18. Silicene-type Surface Reconstruction on C40 Hexagonal Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volders, Cameron; Reinke, Petra

    Silicene has emerged as the next two-dimensional material possessing a Dirac type electronic structure making it a prime candidate for integration in electronic devices. The study of silicene is relatively new and many aspects have yet to be fully understood. Here we present a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of a Silicene-type surface reconstruction observed on nanometer scale hexagonal-MoSi2 crystallites. This surface reconstruction is specific to the C40 structure of h-MoSi2 and can initially be defined as a geometric silicene while the coupling between the silicene surface and the silicide bulk is under investigation. The lateral dimensions correspond to a superstructure where the silicene hexagons are slightly buckled and two of the six Si atoms are visible in the STM images creating a honeycomb pattern. The local electronic structure of the silicene is currently being studied with ST spectroscopy and the impact of confinement will be addressed. These results open an alternative route to Silicene growth by using surface reconstructions on metallic and semiconducting C40 silicide structures, which is promising for direct device integration on Si-platforms.

  19. Review of behavior of mixed-oxide fuel elements in extended overpower transient tests in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.; Nagai, S.; Nakae, N.

    1994-10-01

    From a series of five tests conducted in EBR-II, a substantial data base has been established on the performance of mixed-oxide fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor under slow-ramp transient overpower conditions. Each test contained 19 preirradiated fuel elements with varying design and prior operating histories. Elements with aggressive design features, such as high fuel smear density and/or thin cladding, were included to accentuate transient effects. The ramp rates were either 0.1 or 10% {Delta}P/P/s and the overpowers ranged between {approx}60 and 100% of the elements` prior power ratings. Six elements breached during the tests, all with aggressive design parameters. The other elements, including all those with moderate design features for the reference or advanced long-life drivers for PNC`s prototype fast reactor Monju, maintained their cladding integrity during the tests. Posttest examination results indicated that fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI) was the most significant mechanism causing the cladding strain and breach. In contrast, pressure loading from the fission gas in the element plenum was less important, even in high-burnup elements. During an overpower transient, FCMI arises from fuel/cladding differential thermal expansion, transient fuel swelling, and, significantly, the gas pressure in the sealed central cavity of elements with substantial centerline fuel melting. Fuel performance data from these tests, including cladding breaching margin and transient cladding strain, are correlatable with fuel-element design and operating parameters. These correlations are being incorporated into fuel-element behavior codes. At the two tested ramp rates, fuel element behavior appears to be insensitive to transient ramp rate and there appears to be no particular vulnerability to slow ramp transients as previously perceived.

  20. Mechanical behavior of aluminum-bearing ferritic alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guria, Ankan

    Nuclear power currently provides about 13% of electrical power worldwide. Nuclear reactors generating this power traditionally use Zirconium (Zr) based alloys as the fuel cladding material. Exothermic reaction of Zr with steam under accident conditions may lead to production of hydrogen with the possibility of catastrophic consequences. Following the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, the exploration of accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials accelerated. Aluminum-rich (around 5 wt. %) ferritic steels such as Fecralloy, APMT(TM) and APM(TM) are considered as potential materials for accident-tolerant fuel cladding applications. These materials create an aluminum-based oxide scale protecting the alloy at elevated temperatures. Tensile deformation behavior of the above alloys was studied at different temperatures (25-500 °C) at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and correlated with microstructural characteristics. Higher strength and decent ductility of APMT(TM) led to further investigation of the alloy at various combination of strain rates and temperatures followed by fractography and detailed microscopic analyses. Serrations appeared in the stress-strain curves of APMT(TM) and Fecralloy steel tested in a limited temperature range (250-400 °C). The appearance of serrations is explained on the basis of dynamic strain aging (DSA) effect due to solute-dislocation interactions. The research in this study is being performed using the funds received from the US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP).

  1. Signatures of electronic correlations in iron silicide

    PubMed Central

    Tomczak, Jan M.; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The intermetallic FeSi exhibits an unusual temperature dependence in its electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom, epitomized by the cross-over from a low-temperature nonmagnetic semiconductor to a high-temperature paramagnetic metal with a Curie–Weiss-like susceptibility. Many proposals for this unconventional behavior have been advanced, yet a consensus remains elusive. Using realistic many-body calculations, we here reproduce the signatures of the metal-insulator cross-over in various observables: the spectral function, the optical conductivity, the spin susceptibility, and the Seebeck coefficient. Validated by quantitative agreement with experiment, we then address the underlying microscopic picture. We propose a new scenario in which FeSi is a band insulator at low temperatures and is metalized with increasing temperature through correlation induced incoherence. We explain that the emergent incoherence is linked to the unlocking of iron fluctuating moments, which are almost temperature independent at short timescales. Finally, we make explicit suggestions for improving the thermoelectric performance of FeSi based systems. PMID:22328152

  2. Swelling behavior detection of irradiated U-10Zr alloy fuel using indirect neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Huo, He-yong; Wu, Yang; Li, Jiangbo; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Hai-bing; Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Yin, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Bin; Feng, Qi-jie; Tang, Bin

    2016-11-01

    It is hopeful that fusion-fission hybrid energy system will become an effective approach to achieve long-term sustainable development of fission energy. U-10Zr alloy (which means the mass ratio of Zr is 10%) fuel is the key material of subcritical blanket for fusion-fission hybrid energy system which the irradiation performance need to be considered. Indirect neutron radiography is used to detect the irradiated U-10Zr alloy because of the high residual dose in this paper. Different burnup samples (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%) have been tested with a special indirect neutron radiography device at CMRR (China Mianyang Research Reactor). The resolution of the device is better than 50 μm and the quantitative analysis of swelling behaviors was carried out. The results show that the swelling behaviors relate well to burnup character which can be detected accurately by indirect neutron radiography.

  3. Process for stabilization of titanium silicide particulates within titanium aluminide containing metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulou, L.; Williams, J.C.; Riley, M.A.

    1990-04-10

    This paper describes a method for forming a final composite material comprising titanium silicide particles within a titanium aluminide containing matrix. It comprises: contacting titanium, silicon and aluminum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a reaction between the titanium and silicon to thereby form a first composite comprising titanium silicide particles dispersed within an aluminum matrix; admixing the first composite with titanium and zirconium to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a temperature sufficient to convert at least a portion of the aluminum matrix to titanium aluminide; and recovering a final composite material comprising titanium silicide particles dispersed within a titanium aluminide containing matrix.

  4. Continuous and Collective Grain Rotation in Nanoscale Thin Films during Silicidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, M.-I.; Fouet, J.; Texier, M.; Mocuta, C.; Guichet, C.; Thomas, O.

    2015-12-01

    Texture evolution is an important issue in materials and nanosciences. Understanding it is fundamental for controlling the final orientation, which in fine controls the desired properties of nanodevices. Here, we reveal the formation of a peculiar texture during the silicidation of nanoscale Pd thin films. We demonstrate that the crystallographic relationship observed between the silicide and the Si(001) substrate, named gyroaxy, evolves continuously and collectively during silicidation. This continuous rotation of the nanosized grains over a wide angular range is proposed to be associated with a diffusional mechanism.

  5. Partitioning behavior of aromatic components in jet fuel into diverse membrane-coated fibers.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Ronald E; Xia, Xin-Rui; Barlow, Beth M; Riviere, Jim E

    2007-11-01

    Jet fuel components are known to partition into skin and produce occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) and potentially adverse systemic effects. The purpose of this study was to determine how jet fuel components partition (1) from solvent mixtures into diverse membrane-coated fibers (MCFs) and (2) from biological media into MCFs to predict tissue distribution. Three diverse MCFs, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, lipophilic), polyacrylate (PA, polarizable), and carbowax (CAR, polar), were selected to simulate the physicochemical properties of skin in vivo. Following an appropriate equilibrium time between the MCF and dosing solutions, the MCF was injected directly into a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the amount that partitioned into the membrane. Three vehicles (water, 50% ethanol-water, and albumin-containing media solution) were studied for selected jet fuel components. The more hydrophobic the component, the greater was the partitioning into the membranes across all MCF types, especially from water. The presence of ethanol as a surrogate solvent resulted in significantly reduced partitioning into the MCFs with discernible differences across the three fibers based on their chemistries. The presence of a plasma substitute (media) also reduced partitioning into the MCF, with the CAR MCF system being better correlated to the predicted partitioning of aromatic components into skin. This study demonstrated that a single or multiple set of MCF fibers may be used as a surrogate for octanol/water systems and skin to assess partitioning behavior of nine aromatic components frequently formulated with jet fuels. These diverse inert fibers were able to assess solute partitioning from a blood substitute such as media into a membrane possessing physicochemical properties similar to human skin. This information may be incorporated into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to provide a more accurate assessment of tissue dosimetry of

  6. Studies of transient behavior of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunhoe

    The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is a technology with growing interest. The PEMFC is the most fascinating among other kinds of fuel cells for its high power density and zero emission pure water products. The use of PEMFCs will expose it to transient conditions. For instance, acceleration or deceleration in vehicle applications and turning on or off dishwashers in stationary applications may cause transient conditions of operation of PEMFCs. This dissertation presents experimental data that may be used to understand PEMFC behavior during these transients and these data may be used to verify the numerical simulations and models of PEMFC designs. The electrical load was changed with fixed inlet flowrates for the anode and cathode, and this caused hydrogen and air, stoichiometries to change. The transient experiments showed conditions and stoichiometric changes that gave the overshoot and undershoot behaviors. Data are presented to show the effects of voltage changes on the current response with four different cases of stoichiometry changes: from excess to normal, from normal to excess, from normal to starved, and from starved to normal. An overshoot behavior was observed when the cell stoichiometry changed from normal to starved condition. With a triple path flow field this overshoot was followed by an undershoot and this second order behavior is a result of, in this case, the air flowing back into the cell at the end of anode side to balance pressure. We named these phenomena as "vacuum effects" when the current density shows "undershoot" after "overshoot" behavior. For other conditions an undershoot behavior was observed when the voltage changed to cause a change from starved to normal conditions. In contrast, only exponential first order behavior was observed for voltage changes between excess and normal conditions. Various cell voltage ranges and change rates are presented to compare the overshoot and undershoot behaviors. Experiments were performed

  7. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C) required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field. PMID:21968083

  8. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides

    PubMed Central

    Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Usachov, D.; Yashina, L. V.; Generalov, A. V.; Borygina, K.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Grüneis, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved. PMID:23835625

  9. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    DOEpatents

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-03-13

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  10. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Usachov, D.; Yashina, L. V.; Generalov, A. V.; Borygina, K.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Grüneis, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.

    2013-07-01

    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved.

  11. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides.

    PubMed

    Vilkov, O; Fedorov, A; Usachov, D; Yashina, L V; Generalov, A V; Borygina, K; Verbitskiy, N I; Grüneis, A; Vyalikh, D V

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved.

  12. Silicon-nanowire transistors with intruded nickel-silicide contacts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Walter M; Geelhaar, Lutz; Graham, Andrew P; Unger, Eugen; Duesberg, Georg S; Liebau, Maik; Pamler, Werner; Chèze, Caroline; Riechert, Henning; Lugli, Paolo; Kreupl, Franz

    2006-12-01

    Schottky barrier field effect transistors based on individual catalytically-grown and undoped Si-nanowires (NW) have been fabricated and characterized with respect to their gate lengths. The gate length was shortened by the axial, self-aligned formation of nickel-silicide source and drain segments along the NW. The transistors with 10-30 nm NW diameters displayed p-type behaviour, sustained current densities of up to 0.5 MA/cm2, and exhibited on/off current ratios of up to 10(7). The on-currents were limited and kept constant by the Schottky contacts for gate lengths below 1 microm, and decreased exponentially for gate lengths exceeding 1 microm.

  13. Pt redistribution during Ni(Pt) silicide formation

    SciTech Connect

    Demeulemeester, J.; Smeets, D.; Vantomme, A.; Van Bockstael, C.; Detavernier, C.; Comrie, C. M.; Barradas, N. P.; Vieira, A.

    2008-12-29

    We report on a real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry study of the erratic redistribution of Pt during Ni silicide formation in a solid phase reaction. The inhomogeneous Pt redistribution in Ni(Pt)Si films is a consequence of the low solubility of Pt in Ni{sub 2}Si compared to NiSi and the limited mobility of Pt in NiSi. Pt further acts as a diffusion barrier and resides in the Ni{sub 2}Si grain boundaries, significantly slowing down the Ni{sub 2}Si and NiSi growth kinetics. Moreover, the observed incorporation of a large amount of Pt in the NiSi seeds indicates that Pt plays a major role in selecting the crystallographic orientation of these seeds and thus in the texture of the resulting Ni{sub 1-x}Pt{sub x}Si film.

  14. Europium Silicide – a Prospective Material for Contacts with Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Karateeva, Christina G.; Karateev, Igor A.; Lobanovich, Eduard F.; Prutskov, Grigory V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Vasiliev, Alexander L.; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2016-05-01

    Metal-silicon junctions are crucial to the operation of semiconductor devices: aggressive scaling demands low-resistive metallic terminals to replace high-doped silicon in transistors. It suggests an efficient charge injection through a low Schottky barrier between a metal and Si. Tremendous efforts invested into engineering metal-silicon junctions reveal the major role of chemical bonding at the interface: premier contacts entail epitaxial integration of metal silicides with Si. Here we present epitaxially grown EuSi2/Si junction characterized by RHEED, XRD, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and transport measurements. Structural perfection leads to superb conductivity and a record-low Schottky barrier with n-Si while an antiferromagnetic phase invites spin-related applications. This development opens brand-new opportunities in electronics.

  15. A DFT study of hypercoordinated copper silicide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Ling-Yan; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The stability and electronic structures of copper silicide nanotubes (CuSiNTs) are calculated using first-principles density functional theory. Here these CuSiNTs of various different diameters, chiral vectors and morphologies were obtained by rolling up a novel two-dimensional hypercoordinated Cu2Si monolayer with high stability (Yang et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137 (2015) 2757-2762). Electronic structure calculations showed that these CuSiNTs are conductors independent of their chiral vectors, diameters and morphologies. In addition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the (6, 0) tube and the (8, 4) tube were performed. It was found that the (8, 4) tube has very good thermal stability and that its structure does not break down during MD simulations at initial temperatures up to 1500 K. Based on their electrical conductivity and good thermal stability, these CuSiNTs are promising candidates to envision application as metallic connections in nanoscale electronic devices.

  16. Europium Silicide – a Prospective Material for Contacts with Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Karateeva, Christina G.; Karateev, Igor A.; Lobanovich, Eduard F.; Prutskov, Grigory V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Vasiliev, Alexander L.; Storchak, Vyacheslav G.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-silicon junctions are crucial to the operation of semiconductor devices: aggressive scaling demands low-resistive metallic terminals to replace high-doped silicon in transistors. It suggests an efficient charge injection through a low Schottky barrier between a metal and Si. Tremendous efforts invested into engineering metal-silicon junctions reveal the major role of chemical bonding at the interface: premier contacts entail epitaxial integration of metal silicides with Si. Here we present epitaxially grown EuSi2/Si junction characterized by RHEED, XRD, transmission electron microscopy, magnetization and transport measurements. Structural perfection leads to superb conductivity and a record-low Schottky barrier with n-Si while an antiferromagnetic phase invites spin-related applications. This development opens brand-new opportunities in electronics. PMID:27211700

  17. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  18. Copper silicide formation by rapid thermal processing and induced room-temperature Si oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, M.; Van der Spiegel, J.; Rothman, B.

    1990-07-01

    The growth of copper silicide has been studied by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of 500 Å of Cu on Si substrates. Interaction between the diffusing metal and Si starts at 250-300 °C. Annealing at higher temperatures yields complete silicidation to Cu3Si. This leads to strong modifications of the Auger line shapes of both Si and Cu. A plasmon peak located 20 eV below the main peak is the fingerprint in the Cu spectrum. Strong features at 80, 85.6, 89.2, and 93.2 eV as well as a 1 eV shift of the 90.4 eV peak appear in the Si L2,3VV spectrum. Whether for Cu films annealed in nitrogen or in vacuum, exposure of the silicide to air results in the growth of silicon oxide at room temperature and continues until the silicide layer is totally converted. This repeatable and controllable oxidation of silicon is accompanied by changes in resistivity and color reflecting the extent of the process. For Cu/CoSi2/Si structures, the cobalt silicide acts as a transport medium for the growth of the copper silicide and also serves as a cap preventing the oxidation of the final CoSi2/Cu3Si/Si contacts

  19. Americium and plutonium release behavior from irradiated mixed oxide fuel during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, I.; Suto, M.; Miwa, S.; Hirosawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2013-06-01

    The release behavior of Pu and Am was investigated under the reducing atmosphere expected in sodium cooled fast reactor severe accidents. Irradiated Pu and U mixed oxide fuels were heated at maximum temperatures of 2773 K and 3273 K. EPMA, γ-ray spectrometry and α-ray spectrometry for released and residual materials revealed that Pu and Am can be released more easily than U under the reducing atmosphere. The respective release rate coefficients for Pu and Am were obtained as 3.11 × 10-4 min-1 and 1.60 × 10-4 min-1 at 2773 K under the reducing atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure less than 0.02 Pa. Results of thermochemical calculations indicated that the main released chemical forms would likely be PuO for Pu and Am for Am under quite low oxygen partial pressure.

  20. Effects of temperature dependent pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt silicide formation and thermal stability on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Wall, Donald; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian

    2013-04-29

    Using temperature controlled Si and C ion implantation, we studied the effects of pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt alloy silicide phase formation. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements were used to monitor phase and morphology evolution in silicide films. Results show that substrate amorphization strongly modulate the nucleation of silicide phases, regardless of implant species. However, morphological stability of the thin films is mainly enhanced by C addition, independently of the amorphization depth.

  1. On the size-dependent magnetism and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, G. I.; Tuchin, A. V.; Popov, S. V.; Bityutskaya, L. A.

    2015-12-15

    Theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, synthesis, and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures are reported. The magnetic moment of the nanostructures is studied as a function of the silicide cluster size and configuration. The experimentally demonstrated magnetization switching of nanostructured nickel silicide by circularly polarized light makes it possible to create high-speed storage devices with high density data recording.

  2. The influence of multiple goals on driving behavior: the case of safety, time saving, and fuel saving.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ebru; Steg, Linda; Delhomme, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    Due to the innate complexity of the task drivers have to manage multiple goals while driving and the importance of certain goals may vary over time leading to priority being given to different goals depending on the circumstances. This study aimed to investigate drivers' behavioral regulation while managing multiple goals during driving. To do so participants drove on urban and rural roads in a driving simulator while trying to manage fuel saving and time saving goals, besides the safety goals that are always present during driving. A between-subjects design was used with one group of drivers managing two goals (safety and fuel saving) and another group managing three goals (safety, fuel saving, and time saving) while driving. Participants were provided continuous feedback on the fuel saving goal via a meter on the dashboard. The results indicate that even when a fuel saving or time saving goal is salient, safety goals are still given highest priority when interactions with other road users take place and when interacting with a traffic light. Additionally, performance on the fuel saving goal diminished for the group that had to manage fuel saving and time saving together. The theoretical implications for a goal hierarchy in driving tasks and practical implications for eco-driving are discussed.

  3. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1983-02-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom; organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel (clad with a zirconium alloy) in silos in Canada; and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel (clad with Zircaloy) in a metal storage cask in Germany. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from BWRs, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions. 110 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  5. Behavior of spent nuclear fuel and storage system components in dry interim storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Guenther, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been handled under dry conditions since the early days of nuclear reactor operation, and use of dry storage facilities for extended management of irradiated fuel began in 1964. Irradiated fuel is currently being stored dry in four types of facilities: dry wells, vaults, silos, and metal casks. Essentially all types of irradiated nuclear fuel are currently stored under dry conditions. Gas-cooled reactor (GCR) and liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuels are stored in vaults and dry wells. Certain types of fuel are being stored in licensed dry storage facilities: Magnox fuel in vaults in the United Kingdom and organic-cooled reactor (OCR) fuel in silos in Canada. Dry storage demonstrations are under way for Zircaloy-clad fuel from boiling water reactors BWR's, pressurized heavy-water reactors (PHWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in all four types of dry storage facilities. The demonstrations and related hot cell and laboratory tests are directed toward expanding the data base and establishing a licensing basis for dry storage of water reactor fuel. This report reviews the scope of dry interim storage technology, the performance of fuel and facility materials, the status of programs in several countries to license dry storage of water reactor fuel, and the characteristics of water reactor fuel that relate to dry storage conditions.

  6. Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

  7. Iron Silicide Formation by Precipitation in a Silicon Bicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portier, X.; Ihlal, A.; Rizk, R.

    1997-05-01

    Segregation and precipitation of iron in a = 25 silicon bicrystal have been carefully investigated by means of high resolution electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, in combination with capacitance and electron beam induced current measurements. After intentional incorporation of iron in the bicrystal by a simple heating procedure, it was shown that a non-equilibrium segregation of iron has occurred after rapid cooling whereas iron precipitates have been produced upon slow cooling. The silicides are formed mainly at the grain boundary area and they were found to belong to the -FeSi cubic or -FeSi2 tetragonal phases. Each precipitate is simply oriented with respect to one of the two grains without any preference between them. The orientation relationships were found in perfect agreement with those observed for the corresponding iron silicides that are epitaxially grown on oriented silicon substrates. Barrier and recombinative effects on the contaminated (1200 °C) and slowly cooled samples have been detected. These effects have been associated with the formation of iron silicides at the grain boundary. La ségrégation ainsi que la précipitation de siliciures de fer au joint de grains = 25 de silicium ont été etudiées en utilisant la dispersion d'énergie des électrons, la microscopie électronique en transmission haute résolution ainsi que des mesures électriques capacitives et des mesures de courants induits par faisceau d'électrons. A la suite d'une contamination volontaire par diffusion thermique du fer au sein du bicristal, nous avons montré qu'une ségrégation hors-équilibre d'atomes de fer est obtenue après un refroidissement rapide alors qu'un refroidissement lent a pour conséquence la formation de siliciures de fer. Ces petits cristaux de siliciures croissent de préférence au niveau du joint de grains et ils ont pour phase, la phase cubique -FeSi ou la phase quadratique α-FeSi2. Chaque précipité est orienté simplement

  8. A Computational and Experimental Study of Ignition Behavior of Gasoline Surrogate Fuels Under Low-Temperature Combustion Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, J.; Haworth, D. C.; Kalaskar, V. B.; Boehman, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    One strategy for next-generation engines is low-temperature compression ignition of gasoline. Reaction pathways that are not relevant for high-temperature flame propagation are activated under these conditions, and the ignition behavior of these fuels under low-temperature conditions has not been widely explored. Here the ignition behavior of gasoline and two- and three-component surrogates has been studied experimentally and computationally over a range of operating conditions of interest for low-temperature engine combustion. Experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine. For each fuel blend, the critical compression ratio (lowest compression ratio at which the main ignition occurs) was determined over a range of operating conditions, by varying one parameter at a time with all other parameters held fixed. A simplified CFD model that considers detailed chemical kinetics was used to simulate the experiment. The focus of the study is to determine which surrogate fuel mixtures and chemical mechanisms are able to capture the ignition behavior of gasoline under these conditions. For example, different ignition behavior is found for different surrogate mixtures that all have the same Research Octane Number, and it is important to capture this behavior in CFD models.

  9. Dynamic behavior of water within a polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane at low hydration levels.

    PubMed

    Pivovar, Adam M; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2005-01-20

    Protonic conduction across the membrane of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is intimately related to the dynamic behavior of water present within the membrane. To further the understanding of water dynamics in these materials, quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) has been used to investigate the picosecond dynamic behavior of water within a perfluorosulfonated ionomer (PFSI) membrane under increasing hydration levels from dry to saturation. Evaluation of the elastic incoherent structure factor (EISF) reveals an increase in the characteristic length-scale of confinement as the number of water molecules in the membrane increases, tending to an asymptotic value at saturation. The fraction of elastic incoherent scattering observed at high Q over all hydration levels is well fit by a simple model that assumes a single, nondiffusing hydronium ion per membrane sulfonic acid site. The quasielastic component of the fitted data indicates confined dynamic behavior for scattering vectors less than 0.7 A(-1). As such, the dynamic behavior was interpreted using continuous diffusion confined within a sphere at Q < 0.7 A(-1) and random unconstrained jump diffusion at Q > 0.7 A(-1). As the number of water molecules in the membrane increases, the characteristic residence times obtained from both models is reduced. The increased dynamical frequency is further reflected in the diffusion coefficients predicted by both models. Between low hydration (2 H2O/SO3H) and saturation (16 H2O/SO3H), the continuous spherical diffusion coefficient changes from 0.46 +/- 0.12 to 1.04 +/- 0.12 (10(-5) cm2/s) and jump diffusion indicates an increase from 1.21 +/- 0.03 to 2.14 +/- 0.08 (10(-5) cm2/s). Overall, the dynamic behavior of water has been quantified over different length scale regimes, the results of which may be rationalized on the basis of the formation of water clusters in the hydrophilic domain that expand toward an asymptotic upper limit with increased hydration.

  10. Silicide-phase evolution and platinum redistribution during silicidation of Ni0.95Pt0.05/Si(100) specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adusumilli, Praneet; Seidman, David N.; Murray, Conal E.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal evolution of nickel-silicide phase-formation and the simultaneous redistribution of platinum during silicidation of a 10 nm thick Ni0.95Pt0.05 film on a Si(100) substrate. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atom-probe tomography (APT) measurements were performed on as-deposited films and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 320 or 420 °C for different times. Observation of the Ni2Si phase in as-deposited films, both with and without platinum alloying, is attributed to surface preparation. RTA at 320 °C for 5 s results in the formation of the low-resistivity NiSi intermetallic phase and nickel-rich phases, Ni2Si and Ni3Si2, as demonstrated by GIXRD measurements. At 420 °C for 5 s, the NiSi phase grows outward from the silicide/Si(100) interface by consuming the nickel-rich silicide phases. On increasing the annealing time at 420 °C to 30 min, this reaction is driven towards completion. The nickel-silicide/silicon interface is reconstructed in three-dimensions employing APT and its chemical root-mean-square roughness, based on a silicon isoconcentration surface, decreases to 0.6 nm with the formation of the NiSi phase during silicidation. Pt redistribution is affected by the simultaneous reaction between Ni and Si during silicidation, and it influences the resulting microstructure and thermal stability of the NiSi phase. Short-circuit diffusion of Pt via grain boundaries in NiSi is observed, which affects the resultant grain size, morphology, and possibly the preferred orientation of the NiSi grains. Pt segregates at the NiSi/Si(100) heterophase interface and may be responsible for the morphological stabilization of NiSi against agglomeration to temperatures greater than 650 °C. The Gibbsian interfacial excess of Pt at the NiSi/Si(100) interface after RTA at 420 °C for 5 s is 1.2 ± 0.01 atoms nm-2 and then increases to 2.1 ± 0.02 atoms nm-2 after 30 min at 420 °C, corresponding to a decrease in the interfacial free

  11. Transient Fission Gas Behavior in Uranium Nitride Fuel Under Proposed Space Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    functions of the detailed structure of the fuel pins and thus should provide reasonably accurate input to a detailed fuel modeling code. Calculations using...100 UN Fuel Grain Modelling Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis 101 By Capt. Daniel L. DeForest, USAF 102 103 Sample Input Deck 105 106...UN Fuel Grain Modelling Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis By Capt. Daniel L. DeForest, USAF Sample Input Deck CONDITIONS Power Density - 700.00

  12. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume II: consumer sentiments towards fuel efficient vehicles. Final report Sep 77-Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.; Manski, C.F.; Ginn, J.R.; Hill, D.H.; Hill, M.S.

    1980-02-01

    To meet the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) need for a capability of forecasting consumer response to fuel-efficient motor vehicle designs, a statistical analysis was performed on a longitudinal series of Surveys of Consumer Sentiment, administered by the University of Michigan's Survey Research Center. This volume examines a broad set of questions concerning consumer attitudes towards energy policy in general and motor vehicle-related conservation efforts in particular.

  13. Influence of Ni silicide phases on effective work function modulation with Al-pileup in the Ni fully silicided gate/HfSiON system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoshiki, Masahiko; Koga, Junji; Nishiyama, Akira; Koyama, Masato

    2009-08-01

    Influences of Ni silicide phases on the effective work function (Φeff) modulation effect with Al incorporation has been investigated in the Ni silicide/HfSiON systems. We formed metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors with Al incorporated Ni silicide (NiSi, Ni2Si, and Ni3Si) gates on HfSiON by Al solid-phase diffusion (Al-SPD) process or Al ion implantation (I/I) process. In the Al-SPD process, Al is deposited on Ni silicide gate. In the Al-I/I process, Al ions were doped in the upper part of Ni silicide layer. In both cases, we performed Al drive-in annealing under the condition of 450 °C for 30 min in N2 ambient. It is found that the flat-band voltage (Vfb) values of Al incorporated NiSi and Ni2Si gates shift negatively and identical independent of Al incorporation processes. A highly concentrated Al piled-up layer, which induces Φeff modulation to Al-Φeff value, seems to correspond to the Vfb modulation. On the other hand, Al incorporation has little influence on Φeff at the Ni3Si/HfSiON interface. We revealed that a lower Al diffusion coefficient in Ni3Si phase reduces the Al interface density at the Ni3Si/HfSiON interface. In addition, Al piled-up layer is inherently unstable at the Ni3Si/HfSiON interface, which is confirmed from the detailed investigation about thermal stability of Al piled-up layer by using phase change process from NiSi to Ni3Si phase.

  14. Effect of silicide/silicon hetero-junction structure on thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonchul; Park, Young-Sam; Hyun, Younghoon; Zyung, Taehyoung; Kim, Jaehyeon; Kim, Soojung; Jeon, Hyojin; Shin, Mincheol; Jang, Moongyu

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated a thermoelectric device with a silicide/silicon laminated hetero-structure by using RF sputtering and rapid thermal annealing. The device was observed to have Ohmic characteristics by I-V measurement. The temperature differences and Seebeck coefficients of the proposed silicide/silicon laminated and bulk structure were measured. The laminated thermoelectric device shows suppression of heat flow from the hot to cold side. This is supported by the theory that the atomic mass difference between silicide and silicon creates a scattering center for phonons. The major impact of our work is that phonon transmission is suppressed at the interface between silicide and silicon without degrading electrical conductivity. The estimated thermal conductivity of the 3-layer laminated device is 126.2 +/- 3.7 W/m. K. Thus, by using the 3-layer laminated structure, thermal conductivity is reduced by around 16% compared to bulk silicon. However, the Seebeck coefficient of the thermoelectric device is degraded compared to that of bulk silicon. It is understood that electrical conductivity is improved by using silicide as a scattering center.

  15. Lateral Flow Field Behavior Downstream of Mixing Vanes In a Simulated Nuclear Fuel Rod Bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, Michael E.; Smith, L. David III; Holloway, Mary V.; Beasley, Donald E.

    2004-07-01

    To assess the fuel assembly performance of PWR nuclear fuel assemblies, average subchannel flow values are used in design analyses. However, for this highly complex flow, it is known that local conditions around fuel rods vary dependent upon the location of the fuel rod in the fuel assembly and upon the support grid design that maintains the fuel rod pitch. To investigate the local flow in a simulated nuclear fuel rod bundle, a testing technique has been employed to measure the lateral flow field in a 5 x 5 rod bundle. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to measure the lateral flow field downstream of a support grid with mixing vanes for four unique subchannels in the 5 x 5 bundle. The dominant lateral flow structures for each subchannel are compared in this paper including the decay of these flow structures. (authors)

  16. Rapid epitaxy-free graphene synthesis on silicidated polycrystalline platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, Vitaliy; Murdock, Adrian T.; Koós, Antal A.; Britton, Jude; Crossley, Alison; Holdway, Philip; Moffat, Jonathan; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Grobert, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Large-area synthesis of high-quality graphene by chemical vapour deposition on metallic substrates requires polishing or substrate grain enlargement followed by a lengthy growth period. Here we demonstrate a novel substrate processing method for facile synthesis of mm-sized, single-crystal graphene by coating polycrystalline platinum foils with a silicon-containing film. The film reacts with platinum on heating, resulting in the formation of a liquid platinum silicide layer that screens the platinum lattice and fills topographic defects. This reduces the dependence on the surface properties of the catalytic substrate, improving the crystallinity, uniformity and size of graphene domains. At elevated temperatures growth rates of more than an order of magnitude higher (120 μm min-1) than typically reported are achieved, allowing savings in costs for consumable materials, energy and time. This generic technique paves the way for using a whole new range of eutectic substrates for the large-area synthesis of 2D materials.

  17. Rapid epitaxy-free graphene synthesis on silicidated polycrystalline platinum

    PubMed Central

    Babenko, Vitaliy; Murdock, Adrian T.; Koós, Antal A.; Britton, Jude; Crossley, Alison; Holdway, Philip; Moffat, Jonathan; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Grobert, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Large-area synthesis of high-quality graphene by chemical vapour deposition on metallic substrates requires polishing or substrate grain enlargement followed by a lengthy growth period. Here we demonstrate a novel substrate processing method for facile synthesis of mm-sized, single-crystal graphene by coating polycrystalline platinum foils with a silicon-containing film. The film reacts with platinum on heating, resulting in the formation of a liquid platinum silicide layer that screens the platinum lattice and fills topographic defects. This reduces the dependence on the surface properties of the catalytic substrate, improving the crystallinity, uniformity and size of graphene domains. At elevated temperatures growth rates of more than an order of magnitude higher (120 μm min−1) than typically reported are achieved, allowing savings in costs for consumable materials, energy and time. This generic technique paves the way for using a whole new range of eutectic substrates for the large-area synthesis of 2D materials. PMID:26175062

  18. Silicide induced ion beam patterning of Si(001).

    PubMed

    Engler, Martin; Frost, Frank; Müller, Sven; Macko, Sven; Will, Moritz; Feder, René; Spemann, Daniel; Hübner, René; Facsko, Stefan; Michely, Thomas

    2014-03-21

    Low energy ion beam pattern formation on Si with simultaneous co-deposition of Ag, Pd, Pb, Ir, Fe or C impurities was investigated by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The impurities were supplied by sputter deposition. Additional insight into the mechanism of pattern formation was obtained by more controlled supply through e-beam evaporation. For the situations investigated, the ability of the impurity to react with Si, i.e. to form a silicide, appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for pattern formation. Comparing the effects of impurities with similar mass and nuclear charge, the collision kinetics is shown to be not of primary importance for pattern formation. To understand the observed phenomena, it is necessary to assume a bi-directional coupling of composition and height fluctuations. This coupling gives rise to a sensitive dependence of the final morphology on the conditions of impurity supply. Because of this history dependence, the final morphology cannot be uniquely characterized by a steady state impurity concentration.

  19. New Manganese Silicide Mineral Phase in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.; Kloeck, W.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup was identified as a source of an Earth-crossing dust stream with low Earth-encounter velocities, with peak anticipated fluxes during April in 2003 and 2004 [1]. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections using high altitude aircraft to target potential interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream in April 2003. Several IDPs from this collection have shown unusually low noble gas abundances [2] consistent with the predicted short space exposure ages of Grigg-Skjellerup dust particles [1]. High abundances of large D enrichments [3] and presolar grains [4] in IDPs from this collection are also consistent with an origin from the comet Grigg-Skjellerup. Here we report a new mineral from one of the cluster IDPs of the "Grigg-Skjellerup" collection, L2055. Our report focuses on an unusual manganese-iron-chromium silicide phase that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature. This unique phase may also shed light on the genesis of the enigmatic low-Fe,Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine that has been previously reported in IDPs and meteorites [5].

  20. Rapid epitaxy-free graphene synthesis on silicidated polycrystalline platinum.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Vitaliy; Murdock, Adrian T; Koós, Antal A; Britton, Jude; Crossley, Alison; Holdway, Philip; Moffat, Jonathan; Huang, Jian; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Nicholas, Robin J; Grobert, Nicole

    2015-07-15

    Large-area synthesis of high-quality graphene by chemical vapour deposition on metallic substrates requires polishing or substrate grain enlargement followed by a lengthy growth period. Here we demonstrate a novel substrate processing method for facile synthesis of mm-sized, single-crystal graphene by coating polycrystalline platinum foils with a silicon-containing film. The film reacts with platinum on heating, resulting in the formation of a liquid platinum silicide layer that screens the platinum lattice and fills topographic defects. This reduces the dependence on the surface properties of the catalytic substrate, improving the crystallinity, uniformity and size of graphene domains. At elevated temperatures growth rates of more than an order of magnitude higher (120 μm min(-1)) than typically reported are achieved, allowing savings in costs for consumable materials, energy and time. This generic technique paves the way for using a whole new range of eutectic substrates for the large-area synthesis of 2D materials.

  1. High quality factor platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.; Ulbricht, G.; Bumble, B.; Meeker, S. R.; Bockstiegel, C.; Walter, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the development of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) using platinum silicide as the sensor material. MKIDs are an emerging superconducting detector technology, capable of measuring the arrival times of single photons to better than two microseconds and their energies to around ten percent. Previously, MKIDs have been fabricated using either sub-stoichiometric titanium nitride or aluminum, but TiN suffers from the spatial inhomogeneities in the superconducting critical temperature and Al has a low kinetic inductance fraction, causing low detector sensitivity. To address these issues, we have instead fabricated the PtSi microresonators with the superconducting critical temperatures of 944 ± 12 mK and high internal quality factors ( Q i ≳ 10 6 ). These devices show typical quasiparticle lifetimes of τ q p ≈ 30 - 40 μ s and spectral resolution, R = λ / Δ λ , of 8 at 406.6 nm. We compare PtSi MKIDs to those fabricated with TiN and detail the substantial advantages that PtSi MKIDs have to offer.

  2. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  3. Ion beam-induced interfacial growth in Si and silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, F.; Nédellec, P.; Ruault, M. O.; Bernas, H.; Lin, X. W.; Boucaud, P.

    1995-12-01

    We review the mechanisms and consequences of ion beam-induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) in the transition metal- or rare earth-implanted {aSi}/{cSi} systems, as determined from in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) during irradiation, combined with channeling, high resolution TEM and optical measurements. IBIEC experiments on nm-size crystals confirm previously measured low values of interface roughness in IBIEC. We have performed interfacial growth simulations which indicate that the IBIEC process is, in fact, interface roughness-limited. They also suggest that interfacial growth processes are similar in several respects to surface growth processes, and that they largely determine (i) the growth habit of silicide precipitation, which is dominated by the interfacial energy, (ii) the possibility of trapping a large fraction of the impurities in non-equilibrium sites, leading to significant supersaturation. A consequence of this effect is to allow incorporation of large (over 300-fold supersaturation) Er concentrations in the substitutional sites of the Si lattice, leading to room-temperature photoluminescence (without any oxygen co-implantation). Evidence of a new, thermally induced instability in interfacial growth is presented: it displays both intermittency and very high growth rates, and is strongly affected by ion irradiation.

  4. Fracture toughness dependence on grain size in molybdenum silicide, titanium silicide and aluminum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyfanskiy, Vyacheslav Alex

    The fracture toughness of MoSi2, Ti5Si3 and AlN as a function of grain size was measured using the controlled-flaw method in conjunction with the miniaturized disk-bend test (MDBT). The materials investigated had grain sizes of 3.5, 7.0, 11.2 and 16 mum for MoSi 2, 2, 4, 7 and 10--20 mum for Ti5Si 3 and 2.5 and 4.5 mum for AlN. The specimens used in the experiments were 3 mm in diameter and varied in thickness from 280 to 593 mum. These were indented using a Vickers pyramid indentor to indentation loads varying from 10 to 80 N. Indentation cracking was experienced at all indentation loads and R-curve behavior was exhibited. The fracture toughness, Kinfinity, was calculated using a straightforward graphical procedure involving an empirical R-curve equation. Kinfinity of MoSi2 was determined to be relatively grain-size independent, with a value of ˜4 MPa·m1/2. Kinfinity, of Ti5Si3 showed a strong dependence on grain size, with maximum of 3.56 +/- 0.41 MPa·m1/2 at a grain size of ˜4 mum. For AlN Kinfinity decreased from 2.85 +/- 0.40 to 2.32 +/- 0.21 MPa·m1/2 as the grain size increased. The grain growth behavior of polycrystalline MoSi2, Ti 5Si3 and AlN was studied during static annealing at 1400°C in an argon atmosphere. MoSi2 exhibited abnormal grain growth, Ti5Si3 showed normal grain growth behavior and annealing of AlN produced no visible increase in the grain size. The presence of Ni in contact with MoSi2 during annealing significantly increased the rate of grain growth. MoSi2 with grain sizes of 11.2 and 16 mum contained traces of Ni and exhibited a decrease in hardness compared to the Ni-free samples with grain sizes of 3.5 and 7.0 mum. Stresses arising in non-cubic materials during processing, due to the presence of thermal expansion anisotropy, were calculated for AlN, Al 2O3, MoSi2, SiC, Ti5Si3 and ZnS. These stresses, sigmamax, provide information on the maximum grain sizes, ds, that can be tolerated by these materials before they fracture

  5. Behavioral pattern of a monopolar passive direct methanol fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Bae, Byungchan; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cho, EunAe; Ha, Heung Yong

    A passive, air-breathing, monopolar, liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack consisting of six unit cells with no external pump, fan or auxiliary devices to feed the reactants has been designed and fabricated for its possible employment as a portable power source. The configurations of the stack of monopolar passive feed DMFCs are different from those of bipolar active feed DMFCs and therefore its operational characteristics completely vary from the active ones. Our present investigation primarily focuses on understanding the unique behavioral patterns of monopolar stack under the influence of certain operating conditions, such as temperature, methanol concentration and reactants feeding methods. With passive reactants supply, the temperature of the stack and open circuit voltage (OCV) undergo changes over time due to a decrease in concentration of methanol in the reservoir as the reaction proceeds. Variations in performance and temperature of the stack are mainly influenced by the concentration of methanol. Continuous operation of the passive stack is influenced by the supply of methanol rather than air supply or water accumulation at the cathode. The monopolar stack made up of six unit cells exhibits a total power of 1000 mW (37 mW cm -2) with 4 M methanol under ambient conditions.

  6. Influence of cell voltage and current on sulfur poisoning behavior of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhe; Zha, Shaowu; Liu, Meilin

    The sulfur poisoning behavior of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) cermet anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was investigated under both potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions. While the observed relative drop in cell power output caused by sulfur poisoning decreases as the cell-terminal voltage is lowered potentiostatically (thus more current passing through the cell), it increases as more current is drawn from the cell galvanostatically (thus leading to lower terminal voltage). The apparent contradictory trends in relative performance loss due to sulfur poisoning are explained using a simple equivalent circuit analysis, which was further validated by impedance measurements of cells before and after poisoning by trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) under different conditions. Results suggest that the relative increase in cell internal resistance caused by sulfur poisoning is smaller when more current is drawn from the cell (or the cell-terminal voltage is lowered) under either potentiostatic or galvanostatic conditions. Thus, the increase in anode polarization resistance, not the drop in cell power output, should be used to describe the degree of sulfur poisoning in order to avoid any confusion.

  7. M(5)-silicon (M= titanium, niobium, molybdenum) based transition-metal silicides for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhihong

    2007-12-01

    Transition metal silicides are being considered for future engine turbine components at temperatures up to 1600ºC. Although significant improvement in high temperature strength, room temperature fracture toughness has been realized in the past decade, further improvement in oxidation resistance is needed. Oxidation mechanism of Ti5Si3-based alloys was investigated. Oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3-based alloy strongly depends on the atmosphere. Presence of Nitrogen alters the oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3 by nucleation and growth of nitride subscale. Ti5Si3.2 and Ti5Si3C0.5 alloys exhibited an excellent oxidation resistance in nitrogen bearing atmosphere due to limited dissolution of nitrogen and increased Si/Ti activity ratio. MoSi2 coating developed by pack cementation to protect Mo-based Mo-Si-B composites was found to be effective up to 1500ºC. Shifting coating composition to T1+T2+Mo3Si region showed the possibility to extend the coating lifetime above 1500ºC by more than ten times via formation of slow growing Mo3Si or T2 interlayer without sacrificing the oxidation resistance of the coating. The phase equilibria in the Nb-rich portion of Nb-B system has been evaluated experimentally using metallographic analysis and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). It was shown that Nbss (solid solution) and NbB are the only two primary phases in the 0-40 at.% B composition range, and the eutectic reaction L ↔ Nbss + NbB was determined to occur at 2104+/-5°C by DTA.

  8. TEM CHARACTERIZATION OF IRRADIATED U3SI2/AL DISPERSION FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Gan; B. Miller; D. Keiser; A. Robinson; P. Medvedev; D. Wachs

    2010-10-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U3Si2/Al has been recognized as a reasonably good performance fuel for nuclear research and test reactors except that it requires the use of high enrichment uranium. An irradiated U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel (~75% enrichment) from the high flux side of a RERTR-8 (U0R040) plate was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel plate was irradiated in the advanced test reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately ~110 degrees C and 5.4 x 10-21 f/cm3. The characterization was performed using a 200KV TEM with a LaB6 filament. Detailed microstructural information along with composition analysis is obtained. The results and their implication on the performance of this silicide fuel are discussed.

  9. Thermal stability of copper silicide passivation layers in copper-based multilevel interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hymes, S.; Kumar, K. S.; Murarka, S. P.; Ding, P. J.; Wang, W.; Lanford, W. A.

    1998-04-01

    Copper thin films were exposed to a dilute silane mixture at temperatures in the range of 190-363 °C. The resulting silicide surface layers were characterized by four-point probe, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction. A definitive stability regime is observed in which progressively higher copper content phases exist with increasing temperature. Cu3Si, formed in silane, on annealing converts to Cu5Si and eventually to no silicide layer by a silicon diffusion reaction that in an inert ambient drives silicon into underlying copper to form a solid solution. In oxidizing ambients, a similar phenomenon occurs but now silicon also diffuses to surfaces where it oxidizes to form a self-passivating SiO2 layer on surface. These results have important implications governing integration of copper silicide as a passivation layer and silicon hydride based dielectric deposition in copper-based multilevel interconnect in ultralarge scale integration.

  10. Self-organized patterns along sidewalls of iron silicide nanowires on Si(110) and their origin

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Debolina; Mahato, J. C.; Bisi, Bhaskar; Dev, B. N.; Satpati, B.

    2014-11-10

    Iron silicide (cubic FeSi{sub 2}) nanowires have been grown on Si(110) by reactive deposition epitaxy and investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. On an otherwise uniform nanowire, a semi-periodic pattern along the edges of FeSi{sub 2} nanowires has been discovered. The origin of such growth patterns has been traced to initial growth of silicide nanodots with a pyramidal Si base at the chevron-like atomic arrangement of a clean reconstructed Si(110) surface. The pyramidal base evolves into a comb-like structure along the edges of the nanowires. This causes the semi-periodic structure of the iron silicide nanowires along their edges.

  11. The behavior of fuel-lean premixed flames in a standard flammability limit tube under controlled gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wherley, B. L.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel-lean flames in methane-air mixtures from 4.90 to 6.20 volume percent fuel and propane-air mixtures from 1.90 to 3.00 volume percent fuel were studied in the vicinity of the limit for a variety of gravity conditions. The limits were determined and the behavior of the flames studied for one g upward, one g downward, and zero g propagation. Photographic records of all flammability tube firings were obtained. The structure and behavior of these flames were detailed including the variations of the curvature of the flame front, the skirt length, and the occurrence of cellular instabilities with varying gravity conditions. The effect of ignition was also discussed. A survey of flame speeds as a function of mixture strength was made over a range of lean mixture compositions for each of the fuels studied. The results were presented graphically with those obtained by other researchers. The flame speed for constant fractional gravity loadings were plotted as a function of gravity loadings from 0.0 up to 2.0 g's against flame speeds extracted from the transient gravity flame histories for corresponding gravity loadings. The effects of varying gravity conditions on the extinguishment process for upward and downward propagating flames were investigated.

  12. Liquid Fuels: Pyrolytic Degradation and Fire Spread Behavior as Influenced by Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeboah, Yaw D.; Malbrue, Courtney; Savage, Melane; Liao, Bo; Ross, Howard D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work is being conducted by the Combustion and Emission Control Lab in the Engineering Department at Clark Atlanta University under NASA Grant No. NCC3-707. The work aims at providing data to supplement the ongoing NASA research activities on fire spread across liquid pools by providing flow visualization and velocity measurements especially in the gas phase and gas-liquid interface. The fabrication, installation, and testing were completed during this reporting period. The system shakedown and detailed quantitative measurements with High Speed Video and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) systems using butanol as fuel were performed. New and interesting results, not previously reported in the literature, were obtained from the experiments using a modified NASA tray and butanol as fuel. Three distinct flame spread regimes, as previously reported, were observed. These were the pseudo-uniform regime below 20 C, the pulsating regime between 22 and 30 C and the uniform regime above about 31 C. In the pulsating regime the jump velocity appeared to be independent of the pool temperature. However, the retreat velocity between jumps appeared to depend on the initial pool temperature. The flame retreated before surging forwards with increasing brightness. Previous literature reported this phenomenon only under microgravity conditions. However, we observed such behavior in our normal gravity experiments. Mini-pulsations behind the flame front were also observed. Two or three of these pulsations were observed within a single flame front pulsating time period. The velocity vector maps of the gas and liquid phases ahead, during, and behind the flame front were characterized. At least one recirculation cell was observed right below the flame front.The size of the liquid phase vortex (recirculation cell) below the flame front appeared to decrease with increasing initial pool temperature. The experiments also showed how multiple vortices developed in the liquid phase. A large

  13. Fuel Surrogate Physical Property Effects on Direct Injection Spray and Ignition Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    jet was steady. As shown in Figure 2, the model was capable of capturing the general radial and axial fuel vapor distribution trends. At 25 mm...UNCLASSIFIED 1 Introduction Typical hydrocarbon fuels used in internal combustion engines, such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel, are composed of hundreds...to thousands of hydrocarbon (HC) species. Such a large number of species in high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemistry

  14. Effect [of] co-combustion of sewage sludge and biomass on combustion behavior and emissions in pulverized fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass not only has a considerable potential as an additional fuel source but also shows a reasonable cost level in comparison to other renewable energies. The practicable fuel types are both residual material from forestry and agriculture, such as wood or straw, and especially cultivated reproducible feedstock such as Miscanthus Sinensis, whole cereal plants, poplars, or willows. Besides as single fuel, it is also considered to be sensible to utilize biomass in co-combustion in existing firing systems, such as pc-fired power stations. Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion and residual matter. The effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coal were studied in a 0.5 MW pulverized fuel test facility and a 20 kW electrically heated combustor. A major aspect of the investigations had been the required preparation and milling of the additional fuels. The investigations showed that in co-combustion of straw with coal, a grinding of 6 mm and finer is sufficient. The definitely coarser milling degree of biomass delays combustion and is observable by in-flame measurements. The investigations reveal that biomass addition has a positive effect on emissions. Since biomass in most cases contains considerably less sulphur than coal, an increasing biomass share in the thermal output makes the SO{sub 2} emissions decrease proportionally. In addition, SO{sub 2} can partly be captured in the ash by the alkaline-earth fractions of the biomass ash. As for sewage sludge, the emissions of SO{sub 2} correlate with the sulphur content of the fuel and, hence, rise with an increasing share of this biomass. Independently from the type, biomass shows a considerably stronger release of volatile matter. This latter fact may have a positive impact on NOx emissions when NOx

  15. Experimental Study of Low Temperature Behavior of Aviation Turbine Fuels in a Wing Tank Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, Francis J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study aircraft fuels at low temperatures near the freezing point. The objective was an improved understanding of the flowability and pumpability of the fuels under conditions encoutered during cold weather flight of a long range commercial aircraft. The test tank simulated a section of an outer wing tank and was chilled on the upper and lower surfaces. Fuels included commercial Jet A and Diesel D-2; JP-5 from oil shale; and Jet A, intermediate freeze point, and D-2 fuels derived from selected paraffinic and naphthenic crudes. A pour point depressant was tested.

  16. Effects of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels and Expected Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Colorado, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schoennagel, Tania; Veblen, Thomas T.; Negron, José F.; Smith, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    In Colorado and southern Wyoming, mountain pine beetle (MPB) has affected over 1.6 million ha of predominantly lodgepole pine forests, raising concerns about effects of MPB-caused mortality on subsequent wildfire risk and behavior. Using empirical data we modeled potential fire behavior across a gradient of wind speeds and moisture scenarios in Green stands compared three stages since MPB attack (Red [1–3 yrs], Grey [4–10 yrs], and Old-MPB [∼30 yrs]). MPB killed 50% of the trees and 70% of the basal area in Red and Grey stages. Across moisture scenarios, canopy fuel moisture was one-third lower in Red and Grey stages compared to the Green stage, making active crown fire possible at lower wind speeds and less extreme moisture conditions. More-open canopies and high loads of large surface fuels due to treefall in Grey and Old-MPB stages significantly increased surface fireline intensities, facilitating active crown fire at lower wind speeds (>30–55 km/hr) across all moisture scenarios. Not accounting for low foliar moistures in Red and Grey stages, and large surface fuels in Grey and Old-MPB stages, underestimates the occurrence of active crown fire. Under extreme burning conditions, minimum wind speeds for active crown fire were 25–35 km/hr lower for Red, Grey and Old-MPB stands compared to Green. However, if transition to crown fire occurs (outside the stand, or within the stand via ladder fuels or wind gusts >65 km/hr), active crown fire would be sustained at similar wind speeds, suggesting observed fire behavior may not be qualitatively different among MPB stages under extreme burning conditions. Overall, the risk (probability) of active crown fire appears elevated in MPB-affected stands, but the predominant fire hazard (crown fire) is similar across MPB stages and is characteristic of lodgepole pine forests where extremely dry, gusty weather conditions are key factors in determining fire behavior. PMID:22272268

  17. An inert marker study for palladium silicide formation - Si moves in polycrystalline Pd2Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. T.; Lien, C.-D.; Shreter, U.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1985-01-01

    A novel use of Ti marker is introduced to investigate the moving species during Pd2Si formation on 111 and 100 line-type Si substrates. Silicide formed from amorphous Si is also studied using a W marker. Although these markers are observed to alter the silicide formation in the initial stage, the moving species can be identified once a normal growth rate is resumed. It is found that Si is the dominant moving species for all three types of Si crystallinity. However, Pd will participate in mass transport when Si motion becomes obstructed.

  18. Self-organized growth and magnetic properties of epitaxial silicide nanoislands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Levy, R.; Camus, Y.; Dascalu, M.; Cesura, F.; Chalasani, R.; Kohn, A.; Markovich, G.; Goldfarb, I.

    2017-01-01

    Self-organized transition-metal (Ni and Fe) and rare-earth (Er) silicide nanostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) and Si(0 0 1) surfaces under low coverage conditions, in a "solid phase" and "reactive deposition" epitaxial regimes. Island evolution was continuously monitored in-situ, using real-time scanning tunneling microscopy and surface electron diffraction. After anneal of a Ni/Si(1 1 1) surface at 700 °C, we observed small hemispherical Ni-silicide nanoislands ∼10 nm in diameter decorating surface steps in a self-ordered fashion and pinning them. Fe-silicide nanoislands formed after a 550 °C anneal of a Fe-covered surface, were also self-ordered along the surface step-bunches, however were significantly larger (∼70 × 10 nm) and exhibited well-developed three-dimensional polyhedral shapes. Ni-silicide islands were sparsely distributed, separated by about ∼100 nm from one another, on average, whereas Fe-silicide islands were more densely packed, with only ∼50 nm mean separation distance. In spite of the above differences between both types of island in size, shape, and number density, the self-ordering in both cases was close to ideal, with practically no islands nucleated on terraces. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry showed considerable superparamagnetism, in particular in Fe-silicide islands with ∼1.9 μB/Fe atom, indicating stronger ferromagnetic coupling of individual magnetic moments, contrary to Ni-silicide islands with the calculated moments of only ∼ 0.5μB /Ni atom. To elucidate the effects of the island size, shape, and lateral ordering on the measured magnetic response, we have controllably changed the island morphology by varying deposition methods and conditions and even using differently oriented Si substrates. We have also begun experimenting with rare-earth silicide islands. In the forthcoming experiments we intend to compare the magnetic response of these variously built and composed islands and correlate

  19. Optical anisotropy of quasi-1D rare-earth silicide nanostructures on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandola, S.; Speiser, E.; Esser, N.; Appelfeller, S.; Franz, M.; Dähne, M.

    2017-03-01

    Rare earth metals are known to interact strongly with Si(001) surfaces to form different types of silicide nanostructures. Using STM to structurally characterize Dy and Tb silicide nanostructures on vicinal Si(001), it will be shown that reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) can be used as an optical fingerprint technique to clearly distinguish between the formation of a semiconducting two-dimensional wetting layer and the metallic one-dimensional nanowires. Moreover, the distinctive spectral features can be related to structural units of the nanostructures. RAS spectra of Tb and Dy nanostructures are found to show similar features.

  20. Progress in alkaline peroxide dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Dong, D.; Buchholz, B.A.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Wu, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports recent progress on two alkaline peroxide dissolution processes: the dissolution of low-enriched uranium metal and silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) targets. These processes are being developed to substitute low-enriched for high-enriched uranium in targets used for production of fission-product {sup 99}Mo. Issues that are addressed include (1) dissolution kinetics of silicide targets, (2) {sup 99}Mo lost during aluminum dissolution, (3) modeling of hydrogen peroxide consumption, (4) optimization of the uranium foil dissolution process, and (5) selection of uranium foil barrier materials. Future work associated with these two processes is also briefly discussed.

  1. Method for forming metallic silicide films on silicon substrates by ion beam deposition

    DOEpatents

    Zuhr, Raymond A.; Holland, Orin W.

    1990-01-01

    Metallic silicide films are formed on silicon substrates by contacting the substrates with a low-energy ion beam of metal ions while moderately heating the substrate. The heating of the substrate provides for the diffusion of silicon atoms through the film as it is being formed to the surface of the film for interaction with the metal ions as they contact the diffused silicon. The metallic silicide films provided by the present invention are contaminant free, of uniform stoichiometry, large grain size, and exhibit low resistivity values which are of particular usefulness for integrated circuit production.

  2. Fundamental Processes of Coupled Radiation Damage and Mechanical Behavior in Nuclear Fuel Materials for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Phillpot, Simon; Tulenko, James

    2011-09-08

    The objective of this work has been to elucidate the relationship among microstructure, radiation damage and mechanical properties for nuclear fuel materials. As representative nuclear materials, we have taken an hcp metal (Mg as a generic metal, and Ti alloys for fast reactors) and UO2 (representing fuel). The degradation of the thermo-mechanical behavior of nuclear fuels under irradiation, both the fissionable material itself and its cladding, is a longstanding issue of critical importance to the nuclear industry. There are experimental indications that nanocrystalline metals and ceramics may be more resistant to radiation damage than their coarse-grained counterparts. The objective of this project look at the effect of microstructure on radiation damage and mechanical behavior in these materials. The approach to be taken was state-of-the-art, large-scale atomic-level simulation. This systematic simulation program of the effects of irradiation on the structure and mechanical properties of polycrystalline Ti and UO2 identified radiation damage mechanisms. Moreover, it will provided important insights into behavior that can be expected in nanocrystalline microstructures and, by extension, nanocomposites. The fundamental insights from this work can be expected to help in the design microstructures that are less susceptible to radiation damage and thermomechanical degradation.

  3. Theoretical investigation of silicide Schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-08-15

    An ultracompact integrated silicide Schottky barrier detector (SBD) is designed and theoretically investigated to electrically detect the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating along horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. An ultrathin silicide layer inserted between the silicon core and the insulator, which can be fabricated precisely using the well-developed self-aligned silicide process, absorbs the SPP power effectively if a suitable silicide is chosen. Moreover, the Schottky barrier height in the silicide-silicon-silicide configuration can be tuned substantially by the external voltage through the Schottky effect owing to the very narrow silicon core. For a TaSi(2) detector with optimized dimensions, numerical simulation predicts responsivity of ~0.07 A/W, speed of ~60 GHz, dark current of ~66 nA at room temperature, and minimum detectable power of ~-29 dBm. The design also suggests that the device's size can be reduced and the overall performances will be further improved if a silicide with smaller permittivity is used.

  4. Scoping studies of vapor behavior during a severe accident in a metal-fueled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, B.W.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1985-04-15

    Scoping calculations have been performed examining the consequences of fuel melting and pin failures for a reactivity-insertion type accident in a sodium-cooled, pool-type reactor fueled with a metal alloy fuel. The principal gas and vapor species released are shown to be Xe, Cs,and bond sodium contained within the fuel porosity. Fuel vapor pressure is insignificant, and there is no energetic fuel-coolant interaction for the conditions considered. Condensation of sodium vapor as it expands into the upper sodium pool in a jet mixing regime may occur as rapidly as the vapor emerges from the disrupted core (although reactor-material experiments are needed to confirm these high condensation rates). If the predictions of rapid direct-contact condensation can be verified experimentally for the sodium system, the implication is that the ability of vapor expansion to perform appreciable work on the system is largely eliminated. Furthermore, the ability of an expanding vapor bubble to transport fuel and fission product species to the cover gas region where they may be released to the containment is also largely eliminated. The radionuclide species except for fission gas are largely retained within the core and sodium pool.

  5. Spent fuel reaction - the behavior of the {epsilon}-phase over 3.1 years

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Wolf, S.F.

    1996-12-31

    The release fractions of the five elements in the {epsilon}-phase ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 97}Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd) as well as that of {sup 238}U are reported for the reaction of two oxide fuels (ATM-103 and ATM-106) in unsaturated tests under oxidizing conditions. The {sup 99}Tc release fractions provide a lower limit for the magnitude of the spent fuel reaction. The {sup 99}Tc release fractions indicate that a surface reaction might be the rate controlling mechanism for fuel reaction under unsaturated conditions and the oxidant is possibly H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a product of alpha radiolysis of water.

  6. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. I. Factors affecting fire spread rate and modeling].

    PubMed

    Jin, Sen; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Li

    2012-01-01

    Aimed to understand the fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed under field condition, the leaves of a secondary Mongolian oak forest in Northeast Forestry University experimental forest farm were collected and brought into laboratory to construct fuel-beds with varied loading, height, and moisture content, and a total of 100 experimental fires were burned under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. It was observed that the fire spread rate of the fuel-beds was less than 0.5 m x min(-1). Fuel-bed loading, height, and moisture contents all had significant effects on the fire spread rate. The effect of fuel-bed moisture content on the fire spread had no significant correlations with fuel-bed loading and height, but the effect of fuel-bed height was related to the fuel-bed loading. The packing ratio of fuel-beds had less effect on the fire spread rate. Taking the fuel-bed loading, height, and moisture content as predictive variables, a prediction model for the fire spread rate of Mongolian oak leaves fuel-bed was established, which could explain 83% of the variance of the fire spread rate, with a mean absolute error 0.04 m x min(-1) and a mean relative error less than 17%.

  7. Analysis of the behavior and degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells with a dead-ended anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jianliang; Jiang, Zuwei; Hou, Ming; Liang, Dong; Xiao, Yu; Dou, Meiling; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2014-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with a dead-ended anode (DEA) can obtain high hydrogen utilization by a comparatively simple system. Nevertheless, the accumulation of the nitrogen and the water in the anode channels can lead to a local fuel starvation, which degrades the performance and durability of PEMFCs. In this paper, the behaviors of PEMFCs with a DEA are explored experimentally by detecting the current distribution and the local potentials. The results indicate that the current distribution is uneven during the DEA operation. The local current firstly decreases at the region near the anode outlet, and then extends to the inlet region along the channels with time. The complete fuel starvation near the anode outlet leads to a high local potential and carbon corrosion on the cathode side. The SEM images of the cathode electrode reveal that the significant thickness reduction and the collapse of the electrode's porous structure happen in the cathode catalyst layer, leading to the irreversible decline of the performance. The comparison of the experiments with different oxidants and fuels reveals that the nitrogen crossover from cathode to anode is the dominant factor on the performance decline under the DEA operations.

  8. Comparison of degradation behaviors for open-ended and closed proton exchange membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Tu, Zhengkai; Zhang, Haining; Zhan, Zhigang; Pan, Mu

    As catalyst support materials, the oxidation of carbon materials is considered one of the major factors for performance decay during the startup and shutdown process of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which must be mitigated to achieve acceptable durability. In this paper, the effect of cathode exhaust conditions on the degradation behaviors of fuel cells is investigated using two single cells named the open-ended and closed cells. The cathode inlet pressure during the introduction of the dummy load is an important factor in analyzing the performance decay of membrane electrode assemblies under different conditions. Electrochemical techniques, including the measurement of polarization curves, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy of tested membrane electrode assemblies, are employed to evaluate the performance decay of fuel cells. The results show that a closed cathode exhaust valve during the introduction of the dummy load would significantly alleviate both the performance decay and the decrease in the electrochemically active surface area, resulting in an improvement in fuel cell durability. No significant deterioration of the membranes is observed for both the open-ended and the closed cells during frequent startup and shutdown processes.

  9. Properties of SiO2 grown on Ti, Co, Ni, Pd, and Pt silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartur, M.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1984-01-01

    Successful utilization of silicides for VLSI applcations depends strongly on the formation of electrically insulating oxide on top of the silicide (1) . It is found that almost all silicides on a Si substrate can be oxidized to form an SiO2 layer on their surface. In this paper, we present some of the properties of such SiO2 layers formed on TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi2, Pd2Si, and PtSi on a substrate following dry and wet oxidation. Electrical parameters that were investigated are the dielectric constant, dielectric strength (breakdown field), and pinhole density. The dielectric constant was found to be 3.49 ± 0.24, which is similar to the values reported for SiO2 grown on Si. The dielectric strength of the oxide layers depends on the polarity of the applied voltage, as is the case for oxide grown on poly-Si. Pinhole density in this oxide was also estimated and is less than 40 per cm2. The oxide density and stoichiometry were evaluated using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and DEKTAK, and compared to SiO2 grown on . The conclusion we have reached is that oxides grown on almost all the silicides investigated (except PdSi), hold promise for integrated circuit application. The main problem is the suicide roughness, induced by the thermal oxidation, that reduces the dielectric breakdown field.

  10. Magneto-Transport Studies of Molecular Beam Epitaxial Grown Osmium Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottier, Ryan; Zhao, Wei; Amir, Fatima; Hossain, Khalid; Anibou, Noureddine; Donner, Wolfgang; Golding, Terry

    2006-03-01

    Semiconducting transition metal silicides present a possible solution to on-chip integration of optical and electronic Si-based circuitry. Two phases of osmium silicide (OsSi2 and Os2Si3) are predicted to have promising optical characteristics but require additional development to fully determine their feasibility for high-quality devices. This study has been motivated by reports that OsSi2 has a bandgap between 1.4--1.8eV [1, 2] and Os2Si3 may have a direct bandgap of 0.95 eV [3] or 2.3 eV [1]. In this paper we will present temperature dependent (20 < T < 300 K) magneto Hall measurements of molecular beam epitaxial grown osmium silicide thin films. Os and Si were coevaporated onto Si(100) substrates at varying growth rates and temperatures. XRD was performed in order to identify the silicide phases present. We will discuss our results in relation to the known phase diagrams and our growth parameters. [1] L. Schellenberg et al., J. Less-Common Met. 144, 341 (1988). [2] K. Mason and G. Müller-Vogt, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 34 (1983). [3] A. B. Filonov et al., Phys. Rev. B 60(24), 16494 (1999).

  11. Influence of Rapid Thermal Ramp Rate on Phase Transformation of Titanium Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Glenn; Hu, Yao, Zhi; Smith, Paul Martin; Tay, Sing Pin; Thakur, Randhir; Yang, Jiting

    1999-05-03

    ULSI technology requires low resistance, stable silicides formed on small geometry lines. Titanium disilicide (TiSiz), which is the most widely used silicide for ULSI applications, exists in two crystallographic phases: the high resistance, metastable C49 phase and the low resistance, stable C54 phase. The major issue with TiSiz is the increasing thermal budget required to transform the C49 phase into the low resistance C54 phase as linewiths decrease below 0.25 pm. Annealing above 900"C to obtain this transformation often results in thermal degradation, so it is desirable to reduce the transformation temperature. The transformation temperature has been shown to be a fi.mction of many factors including microstructure, grain size, and impurities. In this paper we report an investig+ion of rapid thermal silicidation of titanium films (250, 400, and 600 A) on single crystalline silicon at temperatures from 300 to 1000"C. The ramp rates for these experiments are 5, 30, 70, and 200oC/s. The transformation temperature decreases as the ramp rate increases and as the initial film thickness increases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to analyze the resultant film microstructure. The ramp rate influence on Ti silicidation is also investigated on polycrystalline Si lines with widths ranging from 0.27 to 3.0 pm.

  12. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume IV: operating instructions and program documentation for the CS vehicle choice simulation model. Final report, October 1977-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.R.; Berkovec, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    The report assesses consumer behavior towards fuel-efficient vehicles designed to meet recently mandated federal fuel economy standards. The study involves a comprehensive evaluation of existing nationwide survey data as well as the development of a major new econometric forecasting model of household vehicle type choice. As a result, the report describes both an assessment of consumers' current reported sentiments toward fuel-efficient vehicles and insights into expected future changes in household vehicle purchase behavior in response to changes in vehicle designs and prices, demographics, and the energy environment.

  13. [Behavior of fuel hot particles in the body of cows at oral intake].

    PubMed

    Kashparov, V A; Lazarev, N M; Ioshchenko, V I

    1997-01-01

    It was studied the behaviour of fuel hot particles (analogous to Chernobyl) in gastrointestinal tract of cows. The values of caesium and strontium radionuclides transfer to the cows organism and its transition parameters to milk after the single per oral intake to the organism of animals are estimated. It is shown, that the biological simplicity of radionuclides in the fuel hot particles at two parameters lower, than the same radionuclides in washed phases.

  14. High-density reduced-enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels have been conducted by the US RERTR Program in order to provide the technical means to reduce the enrichment of fuels for research and test reactors. The traditional aluminum dispersion fuel technology has been extended to include the highest practical loadings of uranium-aluminide (UAl/sub x/, 2.3 MgU/m/sup 3/), uranium-oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, 3.2 MgU/m/sup 3/), and uranium-silicide (U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, 5.5 MgU/m/sup 3/; U/sub 3/Si, 7.0 MgU/m/sup 3/) fuels. A third uranium-silicide alloy, U/sub 3/SiAl (U + 3.5 wt % Si + 1.5 wt % Al) has been found to perform poorly at high burnup. Testing of miniature fuel plates and full-sized fuel elements is at an advanced stage for the highest loadings of the aluminide and oxide fuels and intermediate loadings of the silicide fuels, and good results have been obtained for low-enriched uranium. The data obtained to date are discussed. 1 reference, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. In situ real-time studies of nickel silicide phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinani, Manisha

    2000-10-01

    Metal silicides have attracted considerable attention in recent years as low resistivity metal contact and interconnect materials in microelectronics. Historically, polycrystalline silicon has been used as the gate contact material. However, as device size decreases, the higher resistance of polycrystalline silicon can degrade device performance. Metal silicides provide low metal like resistivities and high temperature stability. Ideal silicides for practical applications need to have stable phases, low processing temperatures and mechanical compatibility with silicon, in order to reduce defects and roughness at the silicon-silicide interface. NiSi, one of the nickel silicide phases, fulfills all these criteria. It has a resistivity of 14muO-cm, and a large processing temperature window (350--750°C). NiSi actually surpasses other commonly used silicides such as COSi2 and TiSi2 1 in these properties, while avoiding problems generally faced with these silicides2. Prior to the use of NiSi, its formation mechanism must be understood. The objective of this research is to develop analytical procedures to monitor phase transformations, in our case NiSi, in real-time, using non-destructive techniques. To this end, we studied the formation of NiSi films on Si using Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and real-time single wavelength and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Several nickel silicide phases (Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2), with different properties, form in various temperature ranges below 1000°C. Three phases, Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2, were identified in this temperature range, and their optical databases in the 2--4 eV range were established. We demonstrated that we can identify the phases and the extent of phase formation from optical data obtained via spectroscopic ellipsometry in real-time, and modeled the data using the optical databases established. We have also observed the onset of agglomeration of the silicide for

  16. A comparative study on the wear behaviors of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Ho; Byun, Thak Sang

    2015-10-01

    Accident-tolerant fuels are expected to have considerably longer coping time to respond to the loss of active cooling under severe accidents and, at the same time, have comparable or improved fuel performance during normal operation. The wear resistance of accident tolerant fuels, therefore, needs to be examined to determine the applicability of these cladding candidates to the current operating PWRs because the most common failure of nuclear fuel claddings is still caused by grid-to-rod fretting during normal operations. In this study, reciprocating sliding wear tests on three kinds of cladding candidates for accident-tolerant fuels have been performed to investigate the tribological compatibilities of selfmated cladding candidates and to determine the direct applicability of conventional Zirconium-based alloys as supporting structural materials. The friction coefficients of the cladding candidates are strongly influenced by the test environments and coupled materials. The wear test results under water lubrication conditions indicate that the supporting structural materials for the cladding candidates of accident-tolerant fuels need to be replaced with the same cladding materials instead of using conventional Zirconium-based alloys.

  17. Further thermodynamic assessment for synthesizing transition metal silicides by the combustion synthesis process

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, S.B.; Qian, Z.B.; Radhakrishnan, R.

    1994-01-15

    It is now recognized that the silicide based materials can perform well under high temperature oxidizing conditions in the range of 1,200--1,600 C. The range of potential uses described in the literature for aerospace, automobile to power generation equipment is extremely broad. In fact, the silicides offer an alternative class of materials to the engineering ceramics such as SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In their previous paper, the authors argued that combustion synthesis (CS) may prove to be a viable method for producing transition metal silicides; it drew attention to the advantages of the process in comparison to conventional processes. This paper will expand their previous thermodynamic assessment in two ways: (1) encompass a larger number of silicides for which thermodynamic data are readily available and (2) perform thermodynamic calculations in order to obtain a correlation between thermodynamic quantities that characterize the materials in question. Previously, the authors stopped short of these calculations by obtaining experimental data from Russian literature. In the present case, experimental data are not available for many of the silicides. Consequently, thermodynamic calculations, for the first time, predict the possibility of synthesizing some of the materials in question by the CS process. Being predictions, the calculated values may be larger than experimental values (if and when available). Nonetheless, these predictions may prove to be important because thermodynamics dictates whether a reaction will propagate or quench itself. These calculations can be used as a classification tool in distinguishing between the energetic systems and the sluggish ones.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of metal/oxide and metal/silicide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.; Miracle, D.; Abbaschian, R.

    1995-12-01

    Fracture energies of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb interfaces and MoSi{sub 2}/Nb interfaces with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating were measured using sandwich-type chevron-notched specimens. The relations between the mechanical properties, microstructures, types of bonds at the interface and processing routes were explored. The fracture energy of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb interface was determined to be 9 J/m{sup 2} and changed to 16 J/m{sup 2} when Nb was pre-oxidized before the formation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb interface. The fracture energy of the MoSi{sub 2}/Nb interface could not be determined directly because of the formation of the interfacial compounds. However, the fracture energy at the MoSi{sub 2}/Nb interfacial region was found to depend on the interfacial bond strength, roughness of interfaces and microstructure of interfacial compounds. The interfacial fracture energies of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with silicides, MoSi{sub 2}, Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, or (Nb, Mo)Si{sub 2} were estimated to be about 16 J/m{sup 2}, while the interfacial fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m{sup 2}. The measured fracture energies between two silicides or between Nb and a silicide were larger than 34 J/m{sup 2}. The measured fracture energies of the various interfaces are discussed in terms of the interfacial microstructures and types of bonds at the interfaces.

  19. Thermal Stability Study from Room Temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) in Magnesium Silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanaki, Eleni-Chrysanthi; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides; Vourlias, George; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Kitis, George; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.; Polymeris, George S.

    2016-10-01

    Doped magnesium silicide has been identified as a promising and environmentally friendly advanced thermoelectric material in the temperature range between 500 K and 800 K (227 °C and 527 °C). Besides the plethora of magnesium silicide thermoelectric advantages, it is well known for its high sensitivity to oxidation. Oxidation is one of the primary instability mechanisms of degradation of high-temperature Mg2Si thermoelectric devices, as in the presence of O2, Mg2Si decomposes to form MgO and Si. In this work, commercial magnesium silicide in bulk form was used for thermal stability study from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Various techniques such as DTA-TG, PXRD, and FTIR have been applied. Moreover, the application of thermoluminescence (TL) as an effective and alternative probe for the study of oxidation and decomposition has been exploited. The latter provides qualitative but very helpful hints toward oxidation studies. The low-detection threshold of thermoluminescence, in conjunction with the chemical composition of the oxidation byproducts, consisting of MgO, Mg2SiO4, and SiO2, constitute two powerful motivations for further investigating its viable use as proxy for instability/decomposition studies of magnesium silicide. The partial oxidation reaction has been adopted due to the experimental fact that magnesium silicide is monitored throughout the heating temperature range of the present study. Finally, the role of silicon dioxide to the decomposition procedure, being in amorphous state and gradually crystallizing, has been highlighted for the first time in the literature. Mg2Si oxidation takes place in two steps, including a mild oxidation process with temperature threshold of 573 K (300 °C) and an abrupt one after 773 K (500 °C). Implications on the optimum operational temperature range for practical thermoelectric (TE) applications have also been briefly discussed.

  20. Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P.; Boehman, Andre L.; Haworth, Daniel C.; Koga, Hibiki

    2007-04-15

    A motored engine study using premixed charges of fuel and air at a wide range of diesel-relevant equivalence ratios was performed to investigate autoignition differences among surrogates for conventional diesel fuel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel, and biodiesel, as well as n-heptane. Experiments were performed by delivering a premixed charge of vaporized fuel and air and increasing the compression ratio in a stepwise manner to increase the extent of reaction while monitoring the exhaust composition via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and collecting condensable exhaust gas for subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Each fuel demonstrated a two-stage ignition process, with a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) event followed by the main combustion, or high-temperature heat release (HTHR). Among the three diesel-relevant fuels, the magnitude of LTHR was highest for GTL diesel, followed by methyl decanoate, and conventional diesel fuel last. FTIR analysis of the exhaust for n-heptane, the conventional diesel surrogate, and the GTL diesel surrogate revealed that LTHR produces high concentrations of aldehydes and CO while producing only negligible amounts of CO{sub 2}. Methyl decanoate differed from the other two-stage ignition fuels only in that there were significant amounts of CO{sub 2} produced during LTHR; this was the result of decarboxylation of the ester group, not the result of oxidation. GC/MS analysis of LTHR exhaust condensate for n-heptane revealed high concentrations of 2,5-heptanedione, a di-ketone that can be closely tied to species in existing autoignition models for n-heptane. GC/MS analysis of the LTHR condensate for conventional diesel fuel and GTL diesel fuel revealed a series of high molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, which were expected, as well as a series of organic acids, which are not commonly reported as products of combustion. The GC/MS analysis of the methyl decanoate exhaust condensate

  1. Fretting wear behaviors of a dual-cooled nuclear fuel rod under a simulated rod vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Kang, Heung-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Kang-Hee

    2012-06-06

    Recently, a dual-cooled fuel (i.e., annular fuel) that is compatible with current operating PWR plants has been proposed in order to realize both a considerable amount of power uprating and an increase of safety margins. As the design concept should be compatible with current operating PWR plants, however, it shows a narrow gap between the fuel rods when compared with current solid nuclear fuel arrays and needs to modify the spacer grid shapes and their positions. In this study, fretting wear tests have been performed to evaluate the wear resistance of a dual-cooled fuel by using a proposed spring and dimple of spacer grids that have a cantilever type and hemispherical shape, respectively. As a result, the wear volume of the spring specimen gradually increases as the contact condition is changed from a certain gap, just contact to positive force. However, in the dimple specimen, just contact condition shows a large wear volume. In addition, a circular rod motion at upper region of contact surface is gradually increased and its diametric size depends on the wear depth increase. Based on the test results, the fretting wear resistance of the proposed spring and dimple is analyzed by comparing the wear measurement results and rod motion in detail.

  2. Effect of stress evolution on microstructural behavior in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, G. Y.; Kim, Yeon Soo; Jamison, L. M.; Robinson, A. B.; Lee, K. H.; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2017-04-01

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel irradiated to high burnup at high power (high fission rate) exhibited microstructural changes including deformation of the fuel particles, pore growth, and rupture of the Al matrix. The driving force for these microstructural changes was meat swelling resulting from a combination of fuel particle swelling and interaction layer (IL) growth. In some cases, pore growth in the interaction layers also contributed to meat swelling. The main objective of this work was to determine the stress distribution within the fuel meat that caused these phenomena. A mechanical equilibrium between the stress generated by fuel meat swelling and the stress relieved by fission-induced creep in the meat constituents (U-Mo particles, Al matrix, and IL) was considered. Test plates with well-recorded fabrication data and irradiation conditions were used, and their post-irradiation examination (PIE) data was obtained. ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) was utilized to simulate the microstructural evolution of the plates. The simulation results allowed for the determination of effective stress and hydrostatic stress exerted on the meat constituents. The effects of fabrication and irradiation parameters on the stress distribution that drives microstructural evolutions, such as pore growth in the IL and Al matrix rupture, were investigated.

  3. Analytical approximations for the long-term decay behavior of spent fuel and high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Malbrain, C.M.; Deutch, J.M.; Lester, R.K.

    1982-05-01

    Simple analytical approximations are presented that describe the radioactivity and radiogenic decay heat behavior of high-level wastes (HLWs) from various nuclear fuel cycles during the first 100,000 years of waste life. The correlations are based on detailed computations of HLW properties carried out with the isotope generation and depletion code ORIGEN 2. The ambiguities encountered in using simple comparisons of the hazards posed by HLWs and naturally occurring mineral deposits to establish the longevity requirements for geologic waste disposal schemes are discussed.

  4. Oxidation and reduction behaviors of a prototypic MgO-PuO2-x inert matrix fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation and reduction behaviors of prototypic MgO-based inert matrix fuels (IMFs) containing PuO2-x were experimentally investigated by means of thermogravimetry. The oxidation and reduction kinetics of the MgO-PuO2-x specimen were determined. The oxidation and reduction rates of the MgO-PuO2-x were found to be low compared with those of PuO2-x. It is note that the changes in O/Pu ratios of MgO-PuO2-x from stoichiometry were smaller than those of PuO2-x at high oxygen partial pressure.

  5. Impact of silicide layer on single photon avalanche diodes in a 130 nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zeng; Palubiak, Darek; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Deen, M. Jamal; Peng, Hao

    2016-09-01

    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is an attractive solid-state optical detector that offers ultra-high photon sensitivity (down to the single photon level), high speed (sub-nanosecond dead time) and good timing performance (less than 100 ps). In this work, the impact of the silicide layer on SPAD’s characteristics, including the breakdown voltage, dark count rate (DCR), after-pulsing probability and photon detection efficiency (PDE) is investigated. For this purpose, two sets of SPAD structures in a standard 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process are designed, fabricated, measured and compared. A factor of 4.5 (minimum) in DCR reduction, and 5 in PDE improvements are observed when the silicide layer is removed from the SPAD structure. However, the after-pulsing probability of the SPAD without silicide layer is two times higher than its counterpart with silicide. The reasons for these changes will be discussed.

  6. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

  7. Innovative concepts for fuel plate fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Thresh, H.R.

    1987-10-01

    A number of fabrication concepts have been and are being explored at ANL. Although specific processes were addressed with silicide fuels in mind, most are applicable to fabrication with any fuel type. Processes include improved comminution procedures for converting U-Si alloy ingots to powder using a roll crusher and an impact mill. Aluminizing of core compacts by ion vapor deposition techniques in vacuum offers prospects for improved plate quality. Other items examined include the possible use of coatings on fuel particles, matrices different from pure Al, and ductile fuel alloys which might be used to produce fuel plates with uranium loadings higher than possible with conventional dispersed-phase powder metallurgy technology.

  8. Creep analysis of fuel plates for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Yahr, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source will use closely spaced arrays of fuel plates. The plates are thin and will have a core containing enriched uranium silicide fuel clad in aluminum. The heat load caused by the nuclear reactions within the fuel plates will be removed by flowing high-velocity heavy water through narrow channels between the plates. However, the plates will still be at elevated temperatures while in service, and the potential for excessive plate deformation because of creep must be considered. An analysis to include creep for deformation and stresses because of temperature over a given time span has been performed and is reported herein.

  9. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume II. Final report Oct 77-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, J.T.; Groeneman, S.

    1981-03-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires fuel efficiency standards through Model Year 1985 and requires that economic practicability (e.g., marketability, consumer impact) be considered in miles per gallon formulations. The purpose of this research is to develop information on likely market response to various vehicle design and performance changes to minimize the possibility of market rejection. The report is based on focus group discussions and consumer experiments with drivers in different vehicle size classes. Analysis focuses on the believability of the energy crisis and concern about its effects, the acceptability of possible fuel economy options, consumer preferences with respect to vehicles embodying selected design and engineering changes, and predicted purchase and usage patterns under different future scenarios.

  10. Consumer behavior towards fuel efficient vehicles. Volume I: Executive summary. Final report, October 1977-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, J.T.; Groeneman, S.

    1981-03-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires fuel efficiency standards through Model Year 1985 and requires that economic practicability (e.g., marketability, consumer impact) be considered in miles per gallon formulations. The purpose of this research is to develop information on likely market response to various vehicle design and performance changes to minimize the possibility of market rejection. The report is based on focus group discussions and consumer experiments with drivers in different vehicle size classes. Analysis focuses on the believability of the 'energy crisis' and concern about its effects, the acceptability of possible fuel economy options, consumer preferences with respect to vehicles embodying selected design and engineering changes, and predicted purchase and usage patterns under different future scenarios.

  11. Experimental evaluation of thermal ratcheting behavior in UO2 fuel elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of thermal cycling of UO2 at high temperatures has been experimentally evaluated to determine the rates of distortion of UO2/clad fuel elements. Two capsules were rested in the 1500 C range, one with a 50 C thermal cycle, the other with a 100 C thermal cycle. It was observed that eight hours at the lower cycle temperature produced sufficient UO2 redistribution to cause clad distortion. The amount of distortion produced by the 100 C cycle was less than double that produced by the 50 C, indicating smaller thermal cycles would result in clad distortion. An incubation period was observed to occur before the onset of distortion with cycling similar to fuel swelling observed in-pile at these temperatures.

  12. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  13. Simulation of the irradiation-induced micro-thermo-mechanical behaviors evolution in ADS nuclear fuel pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shurong; Zhao, Yunmei; Wan, Jibo; Gong, Xin; Wang, Canglong; Yang, Lei; Huo, Yongzhong

    2013-11-01

    An Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is dedicated to Minor Actinides (MA) transmutation. The fuels for ADS are highly innovative, which are composite fuel pellets with the fuel particles containing MA phases dispersed in a MgO or Mo matrix. Assuming that the fuel particles are distributed periodically in the MgO matrix, a three-dimensional finite element model is developed. The three-dimensional incremental large-deformation constitutive relations for the fuel particles and matrix are separately built, and a method is accordingly constructed to implement simulation of the micro-thermo-mechanical behaviors evolution. Evolutions of the temperature and mechanical fields are given and discussed. With irradiation creep included in the MgO matrix constitutive relation, the conclusions can be drawn as that (1) irradiation creep has a remarkable effect on the mechanical behaviors evolution in the matrix; (2) irradiation creep plays an important role in the damage mechanism interpretation of ceramic matrix fuel pellets. Thermal conductivity The thermal conductivity model is adopted as KUO2 = K0·FD·FP·FM·FR, which was proposed by Lucuta et al. [10] to adapt to the high burnup conditions with consideration of the effects of temperature, burnup, porosity and fission products. K0 is the thermal conductivity of fully dense un-irradiated UO2, as Eq. (1) in W/m K; FD, FP are the adjust factors reflecting the effects of dissolved and precipitated fission products; FM and FR are factors due to porosity and irradiation effects. The adopted thermal conductivity varies with temperature and burnup, which expresses its degradation with burnup, with the terms as k0={1}/{0.0375+2.165×10-4T}+{4.715×109}/{T2}exp-{16361}/{T} FD={1.09}/{B3.265}+{0.0643}/{√{B}}√{T}artan{1}/{1.09/B3.265}+{0.0643}/{√{B}}√{T} FP=1+0.019B/3-0.019B{1}/{1+exp(1200-T100)} FM={1-P}/{1+(s-1)P} FR=1-{0.2}/{1+expT-90080} Thermal expansion The engineering strain of thermal expansion [11] is given as {ΔL}/{L0

  14. Corrosion behavior of iron and nickel base alloys under solid oxide fuel cell exposure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

    2006-03-01

    Topography and phase composition of the scales formed on commercial ferritic stainless steels and experimental low CTE nickel-based alloys were studied in atmospheres simulating solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) environments. The materials were studied under dual environment conditions with air on one side of the sample and carbon monoxide on the other side at 750°C. Surface characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used in this study.

  15. Phenomenological Study of the Behavior of Some Silica Formers in a High Velocity Jet Fuel Burner.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    Svehla, R.A.; and Lewandowski, K.: Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of Air and the Combustion Products of Natural Gas and of ASTM-A-1 Fuel...gas flow through the engine. The materials studied were; molybdenum disilicide , single crystal silicon jL.U carbide, sintered alpha silicon carbide, and...inch) outside of this a steep thermal gradient existed. Sighting of the pyrometer may have contributed to the scat- RESULTS Molybdenum Disilicide Two

  16. Carbon mediated reduction of silicon dioxide and growth of copper silicide particles in uniform width channels

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Timothy J.

    2013-09-21

    We show that surface arc-discharge deposited carbon plays a critical intermediary role in the breakdown of thermally grown oxide diffusion barriers of 90 nm on a silicon wafer at 1035 °C in an Ar/H{sub 2} atmosphere, resulting in the formation of epitaxial copper silicide particles in ≈ 10 μm wide channels, which are aligned with the intersections of the (100) surface of the wafer and the (110) planes on an oxidized silicon wafer, as well as endotaxial copper silicide nanoparticles within the wafer bulk. We apply energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, in combination with scanning and transmission electron microscopy of focused ion beam fabricated lammelas and trenches in the structure to elucidate the process of their formation.

  17. Development of a fused slurry silicide coating for the protection of tantalum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packer, C. M.; Perkins, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a research program to develop a reliable high-performance, fused slurry silicide protective coating for a tantalum-10 tungsten alloy for use at 1427 to 1538 C at 0.1 to 10 torr air pressure under cyclic temperature conditions. A review of silicide coating performance under these conditions indicated that the primary wear-out mode is associated with widening of hairline fissures in the coating. Consideration has been given to modifying the oxidation products that form on the coating surface to provide a seal for these fissures and to minimize their widening. On the basis of an analysis of the phase relationships between silica and various other oxides, a coating having the slurry composition 2.5Mn-33Ti-64.5Si was developed that is effective in the pressure range from 1 to 10 torr.

  18. Remarkable rare-earth metal silicide oxides with planar Si6 rings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Tang, Zhongjia; Lorenz, Bernd; Guloy, Arnold M

    2008-08-27

    New rare-earth silicide oxides, La10Si8O3 (1) and Ce10Si8O3 (2), were synthesized through high-temperature reactions of the pure elements under controlled oxygen atmosphere conditions. The remarkable silicides crystallize in a unique crystal structure (space group P6/mmm; a = 10.975(3) A (La) and 10.844(1) A (Ce); c = 4.680(1) A (La) and 4.561(1) A (Ce)) that features a 3-D framework of corner-shared O-centered (La/Ce)6 octahedra, reminiscent of hexagonal tungsten bronzes, with planar Si6 rings enclosed within its hexagonal channels. Band structure calculations indicate the compounds are metallic, with optimized La-Si bonds, and a benzene-like [Si6]6- anion. Compound 1 exhibits temperature independent paramagnetism. Compound 2 exhibits Curie-Weiss paramagnetism, and an antiferromagnetic ordering below 7 K.

  19. Effect of Saturation Pressure Difference on Metal–Silicide Nanopowder Formation in Thermal Plasma Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    A computational investigation using a unique model and a solution algorithm was conducted, changing only the saturation pressure of one material artificially during nanopowder formation in thermal plasma fabrication, to highlight the effects of the saturation pressure difference between a metal and silicon. The model can not only express any profile of particle size–composition distribution for a metal–silicide nanopowder even with widely ranging sizes from sub-nanometers to a few hundred nanometers, but it can also simulate the entire growth process involving binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous co-condensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles with different compositions. Greater differences in saturation pressures cause a greater time lag for co-condensation of two material vapors during the collective growth of the metal–silicide nanopowder. The greater time lag for co-condensation results in a wider range of composition of the mature nanopowder.

  20. Development of fused slurry silicide coatings for tantalum reentry heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, R. V.; Stetson, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fused slurry silicide coating was developed to provide atmospheric reentry protection for the 90Ta-lOW alloy. Overlaying the silicide with a highly refractory glass greatly improved total lifetime and reliability of the coating system. Low pressure, slow cycle lifetimes in excess of 100 cycles were consistently recorded for 1700 K - 13 and 1300 N/sq m test conditions. A minimum of 25 cycles was obtained for 1810 K - 1300 N/sq m conditions. About 50 simulated reentry cycles (variable temperature, pressure, and stress) were endured by coated 1-inch miniature heat shield panels when exposed to a maximum of 1700 K and either internal or external pressure conditions.

  1. Synthesis of silicon nanotubes with cobalt silicide ends using anodized aluminum oxide template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Lifeng; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    Silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) are compatible with Si-based semiconductor technology. In particular, the small diameters and controllable structure of such nanotubes are remaining challenges. Here we describe a method to fabricate SiNTs intrinsically connected with cobalt silicide ends based on highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Size and growth direction of the SiNTs can be well controlled via the templates. The growth of SiNTs is catalyzed by the Co nanoparticles reduced on the pore walls of the AAO after annealing, with a controllable thickness at a given growth temperature and time. Simultaneously, cobalt silicide forms on the bottom side of the SiNTs.

  2. Low-temperature ordering of FePt by formation of silicides in underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chih-Huang; Chiang, C. C.; Yang, C. H.

    2005-05-01

    A low-temperature ordering of FePt was achieved by introducing dynamic stress. The ordering temperature of FePt was reduced to 300°C by using a Cu underlayer on the HF-cleaned Si (001) substrate. An in-plane coercivity as high as 6900Oe can be obtained after post-annealing at 300°C. The formation of copper silicide, Cu3Si, during post-annealing induces a dynamic stress on FePt films, which greatly reduces the ordering temperature. Pt silicides also help to reduce the ordering temperature. The low-temperature ordering of FePt can be realized with Si /Cu underlayers on glass substrates.

  3. Barrierless Cu-Ni-Mo Interconnect Films with High Thermal Stability Against Silicide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. N.; Liu, L. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Chu, J. P.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.

    2012-12-01

    Cu-Ni-Mo alloys were investigated to increase thermal stability against silicide formation. The alloy compositions were chosen such that an insoluble element (Mo) solute was dissolved into Cu via a third element Ni which is soluble in both Cu and Ni. Thin-film Cu-Ni-Mo alloys were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The films with Mo/Ni ratio of 1/12 exhibited low electrical resistivities in combination with high thermal stabilities against silicide formation, in support of a tentative "cluster-plus-glue-atom" model for stable solid solutions. In particular, a (Mo1/13Ni12/13)0.3Cu99.7 sample reached a minimum resistivity of 2.6 μΩ cm after 400°C/1 h annealing and remained highly conductive with resistivities below 3 μΩ cm even after 400°C/40 h annealing. These alloys are promising candidates for future interconnect materials.

  4. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.; Dotsenko, , S. A.; Goroshko, D. L.; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Chernev, I. M.

    2016-12-01

    By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS) with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  5. Irradiation behavior study of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with high energy Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mo, K.; Yun, D.; Mohamed, W.; Pellin, M.; Fortner, J.; Kim, Y. S.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.; Wiencek, T.; Van den Berghe, S.; Leenaers, A.

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation responses of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel have been investigated by irradiation with 84 MeV Xe26+ ions. Dispersion fuels fabricated with uncoated and ZrN-coated fuel particles were irradiated to various doses at ∼350 °C. The highest dose achieved was 2.9 × 1017 ions/cm2 (∼1200 displacement per atom (dpa)). Following the irradiation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments were carried out to characterize the microstructures of the irradiated samples. The post irradiation examinations (PIE) revealed that: (1) crystalline interdiffusion product (UMo)Alx developed at locations where no coating or compromised coating layer is present; (2) intact ZrN coating layers effectively blocked the interdiffusion between U-Mo and Al; (3) SEM-observable Xe bubbles distributed along grain/cell boundaries in U-Mo; and (4) gas bubble interlinkage was observed at a dose of 2.9 × 1017 ions/cm2.

  6. Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courty, Olivier; Motta, Arthur T.; Hales, Jason D.

    2014-09-01

    As a result of corrosion during normal operation in nuclear reactors, hydrogen can enter the zirconium-alloy fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride platelets, which can severely degrade the cladding ductility. Under a heterogeneous temperature distribution, hydrides tend to accumulate in the colder areas, creating local spots of degraded cladding that can favor crack initiation. Therefore, an estimation of the local hydride distribution is necessary to help predict the risk of cladding failure. The hydride distribution is governed by three competing phenomena. Hydrogen in solid solution diffuses under a concentration gradient due to Fick's law and under a temperature gradient due to the Soret effect. Precipitation of the hydride platelets occurs once the hydrogen solubility limit is reached. A model of these phenomena was implemented in the 3D fuel performance code BISON in order to calculate the hydrogen distribution for arbitrary geometries, such as a nuclear fuel rod, and is now available for BISON users. Simulations have been performed on simple geometries to validate the model and its implementation. The simulations predict that before precipitation occurs, hydrogen tends to accumulate in the colder spots due to the Soret effect. Once the solubility limit is reached, hydrogen precipitates and forms a rim close to the outer edge of the cladding. The simulations also predict that the reactor shut down has little effect on already precipitated hydrides but causes the remaining hydrogen to precipitate homogeneously into hydrides.

  7. Modeling and simulation of hydrogen behavior in Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Hales; Various

    2014-09-01

    As a result of corrosion during normal operation in nuclear reactors, hydrogen can enter the zirconium-alloy fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride platelets, which can severely degrade the cladding ductility. Under a heterogeneous temperature distribution, hydrides tend to accumulate in the colder areas, creating local spots of degraded cladding that can favor crack initiation. Therefore, an estimation of the local hydride distribution is necessary to help predict the risk of cladding failure. The hydride distribution is governed by three competing phenomena. Hydrogen in solid solution diffuses under a concentration gradient due to Fick’s law and under a temperature gradient due to the Soret effect. Precipitation of the hydride platelets occurs once the hydrogen solubility limit is reached. A model of these phenomena was implemented in the 3D fuel performance code BISON in order to calculate the hydrogen distribution for arbitrary geometries, such as a nuclear fuel rod, and is now available for BISON users. Simulations have been performed on simple geometries to validate the model and its implementation. The simulations predict that before precipitation occurs, hydrogen tends to accumulate in the colder spots due to the Soret effect. Once the solubility limit is reached, hydrogen precipitates and forms a rim close to the outer edge of the cladding. The simulations also predict that the reactor shut down has little effect on already precipitated hydrides but causes the remaining hydrogen to precipitate homogeneously into hydrides.

  8. Isothermal Diagrams of Precipitation of Silicide and Aluminide Phases in Refractory Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Popova, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Processes of precipitation of silicides and aluminides in commercial titanium alloys under different modes of heat treatment are studied. The effect of alloying on the types of precipitating particles is considered. The temperature ranges of formation of intermetallics are determined and the possible mechanisms of transformation of particles of different types are discussed. A schematic isothermal diagram of decomposition of metastable phases in refractory titanium alloys is suggested.

  9. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    SciTech Connect

    Yuryev, V. A. Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Senkov, V. M.; Nalivaiko, O. Y.; Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I.

    2015-05-28

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  10. Nickel silicide for Ni/Cu contact mono-silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-07-01

    A solar cell contact needs to be as thin as possible and have high conductivity since a thick contact causes shading loss and reduced current. Plating is a very suitable method for making a metal contact, and nickel is a high conductivity metal which is easy to form into a contact using electroless plating. After the nickel is plated on the silicon substrate, the nickel contact should be fired in order to form nickel silicide. Nickel silicide is used for the seed layer of the Cu contact for silicon solar cells. In this study, we replaced the screen-printed contact of the Passivated Emitter Solar Cell (PESC) with a Ni/Cu contact that has a selective emitter. The nickel layer was used as the seed layer, adhesion layer, and Cu diffusion barrier. The main contact was formed by plating the copper. The firing conditions of a conventional furnace were varied in order to form nickel silicide. Consequently, we achieved the best solar cell efficiency of 18.15%.

  11. High current metal ion implantation to synthesize some conducting metal-silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B. X.; Gao, K. Y.

    1999-06-10

    High current metal-ion implantation by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source was conducted to synthesize some conducting metal-silicides. It was found that C54-TiSi{sub 2}, ZrSi{sub 2}, NiSi{sub 2}, CoSi{sub 2}, {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2} layers on Si wafers with good electric properties could be obtained directly after implantation. In comparison, the formation of some other silicides like {alpha}-FeSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2}, TaSi{sub 2}, tetragonal-WSi{sub 2} and tetragonal-MoSi{sub 2} required an additional post-annealing to improve their crystallinity and thus their electric properties. Interestingly, the NiSi{sub 2} layers of superior electric properties were obtained at a selected Ni-ion current density of 35 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. At this current, a beam heating raised the Si wafer to a specific temperature of 380 deg. C, at which the size difference between NiSi{sub 2} and Si lattices was nil. The resistivity of the NiSi{sub 2} layers so obtained was much lower than that of the Ni-disilicide formed by solid-state reaction at >750 deg. C. The formation mechanism of the above metal-silicides and the associated electric properties will also be discussed.

  12. Silicide/Silicon Heterointerfaces, Reaction Kinetics and Ultra-short Channel Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei

    Nickel silicide is one of the electrical contact materials widely used on very large scale integration (VLSI) of Si devices in microelectronic industry. This is because the silicide/silicon interface can be formed in a highly controlled manner to ensure reproducibility of optimal structural and electrical properties of the metal-Si contacts. These advantages can be inherited to Si nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FET) device. Due to the technological importance of nickel silicides, fundamental materials science of nickel silicides formation (Ni-Si reaction), especially in nanoscale, has raised wide interest and stimulate new insights and understandings. In this dissertation, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in combination with FET device characterization will be demonstrated as useful tools in nano-device fabrication as well as in gaining insights into the process of nickel silicide formation. The shortest transistor channel length (17 nm) fabricated on a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown silicon nanowire (NW) has been demonstrated by controlled reaction with Ni leads on an in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM) heating stage at a moderate temperature of 400 ºC. NiSi2 is the leading phase, and the silicide-silicon interface is an atomically sharp type-A interface. At such channel lengths, high maximum on-currents of 890 (microA/microm) and a maximum transconductance of 430 (microS/microm) were obtained, which pushes forward the performance of bottom-up Si NW Schottky barrier field-effect transistors (SB-FETs). Through accurate control over the silicidation reaction, we provide a systematic study of channel length dependent carrier transport in a large number of SB-FETs with channel lengths in the range of (17 nm -- 3.6 microm). Our device results corroborate with our transport simulations and reveal a characteristic type of short channel effects in SB-FETs, both in on- and off-state, which is different from that in conventional MOSFETs

  13. Low-Temperature Wet Conformal Nickel Silicide Deposition for Transistor Technology through an Organometallic Approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Margossian, Tigran; De Marchi, Michele; Thammasack, Maxime; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Zheng, Li-Qing; Shih, Chih-Jen; Zenobi, Renato; De Micheli, Giovanni; Baudouin, David; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Copéret, Christophe

    2017-02-08

    The race for performance of integrated circuits is nowadays facing a downscale limitation. To overpass this nanoscale limit, modern transistors with complex geometries have flourished, allowing higher performance and energy efficiency. Accompanying this breakthrough, challenges toward high-performance devices have emerged on each significant step, such as the inhomogeneous coverage issue and thermal-induced short circuit issue of metal silicide formation. In this respect, we developed a two-step organometallic approach for nickel silicide formation under near-ambient temperature. Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy show the formation of a homogeneous and conformal layer of NiSix on pristine silicon surface. Post-treatment decreases the carbon content to a level similar to what is found for the original wafer (∼6%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals an increasing ratio of Si content in the layer after annealing, which is shown to be NiSi2 according to X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation on a Si nanoparticle model. I-V characteristic fitting reveals that this NiSi2 layer exhibits a competitive Schottky barrier height of 0.41 eV and series resistance of 8.5 Ω, thus opening an alternative low-temperature route for metal silicide formation on advanced devices.

  14. FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Berna, G.A.; Beyer, G.A.; Davis, K.L.; Lanning, D.D.

    1997-12-01

    FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (3) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (4) fission gas release, (5) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (6) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (7) cladding oxidation, and (8) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat-transfer correlations. The codes` integral predictions of mechanical behavior have not been assessed against a data base, e.g., cladding strain or failure data. Therefore, it is recommended that the code not be used for analyses of cladding stress or strain. FRAPCON-3 is programmed for use on both mainframe computers and UNIX-based workstations such as DEC 5000 or SUN Sparcstation 10. It is also programmed for personal computers with FORTRAN compiler software and at least 8 to 10 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). The FRAPCON-3 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by the FRAPTRAN computer code (formerly named FRAP-T6).

  15. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.; Simnad, M.T.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of making a fuel compact having a matrix of carbon or graphite which carries the carbides of fissile material. A nuclear fuel material selected from the group including uranium and thorium carbides, silicides, and oxides is first mixed both with sufficient finely divided carbon to constitute a matrix in the final product and with a diffusional bonding material selected from the class consisting of zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, nickel, chromium, and silicon. The mixture is then heated at a temperature of 1500 to 1800 nif- C while maintaining it under a pressure of over about 2,000 pounds per square inch. Preferably, heating is accomplished by the electrical resistance of the compact itself. (AEC)

  16. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Bingsen; Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng; Su, Dangsheng; Williams, Christopher T.; Liang, Changhai

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

  17. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, Jason Dean; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  18. Electron and carbon balances in microbial fuel cells reveal temporary bacterial storage behavior during electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Freguia, Stefano; Rabaey, Korneel; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg

    2007-04-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are emerging as a novel technology with a great potential to reduce the costs of wastewater treatment. Their most studied application is organic carbon removal. One of the parameters commonly used to quantify the performance of these cells is the Coulombic efficiency, i.e., the electron recovery as electricity from the removed substrate. However, the "inefficiencies" of the process have never been fully identified. This study presents a method that uses the combination of electrochemical monitoring, chemical analysis, and a titration and off-gas analysis (TOGA) sensor to identify and quantify the sources of electron loss. The method was used successfully to close electron, carbon, and proton balances in acetate and glucose fed microbial fuel cells. The method revealed that in the case that a substrate is loaded as pulses carbon is stored inside the cells during initial high substrate conditions and consumed during starvation, with up to 57% of the current being generated after depletion of the external carbon source. Nile blue staining of biomass samples revealed lipophilic inclusions during high substrate conditions, thus confirming the storage of polymeric material in the bacterial cells. The method also allows for indirect measurement of growth yields, which ranged from 0 to 0.54 g biomass-C formed per g substrate-C used, depending on the type of substrate and the external resistance of the circuit.

  19. Thermal conductivities of U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.K.; Graves, R.S.; Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two high density uranium silicides are being evaluated as replacements for the research reactor fuels currently in use. Employing these compounds permits a major reduction in uranium enrichment, and tests have shown that the silicide fuels perform well under irradiation. Thermal conductivity data are required for analysis of these results and for safety calculations. The data show that silicide-Al dispersion fuels have somewhat better thermal conductivities than U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al dispersions, but their principal advantage is in their increased uranium content. The differences between the thermal conductivities of U/sub 3/Si and U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ dispersions are small, but the microstructure of the dispersion was found to have a major influence on thermal conductivity. This seems to be associated with the formation of planar porosity defects during the roll bonding process, and differences as large as a factor of four (59 vs. 14 W/m . K) were noted for the samples having equal U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/ contents (46 v/o).

  20. An experimental study of the influence of oxygen on silicide formation with tungsten deposited from tungsten hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.; Buchta, R.; Östling, M.

    1991-01-01

    Tungsten disilicide (WSi2) was formed by annealing tungsten films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition on <100>-silicon substrates. The influence of oxygen on the silicidation rate was studied. Si wafers with different oxygen content in the form of Czochralski, float-zone, and epitaxial wafers were used. Oxygen was also ion implanted into either the silicon substrate or the as-deposited tungsten film. The Rutherford backscattering technique was used to follow the progress of the silicidation. The silicidation rate was found to be dependent on the oxygen content of the Si substrates. The rate was lowest for Czochralski substrates and highest for float-zone substrates. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to study the oxygen and fluorine profiles in the films prior to and after silicidation. Growth of WSi2 was found to be retarded concurrently with a pile-up of fluorine at the tungsten side of the W/WSi2 interface and a gettering of oxygen from the annealing atmosphere at the interface. Growth of WSi2 was then transferred to the tungsten surface. Oxygen implantation into silicon and tungsten, respectively, reduced the rate of silicide formation. Oxygen implantation into tungsten altered the distribution of fluorine and suppressed WSi2 growth at the tungsten surface. The observations led to a conceptual model, which ascribes the retardation in the growth of the inner WSi2 to a``poisoning'' effect caused by the increase of oxygen and fluorine levels at the interface.

  1. The deposition of aluminide and silicide coatings on {gamma}-TiAl using the halide-activated pack cementation method

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, T.C; Gleeson, B.

    1996-12-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation method (HAPC) was utilized to deposit aluminide and silicide coatings on nominally stoichiometric {gamma}-TiAl. The deposition temperature was 1,000 C and deposition times ranged from 2 to 12 hours. The growth rates of the coatings were diffusion controlled, with the rate of aluminide growth being about a factor of 2 greater than that of silicide growth. The aluminide coating was inward growing and consisted of a thick, uniform outer layer of TiAl{sub 3} and a thin inner layer of TiAl{sub 2}, with the rate-controlling step being the diffusion of aluminum from the pack into the substrate. Annealing experiments at 1,100 C showed that the interdiffusion between the aluminide coating and the {gamma}-TiAl substrate was rapid. In contrast to the aluminide coating, the silicide coating was nonuniform and porous, consisting primarily of TiSi{sub 2}, TiSi, and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, with the rate-controlling step for the coating growth believed to be the diffusion of aluminum into the {gamma}-TiAl ahead of the silicide/{gamma}-TiAl interface. The microstructural evolution of the aluminide and silicide coating structures is discussed qualitatively.

  2. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O'Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan; Cumpson, Peter

    2013-03-21

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  3. Time behavior and capacitance analysis of nano-Fe3O4 added microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinhong; Yu, Hongbing; Ai, Lina; Li, Nan; Wang, Xin

    2013-09-01

    The addition of nano Fe3O4 is beneficial to boost the transient charge storage of the anode accompanying with the enhancement of power performance in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) in our previous study. Here we found that both the anodic open circuit potential and the current increased when comparing the AcFeM (Fe3O4 added activated carbon anode) with the AcM (activated carbon anode), indicating that the Fe3O4 dynamically accelerated the anodic electron transfer although it thermodynamically limited the anode potential. The net storage capacity initially increased followed by a decrease with the maximum capacitance of 574.6 C m(-2) (AcFeM) and 459 C m(-2) (AcM) under 20 min of open circuit interval. The Fe3O4/Fe(II) possibly stored charges temporarily as a solid-state electron shuttle.

  4. Modeling the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels during extended transients

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    Passive safety features in the metal-fueled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) make it possible to avoid core damage for extended time periods even when automatic scram systems fail to operate or heat removal systems are severely degraded. The time scale for these transients are intermediate between those that have traditionally been analyzed in fast reactor safety assessments and those of normal operation. Consequently, it has been necessary to validate models and computer codes (FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL) for application to this time regime. Results from out-of-reactor Whole Pin Furnace tests are being used for this purpose. Pretest predictions for tests FM-1 through FM-6 have been performed and calculations have been compared with the experimental measurements.

  5. Modeling the behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels during extended transients

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Tsai, H.C.

    1992-11-01

    Passive safety features in the metal-fueled Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) make it possible to avoid core damage for extended time periods even when automatic scram systems fail to operate or heat removal systems are severely degraded. The time scale for these transients are intermediate between those that have traditionally been analyzed in fast reactor safety assessments and those of normal operation. Consequently, it has been necessary to validate models and computer codes (FPIN2 and LIFE-METAL) for application to this time regime. Results from out-of-reactor Whole Pin Furnace tests are being used for this purpose. Pretest predictions for tests FM-1 through FM-6 have been performed and calculations have been compared with the experimental measurements.

  6. Experiments and Modeling of Multi-Component Fuel Behavior in Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    gas stream is reduced in pressure and collected in a - 20 - Secondary Gas Input Gas Catalyst/Fuel Feeder ( .. 5 mm ID Inconel Tube Optical Sensor ...1.17424E-2 -6.05608E-4 -5.21833E-3 -4.34469E-4 I AMonia 3.03197E-2 2.48355E-3 I 5.35142E-3 I COs 2.91963E-3 6.77602E-5 5.83?26E-4 I 7.78665E-4 CS2...1.19925E-2 .1@342 8.6105SE-3 I% Amonia 3.19180E-2 2.61235E-3 I 3.63353E-3 I% C25 2.54749E-3 5.90755E-5 5.69498E-4 0 6.79416E-4CS2 -2.61289E-3

  7. The behavior of nickel and silver in a simulated solid oxide fuel cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. W.; Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    Nickel, silver, and a nickel-silver composite have been tested in a simulated solid oxide fuel cell interconnect environment. The susceptibility of the interconnect to mechanical degradation as a result of environmental attack has been analyzed. The experimental results of this study demonstrate that silver is unstable in the interconnect environment, while nickel remains stable. A finite difference model has been developed to analyze how the simultaneous diffusion of hydrogen and oxygen into the interconnect can result in the nucleation of water vapor bubbles. In addition, a model developed by Raj and Ashby to describe the growth of cavities under creep conditions has been employed to predict the rate at which cavity growth will occur. Finally, a Ni-Ag composite was fabricated and studied as an interconnect in an attempt to avoid the mechanical degradation that occurs in silver, while maintaining a path for electrical conduction that is not degraded by oxidation.

  8. Computationally efficient modeling of the dynamic behavior of a portable PEM fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipps, S. P.; Ziegler, C.

    A numerically efficient mathematical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack is presented. The aim of this model is to study the dynamic response of a PEMFC stack subjected to load changes under the restriction of short computing time. This restriction was imposed in order for the model to be applicable for nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC). The dynamic, non-isothermal model is based on mass and energy balance equations, which are reduced to ordinary differential equations in time. The reduced equations are solved for a single cell and the results are upscaled to describe the fuel cell stack. This approach makes our calculations computationally efficient. We study the feasibility of capturing water balance effects with such a reduced model. Mass balance equations for water vapor and liquid water including the phase change as well as a steady-state membrane model accounting for the electro-osmotic drag and diffusion of water through the membrane are included. Based on this approach the model is successfully used to predict critical operating conditions by monitoring the amount of liquid water in the stack and the stack impedance. The model and the overall calculation method are validated using two different load profiles on realistic time scales of up to 30 min. The simulation results are used to clarify the measured characteristics of the stack temperature and the stack voltage, which has rarely been done on such long time scales. In addition, a discussion of the influence of flooding and dry-out on the stack voltage is included. The modeling approach proves to be computationally efficient: an operating time of 0.5 h is simulated in less than 1 s, while still showing sufficient accuracy.

  9. Effects of fuel particle size and fission-fragment-enhanced irradiation creep on the in-pile behavior in CERCER composite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunmei; Ding, Shurong; Zhang, Xunchao; Wang, Canglong; Yang, Lei

    2016-12-01

    The micro-scale finite element models for CERCER pellets with different-sized fuel particles are developed. With consideration of a grain-scale mechanistic irradiation swelling model in the fuel particles and the irradiation creep in the matrix, numerical simulations are performed to explore the effects of the particle size and the fission-fragment-enhanced irradiation creep on the thermo-mechanical behavior of CERCER pellets. The enhanced irradiation creep effect is applied in the 10 μm-thick fission fragment damage matrix layer surrounding the fuel particles. The obtained results indicate that (1) lower maximum temperature occurs in the cases with smaller-sized particles, and the effects of particle size on the mechanical behavior in pellets are intricate; (2) the first principal stress and radial axial stress remain compressive in the fission fragment damage layer at higher burnup, thus the mechanism of radial cracking found in the experiment can be better explained.

  10. Ceria based inverse opals for thermochemical fuel production: Quantification and prediction of high temperature behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas, Danielle Courtney

    Solar energy has the potential to supply more than enough energy to meet humanity's energy demands. Here, a method for thermochemical solar energy storage through fuel production is presented. A porous non-stoichiometric oxide, ceria, undergoes partial thermal reduction and oxidation with concentrated solar energy as a heat source, and water as an oxidant. The resulting yields for hydrogen fuel and oxygen are produced in two discrete steps, while the starting material maintains its original phase. Ordered porosity has been shown superior to random porosity for thermochemical fuel production applications, but stability limits for these structures are currently undefined. Ceria-based inverse opals are currently being investigated to assess the architectural influence on thermochemical hydrogen production. Low tortuosity and continuous interconnected pore network allow for facile gas transport and improved reaction kinetics. Ceria-based ordered materials have recently been shown to increase maximum hydrogen production over non-ordered porous ceria. Thermal stability of ordered porosity was quantified using quantitative image analysis. Fourier analysis was applied to SEM images of the material. The algorithm results in an order parameter gamma that describes the degree of long range order maintained by these structures, where gamma>4 signifies ordered porosity. According to this metric, a minimum zirconium content of 20 atomic percent (at%) is necessary for these architectures to survive aggressive annealing up to 1000°C. Zirconium substituted ceria (ZSC) with Zr loadings in excess of 20at% developed undesired tetragonal phases. Through gamma, we were able to find a balance between the benefit of zirconium additions on structural stability and its negative impact on phase. This work demonstrates the stability of seemingly delicate architectures, and the operational limit for ceria based inverse opals to be 1000°C for 1microm pore size. Inverse opals having sub

  11. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  12. Theoretical design strategies of bipolar membrane fuel cell with enhanced self-humidification behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiushi; Gong, Jian; Peng, Sikan; Lu, Shanfu; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Xiang, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The bipolar membrane fuel cells (BPMFCs), which have a unique acid-alkaline jointed membrane electrode assembly (MEA) structure, have demonstrated their great potential for self-humidification during operation. Although the self-humidification ability of such bipolar membranes (BPMs) has recently been validated by a one-dimensional BPM model, the transport mechanism and the formation of self-humidification in the MEAs are not well understood. In the present study, a two-dimensional cross-channel MEA model is developed to elucidate the mechanisms and enhancement of water transport on self-humidification with comprehensive consideration of the three electrochemical reaction zones. The water-formation interface model has been successfully investigated by theoretical and experimental interface reaction kinetics, streamlines of water flux present the formation process and mechanism of self-humidification. A critical current (voltage) value, beyond which self-humidification is initiated, is identified. It is also found that such critical current (voltage) can be adjusted by changing the membrane thickness and the water uptake property of the ionomer. It is concluded that fabricating BPMs with proper membrane thickness and water uptake property are effective strategies to enhance the water management and cell performance in BPMFCs.

  13. Corrosion behavior of stainless steel in solid oxide fuel cell simulated gaseous environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Matthes, Steven A.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.; Singh, P.

    2003-01-01

    Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) from {approx}1000 C to {approx} 750 C may permit the replacement of currently used ceramic interconnects by metallic interconnects in planar SOFCs (PSOFC). The use of metallic interconnects will result in a substantial cost reduction of PSOFCs. The interconnects operate in severe gaseous environments, in which one side of the interconnect can be exposed to hydrogen and the other side to air or oxygen at temperatures up to 800 C. Similar environmental conditions can exist in devices used for separating hydrogen from CO after reforming methane and steam. Type 304 stainless steel was selected for this base line study aimed at understanding corrosion processes in dual gas environments. This paper discusses the oxidation resistance of 304 stainless steel exposed to a dual environment gas at 800 C. The dual environment consisted of air on one side of the specimen and 1% hydrogen in nitrogen on the other side. The surface characterization techniques used in this study were optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as various x-ray techniques.

  14. Combustion synthesis of molybdenum silicides and borosilicides for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

    Molybdenum silicides and borosilicides are promising structural materials for gas-turbine power plants. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. For example, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) has excellent oxidation resistance and poor mechanical properties, while Mo-rich silicides such as Mo5Si3 (called T 1) have much better mechanical properties but poor oxidation resistance. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-T 1 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of T1. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicate surface layer. In particular, Mo 5SiB2 (called T2) phase is considered as an attractive material. In the thesis, MoSi2-T1 composites and materials based on T2 phase are obtained by mechanically activated SHS. Use of SHS compaction (quasi-isostatic pressing) significantly improves oxidation resistance of the obtained MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo-Si-B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of molybdenum boride. These mixtures exhibit spin combustion, the characteristics of which are in good agreement with the spin combustion theory. Oxidation resistance of the obtained Mo-Si-B materials is independent on the concentration of Mo phase in the products so that the materials with a higher Mo content are preferable because of better mechanical properties. Also, T2 phase has been obtained by the chemical oven combustion synthesis technique.

  15. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1997-04-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  16. Formation, optical properties, and electronic structure of thin Yb silicide films on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Maslov, A. M.; Polyarnyi, V. O.

    2005-06-01

    Continuous very thin (2.5-3.0 nm) and thin (16-18 nm) ytterbium suicide films with some pinhole density (3×107- 1×108 cm-2) have been formed on Si(111) by solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) growth methods on templates. The stoichiometric ytterbium suicide (YbSi2) formation has shown in SPE grown films by AES and EELS data. Very thin Yb suicide films grown by RDE method had the silicon enrichment in YbSi2 suicide composition. The analysis of LEED data and AFM imaging has shown that ytterbium suicide films had non-oriented blocks with the polycrystalline structure. The analysis of scanning region length dependencies of the root mean square roughness deviation (σR(L)) for grown suicide films has shown that the formation of ytterbium suicide in SPE and RDE growth methods is determined by the surface diffusion of Yb atoms during the three-dimensional growth process. Optical functions (n, k, α, ɛ1, ɛ2, Im ɛ1-1, neff, ɛeff) of ytterbium silicide films grown on Si(1 1 1) have been calculated from transmittance and reflectance spectra in the energy range of 0.1-6.2 eV. Two nearly discrete absorption bands have been observed in the electronic structure of Yb silicide films with different composition, which connected with interband transitions on divalent and trivalent Yb states. It was established that the reflection coefficient minimum in R-spectra at energies higher 4.2 eV corresponds to the state density minimum in Yb suicide between divalent and trivalent Yb states. It was shown from optical data that Yb silicide films have the semi-metallic properties with low state densities at energies less 0.4 eV and high state densities at 0.5-2.5 eV.

  17. Repairing Chipped Silicide Coatings on Refractory Metal Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter s reaction control system (RCS) is a series of small thrusters that use hypergolic fuels to orient the orbiter in space. The RCS thrusters are constructed from a special niobium-based alloy -- the C-103. This alloy retains excellent mechanical properties from cryogenic temperature all the way up to 2,500 F (1,370 C). C-103 is susceptible to rapid oxidation at elevated temperatures. The authors have developed two methods to repair damaged R512a coatings on C-103. For the first repair technique, metal foundries, semiconductor manufacturers, and many other industries have developed and routinely use coatings that can easily be painted on metal to protect it from corrosion, including oxidation, to temperatures in excess of 2,500 F (1,370 C). This first repair technique is considered somewhat temporary. The second repair technique is based on using the native coating material of the RCS nozzles. the chipped area is ground out and a "green" R512a coating is applied to the repair area. Both repair techniques can be applied for moderate protection until the permanent laser-repair technique is available to the repair area.

  18. Planar chiral metamaterial design utilizing metal-silicides for giant circular dichroism and polarization rotation in the infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo; Zhong, Kesong; Ma, Hongfeng; Li, Yun; Sui, Chenghua; Wang, Juanzhuan; Shi, Yi

    2017-01-01

    A planar chiral metamaterial (PCMM) comprizing double-layer sandwich structure utilizing metal-silicides in the shape of windmill is proposed in the infrared region (IR). Giant circular dichroism (CD) and polarization rotation are observed simultaneously. Furthermore, the effect of Drude model parameters (ωp,ωτ) of metal-silicides on CD and optical activity are also investigated. The results show that CD and optical activity reach maximum if ωp and ωτ are in the distribution of narrow trumpet shape.

  19. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterward undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  1. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  2. Ferromagnetic nickel silicide nanowires for isolating primary CD4+ T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Seol, Jin-Kyeong; Lee, Mi-Ri; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Gil-Sung; Ohgai, Takeshi; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-04-01

    Direct CD4+ T lymphocytes were separated from whole mouse splenocytes using 1-dimensional ferromagnetic nickel silicide nanowires (NiSi NWs). NiSi NWs were prepared by silver-assisted wet chemical etching of silicon and subsequent deposition and annealing of Ni. This method exhibits a separation efficiency of ˜93.5%, which is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art superparamagnetic bead-based cell capture (˜96.8%). Furthermore, this research shows potential for separation of other lymphocytes, B, natural killer and natural killer T cells, and even rare tumor cells simply by changing the biotin-conjugated antibodies.

  3. Modeling, fabrication, and characterization of tungsten silicide wire-grid polarizer in infrared region.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Itsunari; Nishii, Junji; Saito, Mitsunori

    2008-09-10

    We designed and fabricated a tungsten silicide wire-grid polarizer. To examine its polarization characteristics, the transmission spectra of the polarizer were simulated using the effective medium theory. The polarizer was fabricated based on the simulation results. The transverse magnetic (TM) polarization transmittance of the fabricated polarizer was greater than 50% over the 5 mum wavelength, and the ratio of TM and transverse electric transmittance was greater than 100 (20 dB) in the infrared range. This fabricated polarizer has higher durability and better compatibility with microfabrication processes than conventional infrared polarizers.

  4. On the structural and electronic properties of Ir-silicide nanowires on Si(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Can Oguz, Ismail; ćakır, Deniz; Hossain, Sehtab; Mohottige, Rasika; Gulseren, Oguz; Oncel, Nuri

    2016-09-01

    Iridium (Ir) modified Silicon (Si) (001) surface is studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT). A model for Ir-silicide nanowires based on STM images and ab-initio calculations is proposed. According to our model, the Ir adatom is on the top of the substrate dimer row and directly binds to the dimer atoms. I-V curves measured at 77 K shows that the nanowires are metallic. DFT calculations confirm strong metallic nature of the nanowires.

  5. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    DOEpatents

    Munir, Zuhair A.; Woolman, Joseph N.; Petrovic, John J.

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  6. Optical response at 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Boyd, Joseph T.; Jackson, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Optical response to radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns in tungsten silicide-silicon Schottky barrier diodes has been observed. Incident photons excite electrons by means of junction plasmon assisted inelastic electron tunneling. At 78 K, a peak in the second derivative of current versus junction bias voltage was observed at a voltage corresponding to the energy of photons having a wavelength of 10.6 microns. This peak increased with increasing incident laser power, saturating at the highest laser powers investigated.

  7. In situ integration of freestanding zinc oxide nanorods using copper silicide nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Parajuli, Omkar; Hahm, Jong-in

    2007-10-01

    In this letter, we describe an in situ integration method to produce freestanding zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) on copper silicide nanobeams (Cu3Si NBs). The integration of ZnO NRs with Cu3Si NBs is straightforwardly achieved immediately after ZnO NR synthesis by exploiting self-assembled Cu3Si NBs as catalysts. The resulting ZnO NRs on Cu3Si NBs exhibit atomic defect-free structures with superb optical quality which, in turn, can be beneficial when applied in micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems.

  8. Electrical transport in thin films of copper silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelfotoh, M. O.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.

    1991-09-01

    Electrical properties of thin films of η'-Cu3Si phase with a tetragonal crystal structure are reported on. Electrical transport in these films is found to be very sensitive to oxygen exposure. Cu3Si reacts with oxygen at room temperature to form both Si and Cu oxides, resulting in high-room-temperature (˜60 μΩ cm) and even nonmetallic resistivity. This behavior is contrasted with that of low-resistivity (˜5 μΩ cm at room temperature) Cu3Ge, which is inert in an oxygen environment.

  9. Behavior of an improved Zr fuel cladding with oxidation resistant coating under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jung Hwan; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang Hyun

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates protective coatings for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Zr fuel claddings for light water nuclear reactors. FeCrAl alloy and Cr layers were deposited onto Zr plates and tubes using cold spraying. For the FeCrAl/Zr system, a Mo layer was introduced between the FeCrAl coating and the Zr matrix to prevent inter-diffusion at high temperatures. Both the FeCrAl and Cr coatings improved the oxidation resistance compared to that of the uncoated Zr alloy when exposed to a steam environment at 1200 °C. The ballooning behavior and mechanical properties of the coated cladding samples were studied under simulated loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The coated samples showed higher burst temperatures, lower circumferential strain, and smaller rupture openings compared to the uncoated Zr. Although 4-point bend tests of the coated samples showed a small increase in the maximum load, ring compression tests of a sectioned sample showed increased ductility.

  10. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Gussev, M. N.; Terrani, K. A.

    2015-08-25

    Here, one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.

  11. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    2015-11-01

    The high resistance of cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure is one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate such deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisted of a high-resolution video camera, light filtering unit, and monochromatic light sources, and the in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. In this study eleven (11) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., 6 FeCrAl alloys and 5 nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800°C while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys and/or for relatively thick wall specimens.

  12. Deformation Behavior of Laser Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant Fe-Cr-Al Alloys for Fuel Cladding Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Gussev, Maxim N; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al in weight percent with a minor addition of yttrium using laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions for all alloys studied. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. No significant correlation was found between the deformation behavior/mechanical performance of welds and the level of Cr or Al in the alloy ranges studied.

  13. In-situ tube burst testing and high-temperature deformation behavior of candidate materials for accident tolerant fuel cladding

    DOE PAGES

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Maloy, Stuart A.; ...

    2015-08-25

    Here, one of the most essential properties of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for maintaining structural integrity during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is high resistance of the cladding to plastic deformation and burst failure, since the deformation and burst behavior governs the cooling efficiency of flow channels and the process of fission product release. To simulate and evaluate the deformation and burst process of thin-walled cladding, an in-situ testing and evaluation method has been developed on the basis of visual imaging and image analysis techniques. The method uses a specialized optics system consisting of a high-resolution video camera, a light filteringmore » unit, and monochromatic light sources. The in-situ testing is performed using a 50 mm long pressurized thin-walled tubular specimen set in a programmable furnace. As the first application, ten (10) candidate cladding materials for ATF, i.e., five FeCrAl alloys and five nanostructured steels, were tested using the newly developed method, and the time-dependent images were analyzed to produce detailed deformation and burst data such as true hoop stress, strain (creep) rate, and failure stress. Relatively soft FeCrAl alloys deformed and burst below 800 °C, while negligible strain rates were measured for higher strength alloys.« less

  14. Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe-Cr-Al alloys for fuel cladding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Snead, Lance L.

    2014-11-01

    Ferritic-structured Fe-Cr-Al alloys are being developed and show promise as oxidation resistant accident tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding. This study focuses on investigating the weldability and post-weld mechanical behavior of three model alloys in a range of Fe-(13-17.5)Cr-(3-4.4)Al (wt.%) with a minor addition of yttrium using modern laser-welding techniques. A detailed study on the mechanical performance of bead-on-plate welds using sub-sized, flat dog-bone tensile specimens and digital image correlation (DIC) has been carried out to determine the performance of welds as a function of alloy composition. Results indicated a reduction in the yield strength within the fusion zone compared to the base metal. Yield strength reduction was found to be primarily constrained to the fusion zone due to grain coarsening with a less severe reduction in the heat affected zone. For all proposed alloys, laser welding resulted in a defect free weld devoid of cracking or inclusions.

  15. Self-aligned silicides for Ohmic contacts in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology: TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.

    2004-07-01

    Metal silicides continue to play an indispensable role during the remarkable development of microelectronics. Along with several other technological innovations, the implementation of the self-aligned silicide technology paved the way for a rapid and successful miniaturization of device dimensions for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in pace with the Moore's law. The use of silicides has also evolved from creating reliable contacts for diodes, to generating high-conductivity current paths for local wiring, and lately to forming low-resistivity electrical contacts for MOSFETs. With respect to the choice of silicides for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, a convergence has become clear with the self-alignment technology using only a limited number of silicides, namely TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi. The present work discusses the advantages and limitations of TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi using the development trend of CMOS technology as a measure. Specifically, the reactive diffusion and phase formation of these silicides in the three terminals of a MOSFET, i.e., gate, source, and drain, are analyzed. This work ends with a brief discussion about future trends of metal silicides in micro/nanoelectronics with reference to potential material aspects and device structures outlined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. .

  16. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, Sudhir B.; Kutcher, Susan W.; Rosemeier, Cory A.; Mayers, David; Singh, Jogender

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  17. Plasma-enhanced deposition and processing of transition metals and transition metal silicides for VLSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, D. W.

    1986-05-01

    Radiofrequency (rf) discharges have been used to deposit films of tungsten, molybdenum and titanium silicide. As-deposited tungsten films, from tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen source gases, were metastable (beta W), with significant (>1 atomic percent) fluorine incorporation. Film resistivities were 40-55 micro ohm - cm due to the beta W, but dropped to about 8 micro ohm cm after a short heat treatment at 700 C which resulted in a phase transition to alpha W (bcc form). The high resistivity (>10,000 micro ohm) associated with molybdenum films deposited from molybdenum hexafluoride and hydrogen appeared to be a result of the formation of molybdenum trifluoride in the deposited material. Titanium silicide films formed from a discharge of titanium tetrachloride, silane, and hydrogen, displayed resistivities of about 150 micro ohm cm, due to small amounts of oxygen and chlorine incorporated during deposition. Plasma etching studies of tungsten films with fluorine containing gases suggest that the etchant species for tungsten in these discharges are fluorine atoms.

  18. Absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon thin films via plasmonic resonances in nickel silicide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Shen, Xiao; Pantelides, Sokrates; Sachan, Ritesh; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dyck, Ondrej; Fu, Shaofang; Kalnayaraman, Ramki; Rack, Phillip; Duscher, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    Silicon is a near ideal material for photovoltaics due to its low cost, abundance, and well documented optical properties. The sole detriment of Si in photovoltaics is poor absorption in the infrared. Nanoparticle surface plasmon resonances are predicted to increase absorption by scattering to angles greater than the critical angle for total internal reflection (16° for a Si/air interface), trapping the light in the film. Experiments confirm that nickel silicide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon increases absorption significantly in the infrared. However, it remains to be seen if electron-hole pair generation is increased in the solar cell, or whether the light is absorbed by the nanoparticles themselves. The nature of the absorption is explored by a study of the surface plasmon resonances through electron energy loss spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments, as well as first principles density functional theory calculations. Initial experimental results do not show strong plasmon resonances on the nanoparticle surfaces. Calculations of the optical properties of the nickel silicide particles in amorphous silicon are performed to understand why this resonance is suppressed. Work supported by NSF EPS 1004083 (TN-SCORE).

  19. Study of temperature dependent zirconium silicide phases in Zr/Si structure by differential scanning calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Sk Abdul Kader Md; Ranjan Bhattachryya, Satya; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Chakraborty, Supratic

    2016-02-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is employed to study the formation of different silicide compounds of Zr thin-film deposited on a 100 μm-thick Si (1 0 0) substrate by dc sputtering. A detailed analysis shows that silicide layers start growing at  ∼246 °C that changes to stable ZrSi2 at 627 °C via some compounds with different stoichiometric ratios of Zr and Si. It is further observed that oxygen starts reacting with Zr at  ∼540 °C but a stoichiometric ZrO2 film is formed after complete consumption of Zr metal at 857 °C. A further rise in temperature changes a part of ZrSi2 to Zr-Silicate. The synchrotron radiation-based grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies also corroborate the above findings. Atomic force microscopy is also carried out on the samples. It is evident from the observations that an intermixing and nucleation of Zr and Si occur at lower temperature prior to the formation of the interfacial silicate layer. Zr-Silicate formation takes place only at a higher temperature.

  20. Interfacial structure of two-dimensional epitaxial Er silicide on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuilier, M. H.; Wetzel, P.; Pirri, C.; Bolmont, D.; Gewinner, G.

    1994-07-01

    Auger-electron diffraction (AED) and surface-extended x-ray-absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) have been used to obtain a complete description of the atomic structure of a two-dimensional epitaxial Er silicide layer on Si(111). AED reveals that a monolayer of Er is located underneath a buckled Si double layer. The relevant Er-Si interlayer spacings are determined by means of single scattering cluster simulations and a R-factor analysis to be 1.92+/-0.05 Å to the first and 2.70+/-0.05 Å to the second Si top layer. Er near-neighbor bond lengths and coordination numbers are obtained independently from polarization-dependent SEXAFS. The SEXAFS data, when combined with the Si top-layer geometry inferred from AED, permit the determination of the atomic positions at the silicide/Si(111) interface. The Er is found to reside in relaxed T4 sites of Si(111) with a single Er-Si distance of 3.09+/-0.04 Å to the first- and second-layer Si atoms of the substrate.

  1. Organometallic halide perovskite/barium di-silicide thin-film double-junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-04-01

    Barium di-silicide (BaSi2) is an abundant and inexpensive semiconductor with appealing opto-electrical properties. In this work we show that a 2-μm thick BaSi2-based thin-film solar cell can exhibit an implied photo-current density equal to 41.1 mA/cm2, which is higher than that of a state-of-the-art wafer-based c-Si hetero-junction solar cell. This performance makes BaSi2 an attractive absorber for high-performing thin-film and multi-junction solar cells. In particular, to assess the potential of barium di-silicide, we propose a thin-film double-junction solar cell based on organometallic halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) as top absorber and BaSi2 as bottom absorber. The resulting modelled ultra-thin double-junction CH3NH3PbI3 / BaSi2 (< 2 μm) exhibits an implied total photo-current density equal to 38.65 mA/cm2 (19.84 mA/cm2 top cell, 18.81 mA/cm2 bottom cell) and conversion efficiencies up to 28%.

  2. Facile Preparation of a Platinum Silicide Nanoparticle-Modified Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, James; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we propose an ultra-facile approach to prepare a platinum silicide nanoparticle-modified tip apex (PSM tip) used for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). We combined a localized fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (LFAGRR) and atmospheric microwave annealing (AMA) to deposit a single platinum silicide nanoparticle with a diameter of 32 nm on the apex of a bare silicon tip of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The total process was completed in an ambient environment in less than 3 min. The improved potential resolution in the SKPM measurement was verified. Moreover, the resolution of the topography is comparable to that of a bare silicon tip. In addition, the negative charges found on the PSM tips suggest the possibility of exploring the use of current PSM tips to sense electric fields more precisely. The ultra-fast and cost-effective preparation of the PSM tips provides a new direction for the preparation of functional tips for scanning probe microscopy.

  3. Geometry-dependent phase, stress state and electrical properties in nickel-silicide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. C.; Lai, W. T.; Hsiao, Y. Y.; Chen, I. H.; George, T.; Li, P. W.

    2016-05-01

    We report that the geometry of single-crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) prior to salicidation at 500 °C is the key factor controlling the phase, stress state, and electrical resistivity of the resulting Ni x Si y NWs of width less than 100 nm. This is a radical departure from previous observations of a single phase formation for nickel silicides generated from the silicidation of bulk Si substrates. The phase transition from NiSi for large NWs ( W Si NW  =  250-450 nm) to Ni2Si for small NWs ( W Si NW  =  70-100 nm) is well correlated with the observed volumetric expansion and electrical resistivity variation with the NW width. For the extremely small dimensions of Ni x Si y NWs, we propose that the preeminent, kinetics-based Zhang and d’Heurle model for salicidation be modified to a more thermodynamically-governed, volume-expansion dependent Ni x Si y phase formation. A novel, plastic deformation mechanism is proposed to explain the observed, geometry-dependent Ni x Si y NW phase formation that also strongly influences the electrical performance of the NWs.

  4. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  5. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5.

    PubMed

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-12-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta-silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo-octa-hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti-prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re-Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re-Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å.

  6. Portraits of some representatives of metal boride carbide and boride silicide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Yahia, Mouna; Roger, Jerome; Rocquefelte, Xavier; Gautier, Regis; Bauer, Joseph; Guerin, Roland; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Halet, Jean-Francois . E-mail: halet@univ-rennes1.fr

    2006-09-15

    Different ternary alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal boron carbide and silicide compounds are examined using the solid-state language of Zintl-Klemm concept, band structures, and density of states, in order to show that the topology of the non-metal sub-lattice is highly dependent on the electron count. It is also shown that the chemistry of rare-earth metal-boron-silicon does not parallel that of rare-earth metal-boron-carbon. B-C bonds are easily formed in the latter, leading to a large variety of different structural arrangements, whereas Si-B bonds are hardly observed in the former, except in insertion compounds. - Graphical abstract: Some ternary alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal boron carbide and silicide compounds are examined using the solid-state language of Zintl-Klemm concept, band structures, and density of states, in order to show that the topology of the non-metal sub-lattice is highly dependent on the electron count.

  7. Plasma-enhanced etching of tungsten, tungsten silicide, and molybdenum in chlorine-containing discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Fischl, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of tungsten, tungsten silicide, and molybdenum were etched both within and downstream from Cl{sub 2} discharges. Without a discharge, molecular chlorine did not etch the films. Experimental conditions ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 Torr pressure, 30 to 180{degree}C electrode temperature, 0.2 to 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} power density, and 3 to 200 sccm flow rate. In-discharge etch rates varied from 10 to 90 nm/min for tungsten (W), 10 to 450 nm/min for tungsten silicide (WSi{sub x}), and 1 to 8 nm/min for molybdenum (Mo). Small additions of BCl{sub 3}, during W and WSi{sub x} etching, significantly increased the etch rates and improved the reproducibility. When samples were positioned downstream from a Cl{sub 2} discharge, etching proceeded solely by chemical reaction of the film with chlorine atoms. Downstream and in-plasma tungsten etch rates were approximately equal at 110{degree}C, but the chlorine atom etch rate dropped more rapidly than the in-plasma etch rate as temperature decreased. In contrast, molybdenum etched faster by atoms alone than in the plasma, although atom etching was not observed below 100{degree}C. Reactions of tungsten with a modulated beam of chlorine atoms and molecules were also studied.

  8. Study of copper silicide retardation effects on copper diffusion in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Gong, H.; Liu, R.; Wee, A. T. S.; Cha, C. L.; See, A.; Chan, L.

    2001-10-01

    A B-buried layer with a dose of 1×1014atoms/cm2 was introduced into p-doped Si at a depth of 2.2 μm to enhance copper diffusion via its inherent gettering effect. Copper was then introduced into silicon either via a low-energy implantation followed by a thermal anneal, or through the thermal drive in of physical vapor deposited (PVD) copper film. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling of both annealed samples later indicated that while substantial amounts of copper was gettered by the B layer in the former sample, no copper was gettered by the B-buried layer in the latter sample. Further analysis with an x-ray diffraction technique showed that copper silicide, Cu3Si was formed in the latter sample. It is thus surmised that the formation of this silicide layer impeded the diffusion of copper towards the B-buried layer. This work investigates the cause of CuSix formation and the underlying reasons for the lower mobility of Cu in PVD Cu film samples.

  9. Mitigation of interfacial silicide reactions for electroplated CoPt films on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Arnold, David P.

    2015-12-01

    We report in this paper the influence of film thickness on the material and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt permanent magnets. Layers of CoPt magnets with film thicknesses ranging from 0.5 μm to 5 μm are deposited into photoresist molds (3.5 mm x 3.5 mm square and 5 μm x 50 μm arrays) on a (100)Si substrate coated with 10 nm/100 nm Ti/Cu adhesion/seed layer. Results show an unexpected reduction in magnetic properties for films below 2 μm thick. This effect is determined to be a consequence of metal-silicide reactions at the substrate interface during annealing leading to the formation of a non-magnetic layer at the interface. Subsequently, a TiN diffusion-barrier layer is added to inhibit the silicide reaction and thereby maintain strong magnetic properties (Hci ∼800 kA/m, Mr/Ms = 0.8) in micron- thick electroplated CoPt layers.

  10. Electrical characterization of strained and unstrained silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts.

    PubMed

    Habicht, S; Zhao, Q T; Feste, S F; Knoll, L; Trellenkamp, S; Ghyselen, B; Mantl, S

    2010-03-12

    We present electrical characterization of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) contacts formed on strained and unstrained silicon nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by top-down processing of initially As(+) implanted and activated strained and unstrained silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The resistivity of doped Si NWs and the contact resistivity of the NiSi to Si NW contacts are studied as functions of the As(+) ion implantation dose and the cross-sectional area of the wires. Strained silicon NWs show lower resistivity for all doping concentrations due to their enhanced electron mobility compared to the unstrained case. An increase in resistivity with decreasing cross section of the NWs was observed for all implantation doses. This is ascribed to the occurrence of dopant deactivation. Comparing the silicidation of uniaxially tensile strained and unstrained Si NWs shows no difference in silicidation speed and in contact resistivity between NiSi/Si NW. Contact resistivities as low as 1.2 x 10(-8) Omega cm(-2) were obtained for NiSi contacts to both strained and unstrained Si NWs. Compared to planar contacts, the NiSi/Si NW contact resistivity is two orders of magnitude lower.

  11. "Nanoparticle-in-alloy" approach to efficient thermoelectrics: silicides in SiGe.

    PubMed

    Mingo, N; Hauser, D; Kobayashi, N P; Plissonnier, M; Shakouri, A

    2009-02-01

    We present a "nanoparticle-in-alloy" material approach with silicide and germanide fillers leading to a potential 5-fold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of SiGe alloys at room temperature and 2.5 times increase at 900 K. Strong reductions in computed thermal conductivity are obtained for 17 different types of silicide nanoparticles. We predict the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size that minimizes the nanocomposite's thermal conductivity. This thermal conductivity reduction is much stronger and strikingly less sensitive to nanoparticle size for an alloy matrix than for a single crystal one. At the same time, nanoparticles do not negatively affect the electronic conduction properties of the alloy. The proposed material can be monolithically integrated into Si technology, enabling an unprecedented potential for micro refrigeration on a chip. High figure-of-merit at high temperatures (ZT approximately 1.7 at 900 K) opens up new opportunities for thermoelectric power generation and waste heat recovery at large scale.

  12. [Fire behavior of ground surface fuels in Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica mixed forest under no wind and zero slope condition: a prediction with extended Rothermel model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Chu, Teng-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Jin, Sen

    2012-06-01

    A laboratory burning experiment was conducted to measure the fire spread speed, residual time, reaction intensity, fireline intensity, and flame length of the ground surface fuels collected from a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) mixed stand in Maoer Mountains of Northeast China under the conditions of no wind, zero slope, and different moisture content, load, and mixture ratio of the fuels. The results measured were compared with those predicted by the extended Rothermel model to test the performance of the model, especially for the effects of two different weighting methods on the fire behavior modeling of the mixed fuels. With the prediction of the model, the mean absolute errors of the fire spread speed and reaction intensity of the fuels were 0.04 m X min(-1) and 77 kW X m(-2), their mean relative errors were 16% and 22%, while the mean absolute errors of residual time, fireline intensity and flame length were 15.5 s, 17.3 kW X m(-1), and 9.7 cm, and their mean relative errors were 55.5%, 48.7%, and 24%, respectively, indicating that the predicted values of residual time, fireline intensity, and flame length were lower than the observed ones. These errors could be regarded as the lower limits for the application of the extended Rothermel model in predicting the fire behavior of similar fuel types, and provide valuable information for using the model to predict the fire behavior under the similar field conditions. As a whole, the two different weighting methods did not show significant difference in predicting the fire behavior of the mixed fuels by extended Rothermel model. When the proportion of Korean pine fuels was lower, the predicted values of spread speed and reaction intensity obtained by surface area weighting method and those of fireline intensity and flame length obtained by load weighting method were higher; when the proportion of Korean pine needles was higher, the contrary results were obtained.

  13. Liquid Fuels: Pyrolytic Degradation and Fire Spread Behavior as Influenced by Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Technical Monitor); Yeboah, Yaw D.

    2003-01-01

    This project was conducted by the Combustion and Emission Control Lab in the Engineering Department at Clark Atlanta University under NASA Grant No. NCC3-707. The work aimed at providing data to supplement the ongoing NASA research activities on flame spread across liquid pools by providing flow visualization and velocity measurements especially in the gas phase and gas-liquid interface. During this investigation, the detailed physics of flame spread across liquid pools was revealed using particle image velocimetry (PIV), 3-dimensional Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and high-speed video imaging system (HSVS). Flow fields (front and side views) of both the liquid and gas phases were visually investigated for the three subflash regimes of flame spread behavior. Some interesting findings obtained from the front and side views on flame spread across butanol pools are presented. PIV results showed the size of the transient vortex in the liquid phase near the flame front varied with the initial pool temperature. The transient vortex ahead of the flame front in the gas phase was, for the first time, clearly observed located just within 0-3 mm above the liquid surface and its size was dependent on the initial pool temperature. We calculated the flow velocity at 1 mm below the liquid surface near the flame front and inferred the generation mechanism of the vortex in the gas phase. Finally, after comparison of the flow velocity of the liquid surface and the flame spread rate, a reasonable explanation to the formation mechanism of the pulsating characteristic was proposed. This explanation is compatible with the previous numerical calculations and deductions.

  14. Intercalation synthesis of graphene-capped iron silicide atop Ni(111): Evolution of electronic structure and ferromagnetic ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, G. S.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Rybkin, A. G.; Gomoyunova, M. V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Usachov, D. Yu.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.; Pronin, I. I.

    2017-01-01

    A new method for synthesis of graphene-protected iron silicides has been tested, which consists in formation of graphene on Ni(111) followed by two-step intercalation of the system with Fe and Si. Characterization of the samples was performed in situ by low-energy electron diffraction, angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Fe 3p electrons. It is shown, that at 400 °C the intercalation of graphene/Ni(111) with iron occurs in a range up to 14 ML. The graphene layer strongly interacts with the topmost Fe atoms and stabilizes the fcc structure of the film. The in-plane ferromagnetic ordering of the film has a threshold nature and arises after the intercalation of 5 ML Fe due to the thickness-driven spin reorientation transition. Subsequent intercalation of graphene/Fe/Ni(111) with Si leads to the formation of the inhomogeneous system consisted of intercalated and nonintercalated areas. The intercalated islands coalesce at 2 ML Si when a Fe-Si solid solution covered with the Fe3Si surface silicide is formed. The Fe3Si silicide is ferromagnetic and has an ordered (√3 × √3)R30° structure. The graphene layer is weakly electronically coupled to the silicide phase keeping its remarkable properties ready for use.

  15. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  16. Fabrication of Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle deposition and solid state reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a method for growing Ni-silicide/Si heterostructured nanowire arrays by glancing angle Ni deposition and solid state reaction on ordered Si nanowire arrays. Samples of ordered Si nanowire arrays were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and metal-induced catalytic etching. Glancing angle Ni deposition deposited Ni only on the top of Si nanowires. When the annealing temperature was 500°C, a Ni3Si2 phase was formed at the apex of the nanowires. The phase of silicide at the Ni-silicide/Si interface depended on the diameter of the Si nanowires, such that epitaxial NiSi2 with a {111} facet was formed at the Ni-silicide/Si interface in Si nanowires with large diameter, and NiSi was formed in Si nanowires with small diameter. A mechanism that is based on flux divergence and a nucleation-limited reaction is proposed to explain this phenomenon of size-dependent phase formation. PMID:23663726

  17. An initial assessment of a mechanistic model, GRASS-SST, in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Di; Rest, Jeffrey; Hofman, Gerard L.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.

    2013-04-01

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to investigate its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to evaluate fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and detailed gas bubble size distributions in three different fuel zones: the outer α-U, the intermediate, and the inner γ-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the α-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is in reasonable consistence with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the α-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature γ-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreement between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. Material properties such as fuel grain size and thermal diffusivity of gas and model parameters such as di-atom nucleation probability and gas bubble re-solution constant are predicted

  18. Comparison of the Thermal Expansion Behavior of Several Intermetallic Silicide Alloys Between 293 and 1523 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion measurements were conducted on hot-pressed CrSi(sub 2), TiSi(sub 2), W Si(sub 2) and a two-phase Cr-Mo-Si intermetallic alloy between 293 and 1523 K during three heat-cool cycles. The corrected thermal expansion, (L/L(sub 0)(sub thermal), varied with the absolute temperature, T, as (deltaL/L(sub 0)(sub thermal) = A(T-293)(sup 3) + B(T-293)(sup 2) + C(T-293) + D, where A, B, C and D are regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for most of the materials after the first heat-up cycle. In some cases, the data from the first heatup cycle deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation was attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during processing, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle.

  19. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  20. The effect of fuel thermal conductivity on the behavior of LWR cores during loss-of-coolant accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Wang, Dean; Ott, Larry J.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2014-05-01

    The effect of variation in thermal conductivity of light water reactor fuel elements on core response during loss-of-coolant accident scenarios is examined. Initially, a simplified numerical analysis is utilized to determine the time scales associated with dissipation of stored energy from the fuel into the coolant once the fission reaction is stopped. The analysis is then followed by full reactor system thermal-hydraulics analysis of a typical boiling and pressurized water reactor subjected to a large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario using the TRACE code. Accordingly, sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of an increase in fuel thermal conductivity, up to 500%, on fuel temperature evolution during these transients are performed. Given the major differences in thermal-hydraulics design aspects of boiling and pressurized water reactors, different fuel and temperature responses during the simulated loss-of-coolant transients are observed.

  1. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  2. Identification of reaction products in the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of molybdenum silicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gaczi, P.J.; Reynolds, G.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The gaseous species produced by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of molybdenum silicide in a cold wall reactor were identified by mass spectroscopy. Lowering the ionizing electron energy made possible the unambiguous assignment of the mass spectra to individual species and also permitted useful quantitative estimates to be made. Thermodynamic calculations using the computer program SOLGASMIX were carried out on the M-Si-H-F (M = Mo, W) quaternary system. Both experiment and calculation indicate that the fluorosilanes were the major gaseous reaction by-products, with SiHF{sub 3} being the most abundant for the experimental conditions investigated here. The changes in the process with substrate temperature were also investigated and are discussed with reference to both thermodynamic and kinetic effects.

  3. Rare-earth silicide thin films on the Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Dues, C.; Schmidt, W. G.; Timmer, F.; Wollschläger, J.; Franz, M.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.

    2016-05-01

    Rare-earth induced layered structures on the Si(111) surface are investigated by a combined approach consisting of ab initio thermodynamics, electron and x-ray diffraction experiments, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our density functional theory calculations predict the occurrence of structures with different periodicity, depending on the rare-earth availability. Microscopic structural models are assigned to the different silicide phases on the basis of stability criteria. The thermodynamically stable theoretical models are then employed to interpret the experimental results. The agreement between the simulated and measured scanning tunneling microscopy images validates the proposed structural models. The electronic properties of the surfaces are discussed on the basis of the calculated electronic band structure and photoelectron spectroscopy data.

  4. Metal gettering by boron-silicide precipitates in boron-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Petersen, G.A.; Headley, T.J.; Michael, J.R.; Aselage, T.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-09-01

    We show that Fe, Co, Cu, and Au impurities in Si are strongly gettered to boron-silicide precipitates formed by supersaturation B implantation and annealing. Effective binding free energies relative to interstitial solution range form somewhat above 1 to more than 2 eV. The B-Si precipitates formed at temperatures {le}1100{degrees}C lack long range structural order but closely resemble and icosahedral B{sub 3}Si phase in composition, local bonding, and chemical potential. Evidence indicates that the metal atoms go into solution in the B-Si phase, and this is interpreted in terms of the novel bonding and structural characteristics of B-rich icosahedral compounds.

  5. Crystalline structures and misfit strain inside Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on Si(001) substrates.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Wu, Yueqin; Song, Junqiang; Li, Juan; Huang, Han; Zou, Jin; Cai, Qun

    2011-06-17

    The morphology and crystalline structure of Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on the Si(001) substrate were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the nanowires and nanorods formed at 630 °C has dominant hexagonal AlB(2)-type structure, while inside the nanoislands self-organized at 800 °C the tetragonal ThSi(2)-type structure is prevalent. The lattice analysis via cross-sectional high-resolution TEM demonstrated that internal misfit strain plays an important role in controlling the growth of nanocrystals. With the relaxation of strain, the nanoislands could evolve from a pyramid-like shape into a truncated-hut-like shape.

  6. Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloys reentry heat shields. Volume 1: Evaluation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, B.

    1973-01-01

    The R-512E (Si-20Cr-20Fe) fused slurry silicide coating process was optimized to coat full size (20in x 20in) single face rib and corrugation stiffened panels fabricated from FS-85 columbium alloy for 100 mission space shuttle heat shield applications. Structural life under simulated space shuttle lift-off stresses and reentry conditions demonstrated reuse capability well beyond 100 flights for R-512E coated FS-85 columbium heat shield panels. Demonstrated coating damage tolerance showed no immediate structural failure on exposure. The FS-85 columbium alloy was selected from five candidate alloys (Cb-752, C-129Y, WC-3015, B-66 and FS-85) based on the evaluation tests which have designed to determine: (1) change in material properties due to coating and reuse; (2) alloy tolerance to coating damage; (3) coating emittance characteristics under reuse conditions; and (4) new coating chemistries for improved coating life.

  7. Microstructure development and high-temperature oxidation of silicide coatings for refractory niobium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Mark David

    Niobium alloys are candidate thermostructural materials in hypersonic flight applications because of excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperature; however, their susceptibility to oxidation requires the use of coatings. Multiphase silicide coatings containing iron, chromium, niobium, and silicon have historically been successful in protecting niobium in oxidizing environments, although little scientific understanding of this coating system is provided in publically available literature. Research efforts in process development, microstructural characterization, oxidation testing, and thermodynamic modeling have led to clarification of the coating microstructure, microstructural evolution, and the performance of the coating in oxidizing environments. These research efforts have led to strategies for improving coating performance, including surface planarization and modifying the coating with a dispersion of submicron alumina particles.

  8. Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450° C. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation.

  9. Friction and wear of radiofrequency-sputtered borides, silicides, and carbides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of several refractory compound coatings were examined. These compounds were applied to 440 C bearing steel surfaces by radiofrequency (RF) sputtering. The refractory compounds were the titanium and molybdenum borides, the titanium and molybdenum silicides, and the titanium, molybdenum, and boron carbides. Friction testing was done with a pin-on-disk wear apparatus at loads from 0.1 to 5.0 newtons. Generally, the best wear properties were obtained when the coatings were bias sputtered onto 440 C disks that had been preoxidized. Adherence was improved because of the better bonding of the coatings to the iron oxide formed during preoxidation. As a class the carbides provided wear protection to the highest loads. Titanium boride coatings provided low friction and good wear properties to moderate loads.

  10. Discovery of Brownleeite: a New Manganese Silicide Mineral in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, Scott; Jones, John H.; Palma, Russell L.; Pepin, Robert O.; Klock, Wolfgang; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The Earth accretes approximately 40,000 tons of cosmic dust annually, originating mainly from the disintegration of comets and collisions among asteroids. This cosmic dust, also known as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is a subject of intense interest since it is made of the original building blocks of our Solar System. Although the specific parent bodies of IDPs are unknown, the anhydrous chondritic-porous IDPs (CP-IDPs) subset has been potentially linked to a cometary source. The CP-IDPs are extremely primitive materials based on their unequilibrated mineralogy, C-rich chemistry, and anomalous isotopic signatures. In particular, some CP-IDPs escaped the thermal, aqueous and impact shock processing that has modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of meteorites. Thus, the CP-IDPs represent some of the most primitive solar system materials available for laboratory study. Most CP-IDPs are comprised of minerals that are common on Earth. However, in the course of an examination of one of the CP-IDPs, we encountered three sub-micrometer sized grains of manganese silicide (MnSi), a phase that has heretofore not been found in nature. In the seminar, we would like to focus on IDP studies and this manganese silicide phase that has been approved as the first new mineral identified from a comet by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) in 2008. The mineral is named in honour of Donald E. Brownlee, an American astronomer and a founder of the field of cosmic dust research who is the principal investigator of the NASA Stardust Mission that collected dust samples from Comet 81P/Wild-2 and returned them to Earth. Much of our current view and understanding of the early solar system would not exist without the pioneering work of professor Don Brownlee in the study of IDPs.

  11. Molybdenum Silicide Formation on Single Crystal, Polycrystalline and Amorphous Silicon: Growth, Structure and Electrical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doland, Charles Michael

    The solid state reactions that occur between a thin metal film and a silicon substrate are of scientific and technological interest. The initial interactions are poorly understood, yet the final state may critically depend on the initial interactions. In this work, the reactions of thin molybdenum films on amorphous, polycrystalline, and single crystal silicon substrates were studied, with an emphasis on the initial interdiffusion and the nucleation of the crystalline silicide phase. Our research was carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system in order to minimize effects of contaminants. In situ Raman scattering and Auger electron spectroscopy were used to probe the structure and composition of the films. Electron microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and Schottky barrier height measurements were used to obtain additional information. The hexagonal phase of the disilicide (h-MoSi _2) is the first phase formed. This occurs after 30 minute annealing at 400^ circC on clean samples. Impurities interfere with this reaction, but substrate crystallinity has no effect. The hexagonal phase transforms to the tetragonal phase (t-MoSi_2) after 800 ^circC annealing for all substrate types. Contamination retards this reaction, resulting in films containing both phases. For the thin films in this study, the transformation to t-MoSi_2 is accompanied by agglomeration of the films. From bulk thermodynamics, t-MoSi_2 is expected to be the first phase formed, but h -MoSi_2 is the first phase observed. This phase nucleates before t-MoSi_2, due to a lower silicide-silicon interfacial energy. Detailed knowledge of interfacial energies and effects of impurities are required to understand the initial phases of thin film solid state reactions.

  12. Improvement of heavy dopant doped Ni-silicide using ytterbium interlayer for nano-scale MOSFETS with an ultra shallow junction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong-Sik; Oh, Se-Kyung; Kang, Min-Ho; Li, Shi-Guang; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a novel Ni silicide with Yb interlayer (Yb/Ni/TiN) on a boron cluster (B18H22) implanted source/drain junction is proposed for the first time, and its thermal stability characteristics are analyzed in depth. The proposed Ni-silicide exhibits a wider RTP temperature window for uniform sheet resistance, surface roughness and better thermal stability than the conventional structure (Ni/TiN). In addition, the cross-sectional profile of the proposed Ni-silicide showed less agglomeration despite the high temperature post-silicidation annealing, and it can be said that the proposed structure was little dependence on the temperature post-silicidation annealing. The improvement of Ni silicide properties is analyzed and found to be due to the formation of the rare earth metal--NiSi (YbNi2Si2), whose peaks were confirmed by XRD. The junction leakage current of the p + -n junction with Yb/Ni/TiN and B18H22 implantation is smaller than that with Ni/TiN by almost one order of magnitude as well as improving the thermal stability of ultra shallow junction.

  13. Template-directed atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered parallel cerium silicide nanowire arrays on Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The perfectly ordered parallel arrays of periodic Ce silicide nanowires can self-organize with atomic precision on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces. The growth evolution of self-ordered parallel Ce silicide nanowire arrays is investigated over a broad range of Ce coverages on single-domain Si(110)-16 × 2 surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Three different types of well-ordered parallel arrays, consisting of uniformly spaced and atomically identical Ce silicide nanowires, are self-organized through the heteroepitaxial growth of Ce silicides on a long-range grating-like 16 × 2 reconstruction at the deposition of various Ce coverages. Each atomically precise Ce silicide nanowire consists of a bundle of chains and rows with different atomic structures. The atomic-resolution dual-polarity STM images reveal that the interchain coupling leads to the formation of the registry-aligned chain bundles within individual Ce silicide nanowire. The nanowire width and the interchain coupling can be adjusted systematically by varying the Ce coverage on a Si(110) surface. This natural template-directed self-organization of perfectly regular parallel nanowire arrays allows for the precise control of the feature size and positions within ±0.2 nm over a large area. Thus, it is a promising route to produce parallel nanowire arrays in a straightforward, low-cost, high-throughput process. PMID:24188092

  14. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, Maria Grazia; Sciolti, Aldebara; Campilongo, Stefano; Ficarella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the data related to the flame acquisitions in a liquid-fuel gas turbine derived burner operating in non-premixed mode under three different equivalence fuel/air ratio, which corresponds to a richer, an intermediate, and an ultra-lean condition, near lean blowout (LBO). The data were collected with two high speed visualization systems which acquired in the visible (VIS) and in the infrared (NIR) spectral region. Furthermore chemiluminescence measurements, which have been performed with a photomultiplier (PMT), equipped with an OH* filter, and gas exhaust measurements were also given. For each acquisition the data were related to operating parameters as pressure, temperature and equivalent fuel/air ratio. The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1]. PMID:26862557

  15. Oxidation Behavior and Chlorination Treatment to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Nb-Mo-Si-B Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Behrani, Vikas

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is written in an alternate format. The thesis is composed of a general introduction, two original manuscripts, and a general conclusion. References cited within each chapter are given at the end of each chapter. The general introduction starts with the driving force behind this research, and gives an overview of previous work on boron doped molybdenum silicides, Nb/Nb5Si3 composites, boron modified niobium silicides and molybdenum niobium silicides. Chapter 2 focuses on the oxidation behavior of Nb-Mo-Si-B alloys. Chapter 3 contains studies on a novel chlorination technique to improve the oxidation resistance of Nb-Mo-Si-B alloys. Chapter 4 summarizes the important results in this study.

  16. Fuel development activities of the US RERTR Program. [Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Domagala, R.F.; Wiencek, T.C.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the development and irradiation testing of high-density fuels for use with low-enriched uranium in research and test reactors is reported. Swelling and blister-threshold temperature data obtained from the examination of miniature fuel plates containing UAl/sub x/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/, or U/sub 3/Si dispersed in an aluminum matrix are presented. Combined with the results of metallurgical examinations, these data show that these four fuel types will perform adequately to full burnup of the /sup 235/U contained in the low-enriched fuel. The exothermic reaction of the uranium-silicide fuels with aluminum has been found to occur at about the same temperature as the melting of the aluminum matrix and cladding and to be essentially quenched by the melting endotherm. A new series of miniature fuel plate irradiations is also discussed.

  17. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  18. Study of Maxwell–Wagner (M–W) relaxation behavior and hysteresis observed in bismuth titanate layered structure obtained by solution combustion synthesis using dextrose as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subohi, Oroosa; Shastri, Lokesh; Kumar, G.S.; Malik, M.M.; Kurchania, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} is synthesized using solution combustion technique with dextrose as fuel. • Dextrose has high reducing capacity (+24) and generates more no. of moles of gases. • Impedance studies show that the sample follows Maxwell–Wagner relaxation behavior. • Shows lower remnant polarization due to higher c-axis ratio. - Abstract: Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) obtained by solution combustion technique using dextrose as fuel is studied extensively in this paper. Dextrose is used as fuel as it has high reducing valancy and generates more number of moles of gases during the reaction. X-ray diffraction studies show that phase formation and crystallinity was reached only after calcinations at 800 °C. Dielectric constant versus temperature curve shows ferroelectric to paraelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) to be 650 °C. The dielectric loss is very less (tan δ < 1) at lower temperatures but increases around T{sub c} due to structural changes in the sample. Complex impedance curves show deviation from Debye behavior. The material shows a thin PE Loop with low remnant polarization due to high conductivity in the as prepared sample.

  19. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+−n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5–10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method. PMID:26632759

  20. JAEA Studies on High Burnup Fuel Behaviors during Reactivity-Initiated Accident and Loss-of-Coolant Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nagase, Fumihisa; Suzuki, Motoe

    2007-07-01

    The objectives of fuel safety research program at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are; to evaluate adequacy of present safety criteria and safety margins; to provide a database for future regulation on higher burnup UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels, new cladding and pellets; and to provide reasonably mechanistic computer codes for regulatory application. The JAEA program is comprised of reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) studies including pulse-irradiation experiments in the NSRR and cladding mechanical tests, loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests including integral thermal shock test and oxidation rate measurement, development and verification of computer codes FEMAXI-6 and RANNS, and so on. In addition to an overview of the fuel safety research at JAEA, most recent progresses in the RIA and LOCA tests programs and the codes development are described and discussed in the paper. (authors)

  1. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  2. Follow-up fuel plate stability experiments and analyses for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-11-01

    The reactor for the planned Advanced Neutron Source uses closely spaced plates cooled by heavy water flowing through narrow channels. Two sets of tests were performed on the upper and lower fuel plates for the structural response of the fuel plates to the required high coolant flow velocities. This report contains the data from the second round of tests. Results and conclusions from all of the tests are also included in this report. The tests were done using light water on full-scale epoxy models, and through model theory, the results were related to the prototype plates, which are aluminum-clad aluminum/uranium silicide involute-shaped plates.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic cavitation erosion on corrosion behavior of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Yugui; Qin, Yujiao; Lin, Jinran

    2015-11-01

    The effect of ultrasonic cavitation erosion on electrochemical corrosion behavior of high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) sprayed near-nanostructured WC-10Co-4Cr coating in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution, was investigated using free corrosion potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in comparison with stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti. The results showed that cavitation erosion strongly enhanced the cathodic current density, shifted the free corrosion potential in the anodic direction, and reduced the magnitude of impedance of the coating. The impedance of the coating decreased more slowly under cavitation conditions than that of the stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti, suggesting that corrosion behavior of the coating was less affected by cavitation erosion than that of the stainless steel.

  4. Experimental analysis of spatio-temporal behavior of anodic dead-end mode operated polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manokaran, A.; Pushpavanam, S.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S.

    During the anodic dead-end mode operation of fuel cells, the inert gases (nitrogen and water) present in the cathode side gas channel permeate to the anode side and accumulate in the anode gas channel. The inert gas accumulation in the anode decreases the fuel cell performance by impeding the access of hydrogen to the catalyst. The performance of fuel cell under potentiostatic dead-end mode operation is shown to have three distinct regions viz. time lag region, transient current region and a steady state current region. A current distribution measurement setup is used to capture the evolution of the current distribution as a function of time and space. Co- and counter-flow operations of dead-end mode confirm the propagation of inert gas from the dead-end of anode channel to the inlet of anode. Experiments with different oxidants, oxygen and air, under dead-end mode confirm that nitrogen which permeates from cathode to anode causes the performance drop of the fuel cell. For different starting current densities of 0.15 A cm -2, 0.3 A cm -2 and 0.6 A cm -2 the inert gas occupies 35%, 45% and 57%, respectively of anode channel volume at the end of 60 min of dead-end mode operation.

  5. Hybrid combustion with metallized fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian S.; Bates, Ronald W.; Jones, Michael D.; Ramohalli, Kumar

    1993-01-01

    A chemical method of adding certain catalysts to improve the degradation process of a solid fuel is discussed. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis used to study the fundamental degradation behavior of a typical hybrid fuel (HTPB) shows that high surface temperatures increase the degradation rate. Fuels were tested in a laboratory-scale experimental hybrid rocket and their behavior was compared to a baseline behavior of HTPB fuel regression rates. It was found that a small amount of metal powder added to the fuel can significantly increase the regression rates.

  6. Nanopatterning of metal-coated silicon surfaces via ion beam irradiation: Real time x-ray studies reveal the effect of silicide bonding

    SciTech Connect

    El-Atwani, Osman; Gonderman, Sean; Suslova, Anastassiya; Fowler, Justin; El-Atwani, Mohamad; DeMasi, Alexander; Ludwig, Karl; Paul Allain, Jean

    2013-03-28

    We investigated the effect of silicide formation on ion-induced nanopatterning of silicon with various ultrathin metal coatings. Silicon substrates coated with 10 nm Ni, Fe, and Cu were irradiated with 200 eV argon ions at normal incidence. Real time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were performed during the irradiation process and real time measurements revealed threshold conditions for nanopatterning of silicon at normal incidence irradiation. Three main stages of the nanopatterning process were identified. The real time GISAXS intensity of the correlated peaks in conjunction with XRF revealed that the nanostructures remain for a time period after the removal of the all the metal atoms from the sample depending on the binding energy of the metal silicides formed. Ex-situ XPS confirmed the removal of all metal impurities. In-situ XPS during the irradiation of Ni, Fe, and Cu coated silicon substrates at normal incidence demonstrated phase separation and the formation of different silicide phases that occur upon metal-silicon mixing. Silicide formation leads to nanostructure formation due the preferential erosion of the non-silicide regions and the weakening of the ion induced mass redistribution.

  7. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    PubMed

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  8. A Computational Study on the Ground and Excited States of Nickel Silicide.

    PubMed

    Schoendorff, George; Morris, Alexis R; Hu, Emily D; Wilson, Angela K

    2015-09-17

    Nickel silicide has been studied with a range of computational methods to determine the nature of the Ni-Si bond. Additionally, the physical effects that need to be addressed within calculations to predict the equilibrium bond length and bond dissociation energy within experimental error have been determined. The ground state is predicted to be a (1)Σ(+) state with a bond order of 2.41 corresponding to a triple bond with weak π bonds. It is shown that calculation of the ground state equilibrium geometry requires a polarized basis set and treatment of dynamic correlation including up to triple excitations with CR-CCSD(T)L resulting in an equilibrium bond length of only 0.012 Å shorter than the experimental bond length. Previous calculations of the bond dissociation energy resulted in energies that were only 34.8% to 76.5% of the experimental bond dissociation energy. It is shown here that use of polarized basis sets, treatment of triple excitations, correlation of the valence and subvalence electrons, and a Λ coupled cluster approach is required to obtain a bond dissociation energy that deviates as little as 1% from experiment.

  9. Phase Formation and Thermoelectric Properties of Doped Higher Manganese Silicides (Mn15Si26)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwijong; Kim, Gwansik; Lee, Byunghun; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Lee, Wooyoung

    2016-10-01

    We herein report substitutional doping effects on the electronic and thermal transport properties of higher manganese silicides (HMS) Mn15Si26. Polycrystalline bulks of Mn0.972A0.028Si1.80 and MnSi1.75B0.028 (A = V, Cr, Mo/B = Al, Ge) were fabricated by a solid-state reaction combined with the spark plasma sintering technique, and their thermoelectric properties were evaluated. We found that thermoelectric performance of Mn15Si26 was significantly enhanced due to the simultaneous improvement in electronic transport and phonon scattering via partial substitution of foreign atoms at Mn- and/or Si-sites. Through the small amount of Cr doping at the Mn-site and Al and Ge doping at the Si-site, the power factor was improved due to enhancement in density of the state's effective mass. Thermal transport properties could be also manipulated due to the point defect phonon scattering effect, and reduced lattice thermal conductivity was obtained with Ge-doped HMS. As a consequence, the maximum dimensionless figure of merit ZT of 0.64 at 773 K (increased 50% compared to undoped Mn15Si26) was obtained in Ge-doped Mn15Si26.

  10. Electron Probe Microanalysis of Ni Silicides Using Ni-L X-Ray Lines.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Xavier; Pinard, Philippe T; Heikinheimo, Erkki; Louhenkilpi, Seppo; Richter, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    We report electron probe microanalysis measurements on nickel silicides, Ni5Si2, Ni2Si, Ni3Si2, and NiSi, which were done in order to investigate anomalies that affect the analysis of such materials by using the Ni L3-M4,5 line (Lα). Possible sources of systematic discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions of Ni L3-M4,5 k-ratios are examined, and special attention is paid to dependence of the Ni L3-M4,5 k-ratios on mass-attenuation coefficients and partial fluorescence yields. Self-absorption X-ray spectra and empirical mass-attenuation coefficients were obtained for the considered materials from X-ray emission spectra and relative X-ray intensity measurements, respectively. It is shown that calculated k-ratios with empirical mass attenuation coefficients and modified partial fluorescence yields give better agreement with experimental data, except at very low accelerating voltages. Alternatively, satisfactory agreement is also achieved by using the Ni L3-M1 line (Lℓ) instead of the Ni L3-M4,5 line.

  11. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of CrSi2, LaSi2, and ReSi2 were grown on silicon substrates. Normal incidence optical transmittance and reflectance measurements were made as a function of wavelength. It was demonstrated that LaSi2 is a metallic conductor, but that CrSi2 and ReSi2 are, in fact, narrow bandgap semiconductors. For CrSi2, the complex index of refraction was determined by computer analysis of the optical data. From the imaginary part, the optical absorption coefficient was determined as a function of photon energy. It was shown that CrSi2 possesses an indirect forbidden energy gap of slightly less than 0.31 eV, and yet it is a very strong absorber of light above the absorption edge. On the other hand, the ReSi2 films exhibit an absorption edge in the vicinity of 0.2 eV. Measurements of the thermal activation energy of resistivity for ReSi2 indicate a bandgap of 0.18 eV. It is concluded that the semiconducting silicides merit further investigation for development as new silicon-compatible infrared detector materials.

  12. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong; Li, Yulong; He, Ying

    2014-12-28

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the higher manganese silicide MnSi{sub 1.75} synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example, the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5 × 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper.

  13. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaia, N.; Mathieu, S.; Rouillard, F.; Vilasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi2 coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi2 coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of barium silicide (BaSi2) nanowire arrays for potential solar applications.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Ankit; Samad, Leith; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2015-11-07

    In order to utilize nanostructured materials for potential solar and other energy-harvesting applications, scalable synthetic techniques for these materials must be developed. Herein we use a vapor phase conversion approach to synthesize nanowire (NW) arrays of semiconducting barium silicide (BaSi2) in high yield for the first time for potential solar applications. Dense arrays of silicon NWs obtained by metal-assisted chemical etching were converted to single-crystalline BaSi2 NW arrays by reacting with Ba vapor at about 930 °C. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirm that the converted NWs are single-crystalline BaSi2. The optimal conversion reaction conditions allow the phase-pure synthesis of BaSi2 NWs that maintain the original NW morphology, and tuning the reaction parameters led to a controllable synthesis of BaSi2 films on silicon substrates. The optical bandgap and electrochemical measurements of these BaSi2 NWs reveal a bandgap and carrier concentrations comparable to previously reported values for BaSi2 thin films.

  15. Approaching the Minimum Thermal Conductivity in Rhenium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Girard, S. N.; Meng, F.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Jin, S; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, J. S.; Shi, L

    2014-01-01

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) made of earth-abundant and non-toxic elements are regarded as promising p-type thermoelectric materials because their complex crystal structure results in low lattice thermal conductivity. It is shown here that the already low thermal conductivity of HMS can be reduced further to approach the minimum thermal conductivity via partial substitu- tion of Mn with heavier rhenium (Re) to increase point defect scattering. The solubility limit of Re in the obtained RexMn1 xSi1.8 is determined to be about x = 0.18. Elemental inhomogeneity and the formation of ReSi1.75 inclusions with 50 200 nm size are found within the HMS matrix. It is found that the power factor does not change markedly at low Re content of x 0.04 before it drops considerably at higher Re contents. Compared to pure HMS, the reduced lattice thermal conductivity in RexMn1 xSi1.8 results in a 25% increase of the peak figure of merit ZT to reach 0.57 0.08 at 800 K for x = 0.04. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the pure RexMn1 xSi1.8 can enable further investigations of the ZT limit of this system by exploring different impurity doping strategies to optimize the carrier concentration and power factor.

  16. The Effect of Microstructure on the Thermoelectric Properties of Polycrystalline Higher Manganese Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Tae-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Chan; Kim, Il-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk

    2013-10-01

    In order to obtain single-phase higher manganese silicides (HMS) and investigate the effect of sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of a HMS system, HMS compounds were synthesized using a vacuum induction melting method and sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot pressing methods. Single-phase HMS with a small amount of second phases was obtained in all of the HMS samples produced. Changes in the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the HMS were observed when the sintering temperature was changed, which can be attributed to the presence of the second phases. Similar changes of thermoelectric properties were observed in both the SPS and hot-pressed samples. However, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of HMS samples (SPS-HMS) were higher than those of the hot-pressed samples, which can be attributed to SPS's shorter holding time and its ability to control the diffusion rate. The SPS-HMS sample sintered at 1123 K (1123 K SPS-HMS) had a higher figure of merit than any other sample although the sample had a lower power factor. The high value of the figure of merit of the sample can be attributed to its low thermal conductivity. The highest figure of merit value of 0.41 was measured at 850 K in the 1123 K SPS-HMS, which is comparable to the results reported earlier. The results of the present study can be used to optimize the fabrication process of HMS thermoelectric materials.

  17. Connecting structural, mechanical and tribological characteristics of Al alloyed nanocrystalline molybdenum silicide coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiang; Mao, XiangZhen; Xie, Zong-Han; Munroe, Paul

    2013-02-01

    In this study, novel nanocrystalline molybdenum silicide coatings with differing Al contents were deposited on a commercial titanium substrate using a double-cathode glow discharge apparatus. Their microstructures were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy. These coatings mainly consisted of MoSi2 and Mo5Si3 phases; the ratio of Mo5Si3 to MoSi2 gradually increased from the surface towards the interior of coatings, forming a graded structure. With the increase in Al content, the hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings slightly decreased, but the ratios of H/E and 1/E2H, as well as damage tolerance, increased. Furthermore, these newly developed coatings showed excellent wear resistance; their specific wear rates were not only considerably lower than that of the monolithic MoSi2 coating, but also decreased with increasing Al content. The plan and cross-sectional views of the worn surfaces and wear debris were analysed using SEM and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The relationships between coating structure, mechanical property and wear mechanism were then clarified, which will help in designing hard, tough and wear-resistant coatings for applications involving severe loading conditions.

  18. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; He, Ying; Chen, Lidong; Li, Qiang

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describe the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.

  19. Enhanced power factor of higher manganese silicide via melt spin synthesis method

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Xiaoya; Shi, Xun; Li, Yulong; ...

    2014-12-30

    We report on the thermoelectric properties of the Higher Manganese Silicide MnSi₁.₇₅ (HMS) synthesized by means of a one-step non-equilibrium method. The ultrahigh cooling rate generated from the melt-spin technique is found to be effective in reducing second phases, which are inevitable during the traditional solid state diffusion processes. Aside from being detrimental to thermoelectric properties, second phases skew the revealing of the intrinsic properties of this class of materials, for example the optimal level of carrier concentration. With this melt-spin sample, we are able to formulate a simple model based on a single parabolic band that can well describemore » the carrier concentration dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and power factor of the data reported in the literature. An optimal carrier concentration around 5x10²⁰ cm⁻³ at 300 K is predicted according to this model. The phase-pure melt-spin sample shows the largest power factor at high temperature, resulting in the highest zT value among the three samples in this paper; the maximum value is superior to those reported in the literatures.« less

  20. Molybdenum, Tungsten, and Aluminium Substitution for Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Performance of Higher Manganese Silicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhi Truong, D. Y.; Berthebaud, David; Gascoin, Franck; Kleinke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    An easy and efficient process involving ball milling under soft conditions and spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize higher manganese silicide (HMS)-based compounds, for example MnSi1.75Ge0.02, with different molybdenum, tungsten, and aluminium substitution. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after sintering showed the main phase to be HMS with the presence of some side products. Molybdenum substitution enlarges the unit cells more than tungsten substitution, owing to its greater solubility in the HMS structure, whereas substitution with aluminium did not substantially alter the cell parameters. The electrical resistivity of HMS-based compounds was reduced by <10% by this substitution, because of increased carrier concentrations. Changes of the Seebeck coefficient were insignificant after molybdenum and aluminium substitution whereas tungsten substitution slightly reduced the thermopower of the base material by approximately 8% over the whole temperature range; this was ascribed to reduced carrier mobility as a result of enhanced scattering. Substitution with any combination of two of these elements resulted in no crucial modification of the electrical properties of the base material. Large decreases of lattice thermal conductivity were observed, because of enhanced phonon scattering, with the highest reduction up to 25% for molybdenum substitution; this resulted in a 20% decrease of total thermal conductivity, which contributed to improvement of the figure of merit ZT of the HMS-based materials. The maximum ZT value was approximately 0.40 for the material with 2 at.% molybdenum substitution at the Mn sites.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Candidate Materials for Use in Accident Resistant Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jason M. Harp; Paul A. Lessing; Blair H. Park; Jakeob Maupin

    2013-09-01

    As part of a Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with industry, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating several options for accident resistant uranium compounds including silicides, and nitrides for use in future light water reactor (LWR) fuels. This work is part of a larger effort to create accident tolerant fuel forms where changes to the fuel pellets, cladding, and cladding treatment are considered. The goal fuel form should have a resistance to water corrosion comparable to UO2, have an equal to or larger thermal conductivity than uranium dioxide, a melting temperature that allows the material to stay solid under power reactor conditions, and a uranium loading that maintains or improves current LWR power densities. During the course of this research, fuel fabricated at INL will be characterized, irradiated at the INL Advanced Test Reactor, and examined after irradiation at INL facilities to help inform industrial partners on candidate technologies.

  2. Molten fluoride fuel salt chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Metcalf, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The chemistry of molten fluorides is traced from their development as fuels in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment with important factors in their selection being discussed. Key chemical characteristics such as solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity are explained as they relate to the behavior of molten fluoride fuel systems. Fission product behavior is described along with processing experience. Development requirements for fitting the current state of the chemistry to modern nuclear fuel system are described. It is concluded that while much is known about molten fluoride behavior, processing and recycle of the fuel components is a necessary factor if future systems are to be established.

  3. M5Si3(M=Ti, Nb, Mo) Based Transition-Metal Silicides for High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal silicides are being considered for future engine turbine components at temperatures up to 1600 C. Although significant improvement in high temperature strength, room temperature fracture toughness has been realized in the past decade, further improvement in oxidation resistance is needed. Oxidation mechanism of Ti5Si3-based alloys was investigated. Oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3-based alloy strongly depends on the atmosphere. Presence of Nitrogen alters the oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3 by nucleation and growth of nitride subscale. Ti5Si3.2and Ti5Si3C0.5 alloys exhibited an excellent oxidation resistance in nitrogen bearing atmosphere due to limited dissolution of nitrogen and increased Si/Ti activity ratio. MoSi2 coating developed by pack cementation to protect Mo-based Mo-Si-B composites was found to be effective up to 1500 C. Shifting coating composition to T1+T2+Mo3Si region showed the possibility to extend the coating lifetime above 1500 C by more than ten times via formation of slow growing Mo3Si or T2 interlayer without sacrificing the oxidation resistance of the coating. The phase equilibria in the Nb-rich portion of Nb-B system has been evaluated experimentally using metallographic analysis and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). It was shown that Nbss (solid solution) and NbB are the only two primary phases in the 0-40 at.% B composition range, and the eutectic reaction L {leftrightarrow} NbSS + NbB was determined to occur at 2104 ± 5 C by DTA.

  4. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  5. Performance and fuel-cycle cost analysis of one JANUS 30 conceptual design for several fuel-element-design options

    SciTech Connect

    Nurdin, M.; Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    The performance and fuel cycle costs for a 25 MW, JANUS 30 reactor conceptual design by INTERATOM, Federal Republic of Germany, for BATAN, Republic of Indonesia have been studied using 19.75% enriched uranium in four fuel element design options. All of these fuel element designs have either been proposed by INTERATOM for various reactors or are currently in use with 93% enriched uranium in reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany. Aluminide, oxide, and silicide fuels were studied for selected designs using the range of uranium densities that are either currently qualified or are being developed and demonstrated internationally. To assess the long-term fuel adaptation strategy as well as the present fuel acceptance, reactor performance and annual fuel cycle costs were computed for seventeen cases based on a representative end-of-cycle excess reactivity and duty factor. In addition, a study was made to provide data for evaluating the trade-off between the increased safety associated with thicker cladding and the economic penalty due to increased fuel consumption.

  6. FLIT-MLO and No. 2 fuel oil: Effects of aerosol applications to mallard eggs on hatchability and behavior of ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Heinz, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    FLIT-MLO and No. 2 fuel oil are sprayed on wetlands for mosquito control during spring and summer. In one experiment to assess the effects of the spraying on birds, mallard eggs were sprayed with amounts of No. 2 fuel oil equivalent to 2.34, 4.67, or 18.70 liters/ha or FLIT-MLO equivalent to 9.35, 46.75, or 140.25 liters/ha on Day 6 of incubation. In a second experiment, mallard eggs were sprayed with 9.35, 46.75, or 140.25 liters/ha of FLIT-MLO on Days 3, 6, 12, or 18 of incubation. Hatchability of eggs sprayed with the highest treatment level of each substance was significantly lower than that of controls for the first experiment. Hatchability of eggs sprayed with FLIT-MLO in the second experiment was never significantly lower than that of controls. Ducklings from the first experiment, 36-48 hr old, were cold stressed for 1 hr at 8 degrees C and then immediately tested for their ability to respond to a fright stimulus. Ducklings from the group of eggs sprayed with 140.25 liters/ha of FLIT-MLO ran a significantly shorter distance from the fright stimulus than did controls. The effects of the heaviest exposure to FLIT-MLO (140.25 liters/ha) on egg hatchability and behavior of newly hatched young are uncertain because of the contradictory results for hatching success in the two experiments. However, normal applications of FLIT-MLO (9.35-46.75 liters/ha) or No. 2 fuel oil (2.34-4.67 liters/ha) do not appear to pose a threat to the embryos of breeding birds.

  7. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  8. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  9. Comparing the electrical characteristics and reliabilities of BJTs and MOSFETs between Pt and Ti contact silicide processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kaiping; Shang, Ling

    1999-08-01

    The sub-threshold characteristics and the reliability of BJTs, using platinum contact silicide (PtSi) or titanium contact silicide (TiSi2), are compared and analyzed. During processing, it is observed that the TiSi2 process produces higher interface state density (Dit) than the PtSi process. The increase in Dit not only leads to a higher base current in the BJTs, but also leads to a lower transconductance for the MOS transistors. The data also show that the impact on NPN and nMOS is more severe than the impact of PNP and pMOS, respectively. This can be explained by the non-symmetric interface state distribution, the re- activation of boron, and/or by substrate trap centers. The amount of interface states produced depends not only on the thickness of the titanium film deposited, but also on the temperature and duration of the titanium silicide process. The electrical data indicates that after all the Back-End- Of-The-Line processing steps, which includes a forming gas anneal, Dit is still higher on wafers with the TiSi2 transistor's base current increases at different rates between the two processes, but eventually levels off to the same final value. However, the PNP transistor's base current increases at approximately the same rate, but eventually levels off at different final values. These indicate that the TiSi2 process may have modified the silicon and oxygen dangling bond structure during its high temperature process in addition to removing the hydrogen from the passivated interface states.

  10. The new ternary silicide Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2}: Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Charlotte; Gaudin, Etienne; Gorsse, Stephane; Chevalier, Bernard

    2011-02-15

    Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2} was prepared by annealing at 1003 K. Its investigation by the X-ray powder diffraction shows that the ternary silicide crystallizes in a tetragonal structure deriving from the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type (I4/mcm space group; a=7.5799(4) and c=13.5091(12) A as unit cell parameters). The Rietveld refinement shows a mixed occupancy on the (8h) site between Si and Co atoms. Magnetization and specific heat measurements performed on Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2} reveal a ferromagnetic behaviour below T{sub C}=168 K. This magnetic ordering is associated to an interesting magnetocaloric effect; the adiabatic temperature change {Delta}T{sub ad} is about 3.1 and 5.9 K, respectively, for a magnetic field change of 2 and 4.6 T. -- Graphical abstract: The adiabatic temperature change {Delta}T{sub ad} was determined by combining the heat capacity measurements and the magnetization data. As expected, a peak near the Curie temperature of the Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2} ternary silicide is observed, with a maximum of {Delta}T{sub ad} around 3.1 and 5.9 K for {Delta}H=2 and 4.6 T, respectively. Display Omitted Research Highlights: {yields} We prepare and characterize for the first time the ternary silicide Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2}. {yields} Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2} crystallizes in the tetragonal structure deriving from the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type. {yields} Gd{sub 5}CoSi{sub 2} shows a ferromagnetic behaviour below 168 K associated with magnetocaloric properties.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of solid oxide fuel cell anodes based on infiltration of Y-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Alireza; Etsell, Thomas H.

    2013-03-01

    Single cells based on yttrium-doped SrTiO3 (YST) infiltrated porous YSZ anodes were investigated as an alternative material for sulfur and carbon tolerant solid oxide fuel cells. First, a YSZ electrolyte-based cell with porous YSZ as the support for electrode materials on both sides was prepared. Then electrocatalyst materials were incorporated into the porous YSZ: the anode was infiltrated with YST precursor; and the cathode with LSM precursor to be heat treated in-situ. Heat treatment under reducing conditions was found to successfully eliminate the yttrium titanate impurity and to markedly reduce the YST crystal size. The results showed that there was an optimum amount of infiltrated YST to balance the conductivity and the polarization. Furthermore, the maximum power density under dry hydrogen at 900 °C was found to be 95 mW cm-2, which is greater than comparable reported values. H2S was found to have a promoting effect on the electrochemical performance of the fuel cell, particularly under methane. This work suggests that the infiltration technique can be successfully used not only to eliminate the complications associated with high temperature treatments required in conventional YST-YSZ anodes, but also to improve the electrochemical performance.

  12. Anodic behavior of carbon supported Cu@Ag core-shell nanocatalysts in direct borohydride fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Donghong; Liu, Huihong; You, Xiu; Wei, Huikai; Liu, Shibin

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-supported Cu@Ag core-shell nanoparticles are prepared by a successive reduction method in an aqueous solution and are used as an anode electrocatalyst for the direct borohydride-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DBHFC). The physical and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared electrocatalysts are investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), and fuel cell tests. In situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed in 2 M NaOH/0.1 M NaBH4 to understand the borohydride oxidation reaction (BOR) mechanism by studying the intermediate reactions occurring on the Cu@Ag/C electrode. The TEM images show that the average size of the Cu1@Ag1/C particles is approximately 18 nm. Among the as-prepared catalysts, the Cu2@Ag1/C catalyst presents the highest catalytic activity. As shown by in situ FTIR, the oxidation reaction mechanism of BH4- is similar to that of Ag/C: BHn(OH)4-n- + 2OH- → BHn-1(OH)5-n- +H2 O + 2e . At 25 °C, the DBHFC with Cu2@Ag1/C as the anode electrocatalyst and Pt mesh (1 cm2) as the cathode electrode exhibits a maximum anodic power density of 17.27 mW mg-1 at a discharge current density of 27.8 mA mg-1.

  13. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2016-12-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  14. Slurry Erosion Behavior of F6NM Stainless Steel and High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, S. Y.; Miao, Q.; Liang, W. P.; Huang, B. Z.; Ding, Z.; Chen, B. W.

    2017-02-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr coating was applied to the surface of F6NM stainless steel by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. The slurry erosion behavior of the matrix and coating was examined at different rotational speeds using a self-made machine. This experiment effectively simulates real slurry erosion in an environment with high silt load. At low velocity (<6 m/s), the main failure mechanism was cavitation. Small bubbles acted as an air cushion, obstructing direct contact between sand and the matrix surface. However, at velocity above 9 m/s, abrasive wear was the dominant failure mechanism. The results indicate that WC-10Co-4Cr coating significantly improved the slurry resistance at higher velocity, because it created a thin and dense WC coating on the surface.

  15. Infrared photodetectors with tailorable response due to resonant plasmon absorption in epitaxial silicide particles embedded in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Dejewski, S. M.; George, T.; Jones, E. W.; Krabach, T. N.; Ksendzov, A.

    1993-01-01

    Tailorable infrared photoresponse in the 1-2 micron range are demonstrated in a device incorporating electrically floating metal silicide particles. Photons absorbed by excitation of the metallic-particle surface plasmon are shown to contribute to the photoresponse. Quantum efficiencies of roughly 0.2 percent are measured at 77 K, with dark currents of less than 2 nA/sq cm at a reverse bias of 1 V and detectivities of 4 x 10 exp 9 - 8 x 10 exp 9 cm sq rt Hz/W are obtained.

  16. A study of nickel silicide in a conventional furnace for Ni/Cu contact monocrystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    High-conductivity contacts in place of screen-printed contacts are in demand for commercial solar cells. Also, simplifying the process steps is required for commercial solar cells. In addition, very expensive metals are necessary improved efficiency without using scarce. In this research, we replaced screen-printed contacts with Ni/Cu contacts in passivated emitter solar cells. A layer of nickel was used as the seed and the adhesion layer. The main contact was formed by plating with copper. Firing conditions in a conventional furnace were varied so as to form nickel silicide. The best cell showed a solar cell efficiency of 18.76%.

  17. Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

    2010-01-01

    Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

  18. Characterization of commercially pure aluminum powder for research reactor fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, V.D.; Wiencek, T.C.

    1992-11-01

    Aluminum powder is used as the matrix material in the production of uranium aluminide, oxide, and silicide dispersion fuel plates for research and test reactors. variability in the characteristics of the aluminum powder, such as moisture content and particle-size distribution, influences blending and compacting of the aluminum/fuel powder. A detailed study was performed to characterize the physical properties of three aluminum powder lots. An angle-of-shear test was devised to characterize the cohesiveness of the aluminum powder. Flow-rate measurements, apparent density determination, subsieve analysis, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy were also used in the study. It was found that because of the various types of commercially available powders, proper specification of powder variables will ensure the receipt of consistent raw materials. Improved control of the initial powder will reduce the variability of fuel-plate production and will improve overall plate reproducibility. It is recommended that a standard specification be written for the aluminum powder and silicide fuel.

  19. Characterization of commercially pure aluminum powder for research reactor fuel plates

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, V.D. ); Wiencek, T.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum powder is used as the matrix material in the production of uranium aluminide, oxide, and silicide dispersion fuel plates for research and test reactors. variability in the characteristics of the aluminum powder, such as moisture content and particle-size distribution, influences blending and compacting of the aluminum/fuel powder. A detailed study was performed to characterize the physical properties of three aluminum powder lots. An angle-of-shear test was devised to characterize the cohesiveness of the aluminum powder. Flow-rate measurements, apparent density determination, subsieve analysis, surface area measurements, and scanning electron microscopy were also used in the study. It was found that because of the various types of commercially available powders, proper specification of powder variables will ensure the receipt of consistent raw materials. Improved control of the initial powder will reduce the variability of fuel-plate production and will improve overall plate reproducibility. It is recommended that a standard specification be written for the aluminum powder and silicide fuel.

  20. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  1. Modeling of hydro-thermo-mechanical behavior of Nafion NRE212 for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells using the Finite Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress for Polymers (FVBOP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Ozgen U.; Acar, Alperen

    2013-08-01

    The primary aim of this work is to present the modifications made to the Finite Viscoplasticity Theory Based on Overstress for Polymers (FVBOP). This is a unified state variable theory and the proposed changes are designed to account for humidity and temperature effects relevant to the modeling of the hydrothermal deformation behavior of ionomer membranes used in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Towards that end, the flow function, which is responsible for conferring rate dependency in FVBOP, is modified. A secondary objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using the storage modulus obtained by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) in place of the elasticity modulus obtained from conventional tensile/compressive tests, and find the correlation between the storage modulus and the elasticity modulus. The numerical simulations were juxtaposed against data from tensile monotonic loading and unloading experiments on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane Nafion NRE212 samples which are used extensively as a membrane material in PEMFC. The deformation behavior was modeled at four different temperatures (298, 323, 338, and 353 K—all values below the glass transition temperature of Nafion) and at three water content levels (3, 7 and 8 % swelling). The effects of strain rate, temperature, and hydration were captured well with the modified FVBOP model.

  2. Isothermal and cyclic oxidation resistance of boron-modified and germanium-doped silicide coatings for titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.; Rapp, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Since titanium alloys with an adequate balance of mechanical properties and high-temperature oxidation resistance have not been developed, protective coatings are required. In the authors previous paper, B-modified and Ge-doped silicide diffusion coatings grown on Cp Ti, Ti-24Al-11Nb, Ti-22Al-27Nb, and Ti-20Al-22Nb by the halide-activated, pack-cementation method were described. In this study, isothermal and cyclic oxidation were used to evaluate the oxidation performance of these coatings in comparison to uncoated substrates. The rate-controlling mechanism for isothermal oxidation at high temperature was solid-state diffusion through a SiO{sub 2} scale, while the mechanism for low-temperature oxidation involved grain-boundary diffusion through TiO{sub 2}. Both isothermal and cyclic oxidation rates for the B-modified and Ge-doped silicide coatings were much slower than for pure TiSi{sub 2}. Oxygen contamination was not detected by microhardness measurements in the coated substrates after 200 oxidation cycles at 500-1000{degrees}C for the Ti-Al-Nb alloys, or at 500-875{degrees}C for Cp Ti. The excellent oxidation resistance for the optimum coating compositions is discussed.

  3. Micromechanisms of creep-fatigue crack growth in a silicide-matrix composite with SiC particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ramamurty, U.; Kim, A.S.; Suresh, S. ); Petrovic, J.J. )

    1993-08-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to examine the cyclic fatigue crack growth characteristics in 1,200 C air of a MoSi[sub 2]-50 mol% WSi[sub 2] alloy in the unreinforced condition and with 30 vol% SiC particles. For comparison purposes, crack growth experiments under sustained loads were also carried out in the silicide-matrix composite. Particular attention is devoted to developing an understanding of the micromechanism of subcritical crack growth by recourse to optical and electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy of crack-tip damage. The results indicate that enhanced viscous flow of glass films along interfaces and grain boundaries imparts pronounced levels of subcritical crack growth in the composite material; the composite exhibits a higher fatigue fracture threshold and a more extended range of stable fracture than the unreinforced alloy. The effects of glass phase in influencing fatigue crack growth in the silicide-based material are compared to the influence of in situ-formed and preexisting glass films on high-temperature cyclic fatigue crack growth in ceramics and ceramic composites. The paper concludes with a comparison of present results with the high-temperature damage tolerance of a variety of intermetallic alloys and ceramic materials.

  4. Electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W.; Bihlmayer, G.; Bluegel, S.

    1997-03-01

    We report {ital ab initio} calculations for the electronic structure of the Nowotny chimney-ladder silicide Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} in the orthorhombic low-temperature phase. We find Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} to be a semiconductor with a direct band gap of about 0.45 eV. Since this gap is a p-d gap, the oscillator strength for a direct transition is expected to be of sizable magnitude. Also, the calculated effective masses of hole and electron states suggest that Ru{sub 2}Si{sub 3} is a very promising material for various applications in semiconductor technology. The electronic structure is controlled by the hybridization of Si p states with Ru d states and shows similarities to the group-IV transition-metal disilicides (CrSi{sub 2}, MoSi{sub 2}, WSi{sub 2}) and to transition-metal-rich silicides. The calculations are based on the density-functional theory in local-density approximation and are performed by means of the full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave method. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L.; André, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  6. Summary report on fuel development and miniplate fabrication for the RERTR Program, 1978 to 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wiencek, T.C.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the Fabrication Technology Section at Argonne National Laboratory in the program of Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR). The main objective of this program was to reduce the amount of high enriched ({approx}93% {sup 235}U) uranium (HEU) used in nonpower reactors. Conversion from low-density (0.8--1.6 g U/cm{sup 3}) HEU fuel elements to highly loaded (up to 7 g U/cm{sup 3}) low-enrichment (<20% {sup 235}U) uranium (LEU) fuel elements allows the same reactor power levels, core designs and sizes to be retained while greatly reducing the possibility of illicit diversion of HEU nuclear fuel. This document is intended as an overview of the period 1978--1990, during which the Section supported this project by fabricating mainly powder metallurgy uranium-silicide dispersion fuel plates. Most of the subjects covered in detail are fabrication-related studies of uranium silicide fuels and fuel plate properties. Some data are included for out-of-pile experiments such as corrosion and compatibility tests. Also briefly covered are most other aspects of the RERTR program such as irradiation tests, full-core demonstrations, and technology transfer. References included are for further information on most aspects of the entire program. A significant portion of the report is devoted to data that were never published in their entirety. The appendices contain a list of previous RERTR reports, ANL fabrication procedures, calculations for phases present in two-phase fuels, chemical analysis of fuels, miniplate characteristics, and a summary of bonding runs made by hot isostatic pressing.

  7. The corrosion behavior and microstructure of high-velocity oxy-fuel sprayed nickel-base amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, A. H.; Horlock, A. J.; McCartney, D. G.; Harris, S. J.

    1999-09-01

    The corrosion characteristics of two Ni-Cr-Mo-B alloy powders sprayed by the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process have been studied using potentiodynamic and potentiostatic corrosion analysis in 0.5 M H2SO4. The deposits were also microstructurally characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (utilizing both secondary electron and backscattered electron modes), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from the microstructural examination of the two alloys have revealed a predominantly amorphous/nanocrystalline face centered cubic (fcc) matrix containing submicron boride precipitates as well as regions of martensitically transformed laths. Apparent recrystallization of the amorphous matrix has also been observed in the form of cellular crystals with a fcc structure. The oxide stringers observed at splat boundaries were found to be columnar grained α-Cr2O3, though regions of the spinel oxide NiCr2O4 with a globular morphology were also observed. The coatings of the two alloys exhibited comparable resistance to corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4, as revealed by potentiodynamic tests. They both had rest potentials approximately equal to -300 mV saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and passive region current densities of ˜1 mA/cm2. Microstructural examination of samples tested potentiostatically revealed the prevalence of degradation at splat boundaries, especially those where significant oxidation of the deposit occurred.

  8. Investigation of solid oxide fuel cell sealing behavior under stack relevant conditions at Forschungszentrum Jülich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Ludger; Groß, Sonja M.; Malzbender, Jürgen; Pabst, Ulrich; Peksen, Murat; Peters, Roland; Vinke, Izaak C.

    Hermetic sealing is a key requirement for the operation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks in a system environment. The sealant material has to withstand stresses due to mechanical loading, mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient and thermal gradients that arise during operation. Based on leakage tests performed at Forschungszentrum Jülich it was obvious that stacks, having been operated successfully in a furnace, are not necessarily usable in a system, e.g. because of deviating pressure differences and temperature gradients. Thorough investigations including stack and stack dummy tests, and finite element modeling (FEM) were performed to get a comprehensive understanding of the various parameters, influencing the leak tightness of the sealing material. It was found that even small temperature differences especially in the area of gas and air manifolds can create excessively high tensile stresses. Based on initial FEM analyses, a better understanding of the problem has been obtained and a tool was developed that can assist in the design of more robust stacks. These investigations and modeling activities will be continued with a main focus on thermal cycling, which is the next step in the list of requirements.

  9. The role of composition and microstructure in Ni-W silicide formation and low temperature epitaxial NiSi2 growth by premixing Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrauwen, A.; Van Stiphout, K.; Demeulemeester, J.; De Schutter, B.; Devulder, W.; Comrie, C. M.; Detavernier, C.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on an extensive and detailed study of the silicide reaction of Ni-W alloys on Si(1 0 0). The solid phase reaction when studied over the full composition range reveals the substantial impact of composition and microstructure on the silicide reaction properties, such as the phase formation sequence and formation temperatures. It was found that the microstructure of the as-deposited film depends crucially on the alloy composition, being polycrystalline below 45 at.% W and amorphous above 45 at.% W. The microstructure affects the elemental mobility substantially, resulting in a drastic increase in the silicide reaction temperature in the case of an amorphous thin film. To further investigate the effect of elemental mobility, Si was premixed in the as-deposited alloy, thereby excluding the need for long-range diffusion. As a result, the silicide reaction temperatures were lowered. However, what was more striking was the observation of a bilayer structure for epitaxial NiSi2 in contact with the Si substrate and a W-rich layer residing at the outermost layer at a temperature of only 300 °C. The results stress the importance of the composition and crystalline nature of the as-deposited film, with these being decisive for the reaction sequence.

  10. Two-dimensional self-organization of an ordered Au silicide nanowire network on a Si(110)-16 x 2 surface.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ie-Hong; Yen, Shang-Chieh; Lin, Fu-Shiang

    2009-08-17

    A well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) network consisting of two crossed Au silicide nanowire (NW) arrays is self-organized on a Si(110)-16 x 2 surface by the direct-current heating of approximately 1.5 monolayers of Au on the surface at 1100 K. Such a highly regular crossbar nanomesh exhibits both a perfect long-range spatial order and a high integration density over a mesoscopic area, and these two self-ordering crossed arrays of parallel-aligned NWs have distinctly different sizes and conductivities. NWs are fabricated with widths and pitches as small as approximately 2 and approximately 5 nm, respectively. The difference in the conductivities of two crossed-NW arrays opens up the possibility for their utilization in nanodevices of crossbar architecture. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy studies show that the 2D self-organization of this perfect Au silicide nanomesh can be achieved through two different directional electromigrations of Au silicide NWs along different orientations of two nonorthogonal 16 x 2 domains, which are driven by the electrical field of direct-current heating. Prospects for this Au silicide nanomesh are also discussed.

  11. {sup 45}Sc Solid State NMR studies of the silicides ScTSi (T=Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt)

    SciTech Connect

    Harmening, Thomas; Eckert, Hellmut; Fehse, Constanze M.; Sebastian, C. Peter; Poettgen, Rainer

    2011-12-15

    The silicides ScTSi (T=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt) were synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The structures of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi were refined from single crystal diffractometer data. These silicides crystallize with the TiNiSi type, space group Pnma. No systematic influences of the {sup 45}Sc isotropic magnetic shift and nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling parameters on various structural distortion parameters calculated from the crystal structure data can be detected. {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR data suggest systematic trends in the local electronic structure probed by the scandium atoms: both the electric field gradients and the isotropic magnetic shifts relative to a 0.2 M aqueous Sc(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution decrease with increasing valence electron concentration and within each T group the isotropic magnetic shift decreases monotonically with increasing atomic number. The {sup 45}Sc nuclear electric quadrupolar coupling constants are generally well reproduced by quantum mechanical electric field gradient calculations using the WIEN2k code. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arc-melting synthesis of silicides ScTSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal X-ray data of ScCoSi, ScRuSi, ScPdSi, and ScIrSi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 45}Sc solid state NMR of silicides ScTSi.

  12. High-temperature thermochemistry of transition metal borides, silicides and related compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klemppa, Ole J.

    2000-10-01

    Earlier this year in collaboration with Dr. Susan V. Meschel we prepared a major review paper which gives a comprehensive summary of what our laboratory has accomplished with support from DOE. This paper is No.43 in the List of Publications provided. It was presented to TMS at its National Meeting in Nashville, TN last March. A copy of the manuscript of this paper was recently mailed to DOE. It has been submitted for publication in Journal of Alloys and Compounds. This review paper summarizes our observed trends in the enthalpies of formation of TR-X and RE-X compounds (where X is a IIIB or IVB element) in their dependence of the atomic number of the transition metal (TR) and the lanthanide metal (RE). In this paper our measured enthalpies of formation for each alloy family are compared for the 3d, 4d and 5d transition metal elements. We also compare our experimental results with predicted values based on Miedema's semi-empirical model. Data are presented for the carbides, silicides, germanides and stannides in Group IVB, and for the borides and aluminides in Group IIIB. During the past year (1999-2000) we have extended our work to compounds of the 3d, 4d and 5d elements with gallium (see papers No.40, No.41, and No.45 in the List of Publications). Fig. 1 (taken from No.45) presents a systematic picture of our experimental values for the most exothermic gallide compounds formed with the transition elements. This figure is characteristic of the other systematic pictures which we have found for the two other IIIB elements which we have studied and for the four IVB elements. These figures are all presented in Ref. No.43. This paper also illustrates how the enthalpy of formation of compounds of the IIIB and IVB elements with the lanthanide elements (with the exception of Pm, Eu and Yb) depend on the atomic number of RE. Finally our results for the RE-X compounds are compared with the predictions of Gschneidner (K.A. Gschneidner, Jr., J. Less Common Metals 17, 1

  13. Narrow bandgap semiconducting silicides: Intrinsic infrared detectors on a silicon chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Work done during the final report period is presented. The main technical objective was to achieve epitaxial growth on silicon of two semiconducting silicides, ReSi2 and CrSi2. ReSi2 thin films were grown on (001) silicon wafers by vacuum evaporation of rhenium onto hot substrates in ultrahigh vacuum. The preferred epitaxial relationship was found to be ReSi2(100)/Si(001) with ReSi2(010) parallel to Si(110). The lattice matching consists of a common unit mesh of 120 A(sup 2) area, and a mismatch of 1.8 percent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of rotation twins corresponding to two distinct but equivalent azimuthal orientations of the common unit mesh. MeV He(+) backscattering spectrometry revealed a minimum channeling yield of 2 percent for an approximately 1,500 A thick film grown at 650 C. Although the lateral dimension of the twins is on the order of 100 A, there is a very high degree of alignment between the ReSi2(100) and the Si(001) planes. Highly oriented films of CrSi2 were grown on (111) silicon substrates, with the matching crystallographic faces being CrSi2(001)/Si(111). The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of the films consist of sharp streaks, symmetrically arranged. The predominant azimuthal orientation of the films was determined to be CrSi2(210) parallel to Si(110). This highly desirable heteroepitaxial relationship has been obtained previously by others; it may be described with a common unit mesh of 51 A(sup 2) and mismatch of 0.3 percent. RHEED also revealed the presence of limited film regions of a competing azimuthal orientation, CrSi2(110) parallel to Si(110). A channeling effect for MeV He(+) ions was not found for this material. Potential commercial applications of this research may be found in silicon-integrated infrared detector arrays. Optical characterizations showed that semiconducting ReSi2 is a strong absorber of infrared radiation, with the adsorption constant increasing above 2 x

  14. Alternative Fuels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  15. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  16. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  17. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  18. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  19. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  20. The effect of post-treatment of a high-velocity oxy-fuel Ni-Cr-Mo-Si-B coating part 2: Erosion-corrosion behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, S.; Hodgkiess, T.; Neville, A.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a study of the erosion-corrosion characteristics of a Ni-Cr-Mo-Si-B coating applied by the high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process on to an austenitic stainless steel (UNS S31603) substrate are reported. The coatings were studied in the as-sprayed condition, after vacuum sealing with polymer impregnation and after vacuum furnace fusion. The erosion-corrosion characteristics were assessed in an impinging liquid jet of 3.5% NaCl solution at 18 °C at a velocity of 17 m/s at normal incidence in two conditions: (1) free from added solids and (2) containing 800 ppm silica sand. The methodology employed electrochemical control and monitoring to facilitate the identification of the separate and interrelated erosion and corrosion contributions to the erosion-corrosion process. The rates of erosion-corrosion damage were drastically accelerated in the presence of the suspended solids. The application of cathodic protection significantly reduced the deterioration process. The study showed the effect of sealing with polymer impregnation did not significantly alter the erosion-corrosion behavior of the sprayed coating. However, there was a significant improvement in erosion-corrosion durability afforded by the postfusion process. The mechanisms by which the improved performance of vacuum-fused coatings is achieved are discussed.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer on 316L stainless steel: Novel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahi, M.; Mahboubi, F.; Mousavi Khoie, S. M.; Aparicio, M.; Hübner, R.; Soldera, F.; Gago, R.

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient corrosion resistance and surface conductivity are two main issues that plague large-scale application of stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This study explores the use of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer coatings to improve the electrical and electrochemical performance of polished 316L SS bipolar plates. The multilayer coatings have been deposited by (reactive) magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of bare and coated substrates has been evaluated in simulated PEMFC working environments by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests at ambient temperature and 80 °C. The results show that the Ta/TaN multilayer coating increases the polarization resistance of 316L SS by about 30 and 104 times at ambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) shows a low value of 12 mΩ × cm2 before the potentiostatic test. This ICR is significantly lower than for the bare substrate and remains mostly unchanged after potentiostatic polarization for 14 h. In addition, the high contact angle (92°) with water for coated substrates indicates a hydrophobic character, which can improve the water management within the cell in PEMFC stacks.

  2. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Behavior of Nano-Boride Dispersed Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Hybrid High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying Laser Surface Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-07-01

    The current study concerns the detailed microstructural characterization and investigation of wear behavior of nano-boride dispersed coating developed on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray deposition of nickel-based alloy and subsequent laser melting. There is a significant refinement and homogenization of microstructure with improvement in microhardness due to laser surface melting (1200 VHN as compared to 945 VHN of as-sprayed and 250 VHN of as-received substrate). The high temperature phase stability of the as-coated and laser melted surface has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter followed by detailed phase analysis at room and elevated temperature. There is a significant improvement in wear resistance of laser melted surface as compared to as-sprayed and the as-received one due to increased hardness and reduced coefficient of friction. The mechanism of wear has been investigated in details. Corrosion resistance of the coating in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution is significantly improved (4.43 E-2 mm/year as compared to 5 E-1 mm/year of as-sprayed and 1.66 mm/year of as-received substrate) due to laser surface melting as compared to as-sprayed surface.

  3. Thermal evaluation of uranium silicide miniplates irradiated at high heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL)-1 irradiation experiment was conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to assess corrosion performance of proposed booster fuel at heat flux levels ~30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density (4.8 g U/cm3) U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 to 593 W/cm2. No adverse impacts to the miniplates were observed at these high heat flux levels. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective ATR south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant–hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average hydroxide thickness on each miniplate measured during post-irradiation examination. The purpose of this study was to obtain a best estimate of the as-run experiment temperatures to aid in establishing acceptable heat flux levels and designing fuel qualification experiments for this fuel type.

  4. Oxidation at through-hole defects in fused slurry silicide coated columbium alloys FS-85 and Cb-752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Metal recession and interstitial contamination at 0.08-centimeter-diameter through-hole intentional defects in fused slurry silicide coated FS-85 and Cb-752 columbium alloys were studied to determine the tolerance of these materials to coating defects. Five external pressure reentry simulation exposures to 1320 C and 4.7 x 1,000 N/sq m (maximum pressure) resulted in a consumed metal zone having about twice the initial defect diameter for both alloys with an interstitial contamination zone extending about three to four initial defect diameters. Self-healing occurred in the 1.33 x 10 N/sq m, 1320 C exposures and to a lesser extent in internal pressure reentry cycles to 1320 C and 1.33 x 100 N/sq m (maximum pressure).

  5. Theoretical investigation of superconductivity in ternary silicide NaAlSi with layered diamond-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütüncü, H. M.; Karaca, Ertuǧrul; Srivastava, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure, phonon modes and electron-phonon coupling to understand superconductivity in the ternary silicide NaAlSi with a layered diamond-like structure. Our electronic results, using the density functional theory within a generalized gradient approximation, indicate that the density of states at the Fermi level is mainly governed by Si p states. The largest contributions to the electron-phonon coupling parameter involve Si-related vibrations both in the x-y plane as well as along the z-axis in the x-z plane. Our results indicate that this material is an s-p electron superconductor with a medium level electron-phonon coupling parameter of 0.68. Using the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula we obtain the superconducting critical temperature of 6.98 K, in excellent agreement with experimentally determined value of 7 K.

  6. The dependence of room-temperature oxidation of silicon catalyzed by Cu3Si on the silicide grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. S.; Chen, L. J.

    1994-03-01

    The dependence of room-temperature oxidation of silicon catalyzed by Cu3Si on the silicide grain size has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The thickness of the SiO2 layer was found to decrease with the average grain size of the starting Cu3Si layer. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that oxidation is initiated at the grain boundaries. Oxide film as thick as 4.5 μm, compared to a previous record of about 2 μm, was grown at room temperature over a period of two weeks in (001) samples. The growth of thick oxide films was achieved by minimizing the grain size of Cu3Si through a reaction between Cu and an intermediate amorphous silicon layer at 200 °C.

  7. Reaction path and crystallograpy of cobalt silicide formation on silicon(001) by reaction deposition epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chong Wee

    CaF2-structure CoSi2 layers were formed on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and compared with CoSi2 layers obtained by conventional solid phase growth (SPG). In the case of RDE, CoSi 2 formation occurred during Co deposition at elevated temperature while for SPG, Co was deposited at 25°C and silicidation took place during subsequent annealing. My results demonstrate that RDE CoSi2 layers are epitaxial with a cube-on-cube relationship, 001CoSi2 ‖001Si and 100CoSi2 ‖100 Si . In contrast, SPG films are polycrystalline with a mixed 111/002/022/112 orientation. I attribute the striking difference to rapid Co diffusion during RDE for which the high Co/Si reactivity gives rise to a flux-limited reaction resulting in the direct formation of the disilicide phase. Initial formation of CoSi2(001) follows the Volmer-Weber mode with two families of island shapes: inverse pyramids and platelets. The rectangular-based pyramidal islands extend along orthogonal <110> directions, bounded by four {111} CoSi2/Si interfaces, and grow with a cube-on-cube orientation with respect to Si(001). Platelet-shaped islands are bounded across their long <110> directions by {111} twin planes and their narrow <110> directions by 511CoSi2 ‖111Si interfaces. The top and bottom surfaces are {22¯1}, with 22¯1 CoSi2‖001 Si , and {1¯1¯1}, with 1¯1¯ 1CoSi2‖ 11¯1Si , respectively. The early stages of film growth (tCo ≤ 13 A) are dominated by the twinned platelets due to a combination of higher nucleation rates and rapid elongation along preferred <110> directions. However, at tCo ≥ 13 A, island coalescence becomes significant as orthogonal platelets intersect and block elongation along fast growth directions. Further island growth becomes dominated by the untwinned islands. I show that high-flux low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation during RDE growth dramatically increases the area fraction of untwinned regions from 0.17 in films grown under standard magnetically balanced

  8. [Fire behavior of Quercus mongolica leaf litter fuelbed under zero-slope and no-wind conditions. II. Analysis and modelling of fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2013-12-01

    Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) is an important constructive and accompanying species in mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Northeast China, In this paper, a laboratory burning experiment was conducted under zero-slope and no-wind conditions to study the effects of fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness on the fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and combustion efficiency of the Mongolian oak leaf litter fuelbed. The fuel moisture content, loading, and thickness all had significant effects on the three fire behavior indices, and there existed interactions between these three affecting factors. Among the known models, the Byram model could be suitable for the prediction of local leaf litter fire intensity only after re-parameterization. The re-estimated alpha and beta parameters of the re-parameterized Byram model were 98.009 and 1.099, with an adjusted determination coefficient of 0.745, the rooted mean square error (RMSE) of 8.676 kW x m(-1), and the mean relative error (MRE) of 21%, respectively (R2 = 0.745). The re-estimated a and b by the burning efficiency method proposed by Albini were 0.069 and 0.169, and the re-estimated values were all higher than 93%, being mostly overestimated. The Consume model had a stronger suitability for the fuel. The R2 of the general linear models established for fireline intensity, fuel consumption, and burning efficiency was 0.82, 0.73 and 0.53, and the RMSE was 8.266 kW x m(-1) 0.081 kg x m(-2), and 0.203, respectively. In low intensity surface fires, the fine fuels could not be completely consumed, and thus, to consider the leaf litter and fine fuel in some forest ecosystems being completely consumed would overestimate the carbon release from forest fires.

  9. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  10. Modeling fuel succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Brett; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Beck, Jen; van Wagtendonk, Kent A.

    2009-01-01

    Surface fuels data are of critical importance for supporting fire incident management, risk assessment, and fuel management planning, but the development of surface fuels data can be expensive and time consuming. The data development process is extensive, generally beginning with acquisition of remotely sensed spatial data such as aerial photography or satellite imagery (Keane and others 2001). The spatial vegetation data are then crosswalked to a set of fire behavior fuel models that describe the available fuels (the burnable portions of the vegetation) (Anderson 1982, Scott and Burgan 2005). Finally, spatial fuels data are used as input to tools such as FARSITE and FlamMap to model current and potential fire spread and behavior (Finney 1998, Finney 2006). The capture date of the remotely sensed data defines the period for which the vegetation, and, therefore, fuels, data are most accurate. The more time that passes after the capture date, the less accurate the data become due to vegetation growth and processes such as fire. Subsequently, the results of any fire simulation based on these data become less accurate as the data age. Because of the amount of labor and expense required to develop these data, keeping them updated may prove to be a challenge. In this article, we describe the Sierra Nevada Fuel Succession Model, a modeling tool that can quickly and easily update surface fuel models with a minimum of additional input data. Although it was developed for use by Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon National Parks, it is applicable to much of the central and southern Sierra Nevada. Furthermore, the methods used to develop the model have national applicability.

  11. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  12. Nuclear fuels - Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D.

    2009-06-01

    The important developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of LWR fuels are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H 2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid-metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the very high temperature reactor and the sodium fast reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX+1a and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the fuel's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  13. Twisting phonons in complex crystals with quasi-one-dimensional substructures [Twisting Phonons in Higher Manganese Silicides with a Complex Nowotny Chimney Ladder Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, Douglas L.; Ma, Jie; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.; Chen, Xi; Weathers, Annie; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Shi, Li

    2015-04-15

    A variety of crystals contain quasi-one-dimensional substructures, which yield distinctive electronic, spintronic, optical and thermoelectric properties. There is a lack of understanding of the lattice dynamics that influences the properties of such complex crystals. Here we employ inelastic neutron scatting measurements and density functional theory calculations to show that numerous low-energy optical vibrational modes exist in higher manganese silicides, an example of such crystals. These optical modes, including unusually low-frequency twisting motions of the Si ladders inside the Mn chimneys, provide a large phase space for scattering acoustic phonons. A hybrid phonon and diffuson model is proposed to explain the low and anisotropic thermal conductivity of higher manganese silicides and to evaluate nanostructuring as an approach to further suppress the thermal conductivity and enhance the thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency. This discovery offers new insights into the structure-property relationships of a broad class of materials with quasi-one-dimensional substructures for various applications.

  14. Charge retention characteristics of silicide-induced crystallized polycrystalline silicon floating gate thin-film transistors for active matrix organic light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyo; Son, Se Wan; Byun, Chang Woo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Joo, So Na; Lee, Yong Woo; Yun, Seung Jae; Joo, Seung Ki

    2013-10-01

    In this work, non-volatile memory thin-film transistor (NVM-TFT) was fabricated by nickel silicide-induced laterally crystallized (SILC) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) as the active layer. The nickel seed silicide-induced crystallized (SIC) poly-Si was used as storage layer which is embedded in the gate insulator. The novel unit pixel of active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) using NVM-TFT is proposed and investigated the electrical and optical performance. The threshold voltage shift showed 17.2 V and the high reliability of retention characteristic was demonstrated until 10 years. The retention time can modulate the recharge refresh time of the unit pixel of AMOLED up to 5000 sec.

  15. Nitride Fuel Modeling Recommendation for Nitride Fuel Material Property Measurement Priority

    SciTech Connect

    William Carmack; Richard Moore

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this effort was to provide the basis for a model that effectively predicts nitride fuel behavior. Material property models developed for the uranium nitride fuel system have been used to approximate the general behavior of nitride fuels with specific property models for the transuranic nitride fuels utilized as they become available. The AFCI fuel development program now has the means for predicting the behavior of the transuranic nitride fuel compositions. The key data and models needed for input into this model include: Thermal conductivity with burnup Fuel expansion coefficient Fuel swelling with burnup Fission gas release with burnup. Although the fuel performance model is a fully functional FEA analysis tool, it is limited by the input data and models.

  16. Experimental and model analysis of the co-oxidative behavior of syngas feed in an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donazzi, A.; Rahmanipour, M.; Maestri, M.; Groppi, G.; Bardini, L.; Pappacena, A.; Boaro, M.

    2016-02-01

    By means of model analysis, we show that, in the presence of syngas, the electro-oxidation of H2 and that of CO occur in parallel and contemporarily on Samaria-doped Ceria (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9, SDC) Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFCs). The activation of a co-oxidative route is a most distinguishing feature of Ce-based cells, compared to traditional SOFCs. SDC electrolyte supported IT-SOFCs with Cu-Pd-CZ80 composite anodes and LSCF cathodes were tested under a wide range of operating conditions. Polarization and EIS measurements were collected at 600 °C and 650 °C with syngas mixtures (2.3-0.4H2/CO ratio), H2/N2 mixtures (from 97 to 30% H2 v/v) and CO/CO2 mixtures (from 97 to 50% CO v/v). A 1D, dynamic and heterogeneous model of the cell was applied to analyze the polarization and the EIS curves. The kinetics of the reactions of H2 electro-oxidation, CO electro-oxidation and O2 reduction were individually investigated and global power law rates were derived. The syngas experiments were simulated on a fully predictive basis and no parameter adjustment, confirming that the polarization behavior could be best reproduced exclusively by assuming the presence of the co-oxidative route. The IT-SOFCs were also exposed to biogas mixtures, revealing that the dry-reforming reaction was active.

  17. Magnetic properties of new ternary silicides: Tb/sub 2/Ir/sub 3/Si/sub 5/ and both polymorphic forms of TbIr/sub 2/Si/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hirjak, M.; Chevalier, B.; Etourneau, J.; Hayenmuller, P.

    1984-06-01

    A new ternary silicide Tb/sub 2/Ir/sub 3/Si/sub 5/ of U/sub 2/Co/sub 3/Si/sub 5/-type structure has been prepared as well as two polymorphic forms of TbIr/sub 2/Si/sub 2/. Both modifications are tetragonal; the low and high-temperature forms are isostructural with ThCr/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ and CaBe/sub 2/Ge/sub 2/, respectively. The three compounds order antiferromagnetically. A high Neel temperature is observed for the low-temperature modification (T /sub N/ = 80K, thetap = 42K). Its magnetic structure is similar to that of TbRh/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ for which ferromagnetic layers perpendicular to the c-axis are coupled antiferromagnetically (+-+-). Tb/sub 2/Ir/sub 3/Si/sub 5/ and the high-temperature modification of TbIr/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ have low T /sub N/ and thetap values. The difference observed in the magnetic behavior of these compounds is likely due to the influence of the environment of the Tb/sup 3 +/ ion on the state density at the Fermi level.

  18. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2016-07-12

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  19. Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2008-03-26

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  20. Fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, has supported and managed a fuel cell research and development (R and D) program since 1976. Responsibility for implementing DOE's fuel cell program, which includes activities related to both fuel cells and fuel cell systems, has been assigned to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The total United States effort of the private and public sectors in developing fuel cell technology is referred to as the National Fuel Cell Program (NFCP). The goal of the NFCP is to develop fuel cell power plants for base-load and dispersed electric utility systems, industrial cogeneration, and on-site applications. To achieve this goal, the fuel cell developers, electric and gas utilities, research institutes, and Government agencies are working together. Four organized groups are coordinating the diversified activities of the NFCP. The status of the overall program is reviewed in detail.

  1. Density functional theory calculations of defect and fission gas properties in U-Si fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David

    2016-02-03

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) are being developed in response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident in Japan. One of the options being pursued is U-Si fuels, such as the U3Si2 and U3Si5 compounds, which benefit from high thermal conductivity (metallic) compared to the UO2 fuel (insulator or semi-conductor) used in current Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The U-Si fuels also have higher fissile density. In order to perform meaningful engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations, the material properties of the fuel, including the response to irradiation environments, must be known. Unfortunately, the data available for U-Si fuels are rather limited, in particular for the temperature range where LWRs would operate. The ATF HIP is using multi-scale modeling and simulations to address this knowledge gap. The present study investigates point defect and fission gas properties in U3Si2, which is one of the main fuel candidates, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Based on a few assumption regarding entropy contributions, defect and fission diffusivities are predicted. Even though uranium silicides have been shown to amorphize easily at low temperature, we assume that U3Si2 remains crystalline under the conditions expected in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The temperature and dose where amorphization occurs has not yet been well established.

  2. Interaction transfer of silicon atoms forming Co silicide for Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) and related magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Fu, Tsu-Yi; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-05-07

    Combined scanning tunneling microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect studies were employed to study the microscopic structures and magnetic properties for ultrathin Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111). As the annealing temperature increases, the upward diffusion of Si atoms and formation of Co silicides occurs at temperature above 400 K. Below 600 K, the √(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) surface structure persists. We propose an interaction transferring mechanism of Si atoms across the √(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag layer. The upward transferred Si atoms react with Co atoms to form Co silicide. The step height across the edge of the island, a separation of 0.75 nm from the analysis of the 2 × 2 structure, and the calculations of the normalized Auger signal serve as strong evidences for the formation of CoSi{sub 2} at the interface. The interaction transferring mechanism for Si atoms enhances the possibility of interactions between Co and Si atoms. The smoothness of the surface is advantage for that the easy axis of magnetization for Co/√(3)×√(3)R30°-Ag/Si(111) is in the surface plane. This provides a possible way of growing flat magnetic layers on silicon substrate with controllable silicide formation and shows potential applications in spintronics devices.

  3. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A.

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  4. Future Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-04

    tactical ground mobility and increasing operational reach • Identify, review, and assess – Technologies for reducing fuel consumption, including...T I O N S A C T I O N S TOR Focus - Tactical ground mobility - Operational reach - Not A/C, Ships, or troops Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Management...Fuel Management During Combat Operations Energy Fundamentals • Energy Density • Tactical Mobility • Petroleum Use • Fuel Usage (TWV) • TWV OP TEMPO TOR

  5. Alternative fuels and vehicles choice model

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the theory and implementation of a model of alternative fuel and vehicle choice (AFVC), designed for use with the US Department of Energy`s Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). The AFTM is a static equilibrium model of the world supply and demand for liquid fuels, encompassing resource production, conversion processes, transportation, and consumption. The AFTM also includes fuel-switching behavior by incorporating multinomial logit-type equations for choice of alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuels. This allows the model to solve for market shares of vehicles and fuels, as well as for fuel prices and quantities. The AFVC model includes fuel-flexible, bi-fuel, and dedicated fuel vehicles. For multi-fuel vehicles, the choice of fuel is subsumed within the vehicle choice framework, resulting in a nested multinomial logit design. The nesting is shown to be required by the different price elasticities of fuel and vehicle choice. A unique feature of the AFVC is that its parameters are derived directly from the characteristics of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies, together with a few key assumptions about consumer behavior. This not only establishes a direct link between assumptions and model predictions, but facilitates sensitivity testing, as well. The implementation of the AFVC model as a spreadsheet is also described.

  6. Fossil Fuels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  7. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  8. Pd-substituted (La,Sr)CrO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ solid oxide fuel cell anodes exhibiting regenerative behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierschenk, David M.; Potter-Nelson, Elizabeth; Hoel, Cathleen; Liao, Yougui; Marks, Laurence; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Barnett, Scott A.

    2011-03-01

    Composite anodes consisting of Pd-substituted (La,Sr)CrO3-δ mixed with 50 wt% Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ were tested in La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ-electrolyte supported fuel cells at 800 °C with humidified H2 fuel. Low anode polarization resistance was observed during the first several hours of operation, explained by the nucleation of Pd nano-particles on perovskite particle surfaces. Anode performance then degraded gradually before stabilizing. Redox cycling repeatedly restored the anodes to their initial peak performance, followed again by degradation. This regenerative behavior was explained by the observation that the Pd nano-particles were removed by oxidation, and then re-nucleated upon reduction.

  9. Fuel plate stability experiments and analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Swinson, W.F.; Battiste, R.L.; Luttrell, C.R.; Yahr, G.T.

    1993-05-01

    The planned reactor for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) will use closely spaced arrays of involute-shaped fuel plates that will be cooled by water flowing through the channels between the plates. There is concern that at certain coolant flow velocities, adjacent plates may deflect and touch, with resulting failure of the plates. Experiments have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to examine this potential phenomenon. Results of the experiments and comparison with analytical predictions are reported. The tests were conducted using full-scale epoxy plate models of the aluminum/uranium silicide ANS involute-shaped fuel plates. Use of epoxy plates and model theory allowed lower flow velocities and pressures to explore the potential failure mechanism. Plate deflections and channel pressures as functions of the flow velocity are examined. Comparisons with mathematical models are noted.

  10. Disorder-Sensitive Superconductivity and Bonding Network in the Iron-Silicide Superconductor Lu2Fe3Si5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tadataka; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Takase, Kouichi; Takano, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Fumiko; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2010-03-01

    Iron silicide superconductor Lu2Fe3Si5 exhibits relatively high Tc = 6.0 K among Fe-based substances. Recent specific heat, penetration depth, and thermal conductivity measurements have provided evidences for the multigap superconductivity. We have studied non-magnetic and magnetic impurity effects on superconductivity in Lu2Fe3Si5 by investigating Tc variations in non-magnetic (Lu1-xScx)2Fe3Si5, (Lu1-xYx)2Fe3Si5 and magnetic (Lu1-xDyx)2Fe3Si5. Small amount of non-magnetic impurities (Sc and Y) on the Lu-site rapidly depresses Tc in accordance with the increase in the residual resistivity. Such a disorder-sensitive superconductivity strongly suggests the sign reversal of the superconducting order parameter. Lu2Fe3Si5 has a complicated crystal structure compared to other multigap superconductors such as MgB2 and iron pnictides. Thus it is important to map out the accurate bonding network in the crystal structure for the better understanding of the electronic structure. We have observed the charge density distribution of Lu2Fe3Si5 by analyzing the synchrotron radiation powder diffraction data using the maximum entropy method/Rietveld method.

  11. Convergent beam electron diffraction investigation of strain induced by Ti self-aligned silicides in shallow trench Si isolation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armigliato, Aldo; Spessot, Alessio; Balboni, Roberto; Benedetti, Alessandro; Carnevale, Gianpietro; Frabboni, Stefano; Mastracchio, Gianfranco; Pavia, Giuseppe

    2006-03-01

    The deformation induced onto silicon by the formation of Ti self-aligned silicides (salicides) in shallow trench isolation structures has been investigated by the convergent beam electron diffraction technique (CBED) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The splitting of the high order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines in the CBED patterns taken in TEM cross sections close to the salicide/silicon interface has been explained assuming that the salicide grains induce a local bending of the lattice planes of the underlying matrix. This bending, which affects in opposite sense the silicon areas below adjacent grains, decreases with the distance from the interface, eventually vanishing at a depth of 300-400 nm. The proposed strain field has been implemented into a fully dynamical simulation of the CBED patterns and has proved to be able to reproduce both the asymmetry of the HOLZ line splitting and the associated subsidiary fringes. This model is confirmed by the shift of a Bragg contour observed in large angle CBED patterns, taken in a cross section cut along a perpendicular direction. The whole experimental results cannot be explained by just a strain relaxation of the TEM cross section, induced by the salicide film onto the underlying silicon.

  12. Conversion and Evaluation of the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor From High-Enriched To Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leo M. Bobek

    2003-11-19

    The process for converting the University of Massachusetts Lowell Research Reactor (UMLRR) from high-enrichment uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel began in 1988. Several years of design reviews, computational modeling, and thermal hydraulic analyses resulted in a preliminary reference core design and configuration based on 20 standard, MTR-type, flat-plate, 19.75% enriched, uranium silicide (u3Si2) fuel elements. A final safety analysis for the fuel conversion was submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1993. The NRC made two additional requests for additional information and supplements were submitted in 1994 and 1997. The new UMLRR Reactor Supervisor initiated an effort to change the LEU reference core configuration to eliminate a complicated control rod modification needed for the smaller core.

  13. Fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaweski, E.F.; Niebylski, L.M.

    1986-08-05

    This patent describes distillate fuel for indirect injection compression ignition engines containing, in an amount sufficient to minimize coking, especially throttling nozzle coking in the prechambers or swirl chambers of indirect injection compression ignition engines operated on such fuel, at least the combination of (i) organic nitrate ignition accelerator and (ii) an esterified cycle dehydration product of sorbitol which, when added to the fuel in combination with the organic nitrate ignition accelerator minimizes the coking.

  14. Fuel cells 101

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the various types of fuel cells, the importance of cell voltage, fuel processing for natural gas, cell stacking, fuel cell plant description, advantages and disadvantages of the types of fuel cells, and applications. The types covered include: polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell; molten carbonate fuel cell, and solid oxide fuel cell.

  15. Fuel dehazers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Hazy fuels can be caused by the emulsification of water into the fuel during refining, blending, or transportation operations. Detergent additive packages used in gasoline tend to emulsify water into the fuel. Fuels containing water haze can cause corrosion and contamination, and support microbiological growth. This results in problems. As the result of these problems, refiners, marketers, and product pipeline companies customarily have haze specifications. The haze specification may be a specific maximum water content or simply ''bright and clear'' at a specified temperature.

  16. Motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, L.D.

    1982-07-13

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuel compositions are provided containing antiknock quantities of ashless antiknock agents comprising selected furyl compounds including furfuryl alcohol, furfuryl amine, furfuryl esters, and alkyl furoates.

  17. Alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a review, of the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and New Zealand, which have implemented programs to encourage the use of alternative motor fuels. It will also discuss the results of a separate completed review of the Department of Energy's (DOE) progress in implementing the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. The act calls for, among other things, the federal government to use alternative-fueled vehicles in its fleet. The Persian Gulf War, environmental concerns, and the administration's National Energy Strategy have greatly heightened interest in the use of alternative fuels in this country.

  18. A model for the influence of microstructure, precipitate pinning and fission gas behavior on irradiation-induced recrystallization of nuclear fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, J.

    2004-03-01

    Irradiation-induced recrystallization appears to be a general phenomenon in that it is observed to occur in a variety of nuclear fuel types, e.g. U-xMo, UO2, and U3O8. For temperatures below that where significant thermal annealing of defects occurs, an expression is derived for the fission density at which irradiation-induced recrystallization is initiated that is athermal and weakly dependent on fission rate. The initiation of recrystallization is to be distinguished from the subsequent progression and eventual consumption of the original fuel grain. The formulation takes into account the observed microstructural evolution of the fuel, the role of precipitate pinning and fission gas bubbles, and the triggering event for recrystallization. The calculated dislocation density, fission gas bubble-size distribution, and fission density at which recrystallization first appears are compared to measured quantities.

  19. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  20. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume