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Sample records for silicon sensitive region

  1. Giant Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity and Cryogenic Sensitivity in Silicon with Galvanically Displaced Gold Nanoparticles in Freeze-Out Region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Hwang, Seongpil; Jang, Jae-Won

    2017-02-28

    The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) and cryogenic sensitivity (Sv) of p-type silicon (p-Si) in the low-temperature region (10-30 K) are remarkably improved by increasing the coverage of galvanically displaced Au nanoparticles (NPs). By increase of the galvanic displacement time from 10 to 30 s, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the samples increases from 0.31 to 2.31 nm and the coverage rate of Au NPs increases from 3.1% to 21.9%. In the freeze-out region of the sample, an up to 103% increase of TCR and dramatically improved Sv of p-Si (∼5813%) are observed with Au coverage of 21.9% compared to p-Si without galvanically displaced Au NPs. By means of a finite element method (FEM) simulation study, it was found that the increase of surface roughness and a number of Au NPs on p-Si results in a higher temperature gradient and thermoelectric power to cause the unusual TCR and Sv values in the samples.

  2. Integrated X-ray and charged particle active pixel CMOS sensor arrays using an epitaxial silicon sensitive region

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Bichsel, Hans; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Rai, Gulshan; Retiere, Fabrice; Weiman, Howard; Yamamoto, Eugene

    2002-07-01

    Integrated CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) arrays have been fabricated and tested using X-ray and electron sources. The 128 by 128 pixel arrays, designed in a standard 0.25 micron process, use a {approx}10 micron epitaxial silicon layer as a deep detection region. The epitaxial layer has a much greater thickness than the surface features used by standard CMOS APS, leading to stronger signals and potentially better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). On the other hand, minority carriers confined within the epitaxial region may diffuse to neighboring pixels, blur images and reduce peak signal intensity. But for low-rate, sparse-event images, centroid analysis of this diffusion may be used to increase position resolution. Careful trade-offs involving pixel size and sense-node area verses capacitance must be made to optimize overall performance. The prototype sensor arrays, therefore, include a range of different pixel designs, including different APS circuits and a range of different epitaxial layer contact structures. The fabricated arrays were tested with 1.5 GeV electrons and Fe-55 X-ray sources, yielding a measured noise of 13 electrons RMS and an SNR for single Fe-55 X-rays of greater than 38.

  3. Bond Sensitivity to Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, G. A.; Hudson, W. D.; Hudson, W. D.; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Currently during fabrication of the Space Shuttle booster rocket motors, the use of silicone and silicone-containing products is prohibited in most applications. Many shop aids and other materials containing silicone have the potential, if they make contact with a bond surface, to transfer some of the silicone to the substrates being bonded. Such transfer could result in a reduction of the bond strength or even failure of the subsequent bonds. This concern is driving the need to understand the effect of silicones and the concentration needed to affect a given bond-line strength. Additionally, as silicone detection methods used for materials acceptance improve what may have gone unnoticed earlier is now being detected. Thus, realistic silicone limits for process materials (below which bond performance is satisfactory) are needed rather than having an absolute no silicone permitted policy.

  4. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  5. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  6. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  7. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  8. New pressure-sensitive silicone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiffer, J. L.; Stoops, W. E., Jr.; St. Clair, T. L.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.; Kelly, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Adhesive for high or low temperatures does not stretch severely under load. It is produced by combining intermediate-molecular-weight pressure sensitive adhesive which does not cure with silicone resin that cures with catalyst to rubbery tack-free state. Blend of silicone tackifier and cured rubbery silicone requires no solvents in either atmospheric or vacuum environments. Ratio of ingredients varies for different degrees of tack, creep resistance, and tensile strength.

  9. Design of a charge sensitive preamplifier on high resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Rescia, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Strueder, L.; Kemmer, J.

    1987-01-01

    A low noise, fast charge sensitive preamplifier was designed on high resistivity, detector grade silicon. It is built at the surface of a fully depleted region of n-type silicon. This allows the preamplifier to be placed very close to a detector anode. The preamplifier uses the classical input cascode configuration with a capacitor and a high value resistor in the feedback loop. The output stage of the preamplifier can drive a load up to 20pF. The power dissipation of the preamplifier is 13mW. The amplifying elements are ''Single Sided Gate JFETs'' developed especially for this application. Preamplifiers connected to a low capacitance anode of a drift type detector should achieve a rise time of 20ns and have an equivalent noise charge (ENC), after a suitable shaping, of less than 50 electrons. This performance translates to a position resolution better than 3..mu..m for silicon drift detectors. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Estrela, P.; Mo, Y.; Migliorato, P.; Maeda, H.; Inoue, S.; Shimoda, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report the operation of polycrystalline silicon ion sensitive field effect transistors. These devices can be fabricated on inexpensive disposable substrates such as glass or plastics and are, therefore, promising candidates for low cost single-use intelligent multisensors. In this work we have developed an extended gate structure with a Si3N4 sensing layer. Nearly ideal pH sensitivity (54mV /pH) and stable operation have been achieved. Temperature effects have been characterized. A penicillin sensor has been fabricated by functionalizing the sensing area with penicillinase. The sensitivity to penicillin G is about 10mV/mM, in solutions with concentration lower than the saturation value, which is about 7 mM.

  11. Shear sensitive silicon piezoresistive tactile sensor prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Beebe, David J.

    1998-09-01

    Shear sensing ability it important in many fields such as robotics, rehabilitation, teleoperation and human computer interfaces. A shear sensitive tactile sensor prototype is developed based on the principles of the piezoresistive effect in silicon, and using microfabrication technology. Analogous to the conventional silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor, piezoresistive resistors embedded in a silicon diaphragm are used to sense stress change. An additional mesa is fabricated on the top of the diaphragm and serves to transform an applied force to a stress. Both the shear and normal components of the force are resolved by measuring the resistance changes of the four resistors placed at the corners of a prism mesa. The prototype is tested both statically and dynamically when a spatial force of 0 - 300 gram is applied. Good linearity (R > 0.98) and high repeatability are observed. In this paper, the force sensing mechanism and force determination approach are described. The fabrication process is presented. The preliminary testing results are presented and discussed.

  12. Silicon/Porous Silicon Composite Membrane for High Sensitivity Pressure Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    new applications. In this project, we focus on the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of PS to improve the sensitivity of MEMS pressure sensors...electrochemical etching of silicon in HF based electrolyte and consists of silicon filaments and voids. It is not a new material and was discovered in ...of Porous Silicon (PS) in improving the sensitivity of Silicon based piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensors. Visible research output: 1. L. Sujatha

  13. Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.

    1994-01-01

    Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).

  14. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, Toke R.; Hansen, Ole; Olsen, Jakob L.; Vesborg, Peter; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2009-12-15

    A novel microfabricated chemical reactor for highly sensitive measurements of catalytic activity and surface kinetics is presented. The reactor is fabricated in a silicon chip and is intended for gas-phase reactions at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 bar. A high sensitivity is obtained by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally. A corresponding theoretical model is presented, and the gas flow through an on-chip flow-limiting capillary is predicted to be in the intermediate regime. The experimental data for the gas flow are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model. At typical experimental conditions, the total gas flow through the reaction zone is around 3x10{sup 14} molecules s{sup -1}, corresponding to a gas residence time in the reaction zone of about 11 s. To demonstrate the operation of the microreactor, CO oxidation on low-area platinum thin film circles is employed as a test reaction. Using temperature ramping, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 {mu}m{sup 2} are conveniently characterized with the device.

  15. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, Toke R.; Olsen, Jakob L.; Vesborg, Peter; Chorkendorff, Ib; Hansen, Ole

    2009-12-01

    A novel microfabricated chemical reactor for highly sensitive measurements of catalytic activity and surface kinetics is presented. The reactor is fabricated in a silicon chip and is intended for gas-phase reactions at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 bar. A high sensitivity is obtained by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally. A corresponding theoretical model is presented, and the gas flow through an on-chip flow-limiting capillary is predicted to be in the intermediate regime. The experimental data for the gas flow are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model. At typical experimental conditions, the total gas flow through the reaction zone is around 3×1014 molecules s-1, corresponding to a gas residence time in the reaction zone of about 11 s. To demonstrate the operation of the microreactor, CO oxidation on low-area platinum thin film circles is employed as a test reaction. Using temperature ramping, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 μm2 are conveniently characterized with the device.

  16. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  17. Porous silicon ring resonator for compact, high sensitivity biosensing applications

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A.; Hu, Shuren; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2015-01-01

    A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 μm. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

  18. Resistless lithography - selective etching of silicon with gallium doping regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, D.; Milovanov, R.; Zubov, D.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results for used of resistless lithography with a further reactive-ion etching (RIE) in various chemistry after local (Ga+) implantation of silicon with different doping dose and different size doped regions. We describe the different etching regimes for pattern transfer of FIB implanted Ga masks in silicon. The paper studied the influence of the implantation dose on the silicon surface, the masking effect and the mask resistance to erosion at dry etching. Based on these results we conclude about the possibility of using this method to create micro-and nanoscale silicon structures.

  19. Silicone rubber-coated highly sensitive optical fiber sensor for temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Vanita; Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    A silicone rubber-coated Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed and applied to temperature measurement. The MZI is fabricated by splicing single mode fiber between a short section of no-core fiber (NCF) and the ultra-abrupt taper region. The sensing length of MZI is coated with liquid silicone rubber to enhance the temperature sensitivity. Here, NCF is used to excite the higher order cladding mode, the ultra-abrupt taper region acts as a optical fiber coupler, and the silicone rubber coating on sensing length is used as solid cladding material instead of liquid. The enhancement of the sensitivity of a device is due to the high refractive index (1.42) and thermo-optic coefficient (-1.4×10-4/°C) of silicone rubber as compared to liquid cladding temperature sensors. The experiment was performed for both coated and uncoated MZI and the results were compared. The MZI exhibits a high temperature sensitivity of 253.75 and 121.26 pm/°C for coated and uncoated sensing probes, respectively, in the temperature range from 30°C to 75°C.

  20. Phase-sensitive amplification in silicon photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanbing; Husko, Chad; Schröder, Jochen; Lefrancois, Simon; Rey, Isabella H; Krauss, Thomas F; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2014-01-15

    We experimentally demonstrate phase-sensitive amplification in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide based on pump-degenerate four-wave mixing. An 11 dB phase-extinction ratio is obtained in a record compact 196 μm nanophotonic device due to broadband slow light, in spite of the presence of two-photon absorption and free carriers. Numerical calculations show good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Highly sensitive recognition element based on birefringent porous silicon layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, E.; Kovalev, D.; Künzner, N.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Diener, J.; Koch, F.

    2001-10-01

    Anisotropically nanostructured silicon layers exhibit a strong in-plane birefringence. Their optical anisotropy parameters are found to be extremely sensitive to the presence of dielectric substances inside of the pores. Polarization-resolved transmittance measurements provide an extremely sensitive tool to analyze the adsorption of various atoms and molecules in negligible quantities. A variation of the transmitted linearly polarized light intensity up to two orders of magnitude combined with a fast optical response in the range of seconds make these layers a good candidate for sensor applications.

  2. Broadband terahertz imaging with highly sensitive silicon CMOS detectors.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Franz; Coquillat, Dominique; Videlier, Hadley; Sakowicz, Maciej; Teppe, Frédéric; Dussopt, Laurent; Giffard, Benoît; Skotnicki, Thomas; Knap, Wojciech

    2011-04-11

    This paper investigates terahertz detectors fabricated in a low-cost 130 nm silicon CMOS technology. We show that the detectors consisting of a nMOS field effect transistor as rectifying element and an integrated bow-tie coupling antenna achieve a record responsivity above 5 kV/W and a noise equivalent power below 10 pW/Hz(0.5) in the important atmospheric window around 300 GHz and at room temperature. We demonstrate furthermore that the same detectors are efficient for imaging in a very wide frequency range from ~0.27 THz up to 1.05 THz. These results pave the way towards high sensitivity focal plane arrays in silicon for terahertz imaging.

  3. Silicon position sensitive detectors for the HELIOS (NA34) experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Beuttenmuller, R.; Bisi, V.; Chesi, E.; Di Nardo, R.P.; Esten, M.J.; Giubellino, P.; Kraner, H.W.; Ludlam, T.W.; Meddi, F.; Piuz, F.

    1986-03-01

    Silicon detectors having both ''pad'' and strip position sensitive configurations have been fabricated for the HELIOS experiment which requires an elaborate pulse height-dependent trigger as well as one dimensional silicon strip position sensing. The trigger detector is a 400 element, 30 mm diameter detector with readout connections from a ceramic overlay board. Tests with full prototype detectors have shown essentially 100% detection efficiency and excellent pulse height resolution well capable of delineating 0, 1 or 2 hits per pad. Strip detectors with 25 ..mu..m pitch and a varying readout pitch have been tested, which utilize both capacitive and resistive charge division. Techniques for realization of required interstrip resistors will be discussed and results which may compare these readout methods will be reported. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Silicon-naphthalo/phthalocyanine-hybrid sensitizer for efficient red response in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bogyu; Margulis, George Y; Yum, Jun-Ho; Unger, Eva L; Hardin, Brian E; Grätzel, Michael; McGehee, Michael D; Sellinger, Alan

    2013-02-15

    Introduction of a naphthalocyanine moiety to phthalocyanine allows for a gradual red shift of the absorption spectrum in the resulting chromophore. Using silicon as a core atom allows for the introduction of additional siloxane side chains which mitigate dye aggregation. A dye-sensitized solar cell with this hybrid sensitizer exhibits a broad and flat IPCE of 80% between 600 and 750 nm and high photocurrent densities of 19.0 mA/cm(2).

  5. Ion implantation reduces radiation sensitivity of metal oxide silicon /MOS/ devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Implanting nitrogen ions improves hardening of silicon oxides 30 percent to 60 percent against ionizing radiation effects. Process reduces sensitivity, but retains stability normally shown by interfaces between silicon and thermally grown oxides.

  6. Size-sensitive Young's modulus of kinked silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Zhao, Jun-Hua; Rabczuk, Timon

    2013-05-10

    We perform both classical molecular dynamics simulations and beam model calculations to investigate the Young's modulus of kinked silicon nanowires (KSiNWs). The Young's modulus is found to be highly sensitive to the arm length of the kink and is essentially inversely proportional to the arm length. The mechanism underlying the size dependence is found to be the interplay between the kink angle potential and the arm length potential, where we obtain an analytic relationship between the Young's modulus and the arm length of the KSiNW. Our results provide insight into the application of this novel building block in nanomechanical devices.

  7. A porous silicon optical microcavity for sensitive bacteria detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha; Huang, Jianfeng; Cai, Lintao

    2011-10-01

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSM) is highly sensitive to subtle interface changes due to its high surface area, capillary condensation ability and a narrow resonance peak (~10 nm). Based on the well-defined optical properties of a PSM, we successfully fabricated a bacteria detection chip for molecular or subcellular analysis by surface modification using undecylenic acid (UA), and the specific recognition binding of vancomycin to the D-alanyl-D-alanine of bacteria. The red shift of the PSM resonance peak showed a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 bacteria ml - 1 at the level of relative standard deviation of 0.994 and detection limit of 20 bacteria ml - 1. The resulting PSM sensors demonstrated high sensitivity, good reproducibility, fast response and low cost for biosensing.

  8. Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of erbium-doped silicon-rich silica samples containing different Si concentrations are studied. Intense photoluminescence (PL) from luminescence centers (LCs) and silicon nanoclusters (Si NCs), which evolves with annealing temperatures, is obtained. By modulating the silicon concentrations in samples, the main sensitizers of Er3+ ions can be tuned from Si NCs to LCs. Optimum Er3+ PL, with an enhancement of more than two, is obtained in the samples with a medium Si concentration, where the sensitization from Si NCs and LCs coexists. PMID:25258597

  9. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-01

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm2 at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  10. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Stephen Edward

    2000-02-15

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

  11. Highly sensitive and reproducible silicon-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors for real applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; He, Yao

    2016-08-15

    During the past few decades, thanks to silicon nanomaterials' outstanding electronic/optical/mechanical properties, large surface-to-volume ratio, abundant surface chemistry, facile tailorability and good compatibility with modern semiconductor industry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among these, two-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-modified silicon wafers and three-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-decorated SiNW arrays are of particular interest, and have been extensively exploited as promising silicon-based SERS-active substrates for the construction of high-performance SERS sensors. With an aim to retrospect these important and exciting achievements, we herein focus on reviewing recent representative studies on silicon-based SERS sensors for sensing applications from a broad perspective and possible future direction, promoting readers' awareness of these novel powerful silicon-based SERS sensing technologies. Firstly, we summarize the two unique merits of silicon-based SERS sensors, and those are high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Next, we present recent advances of two- and three-dimensional silicon-based SERS sensors, especially for real applications. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects for the development of silicon-based SERS sensors.

  12. Method of making selective crystalline silicon regions containing entrapped hydrogen by laser treatment

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1982-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystalline silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystalline silicon without out-gasing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semi-conductor devices such as single crystalline silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystalline silicon without hydrogen.

  13. Spectral sensitivity of graphene/silicon heterojunction photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazimehr, Sarah; Bablich, Andreas; Schneider, Daniel; Kataria, Satender; Passi, Vikram; Yim, Chanyoung; Duesberg, Georg S.; Lemme, Max C.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) Schottky photodiode heterojunctions made of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene on n- and p-type silicon (Si) substrates. Much better rectification behavior is observed from the diodes fabricated on n-Si substrates in comparison with the devices on p-Si substrates in dark condition. Also, graphene - n-Si photodiodes show a considerable responsivity of 270 mA W-1 within the silicon spectral range in DC reverse bias condition. The present results are furthermore compared with that of a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) - p-type silicon photodiode.

  14. Illumination-invariant face recognition with a contrast sensitive silicon retina

    SciTech Connect

    Buhmann, J.M.; Lades, M.; Eeckman, F.

    1993-11-29

    Changes in lighting conditions strongly effect the performance and reliability of computer vision systems. We report face recognition results under drastically changing lighting conditions for a computer vision system which concurrently uses a contrast sensitive silicon retina and a conventional, gain controlled CCD camera. For both input devices the face recognition system employs an elastic matching algorithm with wavelet based features to classify unknown faces. To assess the effect of analog on-chip preprocessing by the silicon retina the CCD images have been digitally preprocessed with a bandpass filter to adjust the power spectrum. The silicon retina with its ability to adjust sensitivity increases the recognition rate up to 50 percent. These comparative experiments demonstrate that preprocessing with an analog VLSI silicon retina generates image data enriched with object-constant features.

  15. All-silicon spherical-Mie-resonator photodiode with spectral response in the infrared region.

    PubMed

    Garín, M; Fenollosa, R; Alcubilla, R; Shi, L; Marsal, L F; Meseguer, F

    2014-03-10

    Silicon is the material of choice for visible light photodetection and solar cell fabrication. However, due to the intrinsic band gap properties of silicon, most infrared photons are energetically useless. Here, we show the first example of a photodiode developed on a micrometre scale sphere made of polycrystalline silicon whose photocurrent shows the Mie modes of a classical spherical resonator. The long dwell time of resonating photons enhances the photocurrent response, extending it into the infrared region well beyond the absorption edge of bulk silicon. It opens the door for developing solar cells and photodetectors that may harvest infrared light more efficiently than silicon photovoltaic devices that are so far developed.

  16. Porous silicon nanoparticles as sensitizers for ultrasonic hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Sviridov, A. P. Andreev, V. G.; Ivanova, E. M.; Osminkina, L. A.; Tamarov, K. P.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2013-11-04

    Aqueous suspensions of porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs) with average size ∼100 nm and concentration ∼1 g/L undergo significant heating as compared with pure water under therapeutic ultrasonic (US) irradiation with frequencies of 1–2.5 MHz and intensities of 1–20 W/cm{sup 2}. This effect is explained by taking into account the efficient absorption of US energy by NPs. The observed US-induced heating of biodegradable NPs is promising for applications in ultrasonic hyperthermia of tumors.

  17. The evolution of the fraction of Er ions sensitized by Si nanostructures in silicon-rich silicon oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Noé, P; Okuno, H; Jager, J-B; Delamadeleine, E; Demichel, O; Rouvière, J-L; Calvo, V; Maurizio, C; D'Acapito, F

    2009-09-02

    Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL experiments as a function of the elaboration process are performed on Er-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide (SRO:Er) thin films grown under NH(3) atmosphere. These PL measurements of the Er(3+) emission at 1.54 microm under non-resonant pumping with the Er f-f transitions are obtained for different Er(3+) concentrations, ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 at.%, and various post-growth annealing temperatures of the layers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) analysis show a high density of Si nanostructures composed of amorphous and crystalline nanoclusters varying from 2.7 x 10(18) to 10(18) cm(-3) as a function of the post-growth annealing temperature. Measurements of PL lifetime and effective Er excitation cross section for all the samples under non-resonant optical excitation with the Er(3+) atomic energy levels show that the number of Er(3+) ions sensitized by the silicon-rich matrix decreases as the annealing temperature is increased from 500 to 1050 degrees C. The origin of this effect is attributed to the reduction of the density of sensitizers for Er ions in the SRO matrix when the annealing temperature increases. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) shows a strong correlation between the number of emitters and the mean local order around the erbium ions.

  18. Silicon nanowire biologically sensitive field effect transistors: electrical characteristics and applications.

    PubMed

    Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Kim, Kihyun; Jeong, Yoon-Ha; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2014-01-01

    The interest in biologically sensitive field effect transistors (BioFETs) is growing explosively due to their potential as biosensors in biomedical, environmental monitoring and security applications. Recently, adoption of silicon nanowires in BioFETs has enabled enhancement of sensitivity, device miniaturization, decreasing power consumption and emerging applications such as the 3D cell probe. In this review, we describe the device physics and operation of the silicon nanowire BioFETs along with recent advances in the field. The silicon nanowire BioFETs are basically the same as the conventional field-effect transistors (FETs) with the exceptions of nanowire channel instead of thin film and a liquid gate instead of the conventional gate. Therefore, the silicon device physics is important to understand the operation of the BioFETs. Herein, physical characteristics of the silicon nanowire FETs are described and the operational principles of the BioFETs are classified according to the number of gates and the analysis domain of the measured signal. Even the bottom-up process has merits on low-cost fabrication; the top-down process technique is highlighted here due to its reliability and reproducibility. Finally, recent advances in the silicon nanowire BioFETs in the literature are described and key features for commercialization are discussed.

  19. Optimized sensitivity of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) strip waveguide resonator sensor

    PubMed Central

    TalebiFard, Sahba; Schmidt, Shon; Shi, Wei; Wu, WenXuan; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.; Kwok, Ezra; Ratner, Daniel M.; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Evanescent field sensors have shown promise for biological sensing applications. In particular, Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)-nano-photonic based resonator sensors have many advantages for lab-on-chip diagnostics, including high sensitivity for molecular detection and compatibility with CMOS foundries for high volume manufacturing. We have investigated the optimum design parameters within the fabrication constraints of Multi-Project Wafer (MPW) foundries that result in the highest sensitivity for a resonator sensor. We have demonstrated the optimum waveguide thickness needed to achieve the maximum bulk sensitivity with SOI-based resonator sensors to be 165 nm using the quasi-TM guided mode. The closest thickness offered by MPW foundry services is 150 nm. Therefore, resonators with 150 nm thick silicon waveguides were fabricated resulting in sensitivities as high as 270 nm/RIU, whereas a similar resonator sensor with a 220 nm thick waveguide demonstrated sensitivities of approximately 200 nm/RIU. PMID:28270963

  20. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2. PMID:27305974

  1. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-06-16

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2.

  2. Silicon nanowires for high-sensitivity glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yao, Hui; Tzang, Chi Hung; Zhu, Junjie; Yang, Mengsu; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2006-05-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated as supporting matrices for enzyme immobilization to construct glucose biosensors. Glucose oxidase was adsorbed onto SiNWs after different treatments, either as grown, HF etched, or carboxylic acid (COOH) functionalized. The amperometric biosensor with COOH-functionalized SiNWs performed the best with a detection limit of 0.01mM glucose (signal-to-noise ratio=3). For real-time detection of glucose, SiNW biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 0.1-15mM. This work demonstrates the utility of SiNWs as a biosensor component and provides a general method to modify the surface of semiconducting nanomaterials for potential biomedical applications.

  3. Method of making selective crystalline silicon regions containing entrapped hydrogen by laser treatment

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, J.I.; Wu, C.P.

    1982-03-30

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystalline silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystalline silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semi-conductor devices such as single crystalline silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystalline silicon without hydrogen. 2 figs.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators based on varying, one at a time, various fabrication-dependent parameters. These parameters include the waveguide widths, heights, and propagation losses. We show that it should be possible to design a device that meets typical commercial specifications while being tolerant to changes in these parameters.

  5. Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell with thin doped region adjacent metal Schottky barrier

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Wronski, Christopher R.

    1979-01-01

    A Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell incorporating a thin highly doped p-type region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed between a Schottky barrier high work function metal and the intrinsic region of hydrogenated amorphous silicon wherein said high work function metal and said thin highly doped p-type region forms a surface barrier junction with the intrinsic amorphous silicon layer. The thickness and concentration of p-type dopants in said p-type region are selected so that said p-type region is fully ionized by the Schottky barrier high work function metal. The thin highly doped p-type region has been found to increase the open circuit voltage and current of the photovoltaic device.

  6. Study on photon sensitivity of silicon diodes related to materials used for shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, T.

    1999-08-01

    Large area silicon diodes used in electronic neutron dosemeters have a significant over-response to X- and gamma-rays, highly non-linear at photon energies below 200 keV. This over-response to photons is proportional to the diode's active area and strongly affects the neutron sensitivity of such dosemeters. Since silicon diodes are sensitive to light and electromagnetic fields, most diode detector assemblies are provided with a shielding, sometimes also used as radiation filter. In this paper, the influence of materials covering the diode's active area is investigated using the MCNP-4A code by estimating the photon induced pulses in a typical silicon wafer (300 μm thickness and 1 cm diameter) when provided with a front case cover. There have been simulated small-size diode front covers made of several materials with low neutron interaction cross-sections like aluminium, TEFLON, iron and lead. The estimated number of induced pulses in the silicon wafer is calculated for each type of shielding at normal photon incidence for several photon energies from 9.8 keV up to 1.15 MeV and compared with that in a bare silicon wafer. The simulated pulse height spectra show the origin of the photon-induced pulses in silicon for each material used as protective cover: the photoelectric effect for low Z front case materials at low-energy incident photons (up to about 65 keV) and the Compton and build-up effects for high Z case materials at higher photon energies. A simple means to lower and flatten the photon response of silicon diodes over an extended X- and gamma rays energy range is proposed by designing a composed photon filter.

  7. Phase-sensitive silicon-based total internal reflection sensor.

    PubMed

    Patskovsky, S; Meunier, M; Kabashin, A V

    2007-09-17

    A concept of phase-sensitive Si-based Total Internal Reflection bio- and chemical sensor is presented. The sensor uses the reflection of light from an internal edge of a Si prism, which is in contact with analyte material changing its index of refraction (thickness). Changes of the refractive index are monitored by measuring the differential phase shift between p- and s-polarized components of light reflected from the system. We show that due to a high refractive index of Si, such methodology leads to a high sensitivity and dynamic range of measurements. Furthermore, the Si-based platform offers an easy bioimmobilization step and excellent opportunities for the development of multi-channel microsensors taking advantage of the advanced state of development of Si-based microfabrication technologies.

  8. Optical absorption enhancement with low structural-parameter sensitivity in three-dimensional silicon nanocavity array for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Ruinan; Hu, Ya; Peng, Kui-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Effective light trapping is essential for improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film silicon solar cells. Here, we numerically study the optical characteristics of periodic three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanocavity arrays. We found that the 3D silicon nanocavity array shows low sensitivity to geometric structural parameters for photon capture and achieves an outstanding efficiency superior to those of previously reported silicon nanostructures such as a nanowire and a nanohole with the same thickness. This excellence is attributed to a better antireflection capability and more resonant modes. The 3D silicon nanocavity array provides a new light-trapping strategy for thin-film photovoltaic devices.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the add-on price estimate for the silicon web growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The web growth process, a silicon-sheet technology option, developed for the flat plate solar array (FSA) project, was examined. Base case data for the technical and cost parameters for the technical and commercial readiness phase of the FSA project are projected. The process add on price, using the base case data for cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials and utilities, and the production parameters such as growth rate and run length, using a computer program developed specifically to do the sensitivity analysis with improved price estimation are analyzed. Silicon price, sheet thickness and cell efficiency are also discussed.

  10. Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T

    2012-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrated photonic crystal microcavity based resonant sensors coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in silicon nano-membrane on insulator for chemical and bio-sensing. Linear L-type microcavities are considered. In contrast to cavities with small mode volumes, but low quality factors for bio-sensing, we showed increasing the length of the microcavity enhances the quality factor of the resonance by an order of magnitude and increases the resonance wavelength shift while retaining compact device characteristics. Q~26760 and sensitivity down to 15 ng/ml and ~110 pg/mm2 in bio-sensing was experimentally demonstrated on silicon-on-insulator devices.

  11. Silicon nano-membrane based photonic crystal microcavities for high sensitivity bio-sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wei-Cheng; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated photonic crystal microcavity based resonant sensors coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in silicon nano-membrane on insulator for chemical and bio-sensing. Linear L-type microcavities are considered. In contrast to cavities with small mode volumes, but low quality factors for bio-sensing, we showed increasing the length of the microcavity enhances the quality factor of the resonance by an order of magnitude and increases the resonance wavelength shift while retaining compact device characteristics. Q~26760 and sensitivity down to 15 ng/ml and~110 pg/mm2 in bio-sensing was experimentally demonstrated on silicon-on-insulator devices. PMID:22466197

  12. Sensitivity analysis of add-on price estimate for select silicon wafering technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mokashi, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The cost of producing wafers from silicon ingots is a major component of the add-on price of silicon sheet. Economic analyses of the add-on price estimates and their sensitivity internal-diameter (ID) sawing, multiblade slurry (MBS) sawing and fixed-abrasive slicing technique (FAST) are presented. Interim price estimation guidelines (IPEG) are used for estimating a process add-on price. Sensitivity analysis of price is performed with respect to cost parameters such as equipment, space, direct labor, materials (blade life) and utilities, and the production parameters such as slicing rate, slices per centimeter and process yield, using a computer program specifically developed to do sensitivity analysis with IPEG. The results aid in identifying the important cost parameters and assist in deciding the direction of technology development efforts.

  13. Ammonia sensitivity of amorphous carbon film/silicon heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Xili; Xue Qingzhong; Hao Lanzhong; Zheng Qingbin; Li Qun

    2007-09-17

    The amorphous carbon film/n-Si (a-C/Si) junctions have been fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The results show that these junctions have good rectifying properties and high ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas sensitivity. For a given reverse bias voltage, the resistance of the junction can increase by 100 times rapidly when exposed to NH{sub 3} gas. This phenomenon may be attributed to the change of the space charge width of the junction, which is caused by the adsorption of NH{sub 3} gas molecules. This study shows that these a-C/Si junctions have potential application as NH{sub 3} gas detect sensors.

  14. Triplet excitons as sensitive spin probes for structure analysis of extended defects in microcrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Christoph; Teutloff, Christian; Behrends, Jan; Bittl, Robert; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Lips, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy is employed to study the influence of triplet excitons on the photocurrent in state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. These triplet excitons are used as sensitive spin probes for the investigation of their electronic and nuclear environment in this mixed-phase material. According to low-temperature EDMR results obtained from solar cells with different silicon that give rise to shallow states in the silicon band gap. The excitons possess a rather delocalized wave function, couple to electron spins in conduction band tail states nearby, and take part in a spin-dependent recombination process. Our study shows that extended defects such as grain boundaries or stacking faults in the crystalline part of the material act as charge carrier traps that can influence the material conductivity.

  15. Fabrication of carbon-coated silicon nanowires and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhee; Lim, Jeongmin; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hae-Seok; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-11-12

    We report the fabrication of silicon/carbon core/shell nanowire arrays using a two-step process, involving electroless metal deposition and chemical vapor deposition. In general, foreign shell materials that sheath core materials change the inherent characteristics of the core materials. The carbon coating functionalized the silicon nanowire arrays, which subsequently showed electrocatalytic activities for the reduction of iodide/triiodide. This was verified by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We employed the carbon-coated silicon nanowire arrays in dye-sensitized solar cells as counter electrodes. We optimized the carbon shells to maximize the photovoltaic performance of the resulting devices, and subsequently, a peak power conversion efficiency of 9.22% was achieved.

  16. International round-robin inter-comparison of dye-sensitized and crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Ahn, Seung Kyu; Aoki, Dasiuke; Kokubo, Junichi; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Saito, Hidenori; Lee, Kyung Sik; Magaino, Shinichi; Takagi, Katsuhiko; Lin, Ling-Chuan; Lee, Kun-Mu; Wu, Chun-Guey; Zhou, Hong; Igari, Sanekazu

    2017-02-01

    An international round-robin inter-comparison of the spectral responsivity (SR) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and crystalline silicon solar cells is reported for the first time. The crystalline silicon cells with various spectral responsivities were also calibrated by AIST to validate this round-robin activity. On the basis of the remarkable consistency in Pmax (within ±1.4% among participants) and Isc (within ±1.2% compared to the primary calibration of AIST) of the silicon specimens, the discrepancy in the SR and photovoltaic parameters of five DSCs among three national laboratories can be verified and diagnosed. Recommendations about sample packages, SR and I-V measurement methods as well as the inter-comparison protocol for improving the performance characterization of the mesoscopic DSCs are presented according to the consolidated data and the experience of the participants.

  17. SENSITIVITY OF ZOOPLANKTON INDICATORS IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes an approach for assessing and selecting ecological indicators for regional monitoring of northeastern US lakes. We analyze the components of variance for indicators of zooplankton richness and abundance in the context of the spatial and temporal sampling des...

  18. Sensitive temperature measurements based on Lorentzian and Fano resonance lineshapes of a silicon photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenyang; Fang, Liang; Yuan, Qinchen; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-10-01

    We report a high-performance photonic temperature sensor by exploiting a silicon photonic crystal (PC) cavity. Since the PC cavity's spectra are very sensitive to the refractive index change, we observe remarkable variations of its resonant wavelength and output power under varying temperature levels. In a PC cavity with Lorentzian resonance lineshape, the sensor exhibits a linear spectrum-sensitivity of 70 pm/°, and the power-variation presents a high sensitivity as 1.28 dB/°. In addition, the Fano resonance lineshape generated by the PC cavity has also been employed to measure the temperature, which shows improved power sensitivity as 2.94 dB/ °. The demonstrated PC cavity-based sensor offers great potentials for low-cost, high sensitivity homogeneous sensing in chip-integrated devices.

  19. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: New test and analysis of position-sensitive-silicon-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lang; Ge, Yu-Cheng; Wang, He; Fan, Feng-Ying; Qiao, Rui; Lu, Fei; Song, Yu-Shou; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Yan-Lin

    2009-01-01

    We have tested and analyzed the properties of two-dimensional Position-Sensitive-silicon-Detector (PSD) with new integrated preamplifiers. The test demonstrates that the best position resolution for 5.5 MeV α particles is 1.7 mm (FWHM), and the best energy resolution is 2.1%, which are notably better than the previously reported results. A scaling formula is introduced to make the absolute position calibration.

  20. Light Enhanced Hydrofluoric Acid Passivation: A Sensitive Technique for Detecting Bulk Silicon Defects.

    PubMed

    Grant, Nicholas E

    2016-01-04

    A procedure to measure the bulk lifetime (>100 µsec) of silicon wafers by temporarily attaining a very high level of surface passivation when immersing the wafers in hydrofluoric acid (HF) is presented. By this procedure three critical steps are required to attain the bulk lifetime. Firstly, prior to immersing silicon wafers into HF, they are chemically cleaned and subsequently etched in 25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Secondly, the chemically treated wafers are then placed into a large plastic container filled with a mixture of HF and hydrochloric acid, and then centered over an inductive coil for photoconductance (PC) measurements. Thirdly, to inhibit surface recombination and measure the bulk lifetime, the wafers are illuminated at 0.2 suns for 1 min using a halogen lamp, the illumination is switched off, and a PC measurement is immediately taken. By this procedure, the characteristics of bulk silicon defects can be accurately determined. Furthermore, it is anticipated that a sensitive RT surface passivation technique will be imperative for examining bulk silicon defects when their concentration is low (<10(12) cm(-3)).

  1. Regional Climate Model Sensitivity to Domain Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, M.; Laprise, R.

    2006-05-01

    Regional Climate Models are increasingly used to add small-scale features that are not present in their lateral boundary conditions (LBCs). It is well known that the limited area over which a model integrates must be large enough to allow the full development of small scales features (Jones et al., 1995). On the other hand, integrations on very large domains have shown important departures from the driving data, unless large-scale nudging is applied (e.g., Castro and Pielke, 2005). Here the effects of domain size on the development of small-scales are examined using the "Big-Brother" approach developed by Denis et al. (2002). This method consists of generating a high-resolution simulation over a large domain (the Big-Brother). The next step is to degrade this dataset with a low-pass filter based on discrete cosine transform (DCT; Denis et al., 2002) to emulate coarse-resolution LBCs that are usually taken from GCMs or reanalyses. A second simulation (the Little-Brother) is driven by the coarse-resolution LBCs and generates its own small-scale features inside the new smaller domain. Nested and added scales of the Little- Brother can then be compared with the Big-Brother (unfiltered) ones by using the DCT-filter again. Three February months (1990,1991 and 1992) were integrated over a continental grid (Big-Brother: 196x196 gridpoints) with a spatial resolution of 45 km covering almost the entire North-America. After filtering, this dataset is used to drive five simulations with varying domain size (48x48, 72x72, 96x96, 120x120 and 144x144) centred on the same geographic location; all other parameters are kept constant. Monthly statistics of the five Little-Brothers are compared with the virtual reference (Big-Brother) over the common domain (28x28) corresponding to the smallest Little-Brother but without its sponge zone. Results show that temporal correlation of large-scale events increases when the domain size is reduced from 144x144 to 48x48. For the same domain

  2. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  3. On the origin of increased sensitivity and mass resolution using silicon masks in MALDI.

    PubMed

    Diologent, Laurent; Franck, Julien; Wisztorski, Maxence; Treizebre, Anthony; Focsa, Cristian; Fournier, Isabelle; Ziskind, Michael

    2014-02-04

    Since its development, MALDI has proved its performance in the analysis of intact biomolecules up to high molecular weights, regardless of their polarity. Sensitivity of MALDI instruments is a key point for breaking the limits of observing biomolecules of lower abundances. Instrumentation is one way to improve sensitivity by increasing ion transmission and using more sensitive detection systems. On the other side, improving MALDI ion production yields would have important outcomes. MALDI ion production is still not well-controlled and, indeed, the amount of ions produced per laser shot with respect to the total volume of desorbed material is very low. This has particular implications for certain applications, such as MALDI MS imaging where laser beam focusing as fine as possible (5-10 μm) is searched in order to reach higher spatial resolution images. However, various studies point out an intrinsic decrease in signal intensity for strong focusing. We have therefore been interested in developing silicon mask systems to decrease an irradiated area by cutting rather than focusing the laser beam and to study the parameters affecting sensitivity using such systems. For this, we systematically examined variation with laser fluence of intensity and spectral resolution in MALDI of standard peptides when using silicon-etched masks of various aperture sizes. These studies demonstrate a simultaneous increase in spectral resolution and signal intensity. Origin of this effect is discussed in the frame of the two-step ionization model. Experimental data in the low fluence range are fitted with an increase of the primary ionization through matrix-silicon edge contact provided by the masks. On the other hand, behavior at higher fluence could be explained by an effect on the secondary ionization via changes in the plume dynamics.

  4. Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response.

    PubMed

    Densmore, A; Xu, D-X; Janz, S; Waldron, P; Mischki, T; Lopinski, G; Delâge, A; Lapointe, J; Cheben, P; Lamontagne, B; Schmid, J H

    2008-03-15

    We demonstrate a new silicon photonic wire waveguide evanescent field (PWEF) sensor that exploits the strong evanescent field of the transverse magnetic mode of this high-index-contrast, submicrometer-dimension waveguide. High sensitivity is achieved by using a 2 mm long double-spiral waveguide structure that fits within a compact circular area of 150 microm diameter, facilitating compatibility with commercial spotting apparatus and the fabrication of densely spaced sensor arrays. By incorporating the PWEF sensor element into a balanced waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer circuit, a minimum detectable mass of approximately 10 fg of streptavidin protein is demonstrated with near temperature-independent response.

  5. Light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in silicon, dye-sensitized and titania solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung Tran, Hong; Hieu Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2016-03-01

    The efficiency of a solar cell depends on both the quality of its semiconductor active layer, as well as on the presence of other dielectric and metallic structural components which improve light trapping and exploit plasmonic enhancement. The purpose of this work is to review the results of recent research on light trapping and plasmonic enhancement in three types of solar cells: thin-film silicon solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells and solid-state titania solar cells. The results of a study on modeling and the design of light trapping components in solar cells are also presented.

  6. High-sensitivity double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a two-dimensional double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator based neighboring hole radius modulation. By theoretical and experimental analyses, we confirmed that the quality factor (Q-factor) increases at a certain neighboring hole radius. Experimentally, we showed Q-factors of (1.93–2.02) × 105. Moreover, by using sucrose solution, we measured a sensitivity of 1571 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity ever reported for such a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based resonator type device. We reported the detection limit (DL) of the refractive index change of (4.15–4.34) × 10‑6 RIU, which is one of the best in previous reports.

  7. Highly sensitive optical biosensor based on silicon-microring-resonator-loaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishihara, Shintaro; Arakawa, Taro; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel biosensor based on a silicon-single-microring-resonator-loaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MRR-MZI), and discuss the design of the sensor theoretically. Owing to the combination of an MZI and the enhanced phase change in a microring resonator (MRR), high sensitivity is expected to be realized. The designed MRR-MZI sensor is fabricated using a CMOS-compatible process, and its sensing characteristics are measured using ethanol solutions with a concentration of less than 3 wt % and avidin solutions. The sensitivity of the MRR-MZI to changes in the environmental refractive index is increased by approximately 50 times compared with that of a simple MRR. In addition, avidin solution with a concentration as low as 20 pM was successfully detected.

  8. Ultra-sensitive silicon photonic current sensor using a ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bing; Zhao, Changyun; Wang, Gencheng; Dai, Tingge; Wang, Yuehai; Yang, Jianyi; Li, Yubo

    2016-08-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a compact and ultra-sensitive integrated photonic current sensor based on a silicon ring resonator in this paper. The current flowing through the integrated resistive TiN heater produces the Joule’s heat and changes the temperature, which results in the change of refractive index and physical dimensions of the ring. An optical spectrum analyzer is used to monitor the resonant wavelength shift of the ring. The experiment results show that the sensor achieves an ultra-high sensitivity of 6.8 × 104 nm A-2 and good linearity between real-time current and wavelength shift in the test range of 0-10 mA.

  9. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hai; Zou, Yi; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Yang, Chun-Ju; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Fan, Donglei; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-03-01

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  10. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Hai Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  11. Ultra-sensitive detection of adipocytokines with CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pui, Tze-Sian; Agarwal, Ajay; Ye, Feng; Tou, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Yinxi; Chen, Peng

    2009-09-01

    Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes.Perfectly aligned arrays of single-crystalline silicon nanowires were fabricated using top-down CMOS-compatible techniques. We demonstrate that these nanowire devices are able to detect adipocytokines secreted by adipose cells with femtomolar sensitivity, high specificity, wide detection range, and ability for parallel monitoring. The nanowire sensors also provide a novel tool to reveal the poorly understood signaling mechanisms of these newly recognized signaling molecules, as well as their relevance in common diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Process diagram of nanowire fabrication; specificity of nanowire detection; induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/b9nr00092e

  12. An improved method of energy calibration for position-sensitive silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Dao; Huang, Tian-Heng; Liu, Zhong; Ding, Bing; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Ma, Long; Yu, Lin; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Gan, Zai-Guo; Xiao-Hong, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors is achieved by parabolic fitting in the traditional method, where the systematic variations of vertex and curvature of the parabola with energy must be considered. In this paper we extend the traditional method in order to correct the fitting function, simplify the procedure of calibration and improve the experimental data quality. Instead of a parabolic function as used in the traditional method, a new function describing the relation of position and energy is introduced. The energy resolution of the 8.088 MeV α decay of 213Rn is determined to be about 87 keV (FWHM), which is better than the result of the traditional method, 104 keV (FWHM). The improved method can be applied to the energy calibration of resistive charge division-based position-sensitive silicon detectors with various performances. Supported by ‘100 Person Project’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405224 and 11435014)

  13. A sensitive charge scanning probe based on silicon single electron transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Su; Xinxing, Li; Hua, Qin; Xiaofeng, Gu

    2016-04-01

    Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be extremely sensitive electrometers owing to their high charge sensitivity. In this work, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a silicon-on-insulator-based SET scanning probe. The fabricated SET is located about 10 μm away from the probe tip. The SET with a quantum dot of about 70 nm in diameter exhibits an obvious Coulomb blockade effect measured at 4.1 K. The Coulomb blockade energy is about 18 meV, and the charge sensitivity is in the order of 10-5-10-3 e/Hz1/2. This SET scanning probe can be used to map charge distribution and sense dynamic charge fluctuation in nanodevices or circuits under test, realizing high sensitivity and high spatial resolution charge detection. Project supported by the Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. YZ201152), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11403084), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (Nos. JUSRP51510, JUDCF12032), and the Graduate Student Innovation Program for Universities of Jiangsu Province (No. CXLX12_0724).

  14. Sensitization to domestic mites in a cold temperate region.

    PubMed

    Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G; Korsgaard, J; Johansen, N

    1993-07-01

    Factors favoring sensitization to house dust mites (HDM) were studied in a cold, temperate climate in northern Sweden. Sixty-five children previously found to react positively to a skin prick test (SPT) to HDM were included. The SPT to HDM was repeated, and serum IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were determined. HDM, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus, or storage mites occurred in mattress dust samples from 23 of the 65 homes, and in 10 homes more than 100 HDM/g of mattress dust were found. Mites were more prevalent in mattress dust from the basement and ground levels than from the upper floors. Sensitization to HDM was strongly with the presence of domestic mites in mattress and floor dust. Previous longer stays in southern Sweden or Europe were also associated with present sensitization to HDM, and this was independent of occurrence of mites in the residence. The results indicate that HDM growth and potential for sensitization in cold, temperate regions is highly dependent on the microhabitat, and that sensitization to HDM should be possible to prevent in such climatic regions.

  15. Effect of Biointerfacing Linker Chemistries on the Sensitivity of Silicon Nanowires for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dorvel, Brian; Reddy, Bobby; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics show promise in removing reliance on centralized lab testing facilities, and may help increase both the survival rate for infectious diseases as well as monitoring of chronic illnesses. CMOS compatible diagnostic platforms are currently being considered possible solution as they can be easily miniaturized and can be cost-effective. Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires are a CMOS-compatible technology which have demonstrated high sensitivities in detecting biological analytes, such as proteins, DNA, and RNA. However, the reported response of nanowires to these analytes has varied widely since several different functionalization protocols have been attempted with little characterization and comparison. Here we report protocols for fabrication and functionalization of silicon nanowires which yield highly stable nanowires in aqueous solutions, and limits of detection to ~1pg/mL of the model protein used in the study. A thorough characterization was done into optimizing the release of the silicon nanowires using combined dry and wet etch techniques, which yielded nanowires that could be directly compared to increase output statistics. Moreover, a range of different linker chemistries were tried for reacting the primary antibody, and its response to target and non-specific antigens, with polyethylene glycol based linker BS(PEG)5 providing the best response. Consequently, this chemistry was used to characterize different oxide thicknesses and their responses to the mouse IgG antigen, which with the smallest oxide thickness yielded 0.1–1pg/mL limits of detection and a dynamic range over 3 orders of magnitude. PMID:24040958

  16. Self-aligned nanoforest in silicon nanowire for sensitive conductance modulation.

    PubMed

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Choi, Ji-Min; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-11-14

    A self-aligned and localized nanoforest structure is constructed in a top-down fabricated silicon nanowire (SiNW). The surface-to-volume ratio (SVR) of the SiNW is enhanced due to the local nanoforest formation. The conductance modulation property of the SiNWs, which is an important characteristic in sensor and charge transfer based applications, can be largely enhanced. For the selective modification of the channel region, localized Joule-heating and subsequent metal-assisted chemical etching (mac-etch) are employed. The nanoforest is formed only in the channel region without misalignment due to the self-aligned process of Joule-heating. The modified SiNW is applied to a porphyrin-silicon hybrid device to verify the enhanced conductance modulation. The charge transfer efficiency between the porphyrin and the SiNW, which is caused by external optical excitation, is clearly increased compared to the initial SiNW. The effect of the local nanoforest formation is enhanced when longer etching times and larger widths are used.

  17. Sensitivity to Orthographic Familiarity in the Occipito-Temporal Region

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Zumberge, Allison; Manis, Franklin R.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Goldman, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of the left hemisphere occipito-temporal (OT) junction in reading has been established, yet there is current controversy over the region’s specificity for reading and the nature of its role in the reading process. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity (Kronbichler et al., 2007), and the present study tested that hypothesis. Using fMRI, the OT region and other regions in the reading network were localized in 28 adult, right-handed participants. The BOLD signal in these regions was measured during a phonological judgment task (i.e., “Does it sound like a word?”). Stimuli included words, pseudohomophones (phonologically familiar yet orthographically unfamiliar), and pseudowords (phonologically and orthographically unfamiliar) that were matched on lexical properties including sublexical orthography. Relative to baseline, BOLD signal in the OT region was greater for pseudohomophones than for words, suggesting that the region is sensitive to orthographic familiarity at the whole-word level. Further contrasts of orthographic frequency within the word condition revealed increased BOLD signal for low- than high-frequency words. Specialization in the OT area for recognition of frequent letter strings may support the development of reading expertise. Additionally, BOLD signal in the OT region correlates positively with reading efficiency, supporting the idea that this region is a skill zone for reading printed words. BOLD signal in the IFG and STG correlate negatively with reading efficiency, indicating that processing effort in these classic phonological regions is inversely related to reading efficiency. PMID:18180168

  18. A silicon-based electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive, specific, label-free and real-time DNA detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Su, Shao; Wei, Xinpan; Zhong, Yiling; Su, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai; He, Yao

    2013-11-08

    We herein present a new kind of silicon-based electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticles-decorated silicon wafer (AuNPs@Si) as a high-performance electrode, which is facilely prepared via in situ AuNPs growth on a silicon wafer. Particularly significantly, the resultant electrochemical sensor is efficacious for label-free DNA detection with high sensitivity due to the unique merits of the prepared silicon-based electrode. Typically, DNA at remarkably low concentrations (1-10 fM) could be readily detected without requiring additional signal-amplification procedures, which is better than or comparable to the lowest DNA concentration ever detected via well-studied signal-amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors. Moreover, the silicon-based sensor features high specificity, allowing unambiguous discrimination of single-based mismatches. We further show that real-time DNA assembly is readily monitored via recording the intensity changes of current signals due to the robust thermal stability of the silicon-based electrode. The unprecedented advantages of the silicon-based electrochemical sensor would offer new opportunities for myriad sensing applications.

  19. Room temperature multiplexed gas sensing using chemical-sensitive 3.5-nm-thin silicon transistors

    PubMed Central

    Fahad, Hossain Mohammad; Shiraki, Hiroshi; Amani, Matin; Zhang, Chuchu; Hebbar, Vivek Srinivas; Gao, Wei; Ota, Hiroki; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Chen, Yu-Ze; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Javey, Ali

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in developing a low-power gas sensing technology that can sensitively and selectively quantify the chemical composition of a target atmosphere. Nanomaterials have emerged as extremely promising candidates for this technology due to their inherent low-dimensional nature and high surface-to-volume ratio. Among these, nanoscale silicon is of great interest because pristine silicon is largely inert on its own in the context of gas sensing, unless functionalized with an appropriate gas-sensitive material. We report a chemical-sensitive field-effect transistor (CS-FET) platform based on 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel transistors. Using industry-compatible processing techniques, the conventional electrically active gate stack is replaced by an ultrathin chemical-sensitive layer that is electrically nonconducting and coupled to the 3.5-nm-thin silicon channel. We demonstrate a low-power, sensitive, and selective multiplexed gas sensing technology using this platform by detecting H2S, H2, and NO2 at room temperature for environment, health, and safety in the oil and gas industry, offering significant advantages over existing technology. Moreover, the system described here can be readily integrated with mobile electronics for distributed sensor networks in environmental pollution mapping and personal air-quality monitors. PMID:28378017

  20. Magnetoresistive polyaniline-silicon carbide metacomposites: plasma frequency determination and high magnetic field sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbo; Guo, Jiang; Khan, Mojammel Alam; Young, David P; Shen, T D; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-07-20

    The Drude model modified by Debye relaxation time was introduced to determine the plasma frequency (ωp) in the surface initiated polymerization (SIP) synthesized β-silicon carbide (β-SiC)/polyaniline (PANI) metacomposites. The calculated plasma frequency for these metacomposites with different loadings of β-SiC nanoparticles was ranging from 6.11 × 10(4) to 1.53 × 10(5) rad s(-1). The relationship between the negative permittivity and plasma frequency indicates the existence of switching frequency, at which the permittivity was changed from negative to positive. More interestingly, the synthesized non-magnetic metacomposites, observed to follow the 3-dimensional (3-D) Mott variable range hopping (VRH) electrical conduction mechanism, demonstrated high positive magnetoresistance (MR) values of up to 57.48% and high MR sensitivity at low magnetic field regimes.

  1. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  2. Regional adaptation defines sensitivity to future ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Calosi, Piero; Melatunan, Sedercor; Turner, Lucy M.; Artioli, Yuri; Davidson, Robert L.; Byrne, Jonathan J.; Viant, Mark R.; Widdicombe, Stephen; Rundle, Simon D.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological responses to temperature are known to be a major determinant of species distributions and can dictate the sensitivity of populations to global warming. In contrast, little is known about how other major global change drivers, such as ocean acidification (OA), will shape species distributions in the future. Here, by integrating population genetics with experimental data for growth and mineralization, physiology and metabolomics, we demonstrate that the sensitivity of populations of the gastropod Littorina littorea to future OA is shaped by regional adaptation. Individuals from populations towards the edges of the natural latitudinal range in the Northeast Atlantic exhibit greater shell dissolution and the inability to upregulate their metabolism when exposed to low pH, thus appearing most sensitive to low seawater pH. Our results suggest that future levels of OA could mediate temperature-driven shifts in species distributions, thereby influencing future biogeography and the functioning of marine ecosystems. PMID:28067268

  3. Regional adaptation defines sensitivity to future ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Calosi, Piero; Melatunan, Sedercor; Turner, Lucy M; Artioli, Yuri; Davidson, Robert L; Byrne, Jonathan J; Viant, Mark R; Widdicombe, Stephen; Rundle, Simon D

    2017-01-09

    Physiological responses to temperature are known to be a major determinant of species distributions and can dictate the sensitivity of populations to global warming. In contrast, little is known about how other major global change drivers, such as ocean acidification (OA), will shape species distributions in the future. Here, by integrating population genetics with experimental data for growth and mineralization, physiology and metabolomics, we demonstrate that the sensitivity of populations of the gastropod Littorina littorea to future OA is shaped by regional adaptation. Individuals from populations towards the edges of the natural latitudinal range in the Northeast Atlantic exhibit greater shell dissolution and the inability to upregulate their metabolism when exposed to low pH, thus appearing most sensitive to low seawater pH. Our results suggest that future levels of OA could mediate temperature-driven shifts in species distributions, thereby influencing future biogeography and the functioning of marine ecosystems.

  4. 14C autoradiography with an energy-sensitive silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Mettivier, G; Russo, P

    2011-04-07

    The first performance tests are presented of a carbon-14 ((14)C) beta-particle digital autoradiography system with an energy-sensitive hybrid silicon pixel detector based on the Timepix readout circuit. Timepix was developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration and it is similar to the photon-counting Medipix2 circuit, except for an added time-based synchronization logic which allows derivation of energy information from the time-over-threshold signal. This feature permits direct energy measurements in each pixel of the detector array. Timepix is bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon detector with 256 × 256 pixels of 55 µm pitch. Since an energetic beta-particle could release its kinetic energy in more than one detector pixel as it slows down in the semiconductor detector, an off-line image analysis procedure was adopted in which the single-particle cluster of hit pixels is recognized; its total energy is calculated and the position of interaction on the detector surface is attributed to the centre of the charge cluster. Measurements reported are detector sensitivity, (4.11 ± 0.03) × 10(-3) cps mm(-2) kBq(-1) g, background level, (3.59 ± 0.01) × 10(-5) cps mm(-2), and minimum detectable activity, 0.0077 Bq. The spatial resolution is 76.9 µm full-width at half-maximum. These figures are compared with several digital imaging detectors for (14)C beta-particle digital autoradiography.

  5. Features of the electroluminescence spectra of quantum-confined silicon p{sup +}-n heterojunctions in the infrared spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Kuzmin, R. V. Malyarenko, A. M.; Mashkov, V. A.

    2013-11-15

    The results of studying the characteristics of optical emission in various regions of quantum-confined silicon p{sup +}-n heterojunctions heavily doped with boron are analyzed. The results obtained allow one to conclude that near-infrared electroluminescence arises near the heterointerface between the nanostructured wide-gap silicon p{sup +}-barrier heavily doped with boron and n-type silicon (100), the formation of which included the active involvement of boron dipole centers.

  6. Silicon microdosimetry.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Pola, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    Silicon detectors are being studied as microdosemeters since they can provide sensitive volumes of micrometric dimensions. They can be applied for assessing single-event effects in electronic instrumentation exposed to complex fields around high-energy accelerators or in space missions. When coupled to tissue-equivalent converters, they can be used for measuring the quality of radiation therapy beams or for dosimetry. The use of micrometric volumes avoids the contribution of wall effects to the measured spectra. Further advantages of such detectors are their compactness, cheapness, transportability and a low sensitivity to vibrations. The following problems need to be solved when silicon devices are used for microdosimetry: (i) the sensitive volume has to be confined in a region of well-known dimensions; (ii) the electric noise limits the minimum detectable energy; (iii) corrections for tissue-equivalency should be made; (iv) corrections for shape equivalency should be made when referring to a spherical simulated site of tissue; (v) the angular response should be evaluated carefully; (vi) the efficiency of a single detector of micrometric dimensions is very poor and detector arrays should be considered. Several devices have been proposed as silicon microdosemeters, based on different technologies (telescope detectors, silicon on insulator detectors and arrays of cylindrical p-n junctions with internal amplification), in order to satisfy the issues mentioned above.

  7. Current economic and sensitivity analysis for ID slicing of 4 inch and 6 inch diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. G.; Johnson, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The economics and sensitivities of slicing large diameter silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications were examined. Current economics and slicing add on cost sensitivities are calculated using variable parameters for blade life, slicing yield, and slice cutting speed. It is indicated that cutting speed has the biggest impact on slicing add on cost, followed by slicing yield, and by blade life as the blade life increases.

  8. Experimental study of thermodynamic surface characteristics and pH sensitivity of silicon dioxide and silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, H; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2010-05-18

    In this report, we have introduced a revision of the chemical treatment influence on the surface thermodynamic properties of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) and silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) solid thin layers. Some characterization techniques might be used to quantify the thermodynamic properties of solid surface and predict its ability in the adhesion phenomenon. In this work, we have used static and dynamic contact angle (CA) measurements to characterize both dioxide solid surfaces being treated by using the two procedures of cleaning and chemical activation. Qualitative and quantitative concepts of analysis, using the Van Oss approach, are based on the determination of dioxide surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic features and the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, acid, base, and Lewis acid-base surface tension components. Electrochemical capacitance-potential measurements were carried out to study the reactivity of both silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces for pH variation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of these insulators was examined by using the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was concluded that CA technique can be used as a suitable and base method for the understanding of surface wettability and for the control of surface wetting behavior.

  9. Nanostructured silicon based thin film transistors processed in the plasma dark region.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L; Aguas, H; Gomes, L; Barquinha, P; Fortunato, E; Martins, R

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructured silicon (na-Si:H) thin films were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique under high silane hydrogen dilution and a discharge frequency of 27 MHz, where the substrate was located in the dark region of the plasma, protected by a grounded metal grid. By not exposing the growth surface directly to the plasma we avoid the silicon growth surface to sustain a high ion bombardment leading to a less defective surface and highly compact films. The intrinsic films grown under these conditions were used to produce the channel region of thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom gate staggered configuration, integrating different dielectric layers. The devices produced exhibit a field effect mobility close to 1.84 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), threshold voltage around 2 V, on/off ratio above 10(7) and sub-threshold slope below 0.5 V/decade, depending on the dielectric used.

  10. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s-1 using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  11. Strain rate sensitivity of the tensile strength of two silicon carbides: experimental evidence and micromechanical modelling.

    PubMed

    Zinszner, Jean-Luc; Erzar, Benjamin; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-28

    Ceramic materials are commonly used to design multi-layer armour systems thanks to their favourable physical and mechanical properties. However, during an impact event, fragmentation of the ceramic plate inevitably occurs due to its inherent brittleness under tensile loading. Consequently, an accurate model of the fragmentation process is necessary in order to achieve an optimum design for a desired armour configuration. In this work, shockless spalling tests have been performed on two silicon carbide grades at strain rates ranging from 10(3) to 10(4) s(-1) using a high-pulsed power generator. These spalling tests characterize the tensile strength strain rate sensitivity of each ceramic grade. The microstructural properties of the ceramics appear to play an important role on the strain rate sensitivity and on the dynamic tensile strength. Moreover, this experimental configuration allows for recovering damaged, but unbroken specimens, giving unique insight on the fragmentation process initiated in the ceramics. All the collected data have been compared with corresponding results of numerical simulations performed using the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. Good agreement is observed between numerical simulations and experimental data in terms of free surface velocity, size and location of the damaged zones along with crack density in these damaged zones.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  12. Sensitivity of regional climate to global temperature and forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, Claudia; O'Neill, Brian; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of regional climate to global average radiative forcing and temperature change is important for setting global climate policy targets and designing scenarios. Setting effective policy targets requires an understanding of the consequences exceeding them, even by small amounts, and the effective design of sets of scenarios requires the knowledge of how different emissions, concentrations, or forcing need to be in order to produce substantial differences in climate outcomes. Using an extensive database of climate model simulations, we quantify how differences in global average quantities relate to differences in both the spatial extent and magnitude of climate outcomes at regional (250-1250 km) scales. We show that differences of about 0.3 °C in global average temperature are required to generate statistically significant changes in regional annual average temperature over more than half of the Earth’s land surface. A global difference of 0.8 °C is necessary to produce regional warming over half the land surface that is not only significant but reaches at least 1 °C. As much as 2.5 to 3 °C is required for a statistically significant change in regional annual average precipitation that is equally pervasive. Global average temperature change provides a better metric than radiative forcing for indicating differences in regional climate outcomes due to the path dependency of the effects of radiative forcing. For example, a difference in radiative forcing of 0.5 W m-2 can produce statistically significant differences in regional temperature over an area that ranges between 30% and 85% of the land surface, depending on the forcing pathway.

  13. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  14. Adjoint modeling for atmospheric pollution process sensitivity at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, Laurent

    2003-09-01

    During the summer 1998, a strong pollution event was documented over Paris as part of the Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF) project (second intensive observation period (IOP2)). From 7 to 9 August 1998 the pollution event changes from a well-marked ozone plume issued from Paris to a more general pollution over the whole Ile-de-France region. Using a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model and its adjoint part, the sensitivity of ozone, Ox, and NOx peaks to model parameters is investigated. For two locations, Paris and a suburban site, the influence of both meteorological and chemical model parameters on the simulated field concentrations is hourly quantified for each day. Processes leading to a urban polluted event are compared. It is shown that the pollutant concentrations are mainly driven by traffic and solvent surface emissions and meteorological parameters such as temperature. Since the adjoint approach is limited to infinitesimal model perturbation, some scenario simulations are carried out to evaluate the linearity of the impact of the most sensitive parameters within the uncertainty range. It is shown that the sensitivities determined from the adjoint approach can be extrapolated until their uncertainty ranges except for the wind speed.

  15. High Sensitivity and High Detection Specificity of Gold-Nanoparticle-Grafted Nanostructured Silicon Mass Spectrometry for Glucose Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) is a high-performance matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method that involves using silicon nanostructures as a matrix for MS desorption/ionization. In this study, gold nanoparticles grafted onto a nanostructured silicon (AuNPs-nSi) surface were demonstrated as a DIOS-MS analysis approach with high sensitivity and high detection specificity for glucose detection. A glucose sample deposited on the AuNPs-nSi surface was directly catalyzed to negatively charged gluconic acid molecules on a single AuNPs-nSi chip for MS analysis. The AuNPs-nSi surface was fabricated using two electroless deposition steps and one electroless etching step. The effects of the electroless fabrication parameters on the glucose detection efficiency were evaluated. Practical application of AuNPs-nSi MS glucose analysis in urine samples was also demonstrated in this study.

  16. High-conductivity silicon based spectrally selective plasmonic surfaces for sensing in the infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgulu, K.; Gok, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic perfect absorbers have found a wide range of applications in imaging, sensing, and light harvesting and emitting devices. Traditionally, metals are used to implement plasmonic structures. For sensing applications, it is desirable to integrate nanophotonic active surfaces with biasing and amplification circuitry to achieve monolithic low cost solutions. Commonly used plasmonic metals such as Au and Ag are not compatible with standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we demonstrate plasmonic perfect absorbers based on high conductivity silicon. Standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching techniques were used for the patterning of the samples. We present computational and experimental results of surface plasmon resonances excited on a silicon surface at normal and oblique incidences. We experimentally demonstrate our absorbers as ultra-low cost, CMOS-compatible and efficient refractive index sensing surfaces. The experimental results reveal that the structure exhibits a sensitivity of around 11 000 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of up to 2.5. We also show that the sensing performance of the structure can be improved by increasing doping density.

  17. Bare and boron-doped cubic silicon carbide nanowires for electrochemical detection of nitrite sensitively

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liqin; Hou, Xinmei; Chen, Junhong; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of eletrochemical sensors based on wide bandgap compound semiconductors has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Here we report for the first time electrochemical nitrite sensors based on cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) with smooth surface and boron-doped cubic SiC NWs with fin-like structure. Multiple techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to characterize SiC and boron-doped SiC NWs. As for the electrochemical behavior of both SiC NWs electrode, the cyclic voltammetric results show that both SiC electrodes exhibit wide potential window and excellent electrocatalytic activity toward nitrite oxidation. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) determination reveals that there exists a good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and the concentration in the range of 50–15000 μmoL L−1 (cubic SiC NWs) and 5–8000 μmoL L−1 (B-doped cubic SiC NWs) with the detection limitation of 5 and 0.5 μmoL L−1 respectively. Compared with previously reported results, both as-prepared nitrite sensors exhibit wider linear response range with comparable high sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility. PMID:27109361

  18. Bare and boron-doped cubic silicon carbide nanowires for electrochemical detection of nitrite sensitively.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liqin; Hou, Xinmei; Chen, Junhong; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-04-25

    Fabrication of eletrochemical sensors based on wide bandgap compound semiconductors has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Here we report for the first time electrochemical nitrite sensors based on cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) with smooth surface and boron-doped cubic SiC NWs with fin-like structure. Multiple techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to characterize SiC and boron-doped SiC NWs. As for the electrochemical behavior of both SiC NWs electrode, the cyclic voltammetric results show that both SiC electrodes exhibit wide potential window and excellent electrocatalytic activity toward nitrite oxidation. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) determination reveals that there exists a good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and the concentration in the range of 50-15000 μmoL L(-1) (cubic SiC NWs) and 5-8000 μmoL L(-1) (B-doped cubic SiC NWs) with the detection limitation of 5 and 0.5 μmoL L(-1) respectively. Compared with previously reported results, both as-prepared nitrite sensors exhibit wider linear response range with comparable high sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility.

  19. Imaging neuronal seal resistance on silicon chip using fluorescent voltage-sensitive dye.

    PubMed

    Braun, Dieter; Fromherz, Peter

    2004-08-01

    The electrical sheet resistance between living cells grown on planar electronic contacts of semiconductors or metals is a crucial parameter for bioelectronic devices. It determines the strength of electrical signal transduction from cells to chips and from chips to cells. We measured the sheet resistance by applying AC voltage to oxidized silicon chips and by imaging the voltage change across the attached cell membrane with a fluorescent voltage-sensitive dye. The phase map of voltage change was fitted with a planar core-coat conductor model using the sheet resistance as a free parameter. For nerve cells from rat brain on polylysine as well as for HEK293 cells and MDCK cells on fibronectin we find a similar sheet resistance of 10 MOmega. Taking into account the independently measured distance of 50 nm between chip and membrane for these cells, we obtain a specific resistance of 50 Omegacm that is indistinguishable from bulk electrolyte. On the other hand, the sheet resistance for erythrocytes on polylysine is far higher, at approximately 1.5 GOmega. Considering the distance of 10 nm, the specific resistance in the narrow cleft is enhanced to 1500 Omegacm. We find this novel optical method to be a convenient tool to optimize the interface between cells and chips for bioelectronic devices.

  20. Bare and boron-doped cubic silicon carbide nanowires for electrochemical detection of nitrite sensitively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liqin; Hou, Xinmei; Chen, Junhong; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication of eletrochemical sensors based on wide bandgap compound semiconductors has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Here we report for the first time electrochemical nitrite sensors based on cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) with smooth surface and boron-doped cubic SiC NWs with fin-like structure. Multiple techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to characterize SiC and boron-doped SiC NWs. As for the electrochemical behavior of both SiC NWs electrode, the cyclic voltammetric results show that both SiC electrodes exhibit wide potential window and excellent electrocatalytic activity toward nitrite oxidation. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) determination reveals that there exists a good linear relationship between the oxidation peak current and the concentration in the range of 50-15000 μmoL L-1 (cubic SiC NWs) and 5-8000 μmoL L-1 (B-doped cubic SiC NWs) with the detection limitation of 5 and 0.5 μmoL L-1 respectively. Compared with previously reported results, both as-prepared nitrite sensors exhibit wider linear response range with comparable high sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility.

  1. Uncooled Infrared Microbolometers and Silicon Germanium Oxide (SixGe1-xOy) Infrared Sensitive Material for Long Wavelength Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-10

    Aberle, Crystalline silicon solar cells : advanced surface passivation and analysis / Armin G. Aberle. Sydney :: Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering...Report 15-May-2009- 14-Jan-2013 4. 1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACT NUMBER Final Report: Uncooled Infi-ared Microbolometers and Silicon W911NF-09-l-0158...This report presents a detailed characterization of infrared sensitive silicon gennanium oxide (SixGeyO 1-x-y) thin films. The results demonstrated

  2. Sensitization of the Nociceptive System in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichs, Carolina; Baron, Ralf; Gierthmühlen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is characterized by sensory, motor and autonomic abnormalities without electrophysiological evidence of a nerve lesion. Objective Aims were to investigate how sensory, autonomic and motor function change in the course of the disease. Methods 19 CRPS-I patients (17 with acute, 2 with chronic CRPS, mean duration of disease 5.7±8.3, range 1–33 months) were examined with questionnaires (LANSS, NPS, MPI, Quick DASH, multiple choice list of descriptors for sensory, motor, autonomic symptoms), motor and autonomic tests as well as quantitative sensory testing according to the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain at two visits (baseline and 36±10.6, range 16–53 months later). Results CRPS-I patients had an improvement of sudomotor and vasomotor function, but still a great impairment of sensory and motor function upon follow-up. Although pain and mechanical detection improved upon follow-up, thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity increased, including the contralateral side. Increase in mechanical pain sensitivity and loss of mechanical detection were associated with presence of ongoing pain. Conclusions The results demonstrate that patients with CRPS-I show a sensitization of the nociceptive system in the course of the disease, for which ongoing pain seems to be the most important trigger. They further suggest that measured loss of function in CRPS-I is due to pain-induced hypoesthesia rather than a minimal nerve lesion. In conclusion, this article gives evidence for a pronociceptive pain modulation profile developing in the course of CRPS and thus helps to assess underlying mechanisms of CRPS that contribute to the maintenance of patients’ pain and disability. PMID:27149519

  3. Optical and photoelectric- and gas-sensitive properties of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyntyna, Valentin A.; Vashpanov, Yurij A.

    1998-04-01

    The photoelectronic properties of samples of porous silicon received by method of anodic electrochemical etching of monocrystalline silicon in electrolytes on the base of hydrofluoric acid are investigated. Wide spectral photosensitivity from infra-red to ultraviolet of spectrum area on series of received structures is found out. The physical mechanism of photosensitivity is discussed. The electronic parameters of porous silicon samples under gas adsorption were investigated. It was opend that the ammonia adsorption changes electrical conductivity of porous silicon samples on constant and variable current of measurement. In microporous asymmetrical structures we observed electromotive force on contacts under ammonia adsorption. The physical mechanism of adsorption of ammonia is connected with interaction dipolar molecules ammonia with double electric layer on surface of porous silicon.

  4. Direct detection of transcription factors in cotyledons during seedling development using sensitive silicon-substrate photonic crystal protein arrays.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah I; Tan, Yafang; Shamimuzzaman, Md; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T; Vodkin, Lila

    2015-03-01

    Transcription factors control important gene networks, altering the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those of agronomic importance, despite often being expressed at low levels. Detecting transcription factor proteins is difficult, because current high-throughput methods may not be sensitive enough. One-dimensional, silicon-substrate photonic crystal (PC) arrays provide an alternative substrate for printing multiplexed protein microarrays that have greater sensitivity through an increased signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescent signal compared with performing the same assay upon a traditional aminosilanized glass surface. As a model system to test proof of concept of the silicon-substrate PC arrays to directly detect rare proteins in crude plant extracts, we selected representatives of four different transcription factor families (zinc finger GATA, basic helix-loop-helix, BTF3/NAC [for basic transcription factor of the NAC family], and YABBY) that have increasing transcript levels during the stages of seedling cotyledon development. Antibodies to synthetic peptides representing the transcription factors were printed on both glass slides and silicon-substrate PC slides along with antibodies to abundant cotyledon proteins, seed lectin, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The silicon-substrate PC arrays proved more sensitive than those performed on glass slides, detecting rare proteins that were below background on the glass slides. The zinc finger transcription factor was detected on the PC arrays in crude extracts of all stages of the seedling cotyledons, whereas YABBY seemed to be at the lower limit of their sensitivity. Interestingly, the basic helix-loop-helix and NAC proteins showed developmental profiles consistent with their transcript patterns, indicating proof of concept for detecting these low-abundance proteins in crude extracts.

  5. Sensitivity of Regional Climate to Deforestation in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.; Bras, Rafael L.

    1994-01-01

    The deforestation results in several adverse effect on the natural environment. The focus of this paper is on the effects of deforestation on land-surface processes and regional climate of the Amazon basin. In general, the effect of deforestation on climate are likely to depend on the scale of the defrosted area. In this study, we are interested in the effects due to deforestation of areas with a scale of about 250 km. Hence, a meso-scale climate model is used in performing numerical experiments on the sensitivity of regional climate to deforestation of areas with that size. It is found that deforestation results in less net surface radiation, less evaporation, less rainfall, and warmer surface temperature. The magnitude of the of the change in temperature is of the order 0.5 C, the magnitudes of the changes in the other variables are of the order of IO%. In order to verify some of he results of the numerical experiments, the model simulations of net surface radiation are compared to recent observations of net radiation over cleared and undisturbed forest in the Amazon. The results of the model and the observations agree in the following conclusion: the difference in net surface radiation between cleared and undisturbed forest is, almost, equally partioned between net solar radiation and net long-wave radiation. This finding contributes to our understanding of the basic physics in the deforestation problem.

  6. Formation, characterization, and flow dynamics of nanostructure modified sensitive and selective gas sensors based on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Serdar

    Nanopore covered microporous silicon interfaces have been formed via an electrochemical etch for gas sensor applications. Rapid reversible and sensitive gas sensors have been fabricated. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are utilized in the process. A nano-pore coated micro-porous silicon surface is modified selectively for sub-ppm detection of NH3, PH3 , NO, H2S, SO2. The selective depositions include electrolessly generated SnO2, CuxO, Au xO, NiO, and nanoparticles such as TiO2, MgO doped TiO 2, Al2O3, and ZrO2. Flow dynamics are analyzed via numerical simulations and response data. An array of sensors is formed to analyze mixed gas response. A general coating selection method for chemical sensors is established via an extrapolation on the inverse of the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept. In Chapter 1, the current state of the porous silicon gas sensor research is reviewed. Since metal oxide thin films, and, recently, nanowires are dominantly used for sensing application, the general properties of metal oxides are also discussed in this chapter. This chapter is concluded with a discussion about commercial gas sensors and the advantages of using porous silicon as a sensing material. The PS review discussed at the beginning of this chapter is an overview of the following publication: (1) "The Potential of Porous Silicon Gas Sensors", Serdar Ozdemir, James L. Gole, Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 11, 92-100 (2007). In Chapter 2, porous silicon formation is explained in detail. Interesting results of various silicon anodization experiments are discussed. In the second part of this chapter, the microfabrication process of porous silicon conductometric gas sensors and gas testing set up are briefly introduced. In chapter 3, metal oxide nanoparticle/nanocluster formation and characterization experiments via SEM and XPS analysis are discussed. Chapter 4 is an overview of the test results for various concentrations NH3, NO, NO2 and PH3. The

  7. Regional Sensitivity to Neuroinflammation: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Liraz-Zaltsman, S.; Biegon, A.; Liraz-Zaltsman, S.; Alexandrovich, A.G.; Trembovler, V.; Fishbein, I.; Yaka, R.; Shohami, E.; Biegon, A.

    2010-11-23

    Neuroinflammation is involved in several acute-onset neuropathologies such as meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, and traumatic brain injury as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. All of these patholologies are associated with cognitive deficits. Using a model of pure neuroinflammation (intracisternal injection of endotoxin in mice), we tested the hypothesis that brain regions involved in cognition are the most vulnerable to inflammatory insults, and this vulnerability is an inherent property of neocortical neurons. Mice (n = 10/group) injected with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in the cisterna magna underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing followed by quantitative autoradiographic assessment of regional neuroinflammation with [3H]PK11195, an established marker of microgliosis. In parallel, cocultures of cortical and striatal neurons taken from embryonic day 19 rat embryos or postnatal day 1 mice expressing green fluorescent protein were exposed for 24 h to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha, glutamate, or a combination of the two agents. LPS-treated mice exhibited significant deficits in memory and significant increases in specific PK11195 binding in cortical and hippocampal regions, but not in striatum. Cultured neurons of cortical origin showed significantly lower survival rate relative to striatal neurons in response to TNFalpha, glutamate, or a combination of the two agents. Furthermore, TNFalpha exerted neuroprotective rather than neurotoxic effects in the striatal but not in the cortical neurons. These results suggest that the cortex is inherently more sensitive than the striatum to the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation, and may offer an explanation for the preponderance of cognitive deficits in neuropathologies with a neuroinflammatory component.

  8. Microglial brain region-dependent diversity and selective regional sensitivities to ageing

    PubMed Central

    Grabert, Kathleen; Michoel, Tom; Karavolos, Michail H; Clohisey, Sara; Baillie, J Kenneth; Stevens, Mark P; Freeman, Tom C; Summers, Kim M; McColl, Barry W

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play critical roles in neural development, homeostasis and neuroinflammation and are increasingly implicated in age-related neurological dysfunction. Neurodegeneration often occurs in disease-specific spatially-restricted patterns, the origins of which are unknown. We performed the first genome-wide analysis of microglia from discrete brain regions across the adult lifespan of the mouse and reveal that microglia have distinct region-dependent transcriptional identities and age in a regionally variable manner. In the young adult brain, differences in bioenergetic and immunoregulatory pathways were the major sources of heterogeneity and suggested that cerebellar and hippocampal microglia exist in a more immune vigilant state. Immune function correlated with regional transcriptional patterns. Augmentation of the distinct cerebellar immunophenotype and a contrasting loss in distinction of the hippocampal phenotype among forebrain regions were key features during ageing. Microglial diversity may enable regionally localised homeostatic functions but could also underlie region-specific sensitivities to microglial dysregulation and involvement in age-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26780511

  9. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimley, Brian; Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong; Vetter, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  10. High-sensitive computed tomography system using a silicon-PIN x-ray diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2012-10-01

    A low-dose-rate X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for reducing absorbed dose for patients. The CT system with a tube current of 1.91 mA was developed using a silicon-PIN X-ray diode (Si-PIN-XD). The Si-PIN-XD is a selected high-sensitive Si-PIN photodiode (PD) for detecting X-ray photons. X-ray photons are detected directly using the Si-PIN-XD without a scintillator, and the photocurrent from the diode is amplified using current-voltage and voltage-voltage amplifiers. The output voltage is converted into logical pulses using a voltage-frequency converter with maximum frequency of 500 kHz, and the frequency is proportional to the voltage. The pulses from the converter are sent to differentiator with a time constant of 1 μs to generate short positive pulses for counting, and the pulses are counted using a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The exposure time for obtaining a tomogram was 5 min at a scan step of 0.5 mm and a rotation step of 3.0°. The tube current and voltage were 1.91 mA and 100 kV, respectively, and gadolinium K-edge CT was carried out using filtered X-ray spectra with a peak energy of 52 keV.

  11. Silicon nanowire-based molecular beacons for high-sensitivity and sequence-specific DNA multiplexed analysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Shao; Wei, Xinpan; Zhong, Yiling; Guo, Yuanyuan; Su, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Fan, Chunhai; He, Yao

    2012-03-27

    Nanomaterial-based molecular beacons (nanoMBs) have been extensively explored due to unique merits of nanostructures, including gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-, carbon nanotube (CNT)-, and graphene-based nanoMBs. Those nanoMBs are well-studied; however, they possess relatively poor salt stability or low specificity, limiting their wide applications. Here, we present a novel kind of multicolor silicon-based nanoMBs by using AuNP-decorated silicon nanowires as high-performance quenchers. Significantly, the nanoMBs feature robust stability in high-concentration (0.1 M) salt solution and wide-ranging temperature (10-80 °C), high quenching efficiency (>90%) for various fluorophores (e.g., FAM, Cy5, and ROX), and large surfaces for simultaneous assembly of different DNA strands. We further show that silicon-based nanoMBs are highly effective for sensitive and specific multidetection of DNA targets. The unprecedented advantages of silicon-based multicolor nanoMBs would bring new opportunities for challenging bioapplications, such as allele discrimination, early cancer diagnosis, and molecular engineering, etc.

  12. Network Sensitivity Solutions for Regional Moment Tensor Inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Dreger, D S; Walter, W R

    2009-06-05

    Well-resolved moment tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. Here we introduce a new way of assessing confidence in the regional full moment tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type region for a given set of stations, and with it one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source-types with the best-fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit where the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion since the data contains some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviatoric source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. The earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (M{sub W}4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  13. Absence of skin sensitivity to oxides of aluminium, silicon, titanium or zirconium in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J C; Halpern, S; Lowe, D G; Forbes, A; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some metallic compounds, especially of zirconium, can cause cell mediated granulomatous inflammation of the skin. Pigment granules containing compounds of aluminium, silicon, and titanium have been observed within macrophages in the wall of the small intestine in health and in Crohn's disease. Zirconium compounds can be ingested in toothpaste. AIM: To determine in a pilot study if granulomatous sensitivity can be detected to compounds of these metals or silicon after injection into the skin of patients with Crohn's disease. SUBJECTS: Eight patients with Crohn's disease known to have had granulomata in the intestine and not currently treated with corticosteroids, and two healthy controls. METHOD: Two intradermal injections each of 0.1 ml of a 0.02% suspension of one of the compounds made in the abdominal wall of each subject. The site was marked and full thickness skin biopsy performed six weeks later. RESULT: A foreign body granuloma was observed on histological examination of two biopsy specimens but no evidence of a cell mediated response in any subject. CONCLUSION: No support was found for the hypothesis that Crohn's disease is due to a specific sensitivity to ingested metallic or silicon compounds. PMID:8977338

  14. Influence of the base region on the performance of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, J.M.; Cid, M.; Cuevas, A.

    1984-05-01

    The short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor and conversion efficiency of silicon p/sup +/nn/sup +/ and n/sup +/pp/sup +/ BSF solar cells as functions of base doping and irradiance are analysed by means of a new theoretical model which is valid for any injection level in the base region. Some peculiar phenomena such as the superlinearity of the uncompensated photocurrent with irradiance and the degradation of the short-circuit current and of the efficiency at very high irradiances are clearly explained by the model and shown to be related to the ohmic electric field in the base region. Evidence of a systematic error in common spectral response measurements with white bias light is also given. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of high base resistivity high-efficiency solar cells especially of the p/sup +/nn/sup +/ type.

  15. The observation of damage regions produced by neutron irradiation in lithium-doped silicon solar cells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, S.; Sargent, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Study regions of lattice disorder produced in lithium-doped float-zone melted n/p-type silicon solar cells by irradiation with monoenergetic neutrons at doses between 10 to the 10th and 10 to the 13th per cu cm. The defect regions were revealed by chemically etching the surface of the solar cells and by observing carbon replicas in an electron microscope. It was found that the defect density increased with increasing irradiation dose and increased lithium content, whereas the average defect diameter was found to decrease. From thermal annealing experiments it was found that in the lithium-doped material the defect structure was stable at temperatures between 300 and 1200 K. This was found to be in contrast to the undoped material where at the lowest doses considerable annealing was observed to occur. These results are discussed in terms of the theoretical predictions and models of defect clusters proposed by Gossick (1959) and Crawford and Cleland (1959).

  16. Network sensitivity solutions for regional moment-tensor inversions

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.

    2010-09-20

    Well-resolved moment-tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. In this paper,we introduce a newly of assessing confidence in the regional full moment-tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example, an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-type distribution for a given set of stations; and with it, one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source types with the best fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit in which the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion because the data contain some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviator source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. As a result, the earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (Mw 4.1) is dominantly explosion.

  17. Network sensitivity solutions for regional moment-tensor inversions

    DOE PAGES

    Ford, Sean R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Walter, William R.

    2010-09-20

    Well-resolved moment-tensor solutions reveal information about the sources of seismic waves. In this paper,we introduce a newly of assessing confidence in the regional full moment-tensor inversion via the introduction of the network sensitivity solution (NSS). The NSS takes into account the unique station distribution, frequency band, and signal-to-noise ratio of a given event scenario. The NSS compares both a hypothetical pure source (for example, an explosion or an earthquake) and the actual data with several thousand sets of synthetic data from a uniform distribution of all possible sources. The comparison with a hypothetical pure source provides the theoretically best-constrained source-typemore » distribution for a given set of stations; and with it, one can determine whether further analysis with the data is warranted. The NSS that employs the actual data gives a direct comparison of all other source types with the best fit source. In this way, one can choose a threshold level of fit in which the solution is comfortably constrained. The method is tested for the well-recorded nuclear test, JUNCTION, at the Nevada Test Site. Sources that fit comparably well to a hypothetical pure explosion recorded with no noise at the JUNCTION data stations have a large volumetric component and are not described well by a double-couple (DC) source. The NSS using the real data from JUNCTION is even more tightly constrained to an explosion because the data contain some energy that precludes fitting with any type of deviator source. We also calculate the NSS for the October 2006 North Korea test and a nearby earthquake, where the station coverage is poor and the event magnitude is small. As a result, the earthquake solution is very well fit by a DC source, and the best-fit solution to the nuclear test (Mw 4.1) is dominantly explosion.« less

  18. Design and fabrication of silicon-based linear polarizer with multilayer nanogratings operating in infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu; Hu, Jingpei; Cao, Bing; Wang, Miao; Wang, Chinhua

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a silicon-based linear polarizer with multilayer nanogratings working in 3 to 5 μm of an infrared region. A dielectric grating is first fabricated in a low-refractive index thin layer on a Si-substrate and then double-layer metallic gratings are formed by evaporating a metallic film onto the dielectric grating. With the designed structure of multilayer nanogratings coupled with a low-refractive-index dielectric layer on the high-refractive index silicon substrate, both high transverse magnetic transmission (TMT) and high extinction ratio (ER) can be effectively achieved across 3- to 5-μm range in the infrared band without the complicated metallic ion etching process that is required in conventional nanowire grids. An ER of 40 dB and TMT of averagely higher than 80% were obtained experimentally from a linear polarizer with a multilayer grating of 280-nm period. The Si-based multilayer grating structure shows possibilities of implementing polarization in a fashion of relatively easy-fabrication, semiconductor process compatible, and high performance.

  19. Radiation sensitivity of silicon imaging sensors on missions to the outer planets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, G. J.; Cope, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the results of an investigation of the magnitude of the degradation effects of radiation on the operating characteristics of camera tubes using silicon diode arrays in the space environment, and discussion of the radiation damage mechanisms concerned. The effects produced by bombardment of bare-silicon-diode arrays or vidicon tubes with 85-kV X rays, Cobalt 60 gamma rays, 1 MeV and 11 MeV electrons, 3 MeV and 142 MeV protons, and reactor neutrons are presented. Interference effects produced by radiation bombardment during operation of television tubes are investigated, and limiting fluxes of electrons and protons are given.

  20. Sputtering of silicon and its compounds in the electronic stopping region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Griffith, J. E.; Meng, W. J.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride have been sputtered with chlorine ions at 5 MeV and 20 MeV. While the yield from the silicon target was unmeasurably low, the insulating compounds exhibited the enhanced yields observed in other insulating targets. The yield follows the electronic stopping power and seems to be independent of the target's thermal properties. Some of the data suggest that the enhanced sputtering mechanism may be active in extremely thin films (not less than 3 monolayers).

  1. Silicon-based antenna-coupled polarization-sensitive millimeter-wave bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Brown, Ari; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Costen, Nick; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Hu, Ron; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Xu, Zhilei

    2016-07-01

    We describe feedhorn-coupled polarization-sensitive detector arrays that utilize monocrystalline silicon as the dielectric substrate material. Monocrystalline silicon has a low-loss tangent and repeatable dielectric constant, characteristics that are critical for realizing efficient and uniform superconducting microwave circuits. An additional advantage of this material is its low specific heat. In a detector pixel, two Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are antenna-coupled to in-band radiation via a symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT). Each orthogonal linear polarization is coupled to a separate superconducting microstrip transmission line circuit. On-chip filtering is employed to both reject out-of-band radiation from the upper band edge to the gap frequency of the niobium superconductor, and to flexibly define the bandwidth for each TES to meet the requirements of the application. The microwave circuit is compatible with multi-chroic operation. Metalized silicon platelets are used to define the backshort for the waveguide probes. This micro-machined structure is also used to mitigate the coupling of out-of-band radiation to the microwave circuit. At 40 GHz, the detectors have a measured efficiency of ˜90%. In this paper, we describe the development of the 90 GHz detector arrays that will be demonstrated using the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) ground-based telescope.

  2. Third harmonic generation from mid-IR to near-IR regions in a phase-matched silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Shum, Perry Ping; Shao, Xuguang; Huang, Tianye; Sun, Yunxu

    2014-10-06

    The conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation (THG) from mid-IR (3600 nm) to near-IR (1200 nm) regions in a silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW) was calculated. The required modal phase-matching condition (PMC) between the 0-th mode at fundamental wave (FW) and the 2-nd mode at third harmonic (TH) is achieved by carefully designing the waveguide geometry. Benefiting from the hybridized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nature of the two guided modes, the SSHPW is capable of achieving both high THG nonlinear coefficient |I₆| and reasonable linear propagation loss, thereby resulting in large figure-of-merits (FOMs) for both FW and TH. According to our simulation, THG conversion efficiency up to 0.823% is achieved at 62.9 ����m SSHPW with pump power of 1 W.

  3. Improvement of sensitivity in continuous wave near infra-red spectroscopy systems by using silicon photomultipliers

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Roberto; Libertino, Sebania; Sanfilippo, Delfo; Fallica, Giorgio; Lombardo, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally analyze the signal-to-noise ratio of continuous wave (CW) near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance systems based on light emitting diodes and silicon photomultipliers for high performance low cost NIRS biomedical systems. We show that under suitable experimental conditions such systems exhibit a high SNR, which allows an SDS of 7 cm, to our knowledge the largest ever demonstrated in a CW-NIRs system. PMID:27486551

  4. Highly p-doped regions in silicon solar cells quantitatively analyzed by small angle beveling and micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Gösele, U.; Hofmann, A.; Christiansen, S.

    2009-10-01

    Highly p-doped regions in multicrystalline silicon solar cells, such as the back surface field region, are analyzed by means of small angle beveling and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Small angle beveling and subsequent Secco etching are used to enhance the lateral resolution of the micro-Raman spectroscopic measurements and to investigate the microstructure of the back surface field region in detail. The position-dependent analysis of the free carrier concentrations within the back surface field region is based on the Raman specific Fano resonances. The Raman spectroscopic measurement results are compared to results obtained from electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements, which allows a subsequent calibration of the Raman data for the quantitative analysis of the free carrier concentrations within the highly p-doped regions of silicon solar cells and other devices. Our investigations show that the free carrier as well as the dopant concentration profiles within the back surface field region exhibit a nearly step-functional shape instead of the extended gradient shape which the electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements suggest. Moreover, we show that the shape of the back surface field is often influenced by grain boundaries and other defects that occur in multicrystalline silicon wafers.

  5. Sensitivity model study of regional mercury dispersion in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencarelli, Christian N.; Bieser, Johannes; Carbone, Francesco; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Matthias, Volker; Travnikov, Oleg; Yang, Xin; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the most important pathway by which Hg reaches marine ecosystems, where it can be methylated and enter the base of food chain. The deposition, transport and chemical interactions of atmospheric Hg have been simulated over Europe for the year 2013 in the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, performing 14 different model sensitivity tests using two high-resolution three-dimensional chemical transport models (CTMs), varying the anthropogenic emission datasets, atmospheric Br input fields, Hg oxidation schemes and modelling domain boundary condition input. Sensitivity simulation results were compared with observations from 28 monitoring sites in Europe to assess model performance and particularly to analyse the influence of anthropogenic emission speciation and the Hg0(g) atmospheric oxidation mechanism. The contribution of anthropogenic Hg emissions, their speciation and vertical distribution are crucial to the simulated concentration and deposition fields, as is also the choice of Hg0(g) oxidation pathway. The areas most sensitive to changes in Hg emission speciation and the emission vertical distribution are those near major sources, but also the Aegean and the Black seas, the English Channel, the Skagerrak Strait and the northern German coast. Considerable influence was found also evident over the Mediterranean, the North Sea and Baltic Sea and some influence is seen over continental Europe, while this difference is least over the north-western part of the modelling domain, which includes the Norwegian Sea and Iceland. The Br oxidation pathway produces more HgII(g) in the lower model levels, but overall wet deposition is lower in comparison to the simulations which employ an O3 / OH oxidation mechanism. The necessity to perform continuous measurements of speciated Hg and to investigate the local impacts of Hg emissions and deposition, as well as interactions dependent on land use and vegetation, forests, peat

  6. Sensitive detection of copper ions via ion-responsive fluorescence quenching of engineered porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jangsun; Hwang, Mintai P.; Choi, Moonhyun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Hong, Jinkee; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu2+), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu2+ at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation. The resulting alkyl-terminated porous silicon nanoparticles (APS NPs) have enhanced fluorescence stability and intensity, and importantly, exhibit [Cu2+]-dependent quenching of fluorescence. After determining various aqueous sensing conditions for Cu2+, we demonstrate the use of APS NPs in two separate applications – a standard well-based paper kit and a portable layer-by-layer stick kit. Collectively, we demonstrate the potential of APS NPs in sensors for the effective detection of Cu2+.

  7. Immunoassays in a porous silicon interferometric biosensor combined with sensitive signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley-Bown, A.; Smith, R. G.; Hayward, S.; Anderson, M. H.; Koker, L.; Green, A.; Torrens, R.; Wilkinson, A.-S.; Perkins, E. A.; Squirrell, D. J.; Nicklin, S.; Hutchinson, A.; Simons, A. J.; Cox, T. I.

    2005-06-01

    Orthogonal subspace signal processing algorithms (OSPA) have been developed to extract the optical thickness of a porous silicon layer to within one part in 105 from its reflectivity spectrum. This is equivalent to a limit of detection (LOD) of 40 pm change in optical thickness for a 3 μm thick layer, or an LOD of 1/2000 of a monolayer coverage with antibodies, of molecular weight 160 k Daltons, within a layer with pores of 100 nm diameter. A large molecule {horseradish peroxidase (HRP), MWt 40 kDa} has been detected at a concentration of 1 μg/ml by measuring its direct binding to anti-HRP antibodies immobilised within a porous silicon layer. A competitive assay has been demonstrated for the detection of a small molecule {2, 4, 6 trinitrotoluene (TNT), MWt 227 Da} at 10 μg/ml. The projected LODs for HRP and TNT by these assays are 50 ng/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively.

  8. Sensitive detection of copper ions via ion-responsive fluorescence quenching of engineered porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jangsun; Hwang, Mintai P.; Choi, Moonhyun; Seo, Youngmin; Jo, Yeonho; Son, Jaewoo; Hong, Jinkee; Choi, Jonghoon

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has been a problem since the advent of modern transportation, which despite efforts to curb emissions, continues to play a critical role in environmental pollution. Copper ions (Cu2+), in particular, are one of the more prevalent metals that have widespread detrimental ramifications. From this perspective, a simple and inexpensive method of detecting Cu2+ at the micromolar level would be highly desirable. In this study, we use porous silicon nanoparticles (NPs), obtained via anodic etching of Si wafers, as a basis for undecylenic acid (UDA)- or acrylic acid (AA)-mediated hydrosilylation. The resulting alkyl-terminated porous silicon nanoparticles (APS NPs) have enhanced fluorescence stability and intensity, and importantly, exhibit [Cu2+]-dependent quenching of fluorescence. After determining various aqueous sensing conditions for Cu2+, we demonstrate the use of APS NPs in two separate applications – a standard well-based paper kit and a portable layer-by-layer stick kit. Collectively, we demonstrate the potential of APS NPs in sensors for the effective detection of Cu2+. PMID:27752120

  9. Facile synthesis of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide semiconducting nanocomposite using pulsed laser ablation technique and its performance in photovoltaic dye sensitized solar cell and photocatalytic water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondal, M. A.; Ilyas, A. M.; Baig, Umair

    2016-08-01

    Separation of photo-generated charge carriers (electron and holes) is a major approach to improve the photovoltaic and photocatalytic performance of metal oxide semiconductors. For harsh environment like high temperature applications, ceramic like silicon carbide is very prominent. In this work, 10%, 20% and 40% by weight of pre-oxidized silicon carbide was coupled with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to form nanocomposite semiconductor via elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique using second harmonic 532 nm wavelength of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd-YAG) laser. In addition, the effect of silicon carbide concentration on the performance of silicon carbide-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as photo-anode in dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in photodegradation of methyl orange dye in water was also studied. The result obtained shows that photo-conversion efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell was improved from 0.6% to 1.65% and the percentage of methyl orange dye removed was enhanced from 22% to 77% at 24 min under ultraviolet-visible solar spectrum in the nanocomposite with 10% weight of silicon carbide. This remarkable performance enhancement could be due to the improvement in electron transfer phenomenon by the presence of silicon carbide on titanium dioxide.

  10. Regional assessment of ozone sensitive tree species using bioindicator plants.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Smith, Gretchen C; Smith, William D

    2003-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document direct foliar injury irrespective of direct measure of ozone uptake. We used bioindicator and field plot data from the USDA Forest Service to identify tree species likely to exhibit regional-scale ozone impacts. Approximately 24% of sampled sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 15% of sampled loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and 12% of sampled black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees were in the highest risk category. Sweetgum and loblolly pine trees were at risk on the coastal plain of Maryland, Virginia and Delaware. Black cherry trees were at risk on the Allegheny Plateau (Pennsylvania), in the Allegheny Mountains (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland) as well as coastal plain areas of Maryland and Virginia. Our findings indicate a need for more in-depth study of actual impacts on growth and reproduction of these three species.

  11. Reduction of phase noise to amplitude noise conversion in silicon waveguide-based phase-sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yonghua; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu

    2016-04-20

    We use a vector phase sensitive amplification (PSA) scheme, which can eliminate the inherent phase noise (PN) to amplitude noise (AN) conversion in a conventional PSA process. A dispersion-engineered silicon strip waveguide is used to investigate the vector PSA scheme at the telecom wavelengths. The phase-dependent gain and phase-to-phase transfer functions as well as constellation diagram at different signal polarization states (SPSs) are numerically analyzed. It is found that the PN to AN conversion is completely suppressed when the SPS is identical to one of the pump polarization states. Moreover, the binary phase shift keying signal is regenerated by the proposed vector PSA scheme, and the error vector magnitude is calculated to assess the regeneration capacity. Our results have potential application in all-optical signal processing.

  12. High Sensitivity pH Sensor Based on Porous Silicon (PSi) Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hardan, Naif H.; Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Azmi; Ahmed, Naser M.; Jalar, Azman; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Kar Keng, Lim; Chiu, Weesiong; Al-Rawi, Hamzah N.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions. PMID:27338381

  13. A silicon nanowire-based electrochemical glucose biosensor with high electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shao; He, Yao; Song, Shiping; Li, Di; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2010-09-01

    An electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on an electrode decorated with a novel nanostructure, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with in situ grown gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The immobilized GOx displayed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E°') of -0.376 V in a phosphate buffer solution. The fabricated glucose biosensor has good electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of glucose. In addition, such resultant SiNWs-based glucose biosensor possesses high biological affinity. Particularly, the apparent Michaelis-Mentan constant was estimated to be 0.902 mM, which is much smaller than the reported values for GOx at a range of nanomaterials-incorporated electrodes. Consequently, this novel SiNWs-based biosensor is expected to be a promising tool for biological assays (e.g., monitoring blood glucose).

  14. Improvement in pH sensitivity of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistor sensors using H2 sintering.

    PubMed

    Yen, Li-Chen; Tang, Ming-Tsyr; Chang, Fang-Yu; Pan, Tung-Ming; Chao, Tien-Sheng; Lee, Chiang-Hsuan

    2014-02-25

    In this article, we report an improvement in the pH sensitivity of low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) sensors using an H2 sintering process. The low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (LTPS) TFT sensor with H2 sintering exhibited a high sensitivity than that without H2 sintering. This result may be due to the resulting increase in the number of Si-OH2(+) and Si-O(-) bonds due to the incorporation of H in the gate oxide to reduce the dangling silicon bonds and hence create the surface active sites and the resulting increase in the number of chemical reactions at these surface active sites. Moreover, the LTPS TFT sensor device not only offers low cost and a simple fabrication processes, but the technique also can be extended to integrate the sensor into other systems.

  15. Sensitive Detection of Protein and miRNA Cancer Biomarkers using Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals and A Resonance Coupling Laser Scanning Platform

    PubMed Central

    George, Sherine; Chaudhery, Vikram; Lu, Meng; Takagi, Miki; Amro, Nabil; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Tan, Yafang; Ferreira, Placid; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancement of the fluorescent output of surface-based fluorescence assays by performing them upon nanostructured photonic crystal (PC) surfaces has been demonstrated to increase signal intensities by >8000×. Using the multiplicative effects of optical resonant coupling to the PC in increasing the electric field intensity experienced by fluorescent labels (“enhanced excitation”) and the spatially biased funneling of fluorophore emissions through coupling to PC resonances (“enhanced extraction”), PC enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) can be adapted to reduce the limits of detection of disease biomarker assays, and to reduce the size and cost of high sensitivity detection instrumentation. In this work, we demonstrate the first silicon-based PCEF detection platform for multiplexed biomarker assay. The sensor in this platform is a silicon-based PC structure, comprised of a SiO2 grating that is overcoated with a thin film of high refractive index TiO2 and is produced in a semiconductor foundry for low cost, uniform, and reproducible manufacturing. The compact detection instrument that completes this platform was designed to efficiently couples fluorescence excitation from a semiconductor laser to the resonant optical modes of the PC, resulting in elevated electric field strength that is highly concentrated within the region <100 nm from the PC surface. This instrument utilizes a cylindrically focused line to scan a microarray in <1 minute. To demonstrate the capabilities of this sensor-detector platform, microspot fluorescent sandwich immunoassays using secondary antibodies labeled with Cy5 for two cancer biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-3) were performed. Biomarkers were detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. In a fluorescent microarray for detection of a breast cancer miRNA biomarker miR-21, the miRNA was detectable at a concentration of 0.6 pM. PMID:23963502

  16. Sensitive detection of protein and miRNA cancer biomarkers using silicon-based photonic crystals and a resonance coupling laser scanning platform.

    PubMed

    George, Sherine; Chaudhery, Vikram; Lu, Meng; Takagi, Miki; Amro, Nabil; Pokhriyal, Anusha; Tan, Yafang; Ferreira, Placid; Cunningham, Brian T

    2013-10-21

    Enhancement of the fluorescent output of surface-based fluorescence assays by performing them upon nanostructured photonic crystal (PC) surfaces has been demonstrated to increase signal intensities by >8000×. Using the multiplicative effects of optical resonant coupling to the PC in increasing the electric field intensity experienced by fluorescent labels ("enhanced excitation") and the spatially biased funneling of fluorophore emissions through coupling to PC resonances ("enhanced extraction"), PC enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) can be adapted to reduce the limits of detection of disease biomarker assays, and to reduce the size and cost of high sensitivity detection instrumentation. In this work, we demonstrate the first silicon-based PCEF detection platform for multiplexed biomarker assay. The sensor in this platform is a silicon-based PC structure, comprised of a SiO2 grating that is overcoated with a thin film of high refractive index TiO2 and is produced in a semiconductor foundry for low cost, uniform, and reproducible manufacturing. The compact detection instrument that completes this platform was designed to efficiently couple fluorescence excitation from a semiconductor laser to the resonant optical modes of the PC, resulting in elevated electric field strength that is highly concentrated within the region <100 nm from the PC surface. This instrument utilizes a cylindrically focused line to scan a microarray in <1 min. To demonstrate the capabilities of this sensor-detector platform, microspot fluorescent sandwich immunoassays using secondary antibodies labeled with Cy5 for two cancer biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-3) were performed. Biomarkers were detected at concentrations as low as 0.1 pM. In a fluorescent microarray for detection of a breast cancer miRNA biomarker miR-21, the miRNA was detectable at a concentration of 0.6 pM.

  17. Functionalized graphene/silicon chemi-diode H₂ sensor with tunable sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Ahsan; Singh, Amol Kumar; Sudarshan, Tangali S; Koley, Goutam

    2014-03-28

    A reverse bias tunable Pd- and Pt-functionalized graphene/Si heterostructure Schottky diode H2 sensor has been demonstrated. Compared to the graphene chemiresistor sensor, the chemi-diode sensor offers more than one order of magnitude higher sensitivity as the molecular adsorption induced Schottky barrier height change causes the heterojunction current to vary exponentially in reverse bias. The reverse bias operation also enables low power consumption, as well as modulation of the atomically thin graphene's Fermi level, leading to tunable sensitivity and detection of H₂ down to the sub-ppm range.

  18. Anti-DNA:RNA antibodies and silicon photonic microring resonators: increased sensitivity for multiplexed microRNA detection.

    PubMed

    Qavi, Abraham J; Kindt, Jared T; Gleeson, Martin A; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we present a method for the sensitive detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) utilizing an antibody that specifically recognizes DNA:RNA heteroduplexes and a silicon photonic microring resonator array transduction platform. Microring resonator arrays are covalently functionalized with DNA capture probes that are complementary to solution phase miRNA targets. Following hybridization on the sensor, the anti-DNA:RNA antibody is introduced and binds selectively to the heteroduplexes, giving a larger signal than the original miRNA hybridization due to the increased mass of the antibody, as compared to the 22-mer oligoribonucleotide. Furthermore, the secondary recognition step is performed in neat buffer solution and at relatively higher antibody concentrations, facilitating the detection of miRNAs of interest. The intrinsic sensitivity of the microring resonator platform coupled with the amplification provided by the anti-DNA:RNA antibodies allows for the detection of microRNAs at concentrations as low as 10 pM (350 amol). The simplicity and sequence generality of this amplification method position it as a promising tool for high-throughput, multiplexed miRNA analysis as well as a range of other RNA based detection applications.

  19. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on gold-silicon carbide nanocomposites for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Shuangmei; Deng, Shuangsheng; Lv, Qi; Lin, Jie; Li, Can-Peng

    2014-07-15

    Uniform and highly dispersed gold-silicon carbide (Au@SiC) nanocomposites were prepared via simple way and used for fabrication of label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Using Au@SiC as electrode material and using ferricyanide as mediator, the proposed immunosensor provides a simple and economic method with higher sensitivity and a wider concentration range for detection of hCG. Under the optimal condition, the approach provided a good linear response range from 0.1 to 5 IU/L and 5 to 1000 IU/L with a low detection limit of 0.042 IU/L. The immunosensor showed good selectivity, acceptable stability and reproducibility. Satisfactory results were obtained for determination of hCG in human serum samples. The proposed method provides a promising platform of clinical immunoassay for other biomolecules. In addition, the bio-functionalization of SiC combined with other nanomaterials will provide promising approach for electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform.

  20. Silicon nanowires with high-k hafnium oxide dielectrics for sensitive detection of small nucleic acid oligomers.

    PubMed

    Dorvel, Brian R; Reddy, Bobby; Go, Jonghyun; Duarte Guevara, Carlos; Salm, Eric; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Bashir, Rashid

    2012-07-24

    Nanobiosensors based on silicon nanowire field effect transistors offer advantages of low cost, label-free detection, and potential for massive parallelization. As a result, these sensors have often been suggested as an attractive option for applications in point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostics. Unfortunately, a number of performance issues, such as gate leakage and current instability due to fluid contact, have prevented widespread adoption of the technology for routine use. High-k dielectrics, such as hafnium oxide (HfO(2)), have the known ability to address these challenges by passivating the exposed surfaces against destabilizing concerns of ion transport. With these fundamental stability issues addressed, a promising target for POC diagnostics and SiNWFETs has been small oligonucleotides, more specifically, microRNA (miRNA). MicroRNAs are small RNA oligonucleotides which bind to mRNAs, causing translational repression of proteins, gene silencing, and expressions are typically altered in several forms of cancer. In this paper, we describe a process for fabricating stable HfO(2) dielectric-based silicon nanowires for biosensing applications. Here we demonstrate sensing of single-stranded DNA analogues to their microRNA cousins using miR-10b and miR-21 as templates, both known to be upregulated in breast cancer. We characterize the effect of surface functionalization on device performance using the miR-10b DNA analogue as the target sequence and different molecular weight poly-l-lysine as the functionalization layer. By optimizing the surface functionalization and fabrication protocol, we were able to achieve <100 fM detection levels of the miR-10b DNA analogue, with a theoretical limit of detection of 1 fM. Moreover, the noncomplementary DNA target strand, based on miR-21, showed very little response, indicating a highly sensitive and highly selective biosensing platform.

  1. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, A. V.; Mavritskii, O. B.; Egorov, A. N.; Pechenkin, A. A.; Savchenkov, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed.

  2. Sensitivity of WRF Regional Climate Simulations to Choice of Land Use Dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to assess the sensitivity of regional climate simulations run with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the choice of datasets representing land use and land cover (LULC). Within a regional climate modeling application, an accurate repres...

  3. Highly Sensitive and Practical Detection of Plant Viruses via Electrical Impedance of Droplets on Textured Silicon-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ambrico, Marianna; Ambrico, Paolo Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; De Stradis, Angelo; Vona, Danilo; Cicco, Stefania R.; Palumbo, Fabio; Favia, Pietro; Ligonzo, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction is evaluated via impedance spectroscopy techniques. The device consists of a droplet suspension embedding two representative purified plant viruses i.e., Tomato mosaic virus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus, put in contact with a highly hydrophobic plasma textured silicon surface. Results show a high sensitivity of the system towards the virus particles with an interestingly low detection limit, from tens to hundreds of attomolar corresponding to pg/mL of sap, which refers, in the infection time-scale, to a concentration of virus particles in still-symptomless plants. Such a threshold limit, together with an envisaged engineering of an easily manageable device, compared to more sophisticated apparatuses, may contribute in simplifying the in-field plant virus diagnostics. PMID:27869726

  4. Highly Sensitive and Practical Detection of Plant Viruses via Electrical Impedance of Droplets on Textured Silicon-Based Devices.

    PubMed

    Ambrico, Marianna; Ambrico, Paolo Francesco; Minafra, Angelantonio; De Stradis, Angelo; Vona, Danilo; Cicco, Stefania R; Palumbo, Fabio; Favia, Pietro; Ligonzo, Teresa

    2016-11-18

    Early diagnosis of plant virus infections before the disease symptoms appearance may represent a significant benefit in limiting disease spread by a prompt application of appropriate containment steps. We propose a label-free procedure applied on a device structure where the electrical signal transduction is evaluated via impedance spectroscopy techniques. The device consists of a droplet suspension embedding two representative purified plant viruses i.e., Tomato mosaic virus and Turnip yellow mosaic virus, put in contact with a highly hydrophobic plasma textured silicon surface. Results show a high sensitivity of the system towards the virus particles with an interestingly low detection limit, from tens to hundreds of attomolar corresponding to pg/mL of sap, which refers, in the infection time-scale, to a concentration of virus particles in still-symptomless plants. Such a threshold limit, together with an envisaged engineering of an easily manageable device, compared to more sophisticated apparatuses, may contribute in simplifying the in-field plant virus diagnostics.

  5. Label-free silicon quantum dots as fluorescent probe for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiangna; Deng, Jianhui; Yi, Yinhui; Li, Haitai; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-07-01

    In this work, label-free silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) were used as a novel fluorescence probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Cu(2+). The fluorescence of the SiQDs was effectively quenched by H2O2 from the reaction of ascorbic acid with O2, and hydroxyl radicals from Fenton reaction between H2O2 and Cu(+). The fluorescence intensity of SiQDs was quenched about 25% in 15 min after the addition of H2O2 (1mM). While the SiQDs was incubated with AA (1mM) and Cu(2+) (1 µM) under the same conditions, the fluorescence intensity of SiQDs decreased about 55%. Obviously, the recycling of Cu(2+) in the test system may lead to a dramatical decrease in the fluorescence of SiQDs. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the rate of fluorescence quenching of SiQDs was linearly dependent on the Cu(2+) concentration ranging from 25 to 600 nM with the limit of detection as low as 8 nM, which was much lower than that of existing methods. Moreover, the probe was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in different environmental water samples and human hair.

  6. Silicon fin line edge roughness determination and sensitivity analysis by Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry based scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhairya; O'Mullane, Samuel; Sunkoju, Sravan; Hosler, Erik R.; Kamineni, Vimal; Preil, Moshe; Keller, Nick; Race, Joseph; Muthinti, Gangadhara Raja; Diebold, Alain C.

    2015-03-01

    Measurement and control of line edge roughness (LER) is one of the most challenging issues facing patterning technology. As the critical dimensions (CD) of patterned structures decrease, LER of only a few nanometers can negatively impact device performance. Here, Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry (MMSE) based scatterometry is used to determine LER in periodic line-space structures in 28 nm pitch Si fin samples fabricated by directed selfassembly (DSA) patterning. The optical response of the Mueller matrix (MM) elements is influenced by structural parameters like pitch, CD, height, and side-wall angle (SWA), as well as the optical properties of the materials. Evaluation and decoupling MM element response to LER from other structural parameters requires sensitivity analysis using simulations of optical models that include LER. Here, an approach is developed that quantifies Si fin LER by comparing the optical responses generated by systematically varying the grating shape and measurement conditions. Finally, the validity of this approach is established by comparing the results obtained from top down scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and cross-sectional TEM image of the 28 nm pitch Si fins.

  7. Silicon Pedot-Pss Nanocomposite as AN Efficient Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dandan; Li, Meicheng; Bai, Fan; Li, Yingfeng; Jiang, Yongjian; Jiang, Bing

    2013-07-01

    A novel inorganic/organic nanocomposite film composed of Si nanoparticles (NPs) and poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) is obtained from a simple mechanical mixture of Si NPs powder and aqueous PEDOT-PSS solution. Employing this composite film as a counter electrode, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) exhibits an efficiency of 5.7% and a fill factor of 0.51, which are much higher than these of DSSC using pristine PEDOT-PSS electrode (2.9% and 0.25, respectively). The improvements in the photovoltaic performance of the former are primarily derived from improved electrocatalytic performance of the electrode, as evidenced by electrochemical measurements, the composite electrode has lower impedance and higher electrocatalytic activity when in comparison with pristine PEDOT-PSS electrode. These improvements are primarily deriving from the increased electrochemical surface by the addition of Si NPs. The characteristics of Si NPs/PEDOT-PSS composite counter electrode reveal its potential for the use of low-cost and stable Pt-free counter electrode materials. In addition, the results achieved in this work also provide a facile and efficient approach to improve the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs using PEDOT-PSS electrodes.

  8. Organic nanowire/crystalline silicon p-n heterojunctions for high-sensitivity, broadband photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Jie, Jiansheng; Shang, Qixun; Wang, Jincheng; Zhang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shenwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-28

    Organic/inorganic hybrid devices are promising candidates for high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, by virtue of their unique properties. Polycrystalline/amorphous organic films are widely used in hybrid devices, because defects in the films hamper the improvement of device performance. Here, we report the construction of 2,4-bis[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]squaraine (SQ) nanowire (NW)/crystalline Si (c-Si) p-n heterojunctions. Thanks to the high crystal quality of the SQ NWs, the heterojunctions exhibit excellent diode characteristics in darkness. It is significant that the heterojunctions have been found to be capable of detecting broadband light with wavelengths spanning from ultraviolet (UV) light, to visible (Vis) light, to near-infrared (NIR) light, because of the complementary spectrum absorption of SQ NWs with Si. The junction is demonstrated to play a core role in enhancing the device performance, in terms of ultrahigh sensitivity, excellent stability, and fast response. The photovoltaic characteristics of the heterojunctions are further investigated, revealing a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 1.17%. This result also proves the potential of the device as self-powered photodetectors operating at zero external bias voltage. This work presents an important advance in constructing single-crystal organic nanostructure/inorganic heterojunctions and will enable future exploration of their applications in broadband photodetectors and solar cells.

  9. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  10. Differential sensitivity to regional-scale drought in six central US grasslands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Carroll, Charles J W; Denton, Elsie M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems often vary dramatically in their responses to drought, but the reasons for this are unclear. With climate change forecasts for more frequent and extensive drought in the future, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that determine differential ecosystem sensitivity to drought is needed. In 2012, the Central US experienced the fourth largest drought in a century, with a regional-scale 40% reduction in growing season precipitation affecting ecosystems ranging from desert grassland to mesic tallgrass prairie. This provided an opportunity to assess ecosystem sensitivity to a drought of common magnitude in six native grasslands. We tested the prediction that drought sensitivity is inversely related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) by quantifying reductions in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Long-term ANPP data available for each site (mean length = 16 years) were used as a baseline for calculating reductions in ANPP, and drought sensitivity was estimated as the reduction in ANPP per millimeter reduction in precipitation. Arid grasslands were the most sensitive to drought, but drought responses and sensitivity varied by more than twofold among the six grasslands, despite all sites experiencing 40% reductions in growing season precipitation. Although drought sensitivity generally decreased with increasing MAP as predicted, there was evidence that the identity and traits of the dominant species, as well as plant functional diversity, influenced sensitivity. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms leading to differences in drought sensitivity will require multi-site manipulative experiments designed to assess both biotic and abiotic determinants of ecosystem sensitivity.

  11. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V

    2014-12-31

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Direct Detection of Transcription Factors in Cotyledons during Seedling Development Using Sensitive Silicon-Substrate Photonic Crystal Protein Arrays1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah I.; Tan, Yafang; Shamimuzzaman, Md; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T.; Vodkin, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors control important gene networks, altering the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those of agronomic importance, despite often being expressed at low levels. Detecting transcription factor proteins is difficult, because current high-throughput methods may not be sensitive enough. One-dimensional, silicon-substrate photonic crystal (PC) arrays provide an alternative substrate for printing multiplexed protein microarrays that have greater sensitivity through an increased signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescent signal compared with performing the same assay upon a traditional aminosilanized glass surface. As a model system to test proof of concept of the silicon-substrate PC arrays to directly detect rare proteins in crude plant extracts, we selected representatives of four different transcription factor families (zinc finger GATA, basic helix-loop-helix, BTF3/NAC [for basic transcription factor of the NAC family], and YABBY) that have increasing transcript levels during the stages of seedling cotyledon development. Antibodies to synthetic peptides representing the transcription factors were printed on both glass slides and silicon-substrate PC slides along with antibodies to abundant cotyledon proteins, seed lectin, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The silicon-substrate PC arrays proved more sensitive than those performed on glass slides, detecting rare proteins that were below background on the glass slides. The zinc finger transcription factor was detected on the PC arrays in crude extracts of all stages of the seedling cotyledons, whereas YABBY seemed to be at the lower limit of their sensitivity. Interestingly, the basic helix-loop-helix and NAC proteins showed developmental profiles consistent with their transcript patterns, indicating proof of concept for detecting these low-abundance proteins in crude extracts. PMID:25635113

  13. A new dielectric metamaterial building block with a strong magnetic response in the sub-1.5-micrometer region: silicon colloid nanocavities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Tuzer, T Umut; Fenollosa, Roberto; Meseguer, Francisco

    2012-11-20

    A new dielectric metamaterial building block based on high refractive index silicon spherical nanocavities with Mie resonances appearing in the near infrared optical region is prepared and characterized. It is demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically that a single silicon nanocavity supports well-defined and robust magnetic resonances, even in a liquid medium environment, at wavelength values up to six times larger than the cavity radius.

  14. Face processing regions are sensitive to distinct aspects of temporal sequence in facial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Maren; Bartels, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Facial movement conveys important information for social interactions, yet its neural processing is poorly understood. Computational models propose that shape- and temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms interact in processing dynamic faces. While face processing regions are known to respond to facial movement, their sensitivity to particular temporal sequences has barely been studied. Here we used fMRI to examine the sensitivity of human face-processing regions to two aspects of directionality in facial movement trajectories. We presented genuine movie recordings of increasing and decreasing fear expressions, each of which were played in natural or reversed frame order. This two-by-two factorial design matched low-level visual properties, static content and motion energy within each factor, emotion-direction (increasing or decreasing emotion) and timeline (natural versus artificial). The results showed sensitivity for emotion-direction in FFA, which was timeline-dependent as it only occurred within the natural frame order, and sensitivity to timeline in the STS, which was emotion-direction-dependent as it only occurred for decreased fear. The occipital face area (OFA) was sensitive to the factor timeline. These findings reveal interacting temporal sequence sensitive mechanisms that are responsive to both ecological meaning and to prototypical unfolding of facial dynamics. These mechanisms are temporally directional, provide socially relevant information regarding emotional state or naturalness of behavior, and agree with predictions from modeling and predictive coding theory.

  15. Sensitivity of soil moisture initialization for decadal predictions under different regional climatic conditions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodayar, S.; Sehlinger, A.; Feldmann, H.; Kottmeier, C.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of soil initialization is investigated through perturbation simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM. The focus of the investigation is to assess the sensitivity of simulated extreme periods, dry and wet, to soil moisture initialization in different climatic regions over Europe and to establish the necessary spin up time within the framework of decadal predictions for these regions. Sensitivity experiments consisted of a reference simulation from 1968 to 1999 and 5 simulations from 1972 to 1983. The Effective Drought Index (EDI) is used to select and quantify drought status in the reference run to establish the simulation time period for the sensitivity experiments. Different soil initialization procedures are investigated. The sensitivity of the decadal predictions to soil moisture initial conditions is investigated through the analysis of water cycle components' (WCC) variability. In an episodic time scale the local effects of soil moisture on the boundary-layer and the propagated effects on the large-scale dynamics are analysed. The results show: (a) COSMO-CLM reproduces the observed features of the drought index. (b) Soil moisture initialization exerts a relevant impact on WCC, e.g., precipitation distribution and intensity. (c) Regional characteristics strongly impact the response of the WCC. Precipitation and evapotranspiration deviations are larger for humid regions. (d) The initial soil conditions (wet/dry), the regional characteristics (humid/dry) and the annual period (wet/dry) play a key role in the time that soil needs to restore quasi-equilibrium and the impact on the atmospheric conditions. Humid areas, and for all regions, a humid initialization, exhibit shorter spin up times, also soil reacts more sensitive when initialised during dry periods. (e) The initial soil perturbation may markedly modify atmospheric pressure field, wind circulation systems and atmospheric water vapour distribution affecting atmospheric stability

  16. Performances of THz cameras with enhanced sensitivity in sub-terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Kurashina, Seiji; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Isoyama, Goro; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    Uncooled microbolometer-type 640x480 and 320x240 Terahertz (THz) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region are developed, and incorporated into 640x480 and 320x240 cameras, respectively. The pixel in the THz-FPA has such a structure that an area sensitive to electromagnetic wave is suspended above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). A thin metallic layer is formed on the top of the sensitive area, while a thick metallic layer is formed on the surface of ROIC. The structure composed of the thin metallic layer and the thick metallic layer behaves as an optical cavity. The THz-FPAs reported in this paper have a modified pixel structure which has several times longer optical-cavity length than NEC's previous pixel does, by forming a thick SiN layer on the ROIC. The extended optical-cavity structure is favorable for detecting electromagnetic wave with lower frequency. Consequently, the Minimum Detectable Power per pixel (MDP) is improved ten times in sub-THz region, especially 0.5-0.6 THz. This paper presents spectral frequency dependences of MDP values for THz-FPA with the modified pixel structure and THz-FPA with the previous pixel structure, using THz free electron laser (FEL) developed by Osaka University. The modification of pixel structure extends high sensitivity region to lower frequency region, such as sub-THz region, and the wider spectral coverage of THz camera surely expands its applicability

  17. Questing and the application for silicon based ternary compound within ultra-thin layer of SIS intermediate region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shumin; Gao, Ming; Wan, Yazhou; Du, Huiwei; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhongquan

    2016-12-01

    A silicon based ternary compound was supposed to be solid synthesized with In, Si and O elements by magnetron sputtering of indium tin oxide target (ITO) onto crystal silicon substrate at 250 °C. To make clear the configuration of the intermediate region, a potential method to obtain the chemical bonding of Si with other existing elements was exploited by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instrument combined with other assisted techniques. The phase composition and solid structure of the interfacial region between ITO and Si substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). A photovoltaic device with structure of Al/Ag/ITO/SiOx/p-Si/Al was assembled by depositing ITO films onto the p-Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering. The new matter has been assumed to be a buffer layer for semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) photovoltaic device and plays critical role for the promotion of optoelectronic conversion performance from the view point of device physics.

  18. Regional and local scale modeling of stream temperatures and spatio-temporal variation in thermal sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Hilderbrand, Robert H; Kashiwagi, Michael T; Prochaska, Anthony P

    2014-07-01

    Understanding variation in stream thermal regimes becomes increasingly important as the climate changes and aquatic biota approach their thermal limits. We used data from paired air and water temperature loggers to develop region-scale and stream-specific models of average daily water temperature and to explore thermal sensitivities, the slopes of air-water temperature regressions, of mostly forested streams across Maryland, USA. The region-scale stream temperature model explained nearly 90 % of the variation (root mean square error = 0.957 °C), with the mostly flat coastal plain streams having significantly higher thermal sensitivities than the steeper highlands streams with piedmont streams intermediate. Model R (2) for stream-specific models was positively related to a stream's thermal sensitivity. Both the regional and the stream-specific air-water temperature regression models benefited from including mean daily discharge from regional gaging stations, but the degree of improvement declined as a stream's thermal sensitivity increased. Although catchment size had no relationship to thermal sensitivity, steeper streams or those with greater amounts of forest in their upstream watershed were less thermally sensitive. The subset of streams with three or more summers of temperature data exhibited a wide range of annual variation in thermal sensitivity at a site, with the variation not attributable to discharge, precipitation patterns, or physical attributes of streams or their watersheds. Our findings are a useful starting point to better understand patterns in stream thermal regimes. However, a more spatially and temporally comprehensive monitoring network should increase understanding of stream temperature variation and its controls as climatic patterns change.

  19. Hairpin DNA-assisted silicon/silver-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensing platform for ultrahighly sensitive and specific discrimination of deafness mutations in a real system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Xiangxu; Wang, Xing; Wei, Xinpan; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Bin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Sudan; He, Yao

    2014-08-05

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is well-recognized as a powerful analytical tool for ultrahighly sensitive detection of analytes. In this article, we present a kind of silicon-based SERS sensing platform made of a hairpin DNA-modified silver nanoparticles decorated silicon wafer (AgNPs@Si). In particular, the AgNPs@Si with a high enhancement factor (EF) value of ~4.5 × 10(7) is first achieved under optimum reaction conditions (i.e., pH = 12, reaction time = 20 min) based on systematic investigation. Such resultant AgNPs@Si is then employed for construction of a silicon-based SERS sensing platform through surface modification of hairpin DNA, which is superbly suitable for highly reproducible, multiplexed, and ultrasensitive DNA detection. A detection limit of 1 fM is readily achieved in a very reproducible manner along with high specificity. Most significantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that the silicon-based SERS platform is highly efficacious for discriminating deafness-causing mutations in a real system at the femtomolar level (500 fM), which is about 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than that (~5 nM) ever reported by conventional detection methods. Our results raise the exciting potential of practical SERS applications in biology and biomedicine.

  20. Two-step sensitivity testing of parametrized and regionalized life cycle assessments: methodology and case study.

    PubMed

    Mutel, Christopher L; de Baan, Laura; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-04

    Comprehensive sensitivity analysis is a significant tool to interpret and improve life cycle assessment (LCA) models, but is rarely performed. Sensitivity analysis will increase in importance as inventory databases become regionalized, increasing the number of system parameters, and parametrized, adding complexity through variables and nonlinear formulas. We propose and implement a new two-step approach to sensitivity analysis. First, we identify parameters with high global sensitivities for further examination and analysis with a screening step, the method of elementary effects. Second, the more computationally intensive contribution to variance test is used to quantify the relative importance of these parameters. The two-step sensitivity test is illustrated on a regionalized, nonlinear case study of the biodiversity impacts from land use of cocoa production, including a worldwide cocoa products trade model. Our simplified trade model can be used for transformable commodities where one is assessing market shares that vary over time. In the case study, the highly uncertain characterization factors for the Ivory Coast and Ghana contributed more than 50% of variance for almost all countries and years examined. The two-step sensitivity test allows for the interpretation, understanding, and improvement of large, complex, and nonlinear LCA systems.

  1. [Factors of individual radiation sensitivity in caries prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions].

    PubMed

    Sevbitov, A V; Skatova, E A

    2005-01-01

    Analysing dental diseases prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions after the Chernobyl accident, one should take into account not only the level of the soil contamination with radionuclides but also factors of individual sensitivity to radioactivity, main of which is the age of the exposed person.

  2. Caring for our natural community: Region 1. Threatened, endangered, and sensitive species program

    SciTech Connect

    Reel, S.; Schassberger, L.; Ruediger, W.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a summary of Region One's threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant, fish, and wildlife resources, as well as a summary of the program to conserve each species. The program information was developed at the field level and reflects what could be accomplished under existing Forest Plans.

  3. Near-infrared sensitization in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyung; Viscardi, Guido; Barolo, Claudia; Barbero, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are a low cost and colorful promising alternative to standard silicon photovoltaic cells. Though many of the highest efficiencies have been associated with sensitizers absorbing only in the visible portion of the solar radiation, there is a growing interest for NIR sensitization. This paper reviews the efforts made so far to find sensitizers able to absorb efficiently in the far-red NIR region of solar light. Panchromatic sensitizers as well as dyes absorbing mainly in the 650-920 nm region have been considered.

  4. Vegetation sensitivity to global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in a topographically complex region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffenbaugh, N.S.; Sloan, L.C.; Snyder, M.A.; Bell, J.L.; Kaplan, J.; Shafer, S.L.; Bartlein, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may affect vegetation distribution both directly through changes in photosynthesis and water-use efficiency, and indirectly through CO2-induced climate change. Using an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) driven by a regional climate model (RegCM2.5), we tested the sensitivity of vegetation in the western United States, a topographically complex region, to the direct, indirect, and combined effects of doubled preindustrial atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Those sensitivities were quantified using the kappa statistic. Simulated vegetation in the western United States was sensitive to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with woody biome types replacing less woody types throughout the domain. The simulated vegetation was also sensitive to climatic effects, particularly at high elevations, due to both warming throughout the domain and decreased precipitation in key mountain regions such as the Sierra Nevada of California and the Cascade and Blue Mountains of Oregon. Significantly, when the direct effects of CO2 on vegetation were tested in combination with the indirect effects of CO2-induced climate change, new vegetation patterns were created that were not seen in either of the individual cases. This result indicates that climatic and nonclimatic effects must be considered in tandem when assessing the potential impacts of elevated CO2 levels.

  5. Prevalence of allergic sensitization to regional inhalants among allergic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Baratawidjaja, I R; Baratawidjaja, P P; Darwis, A; Soo-Hwee, L; Fook-Tim, C; Bee-Wah, L; Baratawidjaja, K G

    1999-03-01

    Sensitization towards a panel of eight regional inhalant allergens was evaluated among 107 patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. A total of 32 children (age 5-13 years, mean 9 years; 18 male, 14 female), 75 adolescents and adults (aged 14-66 years, mean 32 years; 21 male, 54 female) and 20 normal control volunteers (aged 16-46, mean 30 years; 4 male, 16 female) were evaluated via skin prick test. A weal response of 3 x 3 mm or greater was taken to be positive. The sensitization rates among individuals to these allergens were: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (77.57%), Blomia tropicalis (71.96%), Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis (33.64%), pollen, palm oil Elaeis guineensis (22.43%), Acacia auriculiformis (12.15%), fern spore, resam Dicranopteris spp (11.21%), fungal spores: Curvularia fallax (8.41%) and Exserohilum rostratum (13.08%). There were significantly higher frequencies of sensitization to these allergens among allergic individuals compared to normal controls, and among atopic individuals with two allergy manifestations (rhinitis and asthma) compared to those with only one. No difference was noted between children and adults in the allergic group. In conclusion, the allergic patients were highly sensitized to dust mites and sensitization to regional pollen and spores was also documented. They should be considered as relevant and be included in skin test batteries in Indonesia.

  6. Modulation of sensitivity to alcohol by cortical and thalamic brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Anel A.; Randall, Patrick A.; Frisbee, Suzanne; Besheer, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is a key brain region known to regulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol. As such, the goal of the present work was to identify AcbC projection regions that may also modulate sensitivity to alcohol. Accordingly, AcbC afferent projections were identified in behaviorally naïve rats using a retrograde tracer which led to the focus on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insular cortex (IC) and rhomboid thalamic nucleus (Rh). Next, to examine the possible role of these brain regions in modulating sensitivity to alcohol, neuronal response to alcohol in rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water was examined using a two-lever drug discrimination task. As such, rats were administered water or alcohol (1g/kg, IG) and brain tissue was processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR), a marker of neuronal activity. Alcohol decreased c-Fos IR in the mPFC, IC, Rh, and AcbC. Lastly, site-specific pharmacological inactivation with muscimol+baclofen (GABAA agonist+GABAB agonist) was used to determine the functional role of the mPFC, IC and Rh in modulating the interoceptive effects of alcohol in rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. mPFC inactivation resulted in full substitution for the alcohol training dose, and IC and Rh inactivation produced partial alcohol-like effects, demonstrating the importance of these regions, with known projections to the AcbC, in modulating sensitivity to alcohol. Together, these data demonstrate a site of action of alcohol and the recruitment of cortical/thalamic regions in modulating sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol. PMID:27543844

  7. Modulation of sensitivity to alcohol by cortical and thalamic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Anel A; Randall, Patrick A; Frisbee, Suzanne; Besheer, Joyce

    2016-10-01

    The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) is a key brain region known to regulate the discriminative stimulus/interoceptive effects of alcohol. As such, the goal of the present work was to identify AcbC projection regions that may also modulate sensitivity to alcohol. Accordingly, AcbC afferent projections were identified in behaviorally naïve rats using a retrograde tracer which led to the focus on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), insular cortex (IC) and rhomboid thalamic nucleus (Rh). Next, to examine the possible role of these brain regions in modulating sensitivity to alcohol, neuronal response to alcohol in rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, intragastric [IG]) vs. water was examined using a two-lever drug discrimination task. As such, rats were administered water or alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) and brain tissue was processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR), a marker of neuronal activity. Alcohol decreased c-Fos IR in the mPFC, IC, Rh and AcbC. Lastly, site-specific pharmacological inactivation with muscimol + baclofen (GABAA agonist + GABAB agonist) was used to determine the functional role of the mPFC, IC and Rh in modulating the interoceptive effects of alcohol in rats trained to discriminate alcohol (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. mPFC inactivation resulted in full substitution for the alcohol training dose, and IC and Rh inactivation produced partial alcohol-like effects, demonstrating the importance of these regions, with known projections to the AcbC, in modulating sensitivity to alcohol. Together, these data demonstrate a site of action of alcohol and the recruitment of cortical/thalamic regions in modulating sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol.

  8. Characterization of the heavily doped emitter and junction regions of silicon solar cells using an electron beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, K. L.; Cheng, L.-J.

    1986-01-01

    Heavily doped emitter and junction regions of silicon solar cells are investigated by means of the electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) technique. Although the experimental EBIC data are collected under three-dimensional conditions, it is analytically demonstrated with two numerical examples that the solutions obtained with one-dimensional numerical modeling are adequate. EBIC data for bare and oxide-covered emitter surfaces are compared with theory. The improvement in collection efficiency when an emitter surface is covered with a 100-A SiO2 film varies with beam energy; for a cell with a junction depth of 0.35 microns, the improvement is about 54 percent at 2 keV.

  9. A Fabry-Perot plasmonic modulation with graphene-based silicon grating in mid-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaosai; Wang, Jicheng

    2016-11-01

    We propose an ultra-compact graphene-based plasmonic modulation that is compatible with complementary metaloxide- semiconductor processing. The proposed structure uses a monolayer graphene as a mid-infrared surface waveguide, whose optical response is spatially modulated using electric fields to form a Fabry-Perot cavity. By varying the voltage acting on the cavity, the transmitted wavelength of the device could be controled at room temperature. The finite element method (FEM) has been employed to verify our designs. This design has potential applications in the graphene-based silicon optoelectronic devices as it offers new possibilities for developing new ultra-compact spectrometers and low-cost hyperspectral imaging sensors in mid-infrared region.

  10. 3D numerical modeling for ultra-sensitive noninvasive size-dependent nanoparticle detection technique using subwavelength silicon microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Jeffrey P.; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element-method simulations are used to investigate a system consisting of a subwavelength silicon microdisk cavity for the detection of different viruses of the same type. This is done by observing the effects that a spherical nanoparticle had on the frequency resonances of WGMs of the silicon microdisk. Results show that the observed spectral shift vary for the TM15 mode with an attached nanoparticle of radiuses between 100-300 nm. This frequency shift size-dependence makes it possible the for mature and immature HIV-1 viruses to be identified by the resonant frequency change in the transmission spectrum.

  11. Amino Acid Changes in the HIV-1 gp41 Membrane Proximal Region Control Virus Neutralization Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Trama, Ashley; Tumba, Nancy; Gray, Elin; Lu, Xiaozhi; Madani, Navid; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Eaton, Amanda; Xia, Shi-Mao; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Barnett, Susan; Abdool-Karim, Salim S; Boyd, Scott D; Melillo, Bruno; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Gao, Feng; Bonsignori, Mattia; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M Anthony; Montefiori, David; Santra, Sampa; Morris, Lynn; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-10-01

    Most HIV-1 vaccines elicit neutralizing antibodies that are active against highly sensitive (tier-1) viruses or rare cases of vaccine-matched neutralization-resistant (tier-2) viruses, but no vaccine has induced antibodies that can broadly neutralize heterologous tier-2 viruses. In this study, we isolated antibodies from an HIV-1-infected individual that targeted the gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) that may have selected single-residue changes in viral variants in the MPER that resulted in neutralization sensitivity to antibodies targeting distal epitopes on the HIV-1 Env. Similarly, a single change in the MPER in a second virus from another infected-individual also conferred enhanced neutralization sensitivity. These gp41 single-residue changes thus transformed tier-2 viruses into tier-1 viruses that were sensitive to vaccine-elicited tier-1 neutralizing antibodies. These data demonstrate that Env amino acid changes within the MPER bnAb epitope of naturally-selected escape viruses can increase neutralization sensitivity to multiple types of neutralizing antibodies, and underscore the critical importance of the MPER for maintaining the integrity of the tier-2 HIV-1 trimer.

  12. Regulatory Regions of the Homeotic Gene Proboscipedia Are Sensitive to Chromosomal Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Kapoun, A. M.; Kaufman, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have identified regulatory regions of the homeotic gene proboscipedia that are capable of repressing a linked white minigene in a manner that is sensitive to chromosomal pairing. Normally, the eye color of transformants containing white in a P-element vector is affected by the number of copies of the transgene; homozygous flies have darker eyes than heterozygotes. However, we found that flies homozygous for select pb DNA-containing transgenes had lighter eyes than heterozygotes. Several pb DNA fragments are capable of causing this pairing sensitive (PS) negative regulation of white. Two fragments in the upstream DNA of pb, 0.58 and 0.98 kb, are PS; additionally, two PS sites are located in the second intron, including a 0.5-kb region and 49-bp sequence. This phenotype is not observed when two PS sites are located at different chromosomal insertion sites (in trans-heterozygous transgenic animals), indicating that the pb-DNA-mediated repression of white is dependent on the pairing or proximity of the PS regions. The observed phenomenon is similar to transvection in which certain alleles of a gene can complement each other, but only when homologous chromosomes are paired. Interestingly, the intronic PS regions contain positive regulatory sequences for pb, whereas the upstream PS sites contain pb negative regulatory elements. PMID:7498743

  13. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  14. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-04-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.

  15. Hypomethylation of cytosine residues in cold-sensitive regions of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Guarido, Paula Carolina Paes; de Paula, Adriano Alves; da Silva, Carlos Roberto Maximiano; Rodriguez, Carmen; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures. PMID:22888295

  16. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions.

  17. Transport of black carbon to polar regions: Sensitivity and forcing by black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Penner, Joyce E.; Flanner, Mark G.; Bisiaux, Marion M.; Edwards, Ross; McConnell, Joseph R.

    2012-11-01

    The transport of black carbon (BC) to polar regions is studied using the University of Michigan IMPACT aerosol model driven by two sets of meteorological fields from the NCAR CAM5 and GFDL AM3 models. The sensitivity of the transport of BC to wet deposition processes is tested by varying the wet deposition in large-scale precipitation. BC concentrations and deposition in polar regions are shown to be sensitive to both the meteorological fields and the wet deposition treatment. Using the default wet deposition, both IMPACT-CAM5 and IMPACT-AM3 simulate an appropriate amount of BC deposition in polar regions as compared to ice core observations. Although the seasonal cycle of BC surface air concentrations is reasonable, the concentrations are about 1˜2 orders of magnitude smaller than observations. With reduced wet deposition efficiency, the total deposition of BC increases by a factor of ˜2 to ˜3 due to more transport to the poles. The near surface BC concentrations increase even more (by a factor of ˜3 to ˜10) but are still largely underestimated especially in the north polar region. The radiative forcing from the BC deposited on snow and sea ice is also sensitive to the wet deposition treatment and the different meteorological fields. The global (Arctic) annual mean forcing is about +0.020 W m-2 (+0.11 W m-2) for IMPACT-CAM5 and +0.022 W m-2 (+0.13W m-2) for IMPACT-AM3.

  18. Singlet oxygen sensitizing materials based on porous silicone: photochemical characterization, effect of dye reloading and application to water disinfection with solar reactors.

    PubMed

    Manjón, Francisco; Santana-Magaña, Montserrat; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2010-06-01

    Photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) is applied to organic synthesis (photooxidations), atmosphere/water treatment (disinfection), antibiofouling materials and in photodynamic therapy of cancer. In this paper, (1)O(2) photosensitizing materials containing the dyes tris(4,4'-diphenyl-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (1, RDB(2+)) or tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (2, RDP(2+)), immobilized on porous silicone (abbreviated RDB/pSil and RDP/pSil), have been produced and tested for waterborne Enterococcus faecalis inactivation using a laboratory solar simulator and a compound parabolic collector (CPC)-based solar photoreactor. In order to investigate the feasibility of its reuse, the sunlight-exposed RDP/pSil sensitizing material (RDP/pSil-a) has been reloaded with RDP(2+) (RDP/pSil-r). Surprisingly, results for bacteria inactivation with the reloaded material have demonstrated a 4-fold higher efficiency compared to those of either RDP/pSil-a, unused RDB/pSil and the original RDP/pSil. Surface and bulk photochemical characterization of the new material (RDP/pSil-r) has shown that the bactericidal efficiency enhancement is due to aggregation of the silicone-supported photosensitizer on the surface of the polymer, as evidenced by confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Photogenerated (1)O(2) lifetimes in the wet sensitizer-doped silicone have been determined to be ten times longer than in water. These facts, together with the water rheology in the solar reactor and the interfacial production of the biocidal species, account for the more effective disinfection observed with the reloaded photosensitizing material. These results extend and improve the operational lifetime of photocatalytic materials for point-of-use (1)O(2)-mediated solar water disinfection.

  19. High Sensitivity Detection of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled DNA Based on N-type Porous Silicon Microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Changwu; Jia, Zhenhong; Lv, Jie; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Yanyu

    2017-01-01

    N-type macroporous silicon microcavity structures were prepared using electrochemical etching in an HF solution in the absence of light and oxidants. The CdSe/ZnS water-soluble quantum dot-labeled DNA target molecules were detected by monitoring the microcavity reflectance spectrum, which was characterized by the reflectance spectrum defect state position shift resulting from changes to the structures’ refractive index. Quantum dots with a high refractive index and DNA coupling can improve the detection sensitivity by amplifying the optical response signals of the target DNA. The experimental results show that DNA combined with a quantum dot can improve the sensitivity of DNA detection by more than five times. PMID:28045442

  20. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  1. Heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon 2.3x μm distributed feedback lasers based on a type-II active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Malik, Aditya; Vasiliev, Anton; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-11-01

    We report on 2.3x μm wavelength InP-based type-II distributed feedback (DFB) lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonics integrated circuit. In the devices, a III-V epitaxial layer stack with a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well active region is adhesively bonded to the first-order silicon DFB gratings. Single mode laser emission coupled to a single mode silicon waveguide with a side mode suppression ratio of 40 dB is obtained. In continuous-wave regime, the 2.32 μm laser operates close to room temperature (above 15 °C) and emits more than 1 mW output power with a threshold current density of 1.8 kA/cm2 at 5 °C. A tunable diode laser absorption measurement of CO is demonstrated using this source.

  2. Sensitive analysis of carbon, chromium and silicon in steel using picosecond laser induced low pressure helium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Pardede, Marincan; Jobiliong, Eric; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Suyanto, Hery; Tjia, May On; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2015-12-01

    An experimental study has been performed on the gas pressure and laser energy dependent variations of plasma emission intensities in Ar, He and N2 ambient gases induced by picosecond (ps) Nd-YAG laser irradiation on low alloy steel (JSS) samples. The study is aimed to demonstrate distinct advantage of using low pressure He ambient gas in combination with ps laser for the sensitive ppm level detection of C, Si and Cr emission lines in the UV-VIS spectral region. The much shorter pulses of ps laser are chosen for the effective ablation at much lower energy and for the benefit of reducing the undesirable long heating of the sample surface. It is found that the C I 247.8 nm, Fe I 253.5 nm, and Si I 251.4 nm emission lines induced by the ps laser at 15 mJ are readily detected with He ambient gas of 2.6 kPA, featuring generally sharp spectral signals with very low background. The following experimental results using samples with various concentrations of C, Si and Cr impurities are shown to produce for each of those elements a linear calibration line with extrapolated zero intercept, demonstrating the applicability for their quantitative analyses, with a preliminary estimated detection limits of 20 μg/g, 15 μg/g, and 5 μg/g, for C, Si, and Cr, respectively. The possibility of applying the same setup for concentration depth profiling is also demonstrated.

  3. Sensitization to psychostimulants and stress after injection of pertussis toxin into the A10 dopamine region.

    PubMed

    Steketee, J D; Kalivas, P W

    1991-11-01

    An augmentation of psychostimulant-induced motor activity, termed sensitization, occurs with daily treatment and can last for months or years. At least in part, sensitization results from a long-term change in mesocorticolimbic dopamine transmission and may involve a disinhibition of dopamine neurons. Dopamine D2 autoreceptors and gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) receptors provide tonic inhibition to dopamine neurons via a G protein-mediated increase in K+ efflux. To evaluate the role of these inhibitory mechanisms in sensitization, pertussis toxin (PTX) was injected into the A10 dopamine region to uncouple the receptors via ADP-ribosylation of G proteins. In this study we demonstrated a significant augmentation in cocaine-stimulated motor activity, at doses greater than 3.0 mg/kg, 14 days after intra-A10 injection of PTX. Also, amphetamine-, but not morphine- or caffeine-stimulated motor activity was significantly augmented 2 weeks after PTX pretreatment. In vivo microdialysis revealed an augmentation of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens 14 days after PTX pretreatment. Pretreatment in the A10 region with the GABAB agonist baclofen, blocked cocaine-stimulated motor activity in control animals, but not in PTX-pretreated animals, indicating that the PTX treatment had uncoupled the GABAB receptor. Footshock stress activates mesocortical dopamine transmission, and postmortem tissue levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the prefrontal cortex were increased in PTX-pretreated animals. We hypothesize that the sensitized responses to cocaine, amphetamine and stress produced by PTX results from a decrease in dopamine D2 and GABAB-mediated inhibitory control of A10 dopamine neurons.

  4. Sensitivity of northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation to surface and boundary forcing: A regional model assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Catherine E.; Bianucci, Laura; Fennel, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The northwestern North Atlantic shelf circulation, influenced by both North Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres, is one of the hydrographically most variable regions in the North Atlantic Ocean and hosts biologically rich and productive fishing grounds. With the goal of simulating conditions in this productive and complex region, we implemented a nested regional ocean model for the northwest North Atlantic shelves including the Gulf of Maine, the Scotian Shelf, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Grand Banks, and the adjacent deep ocean. Configuring such a model requires choosing external data to supply surface forcing and initial and boundary conditions, as well as the consideration of nesting options. Although these selections can greatly affect model performance and results, often they are not systematically investigated. Here we assessed the sensitivity of our regional model to a suite of atmospheric forcing datasets, to sets of initial and boundary conditions constructed from multiple global ocean models and a larger scale regional ocean model, and to two variants of the model grid - one extending further off-shelf and resolving Flemish Cap topography. We conducted model simulations for a 6-year period and assessed model performance relative to a regional climatological dataset of temperature and salinity, observations collected from multiple monitoring stations and cruise transect lines, satellite sea surface temperature (SST) data, and descriptions of regional currents from literature. Based on this model assessment, we determined the model configuration that best reproduces observations. We find that while all surface forcing datasets are capable of producing model SST close to observed, the different datasets result in significant differences in model sea surface salinity (SSS). We find that initial and boundary conditions based on global ocean models do not necessary produce realistic circulation, and climatological initial and boundary conditions can

  5. Electrocatalytic activity of NiO on silicon nanowires with a carbon shell and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junhee; Jung, Cho-Long; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Soomin; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Park, Jeounghee; Jun, Yongseok; Kim, Donghwan

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of a material, it is critical to maximize the effective surface area by directly contacting the electrolyte. Nanowires are a promising building block for catalysts in electrochemical applications because of their large surface area. Nickel oxide (NiO) decoration was achieved by drop-casting a nickel-dissolved solution onto vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell (SiNW/C). Based on the hybridization of the NiO and silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell this study aimed to achieve a synergic effect for the catalytic activity performance. This study demonstrated that the resulting nanomaterial exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and performs well as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The compositions of the materials were examined using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Their micro- and nano-structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical activity toward I-/I3- was examined using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained peak power conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on the NiO@SiNW/C counter electrode was 9.49%, which was greater than that of the DSSC based on the Pt counter electrode.To improve the catalytic activity of a material, it is critical to maximize the effective surface area by directly contacting the electrolyte. Nanowires are a promising building block for catalysts in electrochemical applications because of their large surface area. Nickel oxide (NiO) decoration was achieved by drop-casting a nickel-dissolved solution onto vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell (SiNW/C). Based on the hybridization of the NiO and silicon nanowire arrays with a carbon shell this study aimed to achieve a synergic effect for the catalytic activity performance. This study demonstrated that the

  6. Influence of phosphorus on the reduction of silicon in regions characterized by droplet flow of the smelting products

    SciTech Connect

    V.A. Kim; N.V. Chainikova

    2008-08-15

    The influence of phosphorus on the thermodynamics of silicon reduction in Fe-Si-C melts is considered. The influence of the theoretical combustion temperature of coke in the tuyeres on the silicon content is studied in the blast-furnace smelting of low-phosphorus hot metal at AO Arcelor Mittal Temirtau.

  7. Effects of reward sensitivity and regional brain volumes on substance use initiation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Schissel, Ann; Lim, Kelvin O.; Luciana, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines associations between baseline individual differences and developmental changes in reward [i.e. behavioral approach system (BAS)] sensitivity and relevant brain structures’ volumes to prospective substance use initiation during adolescence. A community sample of adolescents ages 15–18 with no prior substance use was assessed for substance use initiation (i.e. initiation of regular alcohol use and/or any use of other substances) during a 2-year follow-up period and for alcohol use frequency in the last year of the follow-up. Longitudinal ‘increases’ in BAS sensitivity were associated with substance use initiation and increased alcohol use frequency during the follow-up. Moreover, adolescents with smaller left nucleus accumbens at baseline were more likely to initiate substance use during the follow-up period. This study provides support for the link between developmental increases in reward sensitivity and substance use initiation in adolescence. The study also emphasizes the potential importance of individual differences in volumes of subcortical regions and their structural development for substance use initiation during adolescence. PMID:24526186

  8. Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, Matthew S; Washburn, Adam L; Martin, Teresa A; Iqbal, Muzammil; Gunn, L Cary; Bailey, Ryan C

    2010-12-15

    Silicon photonic microring resonators have emerged as a sensitive and highly multiplexed platform for real-time biomolecule detection. Herein, we profile the evanescent decay of device sensitivity towards molecular binding as a function of distance from the microring surface. By growing multilayers of electrostatically bound polymers extending from the sensor surface, we are able to empirically determine that the evanescent field intensity is characterized by a 1/e response decay distance of 63 nm. We then applied this knowledge to study the growth of biomolecular assemblies consisting of alternating layers of biotinylated antibody and streptavidin, which follow a more complex growth pattern. Additionally, by monitoring the shift in microring resonance wavelength upon the deposition of a radioactively labeled protein, the mass sensitivity of the ring resonator platform was determined to be 14.7±6.7 [pg/mm(2)]/Δpm. By extrapolating to the instrument noise baseline, the mass/area limit of detection is found to be 1.5±0.7 pg/mm(2). Taking the small surface area of the microring sensor into consideration, this value corresponds to an absolute mass detection limit of 125 ag (i.e. 0.8 zmol of IgG), demonstrating the remarkable sensitivity of this promising label-free biomolecular sensing platform.

  9. A possible functional localizer for identifying brain regions sensitive to sentence-level prosody.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Hsieh, Po-Jang; Balewski, Zuzanna

    Investigations of how we produce and perceive prosodic patterns are not only interesting in their own right but can inform fundamental questions in language research. We here argue that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in general - and the functional localization approach in particular (e.g., Kanwisher et al., 1997; Saxe et al., 2006; Fedorenko et al., 2010; Nieto-Castañon & Fedorenko, 2012) - has the potential to help address open research questions in prosody research and at the intersection of prosody and other domains. Critically, this approach can go beyond questions like "where in the brain does mental process x produce activation" and toward questions that probe the nature of the representations and computations that subserve different mental abilities. We describe one way to functionally define regions sensitive to sentence-level prosody in individual subjects. This or similar "localizer" contrasts can be used in future studies to test hypotheses about the precise contributions of prosody-sensitive brain regions to prosodic processing and cognition more broadly.

  10. Sensitivity analysis with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM over the CORDEX-MENA domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucchignani, E.; Cattaneo, L.; Panitz, H.-J.; Mercogliano, P.

    2016-02-01

    The results of a sensitivity work based on ERA-Interim driven COSMO-CLM simulations over the Middle East-North Africa (CORDEX-MENA) domain are presented. All simulations were performed at 0.44° spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to ascertain model performances with respect to changes in physical and tuning parameters which are mainly related to surface, convection, radiation and cloud parameterizations. Evaluation was performed for the whole CORDEX-MENA region and six sub-regions, comparing a set of 26 COSMO-CLM runs against a combination of available ground observations, satellite products and reanalysis data to assess temperature, precipitation, cloud cover and mean sea level pressure. The model proved to be very sensitive to changes in physical parameters. The optimized configuration allows COSMO-CLM to improve the simulated main climate features of this area. Its main characteristics consist in the new parameterization of albedo, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data, and the new parameterization of aerosol, based on NASA-GISS AOD distributions. When applying this configuration, Mean Absolute Error values for the considered variables are as follows: about 1.2 °C for temperature, about 15 mm/month for precipitation, about 9 % for total cloud cover, and about 0.6 hPa for mean sea level pressure.

  11. Significant temperature and pressure sensitivities of electrical properties in chemically modified multiwall carbon nanotube/methylvinyl silicone rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mei-Juan; Dang, Zhi-Min; Xu, Hai-Ping

    2006-10-01

    The effects of γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane coupling agent on electrical properties in multiwall carbon nanotube/methylvinyl silicone rubber nanocomposites were studied. The results showed that the modified nanotubes could be dispersed homogeneously and that they had a tight bonding with the rubber matrix. The concentration of coupling agent played a crucial role in deciding the conductivity and the electrical properties of the nanocomposites exhibited strong dependences on temperature and pressure. Dependences of electrical properties on temperature and pressure were also improved by increasing the content of coupling agent.

  12. An accelerated stress testing program for determining the reliability sensitivity of silicon solar cells to encapsulation and metallization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Davis, C. W.; Royal, E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of accelerated testing methods in a program to determine the reliability attributes of terrestrial silicon solar cells is discussed. Different failure modes are to be expected when cells with and without encapsulation are subjected to accelerated testing and separate test schedules for each are described. Unencapsulated test cells having slight variations in metallization are used to illustrate how accelerated testing can highlight different diffusion related failure mechanisms. The usefulness of accelerated testing when applied to encapsulated cells is illustrated by results showing that moisture related degradation may be many times worse with some forms of encapsulation than with no encapsulation at all.

  13. Regional variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in China's forests and grasslands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; He, Nianpeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Xu, Li; Yu, Guirui; Niu, Shuli; Sun, Xiaomin; Wen, Xuefa

    2017-01-05

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10 ) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10 . The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10 , were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  14. Sensitivity of CoSi{sub 2} precipitation in silicon to extra-low dopant concentrations. I. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, F.; Ruault, M.-O.; Kaïtasov, O.; Borodin, V. A.; Ganchenkova, M. G.

    2015-01-28

    We demonstrate that the precipitation of cobalt disilicide phase in silicon during high-temperature (500 °C and 650 °C) implantation is noticeably affected by impurities of phosphorus and boron. Measurements of B-type CoSi{sub 2} cluster sizes and number densities as a function of implantation dose indicate that the number density of clusters progressively increases as the phosphorus concentration increases from 7 × 10{sup 11} to 8 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −3}. A tentative explanation of these observations is proposed based on the previously suggested mechanism of precipitate nucleation, and on the results of first principles calculations summarized in Paper II, published as a follow-up paper. The results imply that utmost care is to be taken when dealing with transition metal precipitation during ion implantation into silicon because variations in the dopant content can affect the reproducibility of results even at extremely low dopant concentrations.

  15. Silicon on-chip side-coupled high-Q micro-cavities for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal integrated sensors array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daquan; Wang, Chunhong; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Yujie; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) silicon (Si) photonic crystal (PC) α-H0-slot micro-cavity with high Q-factor and high sensitivity (S) is presented. Based on the proposed α-H0-Slot micro-cavities, an optimal design of photonic crystal integrated sensors array (PC-ISA) on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is displayed. By using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the simulation results demonstrate that both large S of 200 nm/RIU (RIU=refractive index unit) and high Q-factor >104 at telecom wavelength range can be achieved simultaneously. And the sensor figure of merit (FOM)>7000 is featured, an order of magnitude improvement over previous 2D PC sensors array. In addition, for the proposed 2D PC-ISA device, each sensor unit is shown to independently shift its resonance wavelength in response to the changes in refractive index (RI) and does not perturb the others. Thus, it is potentially an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact lab-on-a-chip applications with dense arrays of functionalized spots for multiplexed sensing, and also can be used as an opto-fluidic architecture for performing highly parallel detection of biochemical interactions in aqueous environments.

  16. Biosensor based on a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor functionalized by gold nanoparticles for the highly sensitive determination of prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Presnova, Galina; Presnov, Denis; Krupenin, Vladimir; Grigorenko, Vitaly; Trifonov, Artem; Andreeva, Irina; Ignatenko, Olga; Egorov, Alexey; Rubtsova, Maya

    2017-02-15

    We have demonstrated label-free and real-time detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in human serum using silicon nanowire field effect transistors (NW FETs) with Schottky contacts (Si-Ti). The NW FETs were fabricated from SOI material using high-resolution e-beam lithography, thin film vacuum deposition and reactive-ion etching processes eliminating complicated processes of doping and thermal annealing. This allowed substantial simplifying the transistors manufacturing. A new method for covalent immobilization of half-fragments of antibodies on silicon modified by 3-glycidopropyltrimethoxysilane with thiol groups and 5nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was established. NW FETs functionalized by GNPs revealed extremely high pH sensitivity of 70mV/pH and enhanced electrical performance in the detection of antigen due to enhanced surface/volume ratio, favorable orientation of antibody active sites and approaching the source of the electric field close to the transistor surface. Si NWFETs were applied for quantitative detection of PSA in a buffer and human serum diluted 1/100. Response time was about 5-10s, and analysis time per sample was 1min. The limit of PSA detection was of 23fg/mL, concentration range of 23fg/mL-500ng/mL (7 orders of magnitude). The PSA concentrations determined by the NW FETs in serum were compared with well-established ELISA method. The results matched well with the correlation coefficient of 0.97.

  17. Rheological studies on pressure-sensitive silicone adhesives and drug-in-adhesive layers as a means to characterise adhesive performance.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kwong Yat; Dodou, Kalliopi

    2007-03-21

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives are viscoelastic polymers used in the formulation of transdermal patches that allow attachment of a patch onto the skin. Established criteria exist that correlate viscoelastic parameters with adhesive performance. In this study, fulfillment of the adhesive performance criteria was examined using two silicone adhesives with different tack properties. The viscoelastic parameters of high and low tack silicone adhesives (BIO-PSA High Tack 7-4302 and BIO-PSA Low Tack 7-4102) were determined and compared with the criteria described by Chu and Dahlquist. Drug-in-adhesive layers were prepared using the high tack adhesive combined with nortriptyline HCl or paracetamol. The effect of drug addition on the viscoelastic properties of the adhesive was examined. The high tack adhesive showed congruence with the established criteria although with a modified range of viscoelastic moduli to that described by Chu. Examination of the low tack adhesive showed that it did not possess the appropriate viscoelastic properties for bonding onto the skin. The addition of the drugs into the high tack adhesive caused a concentration-dependent increase in its cohesive strength. This effect was independent of the physicochemical properties of the drugs tested.

  18. Investigation of morphology, electrical behavior (AC and DC) and CO2 gas sensitivity of porous silicon deposited with nanolayers of bromo aluminum phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azim-Araghi, M. E.; Bisadi, Z.

    2012-05-01

    The AC and DC electrical properties of sandwich devices fabricated with silicon (Si), porous silicon (PSi) and nanolayers of bromo aluminum phthalocyanine with aluminum electrodes (Al/Si/Al, Al/Si/PSi/Al, Al/Si/BrAlPc/Al and Al/Si/PSi/BrAlPc/Al) were examined over the voltage, frequency and temperature range of 0-11 mV, 102-105 Hz and 303-423 K respectively. Morphology of the samples was studied via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) micrographs. Capacitance is practically independent of frequency (f) in the range of 102-104 Hz, whereas it is extremely frequency dependent for f > 104 Hz. Dissipation factor decreased with increasing frequency to a minimum value and increased noticeably thereafter. Capacitance and dissipation factor are almost independent of temperature; capacitance increases with increasing temperature for T > 380 K. The AC electrical behavior of sandwich devices has been shown to be in agreement with the model of Goswami and Goswami. According to our data the Al contact in sandwich devices is of ohmic type and the tunneling mechanism is applicable in explaining the DC conduction process. The Al/Si/PSi/BrAlPc/Al device, compared to other devices, exhibits the highest sensitivity to CO2.

  19. Photo-thermo-refractive glass with sensitivity extended to near infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompan, F.; Venus, G.; Glebova, L.; Mingareev, H.; Glebov, L.

    2016-02-01

    Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is a multicomponent silicate glass doped with Ce3+ and Ag+ which is extensively used for holographic recording of volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Possibility of recording of advanced, complex holograms in the PTR glass is of current interest as it offers great opportunities in imaging and laser systems control. However, the glass does not have capabilities for recording of complex holograms with using light from the visible / IR spectral region due to its UV photosensitivity. Extension of the PTR-glass sensitivity range into the visible / IR spectral region was carried out by doping the original glass with trivalent terbium ions. Photosensitivity mechanism was implemented by means of excited state absorption using a UV photon and a visible photon for excitation of the Tb3+ 5d14f7 band. For the first time refractive index modulation on the order of 2x10-4 was obtained in PTR glass after exposure to the visible / IR light. Resulting magnitude of induced refractive index allows for high efficiency complex hologram fabrication in Tb3+ doped PTR glass for use which in the visible / IR region. Holographic capabilities of Tb3+ doped PTR glass were demonstrated by recording a complex hologram in the glass using green and blue light.

  20. Comparisons of LET distributions measured in low-earth orbit using tissue-equivalent proportional counters and the position-sensitive silicon-detector telescope (RRMD-III).

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Borak, T B

    2001-09-01

    Determinations of the LET distribution, phi(L), of charged particles within a spacecraft in low-Earth orbit have been made. One method used a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), with the assumption that for each measured event, lineal energy, y, is equal to LET and thus phi(L) = phi(y). The other was based on the direct measurement of LETs for individual particles using a charged-particle telescope consisting of position-sensitive silicon detectors called RRMD-III. There were differences of up to a factor of 10 between estimates of phi(L) using the two methods on the same mission. This caused estimates of quality factor to vary by a factor of two between the two methods.

  1. Fabrication of detectors and transistors on high-resistivity silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, S.

    1988-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of silicon p-i-n diode radiation detectors is described. The utilization of backside gettering in the fabrication process results in the actual physical removal of detrimental impurities from critical device regions. This reduces the sensitivity of detector properties to processing variables while yielding low diode reverse-leakage currents. In addition, gettering permits the use of processing temperatures compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. P-channel MOSFETs and silicon p-i-n diodes have been fabricated simultaneously on 10 k..cap omega../center dot/cm<100> silicon using conventional integrated-circuit processing techniques. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Effect of silicon on stability of austenite during isothermal annealing of low-alloy steel with medium carbon content in the transition region between pearlitic and bainitic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeníček, Š.; Vorel, I.; Káňa, J.; Ibrahim, K.; Kotěšovec, V.

    2017-02-01

    In a vast majority of steels, a prerequisite to successful heat treatment is the phase transformation of initial austenite to the desired type of microstructure which may consist of ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite or their combinations. Diffusion plays an important role in this phase transformation. Together with enthalpy and entropy, two thermodynamic quantities, diffusion represents the decisive mechanism for the formation of the particular phase. The basis of diffusion is the thermally-activated movement of ions of alloying and residual elements. It is generally known that austenite becomes more stable during isothermal treatment in the transitional region between pearlitic and bainitic transformation. This is due to thermodynamic processes which arise from the chemical composition of the steel. The transformation of austenite to pearlite or bainite is generally accompanied by formation of cementite. The latter can be suppressed by adding silicon to the steel because this element does not dissolve in cementite, and therefore prevents its formation. The strength of this effect of silicon depends mainly on the temperature of isothermal treatment. If a steel with a sufficient silicon content is annealed at a temperature, at which silicon cannot migrate by diffusion, cementite cannot form and austenite becomes stable for hours.

  3. metilene: fast and sensitive calling of differentially methylated regions from bisulfite sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Jühling, Frank; Kretzmer, Helene; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Otto, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.; Hoffmann, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The detection of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) is a necessary prerequisite for characterizing different epigenetic states. We present a novel program, metilene, to identify DMRs within whole-genome and targeted data with unrivaled specificity and sensitivity. A binary segmentation algorithm combined with a two-dimensional statistical test allows the detection of DMRs in large methylation experiments with multiple groups of samples in minutes rather than days using off-the-shelf hardware. metilene outperforms other state-of-the-art tools for low coverage data and can estimate missing data. Hence, metilene is a versatile tool to study the effect of epigenetic modifications in differentiation/development, tumorigenesis, and systems biology on a global, genome-wide level. Whether in the framework of international consortia with dozens of samples per group, or even without biological replicates, it produces highly significant and reliable results. PMID:26631489

  4. 20th century precipitation changes in the Sahel region: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, D.; Baumgartner, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 20th century has seen an enormous growth in population and industrialization. These changes are accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. We present a preliminary analysis of these global simulation data for the Sahel region (land within 20W / 35E / 10N / 20N). The annual cycle as well as the overall temporal evolution of precipitation in the Sahel according to CRU (Climate Research Unit, UK) is captured well by the model simulations: two comparatively wet phases in the 1930s and 1950s, a more or less continuous decline thereafter, and a renewed increase in precipitation since the 1980s. This decline / renewed incline since the 1950s is, however, about twice as strong in the CRU data than in the model data. The sensitivity studies reveal SSTs as a prominent factor for the time evolution of precipitation, while the atmosphere only effect of aerosols plays a minor role for the modeled precipitation. The observation based prescribed SSTs may, however, encapsulate and aerosol effect already.

  5. Days to heading 7, a major quantitative locus determining photoperiod sensitivity and regional adaptation in rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, He; Jin, Mingna; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Jun; Yuan, Dingyang; Xin, Yeyun; Wang, Maoqing; Huang, Dongyi; Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Kunneng; Sheng, Peike; Ma, Jin; Ma, Weiwei; Deng, Huafeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Shijia; Wang, Haiyang; Wu, Chuanyin; Yuan, Longping; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-11-18

    Success of modern agriculture relies heavily on breeding of crops with maximal regional adaptability and yield potentials. A major limiting factor for crop cultivation is their flowering time, which is strongly regulated by day length (photoperiod) and temperature. Here we report identification and characterization of Days to heading 7 (DTH7), a major genetic locus underlying photoperiod sensitivity and grain yield in rice. Map-based cloning reveals that DTH7 encodes a pseudo-response regulator protein and its expression is regulated by photoperiod. We show that in long days DTH7 acts downstream of the photoreceptor phytochrome B to repress the expression of Ehd1, an up-regulator of the "florigen" genes (Hd3a and RFT1), leading to delayed flowering. Further, we find that haplotype combinations of DTH7 with Grain number, plant height, and heading date 7 (Ghd7) and DTH8 correlate well with the heading date and grain yield of rice under different photoperiod conditions. Our data provide not only a macroscopic view of the genetic control of photoperiod sensitivity in rice but also a foundation for breeding of rice cultivars better adapted to the target environments using rational design.

  6. Sensitivity to Spacing Information Increases More for the Eye Region than for the Mouth Region during Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity to spacing information within faces improves with age and reaches maturity only at adolescence. In this study, we tested 6-16-year-old children's sensitivity to vertical spacing when the eyes or the mouth is the facial feature selectively manipulated. Despite the similar discriminability of these manipulations when they are embedded in…

  7. Sensitivity analysis of differential absorption lidar measurements in the mid-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Ambrico, P F; Amodeo, A; Di Girolamo, P; Spinelli, N

    2000-12-20

    The availability of new laser sources that are tunable in the IR spectral region opens new perspectives for differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements. A region of particular interest is located in the near IR, where some of the atmospheric pollutants have absorption lines that permit monitoring of emissions from industrial plants and in urban areas. In DIAL measurements, the absorption lines for the species to be measured must be carefully chosen to prevent interference from other molecules, to minimize the dependence of the absorption cross section on temperature, and to optimize the measurements with respect to the optical depth. We analyze the influence of these factors and discuss a set of criteria for selecting the best pairs of wavelengths (lambda(on) and lambda(off)) to be used in DIAL measurements of several molecular species (HCl, CO, CO(2), NO(2), CH(4), H(2)O, and O(2)). Moreover, a sensitivity study has been carried out for selected lines in three different regimes: clean air, urban polluted air, and emission from an incinerator stack.

  8. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  9. Forcing the statistical regionalization method WETTREG with large scale models of different resolution: A sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekat, A.; Baumgart, S.; Kreienkamp, F.; Enke, W.

    2010-09-01

    The statistical regionalization method WETTREG is making use of the assumption that future climate changes are linked to changes in large scale atmospheric patterns. The frequency distributions of those patterns and their time-dependency are identified in the output fields of dynamical climate models and applied to force WETTREG. Thus, the magnitude and the time evolution of high-resolution climate signals for time horizons far into the 21st century can be computed. The model results employed to force WETTREG include the GCMS ECHAM5C, HadCM3C and CNRM. Additionally results from the dynamical regional models CLM, DMI, HadRM, RACMO and REMO, nested into one or more of these global models, are used in their pattern-generating capacity to force WETTREG. The study yield insight concerning the forcing-dependent sensitivity of WETTREG as well as the bandwidth of climate change signals. Recent results for the German State of Hesse will be presented in an intercomparison study.

  10. Assessment of future scenarios for wind erosion sensitivity changes based on ALADIN and REMO regional climate model simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezősi, Gábor; Blanka, Viktória; Bata, Teodóra; Ladányi, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Gábor; Meyer, Burghard C.

    2016-07-01

    The changes in rate and pattern of wind erosion sensitivity due to climate change were investigated for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 compared to the reference period (1961-1990) in Hungary. The sensitivities of the main influencing factors (soil texture, vegetation cover and climate factor) were evaluated by fuzzy method and a combined wind erosion sensitivity map was compiled. The climate factor, as the driving factor of the changes, was assessed based on observed data for the reference period, while REMO and ALADIN regional climate model simulation data for the future periods. The changes in wind erosion sensitivity were evaluated on potentially affected agricultural land use types, and hot spot areas were allocated. Based on the results, 5-6% of the total agricultural areas were high sensitive areas in the reference period. In the 21st century slight or moderate changes of wind erosion sensitivity can be expected, and mostly `pastures', `complex cultivation patterns', and `land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation' are affected. The applied combination of multi-indicator approach and fuzzy analysis provides novelty in the field of land sensitivity assessment. The method is suitable for regional scale analysis of wind erosion sensitivity changes and supports regional planning by allocating priority areas where changes in agro-technics or land use have to be considered.

  11. Plant Transpiration and its Sensitivity to Increasing Carbon Dioxide Concentration at Leaf, Canopy and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiwu

    1995-01-01

    This thesis assembles simulation models for plant transpiration and uses these models to investigate the sensitivity of transpiration rates to the elevation of atmospheric CO_2 concentration at leaf, canopy and regional scales. The leaf transpiration model assembly (LTMA) simulates stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthesis, leaf boundary layer conductance, mass and energy transfer, leaf energy balance. The stomatal conductance model and the leaf photosynthesis model are selected from two candidate stomatal models and four candidate biochemical photosynthesis models, based on the comparison of the model results with literature-surveyed observations. Integration of the LTMA for all the leaves within a plant canopy, with the modeled canopy structure, wind speed profile, radiation distribution, and soil surface fluxes, produces a canopy evapotranspiration model assembly (CEMA). Coupling the CEMA with an atmospheric boundary layer model, a larger model assembly (REMA) for simulating the evapotranspiration from a region covered with a homogeneous canopy is obtained. From the outputs of the LTMA, it is found that in response to a doubling of atmospheric CO_2 concentration the modeled leaf transpiration rate will be reduced by around -23.0% for C _3 plants and -26.6% for C4 plants. The simulated reduction in stomatal conductance resulting from the CO_2 doubling is 37.0% for C_3 plants and 37.7% for C_4 plants. The difference of the responses of stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration to CO_2 changes is found to be the results of the leaf boundary layer damping effect and the leaf temperature feedback effect. The CO_2 sensitivity of canopy evapotranspiration is found to be smaller still than that of leaf transpiration: the corresponding percentage changes with a CO_2 doubling are -15.7% and -16.1% respectively for C_3 and C_4 canopies. The cause is found to be the extension of the air within the canopy to the leaf boundary layers. The temperature feedback and the

  12. Representation of Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in Regional Climate Model: Sensitivity to Convective Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    U, U.

    2015-12-01

    We use latest version of International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) regional climate model RegCM4.4 for the study of seasonal mean and monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) during Indian summer monsoon season over south Asian CORDEX domain. First time we have done detailed analysis to evaluate RegCM4.4 for space-time evolution characteristics of MISOs. The model is initialized at 1st January, 2000 for a 13-year continuous simulation at a spatial resolution of 50km. The sensitivity of the model performance to cumulus physics in simulating MISOs has been evaluated by considering three different combinations of Grell (G) and Emanuel (E) cumulus schemes. The models reasonably simulate the seasonal mean precipitation and 850-hPa wind with a notable bias in precipitation over Indian subcontinent and Equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO). The models exhibit higher skill in simulating seasonal mean wind than moisture and precipitation. On seasonal scale, the performance of RegCM-EG is more close to observation. However, on intraseasonal time scales, RegCM-EG fails to capture 25-90 day filtered precipitation variance over EIO which reflects in improper representation of features of MISOs. The space-time characteristics of MISOs are well captured by RegCM-EE over RegCM-GE, however it fails to show the eastward propagation of the convection across the Maritime Continent. Except RegCM-EE all other models completely underestimated the moisture advection from EIO onto Indian land region throughout the life-cycle of MISOs. It is found that the improvement in the representation of moist processes in RegCM-EE makes it useful for the study of characteristics of MISOs at regional scales. Figure below is lag composite of vertically integrated 25-90 day filtered horizontal moisture advection (shaded) and precipitation (black contour).

  13. Silicon on graphite cloth

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E.; Thomas, C.J.; Ingram, A.E.; Bai, Y.B.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    A new polycrystalline silicon solar cell has been developed that utilizes commercially available graphite cloth as a substrate. This solar cell has achieved an energy conversion efficiency of 13.4% (AM1.5G). It is believed that this is a record efficiency for a silicon solar cell formed on a graphite substrate. The silicon-on-fabric structure is comprised of a thin layer of polycrystalline silicon grown directly on the graphite fabric substrate. The structure is fabricated by a low-cost ribbon process that avoids the expense and waste of wafering. The fabric substrate gives structural support to the thin device. Critical to the achievement of device quality silicon layers is control over impurities in the graphite fabric. The silicon-on-fabric technology has the potential to supply lightweight, low-cost solar cells to weight-sensitive markets at a fraction of the cost of conventionally thinned wafers.

  14. An Inter-Regional Comparison of Ozone Sensitivity to Reductions in Emissions in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Jia, Y.; Beaver, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Cordova, J.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC have declined significantly in central California over the past 60 years due to rigorous emission control programs, with 40 to 50 percent reductions achieved from 1990 to 2010 alone. Three major air basins, however, are still designated as nonattainment areas for the federal 8-hour ozone standard: the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), Sacramento area and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Historically, ozone response to reductions in emissions varied from region to region. While the maximum hourly ozone concentrations have declined significantly in all three air basins, the locations of maximum ozone shifted. Some exceedance areas came into compliance with the standard while new areas started exceeding the standard. Some areas did not significantly respond to reductions in emissions. To meet the current ozone standard, additional emission reductions are needed. Further emission reductions above and beyond the goal of meeting the current standard will be needed if the EPA lowers the current standard. In an effort to help planners and decision makers, we have been conducting a modeling study to better understand how ozone may respond to future emission reductions in the region. In this initial phase of the study, we used the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate ozone for July 12-28, 2006, a representative high ozone period for all three air basins. With the selected high grid resolution and optimum model setup, the model performance for the base case simulation was exceptionally good. Statistical agreement with observations was better than most previously applied models in the region. We performed a number of sensitivity simulations by reducing anthropogenic VOC or NOx emissions separately or together 10-60 percent at 10 percent intervals uniformly across the board and prepared EKMA diagrams at observation stations. We found that a 60 percent reduction in VOC and NOx emissions reduced the maximum ozone by 20-30 percent in the

  15. Climate effects of a hypothetical regional nuclear war: Sensitivity to emission duration and particle composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Lindvall, Jenny; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Svensson, Gunilla

    2016-11-01

    Here, we use a coupled atmospheric-ocean-aerosol model to investigate the plume development and climate effects of the smoke generated by fires following a regional nuclear war between emerging third-world nuclear powers. We simulate a standard scenario where 5 Tg of black carbon (BC) is emitted over 1 day in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. However, it is likely that the emissions from the fires ignited by bomb detonations include a substantial amount of particulate organic matter (POM) and that they last more than 1 day. We therefore test the sensitivity of the aerosol plume and climate system to the BC/POM ratio (1:3, 1:9) and to the emission length (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). We find that in general, an emission length of 1 month substantially reduces the cooling compared to the 1-day case, whereas taking into account POM emissions notably increases the cooling and the reduction of precipitation associated with the nuclear war during the first year following the detonation. Accounting for POM emissions increases the particle size in the short-emission-length scenarios (1 day/1 week), reducing the residence time of the injected particle. While the initial cooling is more intense when including POM emission, the long-lasting effects, while still large, may be less extreme compared to the BC-only case. Our study highlights that the emission altitude reached by the plume is sensitive to both the particle type emitted by the fires and the emission duration. Consequently, the climate effects of a nuclear war are strongly dependent on these parameters.

  16. Retinal region of polarization sensitivity switches during ontogeny of rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Shai; Habib-Nayany, Maheen F; Dargaei, Zahra; Hauser, Frances E; Kamermans, Maarten; Hawryshyn, Craig W

    2013-04-24

    Polarization sensitivity (PS) in vertebrate vision is controversial, perhaps because its underlying mechanism has remained obscure. An issue that might have added to the controversy is that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which have served as the primary model system for polarization-based orientation, lose their ability to orient relative to celestial polarized-light patterns when parr (fry) transform into migratory smolts (juveniles), which would benefit most from polarization-based orientation. Here we addressed two key questions: (1) what is the mechanism underling PS?, and (2) how can the paradoxical loss of PS in trout smolts be reconciled? We assessed PS from optic nerve recordings in parr and smolts and found that the retinal region with enhanced PS shifted from the ventral retina in parr to the dorsal retina in smolts. This adaptation may allow fish to use the most reliable polarization field encountered at each life stage, the celestial polarization field in the shallow-swimming parr and the depth-insensitive underwater polarization field in the deep-swimming smolts. In addition, we assessed spectral sensitivity across the retina and during ontogeny and fit a cascade retinal model to PS data. We found that differential contribution of two cone detectors with orthogonal PS could drive the variation in PS and that feedback from horizontal cells to cones could explain the differential amplification of PS. This elegant arrangement, in which weak PS of cones is amplified and tuned by retinal networks, allows for PS without interfering with sampling of other visual information and illustrates how sensory systems may simultaneously process disparate aspects of physical environments.

  17. Regional modeling sensitivity experiments for interpreting the UK Winter 2013-2014 extreme rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, H.; Vautard, R.; Schaller, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter 2013/2014, the UK saw heavy rainfalls associated with a succession of storms reaching Southern England causing widespread flooding, power cuts and major disruptions to transport. The January precipitation set a record for several rain gauge stations in Southern England. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the anthropogenic climate change, represented by a modification of the sea surface temperature (SST) on the January precipitation. For that, we conducted a sensitivity experiment by running a set of 108 four-months simulations using WRF model with 9 different physics and 12 different SST fields; 9 for the factual world and 99 for the counter-factual world. A spectral nudging technique was used here to ensure a same atmospheric circulation patterns for all the simulations. Therefore, only the thermodynamic effect is considered here. The analysis is focused on January precipitation over the southern England. Results show for 0,5°C SST difference over the Northern Atlantic, the precipitation in the factual simulations is between 0,4 and 8% higher than the precipitation in the counter-factual simulations depending on the physic. A validation test shows that this value is closer to 8% for the "best physic" simulation. It also show a strong spatial variability where in some region the precipitation is higher in the counter-factual world compared the factual world. Finally, a backward trajectories were calculated to evaluate the sensitivity of the moisture sources and air mass trajectories to the SST in the factual and the counter-factual world.

  18. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  19. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5' regulatory region of ovine Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) gene.

    PubMed

    Lampidonis, Antonis D; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Stefos, George C; Margaritis, Lukas H; Argyrokastritis, Alexandros; Bizelis, Iosif; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2008-12-31

    Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, thus determining the supply of energy substrates in the body. HSL enzymatic activity is increased by adrenergic agonists, such as catecholamines and glucagons, which induce cyclic AMP (cAMP) intracellular production, subsequently followed by the activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA) and its downstream signaling cascade reactions. HSL constitutes the critical enzyme in the modulation of lipid stores and the only component being subjected to hormonal control in terms of the recently identified Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL). In order to acquire detailed knowledge with regard to the mechanisms regulating ovine HSL (ovHSL) gene transcription activity, we initially isolated and cloned the 5' proximal and distal promoter regions through a genome walking approach, with the utilization of the already characterized ovHSL cDNAs. As evinced by BLAST analysis and a multiple alignment procedure, the isolated genomic fragment of 2.744 kb appeared to contain the already specified 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), which was interrupted by a relatively large intron of 1.448 kb. Regarding the upstream remaining part of 1.224 kb, it was demonstrated to represent a TATA-less promoter area, harboring several cis-regulatory elements that could be putatively recognized by relatively more general transcription factors, mainly including Stimulating protein 1 (Sp1), CCAAT-box Binding Factors (CBFs), Activator Protein 2 (AP2) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR), as well as other cis-acting regions denominated as Insulin Response Element (IRE), Glucose Response Element (GRE), Fat Specific Element (FSE) and cAMP Response Element (CRE), which could likely function in a nourishment (i.e. glucose)-/hormone-dependent fashion. When different genomic fragments were directionally (5' to 3') cloned into a suitable reporter vector upstream of a promoter-less luciferase gene and

  20. Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Ishi, Tsutomu; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito

    2015-10-01

    A pixel in an uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) has a suspended structure above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) substrate. An optical cavity structure is formed between a thin metallic layer deposited on the suspended structure and a thick metallic layer deposited on the ROIC surface. The geometrical optical cavity length for our previous pixel structure, 3-4 μm, is extended three times, so that responsivity can be increased in the sub-THz region. This modification is carried out by depositing a thick SiN layer on the thick metallic layer. The modified pixel structure is applied to 640 × 480 and 320 × 240 THz-FPAs with 23.5 μm pixel pitch. Minimum detectable powers per pixel (MDP) are evaluated for these FPAs at 4.3, 2.5, 0.6, and 0.5 THz, and the MDP values are found to be improved by a factor of ten at 0.6 and 0.5 THz. The MDP values of the THz-FPAs developed in this work are compared with those of other THz detectors, such as uncooled antenna-coupled CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) THz-FPAs and cooled bolometer arrays. It is found that our THz-FPAs are more sensitive in the sub-THz region than the CMOS THz-FPAs, while they are much less sensitive than the cooled bolometer arrays. These THz-FPAs are incorporated into a 640 × 480 THz camera and 320 × 240 THz camera, and imaging equipment is developed. The equipment consists of a linearly polarized sub-THz source, a collimator lens, a beam homogenizer, two wire grids, a quarter-wave plate, and two THz cameras, and sub-THz images are demonstrated. It should be mentioned for the equipment that imaging of transmission and reflection is realized by moving only the quarter-wave plate, and the reflection image is taken along a direction normal to a sample surface so that the reflection image is hardly deformed.

  1. A bio-inspired analog silicon retina with Michaelis-Menten auto-adaptive pixels sensitive to small and large changes in light.

    PubMed

    Mafrica, Stefano; Godiot, Stéphanie; Menouni, Mohsine; Boyron, Marc; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Marchand, Nicolas; Ruffier, Franck; Viollet, Stéphane

    2015-03-09

    In this paper, we present: (i) a novel analog silicon retina featuring auto-adaptive pixels that obey the Michaelis-Menten law, i.e. V=V(m) I(n)/I(n)+σ(n); (ii) a method of characterizing silicon retinas, which makes it possible to accurately assess the pixels' response to transient luminous changes in a ±3-decade range, as well as changes in the initial steady-state intensity in a 7-decade range. The novel pixel, called M(2)APix, which stands for Michaelis-Menten Auto-Adaptive Pixel, can auto-adapt in a 7-decade range and responds appropriately to step changes up to ±3 decades in size without causing any saturation of the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) transistors. Thanks to the intrinsic properties of the Michaelis-Menten equation, the pixel output always remains within a constant limited voltage range. The range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) was therefore adjusted so as to obtain a Least Significant Bit (LSB) voltage of 2.35mV and an effective resolution of about 9 bits. The results presented here show that the M(2)APix produced a quasi-linear contrast response once it had adapted to the average luminosity. Differently to what occurs in its biological counterparts, neither the sensitivity to changes in light nor the contrast response of the M(2)APix depend on the mean luminosity (i.e. the ambient lighting conditions). Lastly, a full comparison between the M(2)APix and the Delbrück auto-adaptive pixel is provided.

  2. Graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticles-pyramidal silicon hybrid system for homogeneous, long-term stable and sensitive SERS activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Shicai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Li, Zhe; Hu, Litao; Li, Zhen; Chen, Peixi; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shouzhen; Ning, Tingyin

    2017-02-01

    In our work, few layers graphene oxide (GO) were directly synthesized on Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) by spin-coating method to fabricate a GO-AgNPs hybrid structure on a pyramidal silicon (PSi) substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate showed excellent Raman enhancement effect, the minimum detected concentration for Rhodamine 6G (R6G) can reach 10-12 M, which is one order of magnitude lower than the AgNPs-PSi substrate and two order of magnitude lower than the GO-AgNPs-flat-Si substrate. The linear fit calibration curve with error bars is presented and the value of R2 of 612 and 773 cm-1 can reach 0.986 and 0.980, respectively. The excellent linear response between the Raman intensity and R6G concentrations prove that the prepared GO-AgNPs-PSi substrates can serve as good SERS substrate for molecule detection. The maximum deviations of SERS intensities from 20 positions of the GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate are less than 8%, revealing the high homogeneity of the SERS substrate. The excellent homogeneity of the enhanced Raman signals can be attributed to well-separated pyramid arrays of PSi, the uniform morphology of AgNPs and multi-functions of GO layer. Besides, the uniform GO film can effectively protect AgNPs from oxidation and endow the hybrid system a good stability and long lifetime. This GO-AgNPs-PSi substrate may provide a new way toward practical applications for the ultrasensitive and label-free SERS detection in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  3. Theoretical sensitivity analysis of quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators designed for fabrication on the silicon-on-insulator platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2014-09-01

    Vernier racetrack resonators offer advantages over single racetrack resonators such as extending the free spectral range (FSR).1-3 Here, we have presented a theoretical sensitivity analysis on quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators based on varying, one at a time, various fabrication dependent parameters. These parameters include the waveguide widths, heights, and propagation losses. We have shown that it should be possible to design a device that meets typical commercial specifications while being tolerant to changes in these parameters.

  4. Productivity of US Forests: Regional Sensitivity to Variation in Soil Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Coops, N. C.; Waring, R. H.

    2006-05-01

    The rates that forests accumulate biomass regionally differ substantially based on the environment and the frequency of disturbance. These dynamics significantly affect the terrestrial carbon balance globally. Since 2000, NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) has provided 1km spatial resolution estimates of 8-day gross and annual net primary production (GPP and NPP). MODIS productivity is computed as a simple function of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, and a regionally assigned light-use conversion efficiency that is reduced if temperature or atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are suboptimal. We evaluated the extent that the MODIS productivity estimates might be improved if spatial information on soil water (ASW) storage capacity and soil fertility were available for forested areas across the USA. To accomplish this comparison we parameterized a forest growth model, 3-PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using Satellite data), which is similar to the MODIS model in operation, but also includes an explicit water balance and a direct link between soil fertility and light-use efficiency. The 3-PGS model was initially run with STATSGO-derived soils information provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis was expanded to include variation in ASW storage capacity of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mm. Annual 3-PGS estimates of NPP for forests across the USA are highly sensitive to limited ASW (<200mm), reducing estimates by up to 60%, as opposed to increasing the ASW capacity (>200mm), which yields an average increase in NPP of 30%. Changing ASW has more influence on forest GPP in the west, where summer drought is prevalent. Generally, productivity estimates from MODIS and 3-PGS were similar across most of the eastern US. However, the MODIS model consistently overestimated mid-summer GPP values in the west because of its insufficient drought constraints.

  5. The use of multiobjective calibration and regional sensitivity analysis in simulating hyporheic exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Stone, Mark; Davis, Clinton; McKay, Alan

    2012-01-01

    We describe an approach for calibrating a two-dimensional (2-D) flow model of hyporheic exchange using observations of temperature and pressure to estimate hydraulic and thermal properties. A longitudinal 2-D heat and flow model was constructed for a riffle-pool sequence to simulate flow paths and flux rates for variable discharge conditions. A uniform random sampling approach was used to examine the solution space and identify optimal values at local and regional scales. We used a regional sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of parameter correlation and nonuniqueness commonly encountered in multidimensional modeling. The results from this study demonstrate the ability to estimate hydraulic and thermal parameters using measurements of temperature and pressure to simulate exchange and flow paths. Examination of the local parameter space provides the potential for refinement of zones that are used to represent sediment heterogeneity within the model. The results indicate vertical hydraulic conductivity was not identifiable solely using pressure observations; however, a distinct minimum was identified using temperature observations. The measured temperature and pressure and estimated vertical hydraulic conductivity values indicate the presence of a discontinuous low-permeability deposit that limits the vertical penetration of seepage beneath the riffle, whereas there is a much greater exchange where the low-permeability deposit is absent. Using both temperature and pressure to constrain the parameter estimation process provides the lowest overall root-mean-square error as compared to using solely temperature or pressure observations. This study demonstrates the benefits of combining continuous temperature and pressure for simulating hyporheic exchange and flow in a riffle-pool sequence. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  7. Silicone metalization

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  8. Atlas-based segmentation of brainstem regions in neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigvert, Marc; Castellanos, Gabriel; Uranga, Javier; Abad, Ricardo; Fernández-Seara, María. A.; Pastor, Pau; Pastor, María. A.; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz de Solórzano, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    We present a method for the automatic delineation of two neuromelanin rich brainstem structures -substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and locus coeruleus (LC)- in neuromelanin sensitive magnetic resonance images of the brain. The segmentation method uses a dynamic multi-image reference atlas and a pre-registration atlas selection strategy. To create the atlas, a pool of 35 images of healthy subjects was pair-wise pre-registered and clustered in groups using an affinity propagation approach. Each group of the atlas is represented by a single exemplar image. Each new target image to be segmented is registered to the exemplars of each cluster. Then all the images of the highest performing clusters are enrolled into the final atlas, and the results of the registration with the target image are propagated using a majority voting approach. All registration processes used combined one two-stage affine and one elastic B-spline algorithm, to account for global positioning, region selection and local anatomic differences. In this paper, we present the algorithm, with emphasis in the atlas selection method and the registration scheme. We evaluate the performance of the atlas selection strategy using 35 healthy subjects and 5 Parkinson's disease patients. Then, we quantified the volume and contrast ratio of neuromelanin signal of these structures in 47 normal subjects and 40 Parkinson's disease patients to confirm that this method can detect neuromelanin-containing neurons loss in Parkinson's disease patients and could eventually be used for the early detection of SN and LC damage.

  9. Phase-Sensitive Reflective Imaging Device in the mm-wave and Terahertz Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallerano, Gian Piero; Doria, Andrea; Germini, Marzia; Giovenale, Emilio; Messina, Giovanni; Spassovsky, Ivan P.

    2009-12-01

    Two Free Electron Laser sources have been developed at ENEA-Frascati for a variety of applications: A Compact Free Electron Laser (C-FEL) that provides coherent radiation in the frequency range between 90 and 150 GHz Gallerano et al. (Infrared Phys. and Techn. 40:161, 1999), and a second source, FEL-CATS, which utilizes a peculiar radio-frequency structure to generate coherent emission in the range 0.4 to 0.7 THz Doria et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett 93:264801, 2004). The high peak power of several kW in 15 to 50 ps pulses, makes these sources particularly suitable for the assessment of exposure limits in biological systems and for long range detection. In this paper we present a phase-sensitive reflective imaging device in the mm-wave and THz regions, which has proven to be a valuable tool in the biological Ramundo-Orlando et al. (Bioelectromagnetics 28:587-598, 2007), environmental Doria et al. (2005) and art conservation fields Gallerano et al. (2008). Different setups have been tested at different levels of spatial resolution to image objects from a few centimeter square to larger sizes. Images have been compared to identify and characterize the contrast mechanism.

  10. How sensitive are di-leptons from {rho} mesons to the high baryon density region?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, S.; Schmidt, K.; Santini, E.; Sturm, C.; Bleicher, M.; Petersen, H.; Aichelin, J.

    2008-10-15

    We show that the measurement of dileptons might provide only a restricted view into the most dense stages of heavy-ion reactions. Thus, possible studies of meson and baryon properties at high baryon densities, as, e.g., done at the GSI High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) and envisioned for the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) compressed baryonic matter experiments, might observe weaker effects than currently expected in certain approaches. We argue that the strong absorption of resonances in the high-baryon-density region of the heavy-ion collision masks information from the early hot and dense phase due to a strong increase of the total decay width because of collisional broadening. To obtain additional information, we also compare the currently used approaches to extract dileptons from transport simulations, i.e., shining, only vector mesons from final baryon resonance decays and instant emission of dileptons and find a strong sensitivity on the method employed in particular at FAIR and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron energies. It is shown explicitly that a restriction to {rho} meson (and therefore dilepton) production only in final-state baryon resonance decays provide a strong bias toward rather low baryon densities. The results presented are obtained from ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics v2.3 calculations using the standard setup.

  11. The Silicon Pixel Detector for ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, D.; Bombonati, C.; Dima, R.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pepato, A.; Bohus, L. Sajo; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.; Shen, D.; Turrisi, R.; Viesti, G.; Anelli, G.; Boccardi, A.; Burns, M.; Campbell, M.; Ceresa, S.; Conrad, J.; Kluge, A.; Kral, M.

    2007-10-26

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made of position sensitive detectors which have to operate in a region where the track density may be as high as 50 tracks/cm{sup 2}. To handle such densities detectors with high precision and granularity are mandatory. The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD), the innermost part of the ITS, has been designed to provide tracking information close to primary interaction point. The assembly of the entire SPD has been completed.

  12. Stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires-based biochemical sensors with ultra-high sensitivity, specificity, and multiplexing capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Juan; Jiang, Xiangxu; Zhong, Yiling; Lu, Yimei; Wang, Siyi; Wei, Xinpan; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2014-07-01

    A class of stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based fluorescent biosensor is presented in this report. Significantly, the sensor enables rapid and sensitive detection of DNA targets with a concentration as low as 1 pM. Moreover, the large planar surface of SiNWs facilitates simultaneous assembly with different DNA strands, which is favorable for multiplexed DNA detection. On the other hand, the SiNWs-based sensor is highly efficacious for detecting heavy metal ions. Mercury ions (Hg2+) of low concentrations (e.g., 5 pM) are readily identified from its mixture with over 10 kinds of interfering metal ions, even in real water samples. Given that SiNWs can be fabricated in a facile, reproducible and low-cost manner, this kind of SiNWs-based high-performance sensor is expected to be a practical analytical tool for a variety of biological and environment-protection applications.A class of stem-loop DNA-assisted silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based fluorescent biosensor is presented in this report. Significantly, the sensor enables rapid and sensitive detection of DNA targets with a concentration as low as 1 pM. Moreover, the large planar surface of SiNWs facilitates simultaneous assembly with different DNA strands, which is favorable for multiplexed DNA detection. On the other hand, the SiNWs-based sensor is highly efficacious for detecting heavy metal ions. Mercury ions (Hg2+) of low concentrations (e.g., 5 pM) are readily identified from its mixture with over 10 kinds of interfering metal ions, even in real water samples. Given that SiNWs can be fabricated in a facile, reproducible and low-cost manner, this kind of SiNWs-based high-performance sensor is expected to be a practical analytical tool for a variety of biological and environment-protection applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01097c

  13. Two critical residues in p-loop regions of puffer fish Na+ channels on TTX sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Kaoru; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2008-03-01

    We previously showed that Asn-383 and Thr-1569 residues of p-loop regions in domains I and IV, respectively, of the puffer fish, Fugu pardialis, skeletal muscle Na(v) (fNa(v)1.4a), are anomalous to those of other species of TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, where the aromatic residues of Phe or Tyr, and Gly are the counterparts [Yotsu-Yamashita, M., Nishimori, K., Nitanai, Y., Isemura, M., Sugimoto, A., Yasumoto, T., 2000. Binding properties of (3)H-PbTx-3 and (3)H-saxitoxin to brain membranes and to skeletal muscle membranes of puffer fish Fugu pardalis and the primary structure of a voltage-gated Na(+) channel alpha-subunit (fMNa1) from skeletal muscle of F. pardalis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 267, 403-412]. The former was suggested to confer TTX resistance by using Y401N mutant of rNa(v)1.4 [Venkatesh, V., Lu, S.Q., Dandona, N., See, S.L., Benner, S., Soong, T.W., 2005. Genetic basis of tetrodotoxin resistance in pufferfishes. Curr. Biol. 15, 2069-2072]. The latter function remained to be elucidated. Thus, we further explored the function of these two residues, electrophysiologically, by evaluating the K(d) (dissociation constants) values of TTX for F385N, F385A, F385Q, G1718T, and F385N/G1718T mutants of rNa(v)1.2a, transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells. F385N caused 3000-fold increase of the K(d), while G1718T and F385N/G1718T caused 2- and 3-fold increases compared with those of WT and F385N, respectively, suggesting that G1718T further enhanced TTX resistivity caused by F385N. The K(d) for F385A and F385Q were 2- and 11-fold larger than that of F385N, respectively, suggesting that the longer side chain in the non-aromatic amino acid residue causes the larger decrease of TTX sensitivity. Despite drastic changes in the K(d), the mutations at F385 caused only small changes in the k(off) from that of WT, suggesting that the K(d) for TTX receptors are mainly determined by the k(on).

  14. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  15. Detection of Critical LUCC Indices and Sensitive Watershed Regions Related to Lake Algal Blooms: A Case Study of Taihu Lake

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Su, Zhihu; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China has suffered from severe eutrophication over the past 20 years which is partly due to significant land use/cover change (LUCC). There is an increasing need to detect the critical watershed region that significantly affects lake water degradation, which has great significance for environmental protection. However, previous studies have obtained conflicting results because of non–uniform lake indicators and inadequate time periods. To identify the sensitive LUCC indices and buffer distance regions, three lake divisions (Meiliang Lake, Zhushan Lake and Western Coastal region) and their watershed region within the Taihu Lake basin were chosen as study sites, the algal area was used as a uniform lake quality indicator and modeled with LUCC indices over the whole time series. Results showed that wetland (WL) and landscape index such as Shannon diversity index (SHDI) appeared to be sensitive LUCC indices when the buffer distance was less than 5 km, while agricultural land (AL) and landscape fragmentation (Ci) gradually became sensitive indices as buffer distances increased to more than 5 km. For the relationship between LUCC and lake algal area, LUCC of the WC region seems to have no significant effect on lake water quality. Conversely, LUCC within ML and ZS region influenced algal area of corresponding lake divisions greatly, while the most sensitive regions were found in 3 km to 5 km, rather than the whole catchment. These results will be beneficial for the further understanding of the relationship between LUCC and lake water quality, and will provide a practical basis for the identification of critical regions for lake. PMID:25642691

  16. Detection of critical LUCC indices and sensitive watershed regions related to lake algal blooms: a case study of Taihu Lake.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Su, Zhihu; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-29

    Taihu Lake in China has suffered from severe eutrophication over the past 20 years which is partly due to significant land use/cover change (LUCC). There is an increasing need to detect the critical watershed region that significantly affects lake water degradation, which has great significance for environmental protection. However, previous studies have obtained conflicting results because of non-uniform lake indicators and inadequate time periods. To identify the sensitive LUCC indices and buffer distance regions, three lake divisions (Meiliang Lake, Zhushan Lake and Western Coastal region) and their watershed region within the Taihu Lake basin were chosen as study sites, the algal area was used as a uniform lake quality indicator and modeled with LUCC indices over the whole time series. Results showed that wetland (WL) and landscape index such as Shannon diversity index (SHDI) appeared to be sensitive LUCC indices when the buffer distance was less than 5 km, while agricultural land (AL) and landscape fragmentation (Ci) gradually became sensitive indices as buffer distances increased to more than 5 km. For the relationship between LUCC and lake algal area, LUCC of the WC region seems to have no significant effect on lake water quality. Conversely, LUCC within ML and ZS region influenced algal area of corresponding lake divisions greatly, while the most sensitive regions were found in 3 km to 5 km, rather than the whole catchment. These results will be beneficial for the further understanding of the relationship between LUCC and lake water quality, and will provide a practical basis for the identification of critical regions for lake.

  17. Sensitivity-based finite element model updating using constrained optimization with a trust region algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Pelin Gundes; Reynders, Edwin; De Roeck, Guido

    2007-08-01

    The use of changes in dynamic system characteristics to detect damage has received considerable attention during the last years. Within this context, FE model updating technique, which belongs to the class of inverse problems in classical mechanics, is used to detect, locate and quantify damage. In this study, a sensitivity-based finite element (FE) model updating scheme using a trust region algorithm is developed and implemented in a complex structure. A damage scenario is applied on the structure in which the stiffness values of the beam elements close to the beam-column joints are decreased by stiffness reduction factors. A worst case and complex damage pattern is assumed such that the stiffnesses of adjacent elements are decreased by substantially different stiffness reduction factors. The objective of the model updating is to minimize the differences between the eigenfrequency and eigenmodes residuals. The updating parameters of the structure are the stiffness reduction factors. The changes of these parameters are determined iteratively by solving a nonlinear constrained optimization problem. The FE model updating algorithm is also tested in the presence of two levels of noise in simulated measurements. In all three cases, the updated MAC values are above 99% and the relative eigenfrequency differences improve substantially after model updating. In cases without noise and with moderate levels of noise; detection, localization and quantification of damage are successfully accomplished. In the case with substantially noisy measurements, detection and localization of damage are successfully realized. Damage quantification is also promising in the presence of high noise as the algorithm can still predict 18 out of 24 damage parameters relatively accurately in that case.

  18. Extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons simultaneously from rice husk and their synergistic catalytic effect in counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waqar; bahrani, Majid Raissan Al; Yang, Zhichun; Khan, Jahangeer; Jing, Wenkui; Jiang, Fan; Chu, Liang; Liu, Nishuang; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of renewable energy resources particularly from earth abundant materials has always been a matter of significance in industrial products. Herein, we report a novel simultaneous extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons (nano-Si@ACs) from rice husk (RH) by chemical activation method. As-extracted nano-Si@ACs is then used as an energy harvesting materials in counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and texture studies confirm the high surface area, abundant active sites and porous structure of nano-Si@ACs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analyses reveal that the nano-Si@ACs is highly beneficial for fast I3− reduction and superior electrolyte diffusion capability. The nano-Si@ACs CE based DSSC exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency of (8.01%) in contrast to pristine Pt CE (7.20%). These favorable results highlight the potential application of RH in low-cost, high-efficiency and Pt-free DSSCs. PMID:28000720

  19. An Innovative Metal Ions Sensitive “Test Paper” Based on Virgin Nanoporous Silicon Wafer: Highly Selective to Copper(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyuan; Chen, Xiuhua; Ma, Wenhui; Ding, Zhao; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Zhengjie; He, Xiao; Shang, Yudong; Zou, Yuxin

    2016-11-01

    Developing an innovative “Test Paper” based on virgin nanoporous silicon (NPSi) which shows intense visible emission and excellent fluorescence stability. The visual fluorescence quenching “Test Paper” was highly selective and sensitive recognizing Cu2+ at μmol/L level. Within the concentration range of 5 × 10‑7 ~50 × 10‑7mol/L, the linear regression equation of IPL = 1226.3-13.6[CCu2+] (R = 0.99) was established for Cu2+ quantitative detection. And finally, Cu2+ fluorescence quenching mechanism of NPSi prober was proposed by studying the surface chemistry change of NPSi and metal ions immersed-NPSi using XPS characterization. The results indicate that SiHx species obviously contribute to the PL emission of NPSi, and the introduce of oxidization state and the nonradiative recombination center are responsible for the PL quenching. These results demonstrate how virgin NPSi wafer can serve as Cu2+ sensor. This work is of great significant to promote the development of simple instruments that could realize rapid, visible and real-time detection of various toxic metal ions.

  20. Extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons simultaneously from rice husk and their synergistic catalytic effect in counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Waqar; Bahrani, Majid Raissan Al; Yang, Zhichun; Khan, Jahangeer; Jing, Wenkui; Jiang, Fan; Chu, Liang; Liu, Nishuang; Li, Luying; Gao, Yihua

    2016-12-01

    The extraction of renewable energy resources particularly from earth abundant materials has always been a matter of significance in industrial products. Herein, we report a novel simultaneous extraction of nano-silicon with activated carbons (nano-Si@ACs) from rice husk (RH) by chemical activation method. As-extracted nano-Si@ACs is then used as an energy harvesting materials in counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and texture studies confirm the high surface area, abundant active sites and porous structure of nano-Si@ACs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry analyses reveal that the nano-Si@ACs is highly beneficial for fast I3‑ reduction and superior electrolyte diffusion capability. The nano-Si@ACs CE based DSSC exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency of (8.01%) in contrast to pristine Pt CE (7.20%). These favorable results highlight the potential application of RH in low-cost, high-efficiency and Pt-free DSSCs.

  1. An Innovative Metal Ions Sensitive “Test Paper” Based on Virgin Nanoporous Silicon Wafer: Highly Selective to Copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaoyuan; Chen, Xiuhua; Ma, Wenhui; Ding, Zhao; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Zhengjie; He, Xiao; Shang, Yudong; Zou, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Developing an innovative “Test Paper” based on virgin nanoporous silicon (NPSi) which shows intense visible emission and excellent fluorescence stability. The visual fluorescence quenching “Test Paper” was highly selective and sensitive recognizing Cu2+ at μmol/L level. Within the concentration range of 5 × 10−7 ~50 × 10−7mol/L, the linear regression equation of IPL = 1226.3-13.6[CCu2+] (R = 0.99) was established for Cu2+ quantitative detection. And finally, Cu2+ fluorescence quenching mechanism of NPSi prober was proposed by studying the surface chemistry change of NPSi and metal ions immersed-NPSi using XPS characterization. The results indicate that SiHx species obviously contribute to the PL emission of NPSi, and the introduce of oxidization state and the nonradiative recombination center are responsible for the PL quenching. These results demonstrate how virgin NPSi wafer can serve as Cu2+ sensor. This work is of great significant to promote the development of simple instruments that could realize rapid, visible and real-time detection of various toxic metal ions. PMID:27821859

  2. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  3. HIV-1 Nef responsiveness is determined by Env variable regions involved in trimer association and correlates with neutralization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Göttlinger, Heinrich

    2013-11-14

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycoGag similarly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. We now show that the effects of Nef and glycoGag are similarly determined by variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 that control Env trimer association and neutralization sensitivity. Whereas neutralization-sensitive X4-tropic Env proteins conferred high responsiveness to Nef and glycoGag, particles bearing neutralization-resistant R5-tropic Envs were considerably less affected. The profoundly different Nef/glycoGag responsiveness of a neutralization-resistant and a neutralization-sensitive R5-tropic Env could be switched by exchanging their gp120 V1/V2 regions, which also switches their neutralization sensitivity. Within V1/V2, the same determinants governed Nef/glycoGag responsiveness and neutralization sensitivity, indicating that these phenotypes are mechanistically linked. The V1/V2 and V3 regions, which form an apical trimer-association domain, together determined the Nef and glycoGag responsiveness of an X4-tropic Env. Our results suggest that Nef and glycoGag counteract the inactivation of Env spikes with relatively unstable apical trimer-association domains.

  4. A broadband-sensitive upconverter La(Ga{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}:Er,Ni,Nb for crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Yasuhiko Mizuno, Shintaro; Luitel, Hom Nath; Tani, Toshihiko

    2016-01-25

    We have developed an upconverter that significantly broadens the sensitive range, to overcome the shortcoming that conventional Er{sup 3+}-doped upconverters used for crystalline silicon solar cells can utilize only a small portion of the solar spectrum at around 1.55 μm. We have designed the combination of the sensitizers and host material to utilize photons not absorbed by silicon or Er{sup 3+} ions. Ni{sup 2+} ions have been selected as the sensitizers that absorb photons in the wavelength range between the silicon absorption edge (1.1 μm) and the Er{sup 3+} absorption band and transfer the energies to the Er{sup 3+} emitters, with La(Ga,Sc)O{sub 3} as the host material. The Ga to Sc ratio has been optimized to tune the location of the Ni{sup 2+} absorption band for sufficient energy transfer. Co-doping with Nb{sup 5+} ions is needed for charge balance to introduce divalent Ni{sup 2+} ions into the trivalent Ga{sup 3+} and Sc{sup 3+} sites. In addition to 1.45–1.58 μm photons directly absorbed by the Er{sup 3+} ions, we have demonstrated upconversion of 1.1–1.35 μm photons in the Ni{sup 2+} absorption band to 0.98 μm photons, using 10% Er, 0.5% Ni, and 0.5% Nb-doped La(Ga{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}. The broadband-sensitive upconverter developed here can improve conversion efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells more notably than conventional ones.

  5. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF AQUIFER VULNERABILITY AND SENSITIVITY IN THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides, in a generalized, largely graphic format, are presentation of ground-water vulnerability, precipitation distribution, population density, potential well yield, and aquifer sensitivity for each of the 48 conterminous states. Classification scheme is developed...

  6. The sensitivity of regional transpiration to land-surface characteristics: Significance of feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; De Bruin, H.A.R. )

    1992-07-01

    Several authors have determined the sensitivity of transpiration to different environmental parameters using the Penman-Monteith equation. In their studies, the interaction between transpiration and, for example, the humidity of the air is ignored: the feedback with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is not accounted for. Furthermore, surface-layer (SL) feedback (e.g., stability effects in the surface layer) is often neglected. In our study, both PBL feedback and SL feedback are accounted for by coupling the big-leaf model to a detailed model for the PBL. This study provides an analysis of the sensitivity of transpiration to net radiation calculated after an albedo change, aerodynamic resistance calculated after a change in the aerodynamic roughness, and surface resistance. It is shown that PBL feedback affects the sensitivity of transpiration to the tested variables significantly. The sensitivity of transpiration to surface resistance and to aerodynamic resistance, or aerodynamic roughness, is decreased by the PBL feedback. In contrast, PBL feedback enlarges the sensitivity of transpiration to the net radiation, or albeds, and appears to be highly dependent on the specific conditions, especially on the aerodynamic roughness of the vegetation. It is recommended that future sensitivity studies for prognostic use account for PBL feedback.

  7. Influences of age, tongue region, and chorda tympani nerve sectioning on signal detection measures of lingual taste sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Heidt, Julie M; MacGillivray, Michael R; Dsouza, Merle; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Mirza, Natasha; Bigelow, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Although the ability to taste is critical for ingestion, nutrition, and quality of life, a clear understanding of the influences of age, sex, and chorda tympani (CT) resection on taste function in different regions of the anterior tongue is generally lacking. In this study we employed criterion-free signal detection analysis to assess electric and chemical taste function on multiple tongue regions in normal individuals varying in age and sex and in patients with unilateral CT resections. The subjects were 33 healthy volunteers, ranging from 18 to 87 years of age, and 9 persons, 27 to 77 years of age, with unilateral CT lesions. The influences of age, sex, tongue region, and chorda tympani resections on signal detection sensitivity (d') and response bias (β) measures was assessed in 16 tongue regions to weak electric currents and solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, and caffeine. Significant age-related decrements in d' were found for sucrose (p=0.012), sodium chloride (p=0.002), caffeine (p=0.006), and electric current (EC) (p=0.0001). Significant posterior to anterior, and medial to lateral, gradients of increasing performance were present for most stimuli. β was larger on the anterior than the posterior tongue for the electrical stimulus in the youngest subjects, whereas the opposite was true for sucrose in the oldest subjects. No sex differences were apparent. d' was depressed ipsilateral to the CT lesion side to varying degrees in all tongue regions, with the weakest influences occurring on the medial and anterior tongue. CT did not meaningfully influence β. This study is the first to employ signal detection analysis to assess the regional sensitivity of the tongue to chemical and electrical stimuli. It clearly demonstrates that tongue regions differ from one another in terms of their age-related sensitivity and their susceptibility to CT lesions.

  8. Silicon carbide thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmond, John A. (Inventor); Palmour, John W. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The SiC thyristor has a substrate, an anode, a drift region, a gate, and a cathode. The substrate, the anode, the drift region, the gate, and the cathode are each preferably formed of silicon carbide. The substrate is formed of silicon carbide having one conductivity type and the anode or the cathode, depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the substrate and has the same conductivity type as the substrate. A drift region of silicon carbide is formed adjacent the anode or cathode and has an opposite conductivity type as the anode or cathode. A gate is formed adjacent the drift region or the cathode, also depending on the embodiment, and has an opposite conductivity type as the drift region or the cathode. An anode or cathode, again depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the gate or drift region and has an opposite conductivity type than the gate.

  9. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle

    PubMed Central

    Eagle, Robert A.; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Eiler, John M.; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J. David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K.

    2013-01-01

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth’s most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6–7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation. PMID:23671087

  10. High regional climate sensitivity over continental China constrained by glacial-recent changes in temperature and the hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Risi, Camille; Mitchell, Jonathan L; Eiler, John M; Seibt, Ulrike; Neelin, J David; Li, Gaojun; Tripati, Aradhna K

    2013-05-28

    The East Asian monsoon is one of Earth's most significant climatic phenomena, and numerous paleoclimate archives have revealed that it exhibits variations on orbital and suborbital time scales. Quantitative constraints on the climate changes associated with these past variations are limited, yet are needed to constrain sensitivity of the region to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Here, we show central China is a region that experienced a much larger temperature change since the Last Glacial Maximum than typically simulated by climate models. We applied clumped isotope thermometry to carbonates from the central Chinese Loess Plateau to reconstruct temperature and water isotope shifts from the Last Glacial Maximum to present. We find a summertime temperature change of 6-7 °C that is reproduced by climate model simulations presented here. Proxy data reveal evidence for a shift to lighter isotopic composition of meteoric waters in glacial times, which is also captured by our model. Analysis of model outputs suggests that glacial cooling over continental China is significantly amplified by the influence of stationary waves, which, in turn, are enhanced by continental ice sheets. These results not only support high regional climate sensitivity in Central China but highlight the fundamental role of planetary-scale atmospheric dynamics in the sensitivity of regional climates to continental glaciation, changing greenhouse gas levels, and insolation.

  11. Silicon-based shortwave differential photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrushko, V. V.; Ionov, A. S.; Kadriev, O. R.; Lastkin, V. A.

    2017-02-01

    The silicon-based photodetector that contains two n +- p photodiode with equal areas has been described. One of the photodiodes had a wide spectral characteristic with high sensitivity in the UV range. The sensitivity of the second photodiode was decreased in the shortwave range via the formation of additional recombination centers in the near-surface region using the implantation of As ions. The study of the spectral sensitivity of the differential signal obtained by photocurrent subtraction has revealed a profound shortwave spectral characteristic. The boundaries of spectral range at λ0.5 were in the limits of 0.27-0.44 μm. The maximum sensitivity corresponded to λmax = 0.36 μm. The sensitivity of the differential channel at this wavelength reached 83% of that of the wide-range channel.

  12. Eddy Fluxes and Sensitivity of the Water Cycle to Spatial Resolution in Idealized Regional Aquaplanet Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Gustafson, William I.; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-02-28

    A multi-scale moisture budget analysis is used to identify the mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle to spatial resolution using idealized regional aquaplanet simulations. In the higher resolution simulations, moisture transport by eddies fluxes dry the boundary layer enhancing evaporation and precipitation. This effect of eddies, which is underestimated by the physics parameterizations in the low-resolution simulations, is found to be responsible for the sensitivity of the water cycle both directly, and through its upscale effect, on the mean circulation. Correlations among moisture transport by eddies at adjacent ranges of scales provides the potential for reducing this sensitivity by representing the unresolved eddies by their marginally resolved counterparts.

  13. Hydrogen-silicon carbide interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Misra, Ajay K.; Humphrey, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen environmental attack of silicon carbide was conducted for temperatures in the range from 1100 C to 1400 C. Thermodynamic maps based on the parameters of pressure and oxygen/moisture content were constructed. With increasing moisture levels, four distinct regions of attack were identified. Each region is defined by the thermodynamically stable solid phases. The theoretically stable solid phases of Region 1 are silicon carbide and silicon. Experimental evidence is provided to support this thermodynamic prediction. Silicon carbide is the single stable solid phase in Region 2. Active attack of the silicon carbide in this region occurs by the formation of gases of SiO, CO, CH4, SiH4, and SiH. Analysis of the kinetics of reaction for Region 2 at 1300 C show the attack of the silicon carbide to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of H2O to the sample. Silicon carbide and silica are the stable phases common to Regions 3 and 4. These two regions are characterized by the passive oxidation of silicon carbide and formation of a protective silica layer.

  14. Sensitivity of Typhoon Track Predictions in a Regional Prediction System to Initial and Lateral Boundary Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    less forecast skill due to a coarser res- olution. Miguez- Macho and Paegle (2000) suggest that accurate initial and lateral boundary conditions for a...nondeveloping ver- sus developing systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1132–1151. Miguez- Macho , G., and J. Paegle, 2000: Sensitivity of a global forecast model

  15. Evaluating fungicide sensitivity of regional Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici populations in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), cause of wheat powdery mildew, has a high likelihood of developing fungicide resistance because of the large quantity of spores produced along with the mixed mode of reproduction. Additionally, once reduced sensitivity appears in a population it can influence n...

  16. Sensitivity of the Regional Arctic System Model surface climate to ice-ocean state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, A.; Maslowski, W.; Osinski, R.; Cassano, J. J.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J.; Higgins, M.; Hughes, M. R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Nijssen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) is a high-resolution Earth System model extending across the Arctic Ocean, its marginal seas, the Arctic drainage basin, and including the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Arctic domain. RASM uses the flux coupler (CPL7) within the Community Earth System Model framework to couple regional configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), Parallel Ocean Program (POP), Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE), and Variable Infiltration Capacity land hydrology model (VIC). Work is also underway to incorporate the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM) as well as glacier, ice cap and dynamic vegetation models. As part of RASM development, coupled simulations are being prepared for the CORDEX Arctic domain, which is unique among CORDEX regions by being centered over the ocean. Up to this point, there has been uncertainty over how much initial and surface conditions in the ice-ocean boundary layer influence the surface climate of the Arctic in RASM, relative to regional atmospheric model constraints, such as spectral nudging and boundary conditions. We present results that suggest there is a significant dependency on the initial sea ice conditions on decadal timescales within RASM. This has important implications for (i) how results from different regional artic models may be combined and compared in CORDEX and (ii) appropriate methods for ensemble generation in regional polar models. We will also present results illustrating the influence of sub-hourly sea ice deformation on decadal climate in RASM, highlighting an important reason why fully coupled and high-resolution regional models are essential for regional Arctic downscaling.

  17. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL AIR QUALITY (CIRAQ): MODELING OZONE SENSITIVITIES TO FUTURE CLIMATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using global and regional modeling tools, predictions of future climate and ozone concentrations are developed for the continental United States. Results suggest that future changes in climate will contribute to an increase in ozone concentrations; however, the future changes in...

  18. High temperature luminescence of Dy3+ in crystalline silicon in the optical communication and eye-safe spectral regions.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, M A; Mustafa, Z; Ludurczak, W; Wong, L; Gwilliam, R M; Homewood, K P

    2013-09-15

    We report on photoluminescence in the 1.3 and 1.7 μm spectral ranges in silicon doped with dysprosium. This is attributed to the Dy3+ internal transitions between the second Dy3+ excited state and the ground state, and between the third Dy3+ excited state and the ground state. Luminescence is achieved by Dy implantation into Si substrates codoped with boron, to form dislocation loops, and show a strong dependence on fabrication process. The spectra consist of several sharp lines with the strongest emission at 1736 nm, observed up to 200 K. No Dy3+ luminescence is observed in samples without B codoping, showing the paramount importance of dislocation loops to enable the Dy emission.

  19. Sensitivity of Spring-Summer Drought to Warming in Montane and Arid Regions of The Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    Soil moisture and actual evapotranspiration (AET) simulated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model provide informative depictions of the historical variations of spring-summer drought conditions and their connections with winter preciptiation in montane and arid regions of the western US. Analysis of such simulations provides a basis for better understanding the determinants of warm-season drought, and comparisons of simulated drought conditions with warm-season observations of satellite-derived Normalized Vegetation Difference Indices (NVDI) helps confirm those conclusions, especially in the arid zones. In certain parts of the montane regions, sufficient water is usually available during spring and early summer, as runoff and soil moisture remnants of winter snowpacks, so that AET rates are limited primarily by the energy available. In these regions, spring-summer drought is most sensitive totemperature (T). In arid regions, T is not as significant a determinant of spring-summer drought and AET rates depend on water availability from both winter and warm-season precipitation. Winter precipitation can be an important determinant of spring-summer drought in the montane regions, but essentially always is the primary determinant in semi-arid to arid regions. In the lowlands, correlations between winter precipitation and soil moisture are very strong at lags of three months, although in some regions like southern California, significant correlations were found as lags of five months. In montane regions, the storage of winter precipitation in the natural reservoirs provided by snowpack adds extra lags of land memory to those provided by soil moisture storage. In these regions, the strongest correlations were found between DJF precipitation and MJJ soil moisture (lag five months). In this context, warming trends in the montane regions of the western US may be expected to result in wetter than historical soils during winter and early spring (due to larger rain

  20. Sensitivity analysis of different parameterization schemes using RegCM4.3 for the Carpathian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczka, Ildikó; Pongrácz, Rita; Szabóné André, Karolina; Kelemen, Fanni Dóra; Bartholy, Judit

    2016-10-01

    In order to quantify the impact of the use of different parameterization schemes on regional climate model outputs, hindcast experiments have been completed applying the Regional Climate Model version 4.3 (RegCM4.3) for the Carpathian region and its surroundings at 10-km horizontal resolution with three different cumulus convection schemes. Besides, the sensitivity of outputs for subgrid-scale processes is also studied by activating the subgrid Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) model within other RegCM experiments. Among the analyzed factors, RegCM is most sensitive to the applied convection scheme. The impact of closure assumption related to the used convective parameterization is secondary, while the use of subgridding has less influence on the outputs. RegCM4.3 results show improved performance over our previous model simulations but still have larger amplitude for annual precipitation cycle than the measurement-based reference data. Our validation results for temperature and precipitation suggest that for the selected region, the overall best performance is achieved when using the mixed Grell-Emanuel scheme together with Fritsch and Chappell closure.

  1. Nuclease S1-sensitive sites on superhelical DNA molecules carrying the LTR region of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Takeya, T

    1987-04-29

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) from proviral DNA of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) was cloned on a derivative of pBR322, and after introducing superhelical torsions into the resulting recombinant, the sites of conformational transition were investigated by the nuclease S1-digestion method. With an increase in the negative linking differences, fourteen dominant cutting sites were identified, of which two were mapped inside the LTR and one at the 3' end of the LTR. By searching the sequence data, all these sites were localized in the regions having either palindromic sequences or AT-rich sequences. Free energy calculation for the local secondary structure on one strand indicated that nuclease S1 attacked the palindromic sequence regions which could form relatively stable hairpin structures. Under the conditions used, no correlation was found between the S1-sensitive sites and the potential Z-DNA-forming regions, including those within the enhancer sequence.

  2. Immunodominant regions for T helper-cell sensitization on the human nicotinic receptor alpha subunit in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed Central

    Protti, M P; Manfredi, A A; Straub, C; Howard, J F; Conti-Tronconi, B M

    1990-01-01

    In myasthenia gravis an autoimmune response against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) occurs. The alpha subunit of the AChR contains both the epitope(s) that dominates the antibody response (main immunogenic region) and epitopes involved in T helper cell sensitization. In this study, overlapping synthetic peptides corresponding to the complete AChR alpha-subunit sequence were used to propagate polyclonal AChR-specific T helper cell lines from four myasthenic patients of different HLA types. Response of the T helper lines to the individual peptides was studied. Four immunodominant sequence segments were identified--i.e., residues 48-67, 101-120, 304-322, and 419-437. These regions did not include residues known to form the main immunogenic region or the cholinergic binding site, and they frequently contained sequence motifs that have been proposed to be related to T-epitope formation. Images PMID:2145582

  3. Future changes in regional precipitation simulated by a half-degree coupled climate model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    DOE PAGES

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.

    2016-06-02

    The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the halfdegree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to highermore » resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. As a result, differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.« less

  4. Future changes in regional precipitation simulated by a half-degree coupled climate model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.

    2016-06-02

    The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the halfdegree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to higher resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. As a result, differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.

  5. Future changes in regional precipitation simulated by a half-degree coupled climate model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.

    2016-06-01

    The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the half-degree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to higher resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. Differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.

  6. Develop Silicone Encapsulation Systems for Terrestrial Silicon Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cost effective encapsulant system was identified and a silicone acrylic cover material containing a durable ultraviolet screening agent was prepared. The effectiveness of the cover material in protecting photo-oxidatively sensitive polymers was demonstrated.

  7. Sensitivity of summer climate to anthropogenic land-cover change over the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Georgescu, M.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Weaver, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the first-order effect of land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) on the summer climate of one of the nation's most rapidly expanding metropolitan complexes, the Greater Phoenix, AZ, region. High-resolution-2-km grid spacing-Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations of three "wet" and three "dry" summers were carried out for two different land-cover reconstructions for the region: a circa 1992 representation based on satellite observations, and a hypothetical land-cover scenario where the anthropogenic landscape of irrigated agriculture and urban pixels was replaced with current semi-natural vegetation. Model output is evaluated with respect to observed air temperature, dew point, and precipitation. Our results suggest that development of extensive irrigated agriculture adjacent to the urban area has dampened any regional-mean warming due to urbanization. Consistent with previous observationally based work, LULCC produces a systematic increase in precipitation to the north and east of the city, though only under dry conditions. This is due to a change in background atmospheric stability resulting from the advection of both warmth from the urban core and moisture from the irrigated area. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungicide sensitivity testing of Cercospora beticola from sugarbeet in the Great Lakes Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola (Sacc.), is the most serious foliar disease of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. CLS is problematic in most sugarbeet growing regions and can cause significant economic losses due to decreases in both yield and sugar purity in the harve...

  9. Glutamate dysregulation in the trigeminal ganglion: a novel mechanism for peripheral sensitization of the craniofacial region.

    PubMed

    Laursen, J C; Cairns, B E; Dong, X D; Kumar, U; Somvanshi, R K; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Gazerani, P

    2014-01-03

    In the trigeminal ganglion (TG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) form a functional unit with neurons. It has been proposed that SGCs participate in regulating extracellular glutamate levels and that dysfunction of this SGC capacity can impact nociceptive transmission in craniofacial pain conditions. This study investigated whether SGCs release glutamate and whether elevation of TG glutamate concentration alters response properties of trigeminal afferent fibers. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess glutamate content and the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)1 and EAAT2 in TG sections. SGCs contained glutamate and expressed EAAT1 and EAAT2. Potassium chloride (10 mM) was used to evoke glutamate release from cultured rat SGCs treated with the EAAT1/2 inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)ben zoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-L-aspartic acid (TFB-TBOA) or control. Treatment with TFB-TBOA (1 and 10 μM) significantly reduced the glutamate concentration from 10.6 ± 1.1 to 5.8 ± 1.4 μM and 3.0 ± 0.8 μM, respectively (p<0.05). Electrophysiology experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats to determine the effect of intraganglionic injections of glutamate on the response properties of ganglion neurons that innervated either the temporalis or masseter muscle. Intraganglionic injection of glutamate (500 mM, 3 μl) evoked afferent discharge and significantly reduced muscle afferent mechanical threshold. Glutamate-evoked discharge was attenuated bythe N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) and increased by TFB-TBOA, whereas mechanical sensitization was only sensitive to APV. Antidromic invasion of muscle afferent fibers by electrical stimulation of the caudal brainstem (10 Hz) or local anesthesia of the brainstem with lidocaine did not alter glutamate-induced mechanical sensitization. These findings provide a novel mechanism whereby dysfunctional trigeminal SGCs could contribute to cranial muscle tenderness in

  10. Silicon chemistry in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Glassgold, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    Interstellar SiO was discovered shortly after CO but it has been detected mainly in high density and high temperature regions associated with outflow sources. A new model of interstellar silicon chemistry that explains the lack of SiO detections in cold clouds is presented which contains an exponential temperature dependence for the SiO abundance. A key aspect of the model is the sensitivity of SiO production by neutral silicon reactions to density and temperature, which arises from the dependence of the rate coefficients on the population of the excited fine structure levels of the silicon atom. This effect was originally pointed out in the context of neutral reactions of carbon and oxygen by Graff, who noted that the leading term in neutral atom-molecule interactions involves the quadrupole moment of the atom. Similar to the case of carbon, the requirement that Si has a quadrupole moment requires population of the J = 1 level, which lies 111K above the J = 0 ground state and has a critical density n(cr) equal to or greater than 10(6)/cu cm. The SiO abundance then has a temperature dependence proportional to exp(-111/T) and a quadratic density dependence for n less than n(cr). As part of the explanation of the lack of SiO detections at low temperatures and densities, this model also emphasizes the small efficiencies of the production routes and the correspondingly long times needed to reach equilibrium. Measurements of the abundance of SiO, in conjunction with theory, can provide information on the physical properties of interstellar clouds such as the abundances of oxygen bearing molecules and the depletion of interstellar silicon.

  11. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  12. Light emission from porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penczek, John

    The continuous evolution of silicon microelectronics has produced significant gains in electronic information processing. However, greater improvements in performance are expected by utilizing optoelectronic techniques. But these techniques have been severely limited in silicon- based optoelectronics due to the lack of an efficient silicon light emitter. The recent observation of efficient light emission from porous silicon offer a promising opportunity to develop a suitable silicon light source that is compatible with silicon microelectronics. This dissertation examined the porous silicon emission mechanism via photoluminescence, and by a novel device structure for porous silicon emitters. The investigation first examined the correlation between porous silicon formation conditions (and subsequent morphology) with the resulting photoluminescence properties. The quantum confinement theory for porous silicon light emission contends that the morphology changes induced by the different formation conditions determine the optical properties of porous silicon. The photoluminescence spectral shifts measured in this study, in conjunction with TEM analysis and published morphological data, lend support to this theory. However, the photoluminescence spectral broadening was attributed to electronic wavefunction coupling between adjacent silicon nanocrystals. An novel device structure was also investigated in an effort to improve current injection into the porous silicon layer. The selective etching properties of porous silicon were used to create a p-i-n structure with crystalline silicon contacts to the porous silicon layer. The resulting device was found to have unique characteristics, with a negative differential resistance region and current-induced emission that spanned from 400 nm to 5500 nm. The negative differential resistance was correlated to resistive heating effects in the device. A numerical analysis of thermal emission spectra from silicon films, in addition to

  13. Sensitivity of lake ice regimes to climate change in the Nordic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebre, S.; Boissy, T.; Alfredsen, K.

    2014-08-01

    A one-dimensional process-based multi-year lake ice model, MyLake, was used to simulate lake ice phenology and annual maximum lake ice thickness for the Nordic region comprising Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries. The model was first tested and validated using observational meteorological forcing on a candidate lake (Lake Atnsjøen) and using downscaled ERA-40 reanalysis data set. To simulate ice conditions for the contemporary period of 1961-2000, the model was driven by gridded meteorological forcings from ERA-40 global reanalysis data downscaled to a 25 km resolution using the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCA). The model was then forced with two future climate scenarios from the RCA driven by two different general circulation models (GCMs) based on the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B. The two climate scenarios correspond to two future time periods namely the 2050s (2041-2070) and the 2080s (2071-2100). To take into account the influence of lake morphometry, simulations were carried out for four different hypothetical lake depths (5 m, 10 m, 20 m, 40 m) placed at each of the 3708 grid cells. Based on a comparison of the mean predictions in the future 30-year periods with the control (1961-1990) period, ice cover durations in the region will be shortened by 1 to 11 weeks in 2041-2070, and 3 to 14 weeks in 2071-2100. Annual maximum lake ice thickness, on the other hand, will be reduced by a margin of up to 60 cm by 2041-2070 and up to 70 cm by 2071-2100. The simulated changes in lake ice characteristics revealed that the changes are less dependent on lake depths though there are slight differences. The results of this study provide a regional perspective of anticipated changes in lake ice regimes due to climate warming across the study area by the middle and end of this century.

  14. Is the bonding of self-adhesive cement sensitive to root region and curing mode?

    PubMed Central

    BOING, Thaynara Faelly; GOMES, Giovana Mongruel; GOMES, João Carlos; REIS, Alessandra; GOMES, Osnara Maria Mongruel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the influence of two curing techniques on the degree of conversion (DC) of resin cements and on bond strength (BS) of fiber posts in different regions of root dentin. Material and Methods Twenty single-rooted premolars were endodontically treated, and the post spaces were prepared. The roots were randomly divided into two groups (n=10), according to the activation mode of the resin cement RelyX™ U200 (3M ESPE Saint Paul, MN, USA): conventional (continuous activation mode) and soft-start activation mode (Ramp). The posts (WhitePost DC/FGM) were cemented according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and, after one week, the roots were cross-sectioned into six discs each of 1-mm thickness, and the cervical, medium, and apical thirds of the root canals were identified. The DC was evaluated under micro-Raman spectroscopy and the BS was evaluated by the push-out test. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results Neither the activation mode nor the root regions affected the DC of the resin cement. Higher BS was achieved in the soft-start group (p=0.036); lower BS was observed in the apical third compared to the other root regions (p<0.001). Irrespective of the activation mode and root region, the mixed failure mode was the most prevalent. Conclusion The BS of fiber posts to root canals can be improved by soft-started polymerization. The DC was not affected by the curing mode. PMID:28198970

  15. Sensitivity of CoSi{sub 2} precipitation in silicon to extra-low dopant concentrations. II. First-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, V. A.; Ganchenkova, M. G.; Ruault, M.-O.; Fortuna, F.

    2015-01-28

    The paper is the second part of the study on the influence of very low dopant content in silicon on CoSi{sub 2} precipitation during high-temperature cobalt ion implantation into transmission electron microscope samples. It deals with the computational justification of various assumptions used in Paper I when rationalizing the kinetics of cobalt clustering in ion-implanted intrinsic silicon (both undoped and containing low concentrations of phosphorus atoms). In particular, it is proven that divacancies are efficient nucleation centers for the new Co-Si phase. It is shown that the capture of vacancies and divacancies on phosphorus atoms increases their lifetime in silicon matrix, but practically does not affect the mechanism of their interaction with interstitial cobalt atoms. Finally, it is demonstrated that the mobility of phosphorus interstitials at temperatures of our experiment is orders of magnitude higher than might be expected from the published literature data.

  16. Pit-1/GHF-1 binds to TRH-sensitive regions of the rat thyrotropin beta gene.

    PubMed

    Mason, M E; Friend, K E; Copper, J; Shupnik, M A

    1993-08-31

    Three regions within the 5'-flanking region of the TSH beta gene have A-T-rich sequences which have sequence similarity to binding sites for the pituitary-specific POU domain transcription factor Pit-1/GHF-1. These three regions have been termed TSH A (-274 to -258 bp), TSH B (-336 to -326 bp), and TSH C (-402 to -384 bp). TSH A and TSH C are able to confer 2-6-fold TRH stimulation to the heterologous viral thymidine kinase (tk) promoter in transient expression assays in GH3 pituitary cells; TSH C can confer a 3-10-fold increase in basal enhancer activity as well. TSH A, B, and C DNAs all bound Pit-1 from GH3 cell nuclear extracts, based on gel mobility shift analysis in which antibody against Pit-1 prevented the formation of specific DNA-GH3 nuclear protein complexes. TSH A and TSH C also each formed several additional DNA-nuclear protein complexes which were not observed with TSH B. Some of these complexes may contain Pit-1 as their formation was inhibited by the addition of Pit-1 antibody; other complexes, however, were not altered by antibody treatment. All three A-T-rich elements bound in vitro translated Pit-1, with calculated affinities of 360 (A), 125 (B), and 38 (C) nM, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Does ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation at the site-level conform to regional-scale predictions?.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Kevin R; Blair, John M; Smith, Melinda D; Knapp, Alan K

    2016-03-01

    Central to understanding global C cycle dynamics is the functional relationship between precipitation and net primary production (NPP). At large spatial (regional) scales, the responsiveness of aboveground NPP (ANPP) to interannual variation in annual precipitation (AP; ANPPsens) is inversely related to site-level ANPP, coinciding with turnover of plant communities along precipitation gradients. Within ecosystems experiencing chronic alterations in water availability, plant community change will also occur with unknown consequences for ANPPsens. To examine the role plant community shifts may play in determining alterations in site-level ANPPPsens, we experimentally increased precipitation by approximately 35% for two decades in a native Central U.S. grassland. Consistent with regional models, ANPPsens decreased initially as water availability and ANPP increased. However, ANPPsens shifted back to ambient levels when mesic species increased in abundance in the plant community. Similarly, in grassland sites with distinct mesic and xeric plant communities and corresponding 50% differences in ANPP, ANPPsens did not differ over almost three decades. We conclude that responses in ANPPsens to chronic alterations in water availability within an ecosystem may not conform to regional AP-ANPP patterns, despite expected changes in ANPP and plant communities. The result is unanticipated functional resistance to climate change at the site scale.

  18. Increased muscular and cutaneous pain sensitivity in cephalic region in patients with chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Ashina, S; Babenko, L; Jensen, R; Ashina, M; Magerl, W; Bendtsen, L

    2005-07-01

    Increased excitability of the central nervous system generated by repetitive and sustained pericranial myofascial nociception may be responsible for transformation of episodic tension-type headache into chronic form. We aimed to compare mechanical and electrical (intramuscular and cutaneous) pain thresholds in trapezius and anterior tibial regions between 20 patients with chronic tension type headache and 20 healthy controls. Pain thresholds to three types of electrical stimulation (single pulse, 2 and 100 Hz) were significantly lower in patients than in controls in trapezius muscle (P < 0.02) and in skin overlying the trapezius muscle (P < 0.05), whilst electrical pain thresholds did not differ between groups in anterior tibial muscle and skin. Quantitative sensory testing revealed increased pain sensitivity in patients as assessed by pressure-controlled manual palpation (local tenderness score, LTS; P < 0.01) and by pressure algometry (mechanical pain thresholds; P < 0.05) in test areas over the trapezius muscle, but not the anterior tibial muscle. In summary, this study demonstrates lower pain thresholds in muscle and skin of the cephalic region but not in lower limb muscle and skin in patients with chronic tension-type headache than in healthy controls. Increased sensitivity in nociceptive pathways from cephalic region may be of importance in the pathophysiology of chronic tension type headache.

  19. Mite allergens in relation to home conditions and sensitization of asthmatic children from three climatic regions.

    PubMed

    Munir, A K; Björkstén, B; Einarsson, R; Ekstrand-Tobin, A; Möller, C; Warner, A; Kjellman, N I

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the levels of mite (Der p I and Der f I) allergen in dust from bedrooms, living rooms, kitchens, and bathrooms from 130 homes of asthmatic children in three climatic zones of Sweden. Bedroom dust samples included the child's mattress, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. Living-room dust samples were taken from sofas and other furniture, carpets, floors, and other plain surfaces. The allergen levels were related to home characteristics, including absolute indoor humidity (AIH), relative humidity (RH), and air changes per hour (ach). Mite allergen was detected in 62% of the homes. Levels of Der p I varied between < 16 ng and 50 micrograms/g dust, and Der f I between < 16 ng and 73 micrograms/g dust. Because we have designed a composite type of dust collection in our study, the allergen levels found tend to average down the results. Mite allergen levels were higher in homes with dampness problems, in homes with a smoker, and in homes without a basement. Homes with high absolute humidity (> or = 7 g/kg) or relative humidity (> or = 45%) and poor ventilation (< 0.5 ach) contained higher levels of mite allergens than homes with lower humidity and better ventilation. However, the number of ach measurements in homes was not high, and few homes had > 0.5 ach. Sensitization to house-dust mites was more common in southern than in northern and central Sweden. High levels of house-dust mite allergen in a temperate climate where mites are not ubiquitous are thus associated with dampness problems in homes and with tobacco smoking. Our data confirm and extend previous findings that high AIH and RH and poor ventilation increase the risk of mite infestation in homes. It seems to be important and necessary to control indoor humidity and ventilation levels, to avoid high mite allergen exposure in a temperate climate, because 34% of mite-sensitized asthmatic children were exposed to levels of mite allergen < 2 micrograms/g dust in their homes. The study also

  20. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E.; Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale. PMID:27624590

  1. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E.; Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale.

  2. High sensitive X-ray films to detect electron showers in 100 GeV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taira, T.; Shirai, T.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Nishimura, J.; Fujii, M.; Yoshida, A.; Aizu, H.; Nomura, Y.; Kazuno, M.

    1985-01-01

    Nonscreen type X-ray films were used in emulsion chamber experiments to detect high energy showers in cosmic rays. Ranges of the detection threshold is from about 1 to 2 TeV depending on the exposure conditions. Different types of X-ray films and sheets i.e. high sensitive screen type X-ray films and luminescence sheets were tested. The threshold of the shower detection is found to be about 200 GeV, which is much lower than that of nonscreen type X-ray films. These films are useful to detect showers in the medium energy range, a few hundred GeV, of the cosmic ray electrons.

  3. Sensitivity of the Southern Ocean circulation to enhanced regional Antarctic meltwater input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Steven; Fogwill, Christopher; Turney, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Recent observational and modelling evidence suggests that Antarctica may be a larger source of meltwater than previously supposed. In this presentation, we use a fully coupled climate system model to assess the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean circulation to meltwater input. We present the results of a series of idealised simulations which explore the effects of increased meltwater flux from specific sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. In particular, we assess the response to physically-plausible scenarios which involve spatially and temporally variable meltwater inputs into the Ross, Weddell and Amundsen embayments. Our simulations reveal that increased freshwater input results in a rapid increase in the stratification of the upper ocean. This causes a reduction in the mixing of the cold surface waters with the underlying warmer waters, including a reduction of up to 50% in the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation. The reduced mixing leads to cooling at the surface, but a rapid and pervasive warming at depth. This warming is strongest at depths of between 200 and 700m, and is focused along sectors of the Antarctic ice sheets that are known to be sensitive to ocean forcing. In the Ross and Amundsen sectors, the water temperature increases by up to 1.6°C at the depth of the grounding lines. This provides an additional feedback mechanism that may further enhance the basal melting and thermally-driven grounding line retreat of the Antarctic ice sheets during the 21st century. The rapid nature of the feedback also strengthens recent hypotheses that attribute rapid sea level rise scenarios to Antarctic sources.

  4. Sensitivity of Downward Longwave Surface Radiation to Moisture and Cloud Changes in a High-elevation Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Chen, Yonghua; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Miller, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested enhanced rates of warming in high-elevation regions since the latter half of the twentieth century. One of the potential reasons why enhanced rates of warming might occur at high elevations is the nonlinear relationship between downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). Using ground-based observations at a high-elevation site in southwestern Colorado and coincident satellite-borne cloud retrievals, the sensitivity of DLR to changes in q and cloud properties is examined and quantified using a neural network method. It is also used to explore how the sensitivity of DLR to q (dDLR/dq) is affected by cloud properties. When binned by season, dDLR/dq is maximum in winter and minimum in summer for both clear and cloudy skies. However, the cloudy-sky sensitivities are smaller, primarily because (1) for both clear and cloudy skies dDLR/dq is proportional to 1/q, for q>0.5 g/kg, and (2) the seasonal values of q are on average larger in the cloudy-sky cases than in clear-sky cases. For a given value of q, dDLR/dq is slightly reduced in the presence of clouds and this reduction increases as q increases. In addition, DLR is found to be more sensitive to changes in cloud fraction when cloud fraction is large. In the limit of overcast skies, DLR sensitivity to optical thickness decreases as clouds become more opaque. These results are based on only one high-elevation site, so the conclusions here need to be tested at other high-elevation locations.

  5. A Method Of Evaluating A Subsurface Region Using Gather Sensitive Data Discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    2000-01-11

    A method of evaluating a subsurface region by separating/enhancing a certain type of seismic event data of interest from an overall set of seismic event data which includes other, different types of seismic event data is disclosed herein. In accordance with one feature, a particular type of gather is generated from the seismic event data such that the gather includes at least a portion of the data which is of interest and at least a portion of the other data. A series of data discrimination lines are incorporated into the gather at positions and directions which are established in the gather in a predetermined way. Using the data discrimination lines, the data of interest which is present in the gather is separated/enhanced with respect to the other data within the gather. The separated data may be used for example in producing a map of the particular subterranean region. In accordance with another feature, the gather is selected such that the incorporated discrimination lines approach a near parallel relationship with one another. Thereby, the data is transformed in a way which causes the discrimination lines to be parallel with one another, resulting in reduced frequency distortion accompanied by improved accuracy in the separation/enhancement of data. In accordance with still another feature, the disclosed data separation/enhancement method is compatible with an iterative approach.

  6. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; Clein, Joy S.; Xia, Jiangyang; Beer, Christian; Burke, Eleanor; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Marchenko, Sergey; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Peng, Shushi; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Luo, Yiqi; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-07-08

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates of loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr–1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr–1 between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982–2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. Furthermore, to improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the

  7. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; ...

    2016-07-08

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates ofmore » loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr–1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr–1 between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982–2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. Furthermore, to improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the permafrost C feedback and for the modeling and observational communities to

  8. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; Clein, Joy S.; Xia, Jiangyang; Beer, Christian; Burke, Eleanor; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Jafarov, Elchin; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Marchenko, Sergey; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Ekici, Altug; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Luo, Yiqi; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-07-01

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates of loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr-1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr-1 between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982-2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. To improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the permafrost C feedback and for the modeling and observational communities to jointly develop data sets

  9. Sensitivity of the Southern Ocean to enhanced regional Antarctic ice sheet meltwater input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwill, C. J.; Phipps, S. J.; Turney, C. S. M.; Golledge, N. R.

    2015-10-01

    Despite advances in our understanding of the processes driving contemporary sea level rise, the stability of the Antarctic ice sheets and their contribution to sea level under projected future warming remains uncertain due to the influence of strong ice-climate feedbacks. Disentangling these feedbacks is key to reducing uncertainty. Here we present a series of climate system model simulations that explore the potential effects of increased West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) meltwater flux on Southern Ocean dynamics. We project future changes driven by sectors of the WAIS, delivering spatially and temporally variable meltwater flux into the Amundsen, Ross, and Weddell embayments over future centuries. Focusing on the Amundsen Sea sector of the WAIS over the next 200 years, we demonstrate that the enhanced meltwater flux rapidly stratifies surface waters, resulting in a significant decrease in the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation. This triggers rapid pervasive ocean warming (>1°C) at depth due to advection from the original site(s) of meltwater input. The greatest warming is predicted along sectors of the ice sheet that are highly sensitized to ocean forcing, creating a feedback loop that could enhance basal ice shelf melting and grounding line retreat. Given that we do not include the effects of rising CO2—predicted to further reduce AABW formation—our experiments highlight the urgent need to develop a new generation of fully coupled ice sheet climate models, which include feedback mechanisms such as this, to reduce uncertainty in climate and sea level projections.

  10. Representation of monsoon intraseasonal oscillations in regional climate model: sensitivity to convective physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakanth, U.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Raju, Attada; Vijaya Bhaskar Rao, S.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of regional climate model (RegCM) version 4.4 over south Asian CORDEX domain to simulate seasonal mean and monsoon intraseasonal oscillations (MISOs) during Indian summer monsoon. Three combinations of Grell (G) and Emanuel (E) cumulus schemes namely, RegCM-EG, RegCM-EE and RegCM-GE have been used. The model is initialized at 1st January, 2000 for a 13-year continuous simulation at a spatial resolution of 50 km. The models reasonably simulate the seasonal mean low level wind pattern though they differ in simulating mean precipitation pattern. All models produce dry bias in precipitation over Indian land region except in RegCM-EG where relatively low value of dry bias is observed. On seasonal scale, the performance of RegCM-EG is more close to observation though it fails at intraseasonal time scales. In wave number-frequency spectrum, the observed peak in zonal wind (850 hPa) at 40-50 day scale is captured by all models with a slight change in amplitude, however, the 40-50 day peak in precipitation is completely absent in RegCM-EG. The space-time characteristics of MISOs are well captured by RegCM-EE over RegCM-GE, however it fails to show the eastward propagation of the convection across the Maritime Continent. Except RegCM-EE all other models completely underestimates the moisture advection from Equatorial Indian Ocean onto Indian land region during life-cycle of MISOs. The characteristics of MISOs are studied for strong (SM) and weak (WM) monsoon years and the differences in model performances are analyzed. The wavelet spectrum of rainfall over central India denotes that, the SM years are dominated by high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas little higher periods (>30 days) along with dominated low periods (<20 days) observed during WM years. During SM, RegCM-EE is dominated with high frequency oscillations (period <20 days) whereas in WM, RegCM-EE is dominated with periods >20 days. Except Reg

  11. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  12. Regional Homogeneity of Resting-State Brain Activity Suppresses the Effect of Dopamine-Related Genes on Sensory Processing Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong; Xue, Gui; Li, Jin; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Wang, Yunxin; Liu, Bin; Chen, Wen; Zhu, Bi; Dong, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is an intrinsic personality trait whose genetic and neural bases have recently been studied. The current study used a neural mediation model to explore whether resting-state brain functions mediated the effects of dopamine-related genes on SPS. 298 healthy Chinese college students (96 males, mean age = 20.42 years, SD = 0.89) were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging during resting state, genotyped for 98 loci within the dopamine system, and administered the Highly Sensitive Person Scale. We extracted a “gene score” that summarized the genetic variations representing the 10 loci that were significantly linked to SPS, and then used path analysis to search for brain regions whose resting-state data would help explain the gene-behavior association. Mediation analysis revealed that temporal homogeneity of regional spontaneous activity (ReHo) in the precuneus actually suppressed the effect of dopamine-related genes on SPS. The path model explained 16% of the variance of SPS. This study represents the first attempt at using a multi-gene voxel-based neural mediation model to explore the complex relations among genes, brain, and personality. PMID:26308205

  13. Regional specification of threshold sensitivity and response time in CBA/CaJ mouse spiral ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Davis, Robin L

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies of spiral ganglion neuron electrophysiology have shown that specific parameters differ according to cochlear location, with apical neurons being distinctly different from basal neurons. To align these features more precisely along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea, we developed a novel spiral ganglion culture system in which positional information is retained. Patch-clamp recordings made from neurons of known gangliotopic location revealed two basic firing pattern distributions. Membrane characteristics related to spike timing, such as accommodation, latency and onset tau, were distinctly heterogeneous, yet when averaged, they were distributed in a graded manner along the length of the cochlea. Action potential threshold levels also displayed a wide range, the averages of which were distributed nonmonotonically such that neurons with the greatest sensitivity were localized to the mid-regions of the ganglion. These studies shed new light on the complexity and sophistication of the intrinsic firing features of spiral ganglion neurons. Because timing-related elements are organized in an overall tonotopic manner, it is hypothesized that they contribute to aspects of frequency-dependent acoustic processing. On the other hand, the different distribution of threshold levels, with the greatest sensitivity in the middle region of the tonotopic map, suggests that this neuronal parameter is regulated differently and thus may contribute a distinct realm of auditory sensory processing.

  14. Sensitivity of Domain Size of a Regional Climate Model on the Indian Summer Monsoon Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Panda, S. K.; Vaddi, D.; Mamgain, A.; Dash, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    The characteristics of Indian Summer Monsoon circulation and rainfall simulated by Regional Climate Model version 4.2 (RegCM4.2) using two domains: the smaller domain over India and the larger one over South Asia (SA) domain have been examined. The larger domain over the South Asia has been identified in the framework of World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) coordinated experiment known as the COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). This study is made over a period of 36 years starting from 1st January 1970 to 31st December 2005 at 50 km horizontal resolution of the model over both the domains using RegCM version 4.2. The UK Met Office Hadley Centre Global Circulation Model Version 2.0 (HadGEM2) outputs obtained from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for IPCC AR5 have been used as the initial and lateral boundary conditions. The model simulated precipitation has been compared with the IMD 0.5°x0.5° gridded rainfall which is available over the Indian land mass. Results show that the total precipitation is reduced significantly when the domain size is reduced from South Asia to smaller Indian domain. The simulated Indian precipitation obtained in the South Asian domain has a good agreement with the corresponding IMD observations. It is also seen that the domain size has dominant impact on the convective precipitation simulated by the model whereas there is no significant change in the non-convective precipitation. The wind field at 850hPa over the Arabian Sea is close to the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis in SA domain as compared against that obtained in the Indian domain. The cross-equatorial flow and the Somali Jet are better simulated in the SA than the Indian domain. Thus both the wind and rainfall fields' simulated by RegCM4 over India in case of SA domain are closer to the respective observations as compared to those obtained using the Indian domain. Since, the vertically integrated moisture flux over the Arabian Sea is

  15. Sensitivity analysis of C- and Ku-band synthetic aperture radar data to soil moisture content in a semiarid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Edson Eyji

    In this study, the sensitivity of the C-band (5.3 GHz) with a 23sp° incidence angle and the Ku-band (14.85 GHz) with 35sp° ,\\ 55sp° , and 75sp° incidence angles to surface soil moisture content from a semiarid region were evaluated. To obtain an improved soil moisture estimation, a practical technique to reduce the influence of soil roughness and vegetation in the SAR data was developed in a study area located in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, a representative site of shrub- and grass-dominated rangelands of the southwestern part of the United States. To correct for soil roughness effects, the C-band radar backscattering coefficients sigmasp° from a wet season image were subtracted from sigmasp° derived from a dry season image. The assumption was that, in semiarid regions, the SAR data from the dry season was dependent only on the soil roughness effects. To correct for vegetation effects, an empirical relation between sigmasp° and leaf area index was used, the latter derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The results showed that when both soil roughness and vegetation effects were corrected for, the sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture improved substantially. The sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture was also evaluated in agricultural fields with bare soil and periodic roughness components (planting row and furrow structures). Four types of SAR system configurations were analyzed: C-band with a 23sp° incidence angle and Ku-band with 35sp° ,\\ 55sp° , and 75sp° incidence angles. The test sites were located at the University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix, Arizona. The results showed that the sensitivity of sigmasp° to soil moisture was strongly dependent upon the field conditions. The SAR signal was nearly insensitive to soil moisture for furrowed fields (furrow spacing ˜95 cm; amplitude ˜22 cm), but for fields with planting row structures (row spacing ˜24 cm; amplitude ˜2 cm), the SAR data was

  16. Pore-pressure sensitivities to dynamic strains: observations in active tectonic regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Triggered seismicity arising from dynamic stresses is often explained by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, where elevated pore pressures reduce the effective strength of faults in fluid-saturated rock. The seismic response of a fluid-rock system naturally depends on its hydro-mechanical properties, but accurately assessing how pore-fluid pressure responds to applied stress over large scales in situ remains a challenging task; hence, spatial variations in response are not well understood, especially around active faults. Here I analyze previously unutilized records of dynamic strain and pore-pressure from regional and teleseismic earthquakes at Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations from 2006 through 2012 to investigate variations in response along the Pacific/North American tectonic plate boundary. I find robust scaling-response coefficients between excess pore pressure and dynamic strain at each station that are spatially correlated: around the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault systems, the response is lowest in regions of the crust undergoing the highest rates of secular shear strain. PBO stations in the Parkfield instrument cluster are at comparable distances to the San Andreas fault (SAF), and spatial variations there follow patterns in dextral creep rates along the fault, with the highest response in the actively creeping section, which is consistent with a narrowing zone of strain accumulation seen in geodetic velocity profiles. At stations in the San Juan Bautista (SJB) and Anza instrument clusters, the response depends non-linearly on the inverse fault-perpendicular distance, with the response decreasing towards the fault; the SJB cluster is at the northern transition from creeping-to-locked behavior along the SAF, where creep rates are at moderate to low levels, and the Anza cluster is around the San Jacinto fault, where to date there have been no statistically significant creep rates observed at the surface. These results suggest that the strength

  17. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Donders, Timme H; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C; de Weger, Letty A; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  18. Region-Specific Sensitivity of Anemophilous Pollen Deposition to Temperature and Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Donders, Timme H.; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C.; de Weger, Letty A.; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001]) in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001). The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect

  19. Global and regional ocean carbon uptake and climate change: sensitivity to a substantial mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, Marcello; Manzini, Elisa; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Alessandri, Andrea; Patara, Lavinia; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    Under future scenarios of business-as-usual emissions, the ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon is anticipated to decrease because of ocean chemistry constraints and positive feedbacks in the carbon-climate dynamics, whereas it is still unknown how the oceanic carbon cycle will respond to more substantial mitigation scenarios. To evaluate the natural system response to prescribed atmospheric "target" concentrations and assess the response of the ocean carbon pool to these values, 2 centennial projection simulations have been performed with an Earth System Model that includes a fully coupled carbon cycle, forced in one case with a mitigation scenario and the other with the SRES A1B scenario. End of century ocean uptake with the mitigation scenario is projected to return to the same magnitude of carbon fluxes as simulated in 1960 in the Pacific Ocean and to lower values in the Atlantic. With A1B, the major ocean basins are instead projected to decrease the capacity for carbon uptake globally as found with simpler carbon cycle models, while at the regional level the response is contrasting. The model indicates that the equatorial Pacific may increase the carbon uptake rates in both scenarios, owing to enhancement of the biological carbon pump evidenced by an increase in Net Community Production (NCP) following changes in the subsurface equatorial circulation and enhanced iron availability from extratropical regions. NCP is a proxy of the bulk organic carbon made available to the higher trophic levels and potentially exportable from the surface layers. The model results indicate that, besides the localized increase in the equatorial Pacific, the NCP of lower trophic levels in the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans is projected to be halved with respect to the current climate under a substantial mitigation scenario at the end of the twenty-first century. It is thus suggested that changes due to cumulative carbon emissions up to present and the projected concentration

  20. Regional tongue sensitivity for sweetness and pungency of ethanol-aspartame mixtures.

    PubMed

    Calviño, A M

    1998-02-01

    Binary mixtures of aspartame prepared at three levels of concentration and dissolved in four ethanolic dilutions were perceptually evaluated. Sweet-pungent combinations were presented in solution or in disks of filter paper (paper) soaked in the solutions. Variations in sweetness and pungency were examined at two oral loci including the tip and the back plus the front of the tongue in the liquid condition or the tip and the back of the tongue in the paper condition. A similar behavior was observed in liquid and paper conditions; as the concentration of aspartame and ethanol increased so did the intensity for sweet and pungent qualities. Whereas sweetness was not influenced by ethanol addition (2-8% V/V), a suppressive effect of aspartame (1-4 mM) on pungency was noted for liquid but not for the paper condition. Sweetness was enhanced when the back plus the front of the tongue was stimulated by solutions. Finally, there was a complex pattern of regional effects on the perceived pungency of alcoholic-sweet solutions that was not replicated in the paper condition.

  1. Sensitivity of regional climate simulations of the summer 1998 extreme rainfall to convective parameterization schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Bin

    2011-10-01

    subgrid-scale CPS is still highly required for the high-resolution regional climate models to simulate the heavy rainfall events.

  2. Quantifying the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuel pathways under uncertainty and regional sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tristan R.

    cellulosic biofuel pathways being commercialized in eight different U.S. states under price uncertainty, utilization of pathway-specific costs of capital, and region-specific economic factors. 10-year probabilities of default in excess of 60% are calculated for all eight location scenarios considered, with default probabilities in excess of 98% calculated for seven of the eight. Negative mean 20-year NPVs are calculated for seven of the eight location scenarios.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF A THIN SILICON SENSOR FOR ACTIVE NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Takada, M; Nunomiya, T; Nakamura, T; Matsumoto, T; Masuda, A

    2016-09-01

    A thin silicon sensor has been developed for active neutron personal dosemeters for use by aircrews and first responders. This thin silicon sensor is not affected by the funneling effect, which causes detection of cosmic protons and over-response to cosmic neutrons. There are several advantages to the thin silicon sensor: a decrease in sensitivity to gamma rays, an improvement of the energy detection limit for neutrons down to 0.8 MeV and an increase in the sensitivity to fast neutrons. Neutron response functions were experimentally obtained using 2.5 and 5 MeV monoenergy neutron beams and a (252)Cf neutron source. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code agree quite well with the experimental ones when an energy deposition region shaped like a circular truncated cone is used in place of a cylindrical region.

  4. The Sensitivity of Precipitation and Snowpack Simulations to Model Resolution via Nesting in Regions of Complex Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines sensitivity of regional climate simulations to spatial resolution using a 20-year simulation of the western U.S. at 40 km resolution and two 5-year simulations at 13 km resolution for the Pacific Northwest and California. The regional climate simulation at 40 km resolution shows a lack of precipitation along coastal hills, good agreements with observations on the windward slopes of the Cascades and Sierra, but over-prediction on the leeside and the basins beyond. Snowpack is grossly under-predicted throughout the western U.S. when compared against observations at snotel sites, which are typically located at the higher altitudes. Comparisons of the 40 km and 13 km resolution simulations suggest that during winter, higher spatial resolution mainly improves the simulation of precipitation in the coastal hills and basins. Along the Cascades and the Sierra Range, however, precipitation is strongly amplified at the higher spatial resolution and compares less favorably with observations. Higher resolution generally improves the spatial distribution of precipitation to yield higher spatial correlation when comparing the simulations to observation. During summer, higher resolution improves not only spatial distribution but also regional mean precipitation.

  5. Regional variability in particulate organic matter remineralization depths: an optimization and sensitivity study using a fast Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jamie; Barker, Stephen; Ridgwell, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient distributions and atmospheric CO2 concentrations are sensitive to changes in the global average depth of particulate organic matter (POM) remineralization in models. Model optimization studies have used this sensitivity to find global mean remineralization depths that result in the statistically best fit to tracer observations such as phosphate (PO4). However, recent global syntheses of sediment trap data have started to suggest the existence of significant spatial variability in the depth of POM remineralization. A number of hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed to explain this variability invoking a wide range of feedbacks on atmospheric CO2. Progress has been hindered by the relatively low sampling density of sediment trap data. In response to this, we explore whether there is an optimal set of regionally variable remineralization depths in an Earth system model that best fits observed PO4 fields and how robust these solutions are. We develop a new computationally fast phosphorous-only version of the Earth system model GENIE using a transport matrix to represent steady-state circulation. The ocean is divided into 15 biogeochemical biomes within which the remineralization depth is an independent parameter. Latin hypercube sampling is used to produce an ensemble of runs that efficiently sample across the range of potential combinations of remineralization depths, producing probability distributions for each region. Despite sensitivity to the global remineralization depth, we find that PO4 is actually relatively insensitive to regional changes in remineralization. An optimal combination of remineralization depths in the Atlantic is found that predicts deeper remineralization in the low latitudes and shallower at high latitudes, matching sediment trap observations. Shallow remineralization is also predicted in the North Pacific. However, remineralization depths in the Southern Ocean, South and Equatorial Pacific, and Indian Ocean cannot be successfully

  6. Application of Response Surface based Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis methods for Regional Hydrogeological Modelling in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Palombi, D.; Huff, G. F.

    2014-12-01

    A regional scale study of groundwater flow dynamics was undertaken in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), comprising parts of Alberta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. The objective of the study is to investigate basin-scale hydrogeology in WCSB and to establish boundary conditions for future local-scale groundwater management models. Earlier work in the Alberta basin has acknowledged the fact that in addition to topography controlled conditions, a substantial part of the basin exhibits sub-hydrostatic regimes. The basin-scale model (approx. 420,000 km2) includes Upper Cretaceous aquifers to Recent age sediments which collectively attain maximum thicknesses of >2600 m. Regional aquifer units considered for the numerical model are Quaternary sediments, and the sedimentary rocks of the Paskapoo, Scollard, Horseshoe Canyon formations and the Belly River Group. Regional aquitards delineated include the Battle and Bear Paw formations. The study area is bound to the west by the Brazeau-Waptiti thrust belt and to the south by the Canada-USA international border. The boundary to the north and east is delineated by the maximum extent of the Wapiti and Belly River groups and Judith River Formation. USGS MODFLOW was implemented for numerical simulation. The steady state numerical model was calibrated using a Response Surface based (Radial Basis Functions) optimization method. The calibration targets (~2000) were comprised of drill stem tests for deeper units and static water levels for shallower units. Petrophysical analyses of cores averaged K values from analyses of aquifer test results,and literature values were used to provide initial values and calibration ranges for hydraulic properties. Results indicate predominance of topography driven, local- to intermediate-scale flow systems in all hydrostratigraphic units with recharge of these units occurring in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The Battle aquitard, where present, acts to retard regional flow

  7. Elasticity imaging of speckle-free tissue regions with moving acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Song, Shaozhen; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Yoon, Soon Joon; Shen, Tueng; Wang, Ruikang; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) can be utilized for quantitative shear-wave elastography using speckle tracking. However, current approaches cannot directly reconstruct elastic properties in speckle-less or speckle-free regions, for example within the crystalline lens in ophthalmology. Investigating the elasticity of the crystalline lens could improve understanding and help manage presbyopia-related pathologies that change biomechanical properties. We propose to reconstruct the elastic properties in speckle-less regions by sequentially launching shear waves with moving acoustic radiation force (mARF), and then detecting the displacement at a specific speckle-generating position, or limited set of positions, with PhS-OCT. A linear ultrasound array (with a center frequency of 5 MHz) interfaced with a programmable imaging system was designed to launch shear waves by mARF. Acoustic sources were electronically translated to launch shear waves at laterally shifted positions, where displacements were detected by speckle tracking images produced by PhS-OCT operating in M-B mode with a 125-kHz A-line rate. Local displacements were calculated and stitched together sequentially based on the distance between the acoustic source and the detection beam. Shear wave speed, and the associated elasticity map, were then reconstructed based on a time-of-flight algorithm. In this study, moving-source shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can highlight a stiff inclusion within an otherwise homogeneous phantom but with a CNR increased by 3.15 dB compared to a similar image reconstructed with moving-detector SWEI. Partial speckle-free phantoms were also investigated to demonstrate that the moving-source sequence could reconstruct the elastic properties of speckle-free regions. Results show that harder inclusions within the speckle-free region can be detected, suggesting that this imaging method may be able to detect the elastic properties of the crystalline lens.

  8. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material. PMID:27172815

  9. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-05-13

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material.

  10. Sealed position sensitive hard X-ray detector having large drift region for all sky camera with high angular resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Perlman, D.; Parsignault, D.; Burns, R.

    1979-01-01

    A sealed position sensitive proportional counter filled with two atmospheres of 95% xenon and 5% methane, and containing a drift region of 24 atm cm, has operated in a stable manner for many months. The detector contains G-10 frames to support the anode and cathode wires. The detector was sealed successfully by a combination of vacuum baking the G-10 frames at 150 C for two weeks followed by assembly into the detector in an environment of dry nitrogen, and the use of passive internal getters. The counter is intended for use with a circumferential cylindrical collimator. Together they provide a very broad field of view detection system with the ability to locate cosmic hard X-ray and soft gamma ray sources to an angular precision of a minute of arc. A set of instruments based on this principle have been proposed for satellites to detect and precisely locate cosmic gamma ray bursts.

  11. Peripheral and central sensitization in remote spinal cord regions contribute to central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Susan M.; Du, Junhui; Tan, Huai Yu; Nesic, Olivera; Hargett, Gregory L.; Bopp, Anne C.; Yamani, Ammar; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D.; Hulsebosch, Claire E.

    2009-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) developing after spinal cord injury (SCI) is described by the region affected: above-level, at-level and below-level pain occurs in dermatomes rostral, at/near, or below the SCI level, respectively. People with SCI and rodent models of SCI develop above-level pain characterized by mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown and the goals of this study were to elucidate components contributing to the generation of above-level CNP. Following a thoracic (T10) contusion, forelimb nociceptors had enhanced spontaneous activity and were sensitized to mechanical and thermal stimulation of the forepaws 35 days post-injury. Cervical dorsal horn neurons showed enhanced responses to non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimulation as well as thermal stimulation of receptive fields. Immunostaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells and cord segments with activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, a marker for neuronal injury) ruled out neuronal damage as a cause for above-level sensitization since few C8 DRG cells expressed AFT3 and cervical cord segments had few to no ATF3-labeled cells. Finally, activated microglia and astrocytes were present in thoracic and cervical cord at 35 days post-SCI, indicating a rostral spread of glial activation from the injury site. Based on these data, we conclude that peripheral and central sensitization as well as reactive glia in the uninjured cervical cord contribute to CNP. We hypothesize that reactive glia in the cervical cord release pro-inflammatory substances which drive chronic CNP. Thus a complex cascade of events spanning many cord segments underlies above-level CNP. PMID:19853381

  12. Hypervariable region 1 shielding of hepatitis C virus is a main contributor to genotypic differences in neutralization sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Prentoe, Jannick; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Rodrigo; Foung, Steven K H; Law, Mansun; Bukh, Jens

    2016-12-01

    There are 3-4 million new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections yearly. The extensive intergenotypic sequence diversity of envelope proteins E1 and E2 of HCV and shielding of important epitopes by hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of E2 are believed to be major hindrances to developing universally protective HCV vaccines. Using cultured viruses expressing the E1/E2 complex of isolates H77 (genotype 1a), J6 (2a), or S52 (3a), with and without HVR1, we tested HVR1-mediated neutralization occlusion in vitro against a panel of 12 well-characterized human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) targeting diverse E1, E2, and E1/E2 epitopes. Surprisingly, HVR1-mediated protection was greatest for S52, followed by J6 and then H77. HCV pulldown experiments showed that this phenomenon was caused by epitope shielding. Moreover, by regression analysis of HMAb binding and neutralization titer of HCV we found a strong correlation for HVR1-deleted viruses but not for parental viruses retaining HVR1. The intergenotype neutralization sensitivity of the parental viruses to HMAb antigenic region (AR) 2A, AR3A, AR4A, AR5A, HC84.26, and HC33.4 varied greatly (>24-fold to >130-fold differences in 50% inhibitory concentration values). However, except for AR5A, these differences decreased to less than 6.0-fold when comparing the corresponding HVR1-deleted viruses. Importantly, this simplified pattern of neutralization sensitivity in the absence of HVR1 was also demonstrated in a panel of HVR1-deleted viruses of genotypes 1a, 2a, 2b, 3a, 5a, and 6a, although for all HMAbs, except AR4A, an outlier was observed. Finally, unique amino acid residues in HCV E2 could explain these outliers in the tested cases of AR5A and HC84.26.

  13. RF shaping of silicon ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelhank, D. A.; Rochat, R. D.; Marx, W.

    1976-01-01

    Electromagnetic force generated by radiofrequency coil is used to shape molten silicon. Shaping coil surrounds melt near solid-liquid interface and induces current in surface region of melt nearly equal to but opposite coil current.

  14. Silicon spintronics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Ron

    2012-04-23

    Worldwide efforts are underway to integrate semiconductors and magnetic materials, aiming to create a revolutionary and energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are encoded in the spin of electrons. Implementing spin functionality in silicon, the mainstream semiconductor, is vital to establish a spin-based electronics with potential to change information technology beyond imagination. Can silicon spintronics live up to the expectation? Remarkable advances in the creation and control of spin polarization in silicon suggest so. Here, I review the key developments and achievements, and describe the building blocks of silicon spintronics. Unexpected and puzzling results are discussed, and open issues and challenges identified. More surprises lie ahead as silicon spintronics comes of age.

  15. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-05-22

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10(-4) to 10(2) ng/mL).

  16. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Kim, Soyoun; Jeong, Ok Chan; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Maeda, Mizuo

    2015-01-01

    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease. In this study, we report on a porous silicon antibody immunoassay platform for the detection of serum levels of total hK2. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, which offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. The tailored pore size of the porous silicon also allows efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. Monoclonal hK2 capture antibody (6B7) was dispensed onto P-Si chip using a piezoelectric dispenser. In total 13 × 13 arrays (169 spots) were spotted on the chip with its single spot volume of 300 pL. For an optimization of capture antibody condition, we firstly performed an immunoassay of the P-Si microarray under a titration series of hK2 in pure buffer (PBS) at three different antibody densities (75, 100 and 145 µg/mL). The best performance of the microarray platform was seen at 100 µg/mL of the capture antibody concentration (LOD was 100 fg/mL). The platform then was subsequently evaluated for a titration series of serum-spiked hK2 samples. The developed platform utilizes only 15 µL of serum per test and the total assay time is about 3 h, including immobilization of the capture antibody. The detection limit of the hK2 assay was 100 fg/mL in PBS buffer and 1 pg/mL in serum with a dynamic range of 106 (10−4 to 102 ng/mL). PMID:26007739

  17. Ultraviolet to near infrared response of optically sensitive nonvolatile memories based on platinum nano-particles and high-k dielectrics on a silicon on insulator substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Meyler, B.; Shneider, Y.; Yofis, S.; Salzman, J.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, T.; Ankonina, G.; Kaplan, W. D.; Lisiansky, M.; Roizin, Y.; Eisenstein, G.

    2013-02-01

    An optically triggered nonvolatile memory based on platinum nano-particles embedded within a SiO2 and HfO2 dielectric stack on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate is presented. The memory cell exhibits a very wide spectral response, from 220 nm to 950 nm; much wider than common photo-detectors fabricated on SOI. It offers several functionalities including a low programming voltage and wide hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage characteristics, an illumination and voltage sweep amplitude dependent hysteresis of the current-voltage characteristics, and plasmonic enhanced, efficient broad-band photo detection.

  18. Improving stability of nitrile hydratase by bridging the salt-bridges in specific thermal-sensitive regions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Huimin; Liu, Changchun; Liu, Jie; Shen, Zhongyao

    2012-12-15

    The regions and types suitable mutations for bridging salt-bridges to intensify enzyme stability are identified in this study. Using nitrile hydratase (NHase) as the model enzyme, three deformation-prone thermal-sensitive regions (A1, A2 and A3 in β-subunit), identified by RMSF calculations of the thermophilic NHase 1V29 from Bacillus SC-105-1 and 1UGQ from Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM3095, were determined and the stabilized salt-bridge interactions were transferred into the corresponding region of industrialized mesophilic NHase-TH from Rhodococcus ruber TH. Three types of salt bridges-active-center-adjacent (in A1), internal neighboring-residue-bridged (in A2) and C-terminal-residue-bridged (A3)-were constructed in NHase-TH. The engineered NHase-TH-A1 showed reduced expression of β-subunit, reduced activity and irregular stability. NHase-TH-A2 exhibited a enhanced expression of β-subunit but complete loss of activity; while NHase-TH-A3 exhibited not only a slightly enhanced expression of β-subunit and enzyme activity, but also a 160% increase in thermal stability, a 7% enhanced product tolerance and a 75% enhanced resistance to cell-disruption by ultrasonication. The molecular dynamic (MD) simulation revealed that NHase-TH-A3, with a moderate RMSD value, generates 10 new salt bridges in both internal-subunit and interfacial-subunit, confirming that a C-terminal salt-bridge strategy is powerful for enzyme stability intensification through triggering global changes of the salt bridge networks.

  19. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osminkina, Liubov A.; Sivakov, Vladimir A.; Mysov, Grigory A.; Georgobiani, Veronika A.; Natashina, Ulyana A.; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  20. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Osminkina, Liubov A; Sivakov, Vladimir A; Mysov, Grigory A; Georgobiani, Veronika A; Natashina, Ulyana А; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  1. Determination of Silicon in Hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Mast, Dion; Greene, Ben; Maes, Miguel J.

    2006-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a highly sensitive technique sometimes used for the trace determination of silicon at a mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of 28, the most abundant natural isotope of silicon. Unfortunately, ICP-MS is unable to differentiate between other sources of m/z 28 and false positive results for silicon will result when other sources of m/z 28 are present. Nitrogen was a major source of m/z 28 and contributes to the m/z 28 signal when hydrazine sample or nitric acid preservative is introduced into the plasma. Accordingly, this work was performed to develop a sample preparation step coupled with an ICP-MS analysis that minimized non-silicon sources of m/z 28. In the preparatory step of this method, the hydrazine sample was first decomposed predominately to nitrogen gas and water with copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. In the analysis step, ICP-MS was used without nitric acid preservative in samples or standards. Glass, a potential source of silicon contamination, was also avoided where possible. The method was sensitive, accurate, and reliable for the determination of silicon in monopropellant grade hydrazine (MPH) in AF-E-332 elastomer leaching tests. Results for silicon in MPH were comparable to those reported in the literature for other studies.

  2. Laser-induced amorphization of silicon during pulsed-laser irradiation of TiN/Ti/polycrystalline silicon/SiO2/silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Y. F.; Pey, K. L.; Wee, A. T. S.; Thompson, M. O.; Tung, C. H.; See, A.

    2002-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the complex solidification structures formed during laser irradiation of a titanium nitride/titanium/polycrystalline silicon/silicon dioxide/silicon film stack. Due to enhanced optical coupling, the titanium nitride/titanium capping layer increases the melt depth of polycrystalline silicon by more than a factor of 2. It is found that the titanium atoms diffuse through the entire polycrystalline silicon layer during irradiation. Contrary to the expected polycrystalline silicon growth, distinct regions of polycrystalline and amorphous silicon are formed instead. Possible mechanisms for the formation of these microstructures are proposed.

  3. Sensitivity of a regional climate model to land surface parameterization schemes for East Asian summer monsoon simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Guo, Weidong; Xue, Yongkang; Fu, Congbin; Qiu, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Land surface processes play an important role in the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) system. Parameterization schemes of land surface processes may cause uncertainties in regional climate model (RCM) studies for the EASM. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of a RCM to land surface parameterization (LSP) schemes for long-term simulation of the EASM. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with four different LSP schemes (Noah-MP, CLM4, Pleim-Xiu and SSiB), hereafter referred to as Sim-Noah, Sim-CLM, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB respectively, have been applied for 22-summer EASM simulations. The 22-summer averaged spatial distributions and strengths of downscaled large-scale circulation, 2-m temperature and precipitation are comprehensively compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis and dense station observations in China. Results show that the downscaling ability of RCM for the EASM is sensitive to LSP schemes. Furthermore, this study confirms that RCM does add more information to the EASM compared to reanalysis that imposes the lateral boundary conditions (LBC) because it provides 2-m temperature and precipitation that are with higher resolution and more realistic compared to LBC. For 2-m temperature and monsoon precipitation, Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB simulations are more consistent with observation than simulations of Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM. To further explore the physical and dynamic mechanisms behind the RCM sensitivity to LSP schemes, differences in the surface energy budget between simulations of Ens-Noah-CLM (ensemble mean averaging Sim-Noah and Sim-CLM) and Ens-PX-SSiB (ensemble mean averaging Sim-PX and Sim-SSiB) are investigated and their subsequent impacts on the atmospheric circulation are analyzed. It is found that the intensity of simulated sensible heat flux over Asian continent in Ens-Noah-CLM is stronger than that in Ens-PX-SSiB, which induces a higher tropospheric temperature in Ens-Noah-CLM than in Ens-PX-SSiB over land. The adaptive

  4. Aquaporins Mediate Silicon Transport in Humans.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Alexandre P; Carpentier, Gabriel A; Marcoux, Andrée-Anne; Frenette-Cotton, Rachelle; Simard, Charles F; Rémus-Borel, Wilfried; Caron, Luc; Jacob-Wagner, Mariève; Noël, Micheline; Powell, Jonathan J; Bélanger, Richard; Côté, François; Isenring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In animals, silicon is an abundant and differentially distributed trace element that is believed to play important biological functions. One would thus expect silicon concentrations in body fluids to be regulated by silicon transporters at the surface of many cell types. Curiously, however, and even though they exist in plants and algae, no such transporters have been identified to date in vertebrates. Here, we show for the first time that the human aquaglyceroporins, i.e., AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10 can act as silicon transporters in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells. In particular, heterologously expressed AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10 are all able to induce robust, saturable, phloretin-sensitive silicon transport activity in the range that was observed for low silicon rice 1 (lsi1), a silicon transporter in plant. Furthermore, we show that the aquaglyceroporins appear as relevant silicon permeation pathways in both mice and humans based on 1) the kinetics of substrate transport, 2) their presence in tissues where silicon is presumed to play key roles and 3) their transcriptional responses to changes in dietary silicon. Taken together, our data provide new evidence that silicon is a potentially important biological element in animals and that its body distribution is regulated. They should open up original areas of investigations aimed at deciphering the true physiological role of silicon in vertebrates.

  5. Aquaporins Mediate Silicon Transport in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Garneau, Alexandre P.; Carpentier, Gabriel A.; Marcoux, Andrée-Anne; Frenette-Cotton, Rachelle; Simard, Charles F.; Rémus-Borel, Wilfried; Caron, Luc; Jacob-Wagner, Mariève; Noël, Micheline; Powell, Jonathan J.; Bélanger, Richard; Côté, François; Isenring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In animals, silicon is an abundant and differentially distributed trace element that is believed to play important biological functions. One would thus expect silicon concentrations in body fluids to be regulated by silicon transporters at the surface of many cell types. Curiously, however, and even though they exist in plants and algae, no such transporters have been identified to date in vertebrates. Here, we show for the first time that the human aquaglyceroporins, i.e., AQP3, AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10 can act as silicon transporters in both Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells. In particular, heterologously expressed AQP7, AQP9 and AQP10 are all able to induce robust, saturable, phloretin-sensitive silicon transport activity in the range that was observed for low silicon rice 1 (lsi1), a silicon transporter in plant. Furthermore, we show that the aquaglyceroporins appear as relevant silicon permeation pathways in both mice and humans based on 1) the kinetics of substrate transport, 2) their presence in tissues where silicon is presumed to play key roles and 3) their transcriptional responses to changes in dietary silicon. Taken together, our data provide new evidence that silicon is a potentially important biological element in animals and that its body distribution is regulated. They should open up original areas of investigations aimed at deciphering the true physiological role of silicon in vertebrates. PMID:26313002

  6. Simple Method for High-Sensitivity Determination of Cosmogenic (35)S in Snow and Water Samples Collected from Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mang; Wang, Kun; Kang, Shichang; Thiemens, Mark H

    2017-03-15

    Cosmogenic (35)S is useful in understanding a wide variety of chemical and physical processes in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. The 87.4-day half-life and the ubiquity of sulfur in natural environments renders it an ideal tracer of many phenomena. Measurements of (35)S in snow and water samples are scarce as existing analytical methods require a large volume of sample (>20 L) due to their high analytical activity background and low counting efficiency. Here, we present a new set of snow/water sample collecting and handling procedures for high-sensitivity determination of cosmogenic (35)S using a low-level liquid scintillation spectrometer. Laboratory experiments using diluted (35)S standards (with activities of <5 disintegrations per minute) showed a (35)S recovery percentage of ∼95%, demonstrating a relatively small deviation from the true value. Using this method, we successfully measured (35)S in ∼1 L of fresh snow sample collected from a glacier on the Tibetan Plateau to be 47 ± 7 mBq/L. On the basis of (35)S activities in 9 natural samples measured in this study, a first proof-of-concept approximation for age determinations and source attributions was presented. This new method will provide a powerful tool in studying (35)S in small volumes of snow and water samples, especially those from remote but climatically important regions such as the polar regions and the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayas. The measurements are particularly important as the radioactive sulfur provides an actual clock of glacial melting processes. With the growing rate of glacial loss, the need for measurements from remote locations becomes all the more important.

  7. Functional interactions within the parahippocampal region revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging in the isolated guinea pig brain.

    PubMed

    Biella, Gerardo; Spaiardi, Paolo; Toselli, Mauro; de Curtis, Marco; Gnatkovsky, Vadym

    2010-02-01

    The massive transfer of information from the neocortex to the entorhinal cortex (and vice versa) is hindered by a powerful inhibitory control generated in the perirhinal cortex. In vivo and in vitro experiments performed in rodents and cats support this conclusion, further extended in the present study to the analysis of the interaction between the entorhinal cortex and other parahippocampal areas, such as the postrhinal and the retrosplenial cortices. The experiments were performed in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain by a combined approach based on electrophysiological recordings and fast imaging of optical signals generated by voltage-sensitive dyes applied to the entire brain by arterial perfusion. Local stimuli delivered in different portions of the perirhinal, postrhinal, and retrosplenial cortex evoked local responses that did not propagate to the entorhinal cortex. Neither high- and low-frequency-patterned stimulation nor paired associative stimuli facilitated the propagation of activity to the entorhinal region. Similar stimulations performed during cholinergic neuromodulation with carbachol were also ineffective in overcoming the inhibitory network that controls propagation to the entorhinal cortex. The pharmacological inactivation of GABAergic transmission by local application of bicuculline (1 mM) in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex facilitated the longitudinal (rostrocaudal) propagation of activity into the perirhinal/postrhinal cortices but did not cause propagation into the entorhinal cortex. Bicuculline injection in both area 35 and medial entorhinal cortex released the inhibitory control and allowed the propagation of the neural activity to the entorhinal cortex. These results demonstrate that, as for the perirhinal-entorhinal reciprocal interactions, also the connections between the postrhinal/retrosplenial cortices and the entorhinal region are subject to a powerful inhibitory control.

  8. Western Pacific Warm Pool Region Sensitivity to Convective Triggering byBoundary Layer Thermals in the NOGAPS Atmospheric GCM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, James A.; Reynolds, Carolyn A.

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the atmospheric general circulation model of the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System to a parameterization of convective triggering by atmospheric boundary layer thermals is investigated. The study focuses on the western Pacific warm pool region and examines the results of seasonal integrations of the model for the winter of 1987/88. A parameterization for thermal triggering of deep convection is presented that is based on a classification of the unstable boundary layer. Surface-based deep convection is allowed only for boundary layer regimes associated with the presence of thermals. The regime classification is expressed in terms of a Richardson number that reflects the relative significance of buoyancy and shear in the boundary layer. By constraining deep convection to conditions consistent with the occurrence of thermals (high buoyancy to shear ratios), there is a significant decrease in precipitation over the southern portion of the northeast trade wind zone in the tropical Pacific and along the ITCZ. This decrease in precipitation allows for an increased flux of moisture into the region south of the equator corresponding to the warmest portion of the Pacific warm pool. Improvements in the simulated distribution of precipitation, precipitable water, and low-level winds in the tropical Pacific are demonstrated. Over the western Pacific, the transition from free convective conditions associated with thermals to forced convective conditions is found to be primarily due to variations in mixed layer wind speed. Low-level winds thus play the major role in regulating the ability of thermals to initiate deep convection. The lack of coupling with the ocean in these simulations may possibly produce a distorted picture in this regard.

  9. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  10. Second-harmonic microscopy of strain fields around through-silicon-vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yujin; Shafiei, Farbod; Mendoza, B. S.; Lei, Ming; Jiang, Tengfei; Ho, P. S.; Downer, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    Through-Silicon-Vias (TSVs)—10 μm-diameter conducting rods that connect vertically stacked silicon layers—provide three dimensional circuit integration, but introduce strain in the surrounding silicon when thermally cycled. Here, we noninvasively probe strain fields around Cu TSVs in Si(001) using optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Results are compared with micro-Raman spectra of the strained regions. We find that SHG probes strain fields more quickly than Raman spectroscopy, while maintaining comparable sensitivity and spatial resolution, and avoiding the need for spectral analysis. Moreover, SHG is selectively sensitive to axial shear components uiz (i = x, y) of the strain tensor that are often neglected in Raman analysis. Thus, SHG complements Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Ellipsometric studies of sputtered silicon nitride on n-GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Y. K.; Bu-Abbud, G.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Bayraktarogulu, B.; Langer, D.; Liu, D.; Haugland, E.

    1982-01-01

    Ellipsometry, which is the study of optical systems through their effect on polarized light, is a nondestructive technique offering extremely high sensitivity and in situ operation. One of the intriguing possibilities is to make use of the high sensitivity of ellipsometry for studying the very thin interface between an insulating film and a semiconductor substrate. Researchers have been especially interested in native or anodic oxides. In a recent study, Aspnes and Theeten used ellipsometry to study the interface between silicon and its thermally grown oxide, SiO2. These authors were able to conclude that the interface consisted of a 7 +/- 2 A graded region of atomically mixed silicon and oxygen. In this paper we report both analysis and experimental results for the system: sputtered silicon nitride on (100) n-type gallium arsenide.

  12. Final Report for Collaborative Project: Sensitivity of Atmospheric Parametric Formulations to Regional Mesh Refinement in Global Climate Simulations Using CESM-HOMME

    SciTech Connect

    Neale, Richard B.

    2015-12-01

    In this project we analyze climate simulations using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to determine the modeled response and sensitivity to horizontal resolution. Simple aqua-planet configurations were used to provide a clean comparison of the response to resolution in CESM. This enables us to easily examine all aspects of the model sensitivity to resolution including mean quantities, variability and physical parameterization tendencies: the chief reflection of resolution sensitivity. An extension to the global resolution sensitivity study is the examination of regional grid refinement where resolution changes are prescribed in a single global simulation. We examine the relevance of the global resolution sensitivity results as applied to these regional refinement simulations. In particular we examine how variations in the grid resolution, centered on different parts of the globe, lead to differences in the parameterized response and the potential to generate residual circulations as a result. Given the potential to generate this resolution sensitivity we examine simple modifications to the parameterized physics that are able to moderate any residual circulations. Finally, we transfer the framework to the standard AMIP configuration to examine the resolution sensitivity in the presence of compounding effects such as land-sea distributions, orography and seasonal variation.

  13. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deam, L.; Stavrias, N.; Lee, K. K.; McCallum, J. C.

    2012-10-01

    We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  14. Silicon photonic crystal microarrays for high throughput label-free detection of lung cancer cell line lysates with sensitivity and specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Gemmill, Robert M.; Chen, Ray T.

    2013-03-01

    Detection of biomolecules on microarrays based on label-free on-chip optical biosensors is very attractive since this format avoids complex chemistries caused by steric hindrance of labels. Application areas include the detection of cancers and allergens, and food-borne pathogens to name a few. We have demonstrated photonic crystal microcavity biosensors with high sensitivity down to 1pM concentrations (67pg/ml). High sensitivities were achieved by slow light engineering which reduced the radiation loss and increased the stored energy in the photonic crystal microcavity resonance mode. Resonances with high quality factor Q~26,760 in liquid ambient, coupled with larger optical mode volumes allowed enhanced interaction with the analyte biomolecules which resulted in sensitivities down to 10 cells per micro-liter to lung cancer cell lysates. The specificity of detection was ensured by multiplexed detections from multiple photonic crystal microcavities arrayed on the arms of a multimode interference power splitter. Specific binding interactions and control experiments were performed simultaneously at the same instant of time with the same 60 microliter sample volume. Specificity is further ensured by sandwich assay methods in the multiplexed experiment. Sandwich assay based amplification increased the sensitivity further resulting in the detection of lung cancer cell lysates down to concentrations of 2 cells per micro-liter. The miniaturization enabled by photonic crystal biosensors coupled with waveguide interconnected layout thus offers the potential of high throughput proteomics with high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Investigating the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and trajectory to sea surface temperatures using the regional model WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Cevahir; Raible, Christoph C.

    2015-04-01

    hurricane centre. In this case the hurricane is attracted by the SST anomaly which causes an additional moisture source and increased vertical winds. This study confirm the linear relation between SST and TC intensity. However, in case of localised SST anomalies, the relative location to the TC core determes the gradient of the linear relation. The gradient decreases with increasing distance between SST anomaly and initialisation point. The anomalies located west and north of the initialisation point have a stronger impact than the ones located south and east, as they lie in the moving direction of the TC. Further, in terms of magnitude and pattern, the horizontal advection term of PVT does not strongly differ from the reference simulation. However, the pattern of diabatic heating term differs: A maximum of diabatic heating is still located in moving direction, but additionally the diabatic heating is found in the spiral rain bands. Thus, the vortex is drifted to the SST anomaly due to the asymmetry in the TC circulation induced by the diabatic heating term of the PVT. References Kilic, C., and C. C. Raible, Investigating the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and trajectory to sea surface temperatures using the regional model WRF, METEOROLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, 22(6), 685-698, 2013.

  16. Insights into the unfolding pathway and identification of thermally sensitive regions of phytase from Aspergillus niger by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kapil; Patel, Krunal; Agrawal, D C; Khire, J M

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stability is of great importance in the application of commercial phytases. Phytase A (PhyA) is a monomeric protein comprising twelve α-helices and ten β-sheets. Comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (at 310, 350, 400, and 500 K) revealed that the thermal stability of PhyA from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is associated with its conformational rigidity. The most thermally sensitive regions were identified as loops 8 (residues 83-106), 10 (161-174), 14 (224-230), 17 (306-331), and 24 (442-444), which are present on the surface of the protein. It was observed that solvent-exposed loops denature before or show higher flexibility than buried residues. We observed that PhyA begins to unfold at loops 8 and 14, which further extends to loop 24 at the C-terminus. The intense movement of loop 8 causes the helix H2 and beta-sheet B3 to fluctuate at high temperature. The high flexibility of the H2, H10, and H12 helices at high temperature resulted in complete denaturation. The high mobility of loop 14 easily transfers to the adjacent helices H7, H8, and H9, which fluctuate and partially unfold at high temperature (500 K). It was also observed that the salt bridges Asp110-Lys149, Asp205-Lys277, Asp335-Arg136, Asp416-Arg420, and Glu387-Arg400 are important influences on the structural stability but not the thermostability, as the lengths of these salt bridges did not increase with rising temperature. The salt bridges Glu125-Arg163, Asp299-Arg136, Asp266-Arg219, Asp339-Lys278, Asp335-Arg136, and Asp424-Arg428 are all important for thermostability, as the lengths of these bridges increased dramatically with increasing temperature. Here, for the first time, we have computationally identified the thermolabile regions of PhyA, and this information could be used to engineer novel thermostable phytases. Numerous homologous phytases of fungal as well as bacterial origin are known, and these homologs show high sequence similarity. Our findings could prove useful in

  17. Sensitivity analysis of ground-level ozone concentration to emission changes in two urban regions of southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Chandru, Santosh; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Air pollutant emission is one of the predominant factors affecting urban air quality such as ground-level ozone formation. This paper assesses the impact of changing emission inventory scenarios, based on combinations of point, mobile, area/non-road and biogenic sources, on the tropospheric ozone concentration in two southeast Texas urban areas, i.e. Houston-Galveston and Beaumont-Port Arthur, during the rapid ozone formation event (ROFE) on August 25, 2000. The EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with 1999 national emission inventory (NEI99) estimates and updated SAPRC99 chemical mechanism are used in the sensitivity analysis for twelve different emission scenarios. Based on model results, it is found that the point source emission of NOx and VOC contributes the greatest ozone peak in the ROFE. Removing Texas point sources of VOC and NOx emission from the inventory results in a reduction in peak O3 concentration by 128 and 70 ppbv in Houston urban area, respectively. Similar but less drastic impact from point source is also observed in the Beaumont-Port Arthur area. The effect on peak ozone concentration due to mobile, area and non-road sources emissions are less significant compared to that of point source emission. Reducing VOC emission appears to be more effective than reducing NOx emission in lowering peak O3 concentration in the studied region. Although biogenic emission can contribute up to 37 ppbv of peak ozone level over a large area, the affected area is away from the urban region of concern, and should not be the main cause for O3 non-attainment in the two urban areas. Removing CO emission from mobile sources does not lead to significant reduction (< 1 ppbv) in ozone concentrations. The modeled data also show that the transport of O3 precursors from adjacent states can cause a significant ozone plume near Beaumont due to its proximity to the state border based on the conditions during the August 25, 2000 O3 episode.

  18. A sensitive and selective magnetic graphene composite-modified polycrystalline-silicon nanowire field-effect transistor for bladder cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, Yi-Ting; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Min-Cheng; Chen, Shi-Liang; Xiao, Min-Cong; Chen, Chien-Lun; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we describe the urinary quantification of apolipoprotein A II protein (APOA2 protein), a biomarker for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, using an n-type polycrystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (poly-SiNW-FET). The modification of poly-SiNW-FET by magnetic graphene with long-chain acid groups (MGLA) synthesized via Friedel-Crafts acylation was compared with that obtained using short-chain acid groups (MGSA). Compared with MGSA, the MGLA showed a higher immobilization degree and bioactivity to the anti-APOA2 antibody (Ab) due to its lower steric hindrance. In addition, the magnetic properties enabled rapid separation and purification during Ab immobilization, ultimately preserving its bioactivity. The Ab-MGLA/poly-SiNW-FET exhibited a linear dependence of relative response to the logarithmical concentration in a range between 19.5pgmL(-1) and 1.95µgmL(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 6.7pgmL(-1). An additional washing step before measurement aimed at excluding the interfering biocomponents ensured the reliability of the assay. We conclude that our biosensor efficiently distinguishes mean values of urinary APOA2 protein concentrations between patients with bladder cancer (29-344ngmL(-1)) and those with hernia (0.425-9.47ngmL(-1)).

  19. Simulation study of an energy sensitive photon counting silicon strip detector for computed tomography: identifying strengths and weaknesses and developing work-arounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornefalk, Hans; Xu, Cheng; Svensson, Christer; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    We model the effect of signal pile-up on the energy resolution of a photon counting silicon detector designed for high flux spectral CT with sub-millimeter pixel size. Various design parameters, such as bias voltage, lower threshold level for discarding of electronic noise and the entire electronic read out chain are modeled and realistic parameter settings are determined. We explicitly model the currents induced on the collection electrodes of a pixel and superimpose signals emanating from events in neighboring pixels, either due to charge sharing or signals induced during charge collection. Electronic noise is added to the pulse train before feeding it through a model of the read out electronics where the pulse height spectrum is saved to yield the detector energy response function. The main result of this study is that a lower threshold of 5 keV and a rather long time constant of the shaping filter (τ0 = 30 ns) are needed to discard induced pulses from events in neighboring pixels. These induction currents occur even if no charge is being deposited in the analyzed pixel from the event in the neighboring pixel. There is also only a limited gain in energy resolution by increasing the bias voltage to 1000 V from 600 V. We show that with these settings the resulting energy resolution, as measured by the FWHM/E of the photo peak, is 5% at 70 keV.

  20. Sensitivity of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 to planetary boundary layer parameterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttler, Ivan; Branković, Čedo; O'Brien, Travis A.; Coppola, Erika; Grisogono, Branko; Giorgi, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the performance of two planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterisations in the regional climate model RegCM4.2 with specific focus on the recently implemented prognostic turbulent kinetic energy parameterisation scheme: the University of Washington (UW) scheme. When compared with the default Holtslag scheme, the UW scheme, in the 10-year experiments over the European domain, shows a substantial cooling. It reduces winter warm bias over the north-eastern Europe by 2 °C and reduces summer warm bias over central Europe by 3 °C. A part of the detected cooling is ascribed to a general reduction in lower tropospheric eddy heat diffusivity with the UW scheme. While differences in temperature tendency due to PBL schemes are mostly localized to the lower troposphere, the schemes show a much higher diversity in how vertical turbulent mixing of the water vapour mixing ratio is governed. Differences in the water vapour mixing ratio tendency due to the PBL scheme are present almost throughout the troposphere. However, they alone cannot explain the overall water vapour mixing ratio profiles, suggesting strong interaction between the PBL and other model parameterisations. An additional 18-member ensemble with the UW scheme is made, where two formulations of the master turbulent length scale in unstable conditions are tested and unconstrained parameters associated with (a) the evaporative enhancement of the cloud-top entrainment and (b) the formulation of the master turbulent length scale in stable conditions are systematically perturbed. These experiments suggest that the master turbulent length scale in the UW scheme could be further refined in the current implementation in the RegCM model. It was also found that the UW scheme is less sensitive to the variations of the other two selected unconstrained parameters, supporting the choice of these parameters in the default formulation of the UW scheme.

  1. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  2. Optical properties of plasma ion-assisted deposition silicon coatings: application to the manufacture of blocking filters for the near-infrared region.

    PubMed

    Bruynooghe, Stephane

    2008-05-01

    I report on the preparation and characterization of optical constants of silicon coatings deposited by an electron beam gun with plasma ion-assisted deposition. With the fabrication of long-wave-pass filters the reliability of the optical constants is assured.

  3. Regional-scale yield simulations using crop and climate models: assessing uncertainties, sensitivity to temperature and adaptation options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challinor, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent progress in assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on crops using multiple regional-scale simulations of crop and climate (i.e. ensembles) is presented. Simulations for India and China used perturbed responses to elevated carbon dioxide constrained using observations from FACE studies and controlled environments. Simulations with crop parameter sets representing existing and potential future adapted varieties were also carried out. The results for India are compared to sensitivity tests on two other crop models. For China, a parallel approach used socio-economic data to account for autonomous farmer adaptation. Results for the USA analysed cardinal temperatures under a range of local warming scenarios for 2711 varieties of spring wheat. The results are as follows: 1. Quantifying and reducing uncertainty. The relative contribution of uncertainty in crop and climate simulation to the total uncertainty in projected yield changes is examined. The observational constraints from FACE and controlled environment studies are shown to be the likely critical factor in maintaining relatively low crop parameter uncertainty. Without these constraints, crop simulation uncertainty in a doubled CO2 environment would likely be greater than uncertainty in simulating climate. However, consensus across crop models in India varied across different biophysical processes. 2. The response of yield to changes in local mean temperature was examined and compared to that found in the literature. No consistent response to temperature change was found across studies. 3. Implications for adaptation. China. The simulations of spring wheat in China show the relative importance of tolerance to water and heat stress in avoiding future crop failures. The greatest potential for reducing the number of harvests less than one standard deviation below the baseline mean yield value comes from alleviating water stress; the greatest potential for reducing harvests less than two

  4. The sensitivity of the regional coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations over the Intra-Americas seas to the prescribed bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Mishra, A.; Li, Haiqin

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the coupled ocean-atmosphere climate of the Intra-Americas Seas (IAS; which includes the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea) and parts of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean to the prescribed bathymetry in three independent multi-decadal, high-resolution (15 km grid interval), regional coupled ocean-atmosphere model (RCM) integrations centered over the IAS. All of these RCM integrations with different prescribed bathymetries are forced by identical global atmospheric and oceanic reanalysis at the lateral boundaries. It is observed that the model integration with a smoother and coarser bathymetry in the region (RCM-C) results in more widespread sea surface temperature (SST) bias across the IAS. We also note that the bias displayed by the RCM-C simulation is analogous to the bias in the IAS ocean circulation of some Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5 (CMIP5) models. The models with an intermediate bathymetry (RCM-I) and finest bathymetry (RCM-F) rectify the bias in ocean transport through the Yucatan Channel relative to RCM-C but display mixed results with respect to SST bias. The RCM-C integration uses a bathymetry with a shallower Yucatan Channel, which tends to produce unrealistically weak flow through the Yucatan Channel and a weak Loop Current. However, the stronger heat transport through the Yucatan Channel in RCM-F results in significant warming of the northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean and associated weakening of the surface easterly atmospheric winds relative to the other RCM integrations. Due to the weaker surface wind-induced shelf currents, the area comprised of western Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean Sea have a severe cold SST bias over the IAS in RCM-F relative to either RCM-I or RCM-C. RCM-I on the other hand significantly warms the western Gulf of Mexico. RCM-I displays the least SST bias over the IAS and the ocean transport through the Yucatan Channel is most comparable to

  5. Sensitive detection of microcystin-LR by using a label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on Au nanoparticles/silicon template/methylene blue nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuewen; Feng, Yajuan; Niu, Sipeng; Zhao, Chunling; Yang, Minghui; Yang, Yunhui

    2013-12-01

    A label-free electrochemical immunosensor, based on a gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/silicon template/methylene blue (MB)/chitosan (CHIT) nanocomposite-modified electrode, was fabricated for the ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The nanocomposite film showed high binding affinity to the antibodies of MC-LR because gold nanoparticles have large surface area and good biocompatibility which can immobilize large amount of antibody through ionic interactions and other interactions between AuNPs and mercapto or primary amine groups of antibodies with high stability and bioactivity. MB was used as redox indicator due to its good electrochemical behavior in conductive substrate. This hybrid membrane was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to determine its electrochemical properties in immunosensor application. A decrease in DPV responses was observed with increasing concentrations of MC-LR in standard and real samples due to the formation of immuno-complexes between MC-LR and anti-MC-LR antibodies which hindered the electron charge transfer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. At optimal conditions, this immunosensor could detect MC-LR in a linear range from 0.5 ng/mL to 25 microg/mL with a low detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL at 3 sigma. Moreover, the prepared immunosensor was applied for the analysis of MC-LR in water samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method showed high selectivity, acceptable reproducibility, stability and reliability.

  6. Mid-infrared silicon pillar waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neetesh; Hudson, Darren D.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-01

    In this work silicon pillar waveguides have been proposed to exploit the entire transparent window of silicon. These geometries posses a broad and at dispersion (from 2 to 6 μm) with four zero dispersion wavelengths. We calculate supercontinuum generation spanning over two octaves (2 to >8 μm) with long wavelengths interacting weakly with the lossy substrate. These structures have higher mode confinement in the silicon - away from the substrate, which makes them substrate independent and are promising for exploring new nonlinear phenomena and highly sensitive molecular sensing over the entire silicon's transparency range

  7. Flow pyrolysis and direct and silicon tetrafluoride-sensitized laser-induced decomposition of tetralin. Identification of retro-[2 + 4] cleavage as the primary homogeneous thermal decomposition channel

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Michael R.; Comita, Paul B.; Moore, C. Bradley; Bergman, Robert G.

    1980-08-01

    In an effort to determine the products and mechanism of the truly homogeneous thermal decomposition of the aromatic hydrocarbon tetralin, we have examined the products formed from this compound upon energization by conventional flow pyrolysis, infrared multiphoton excitation, and SiF{sub 4}-sensitized infrared laser thermal activation. Six major products are formed in these reactions, but the product ratios depend upon the mode of energization. Flow pyrolysis gives a result analogous to those observed earlier; i.e. almost exclusive dehydrogenation, leading to dihydronaphthalene and naphthalene. Direct and sensitized IR laser-induced decomposition, however, leads to ethylene loss (presumably by an initial retro-[2+4] reaction) as the predominent decomposition mode, giving benzocyclobutene. We believe these results are due to the fact that direct thermal decomposition, both in our experiments as well as in previous studies, involves predominant surface-catalysis. In the laser-induced reactions, which are uncomplicated by problems due to surface-catalysis, the true homogeneous decomposition takes place, and this involves retro-[2+4] cleavage. Mechanistic details of these processes were studied by examining the isotope distribution in the products formed on SiF{sub 4}-sensitized laser photolysis of 1,1,4,4-tetradeuteriotetralin.

  8. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  9. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  10. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF AGGREGATED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES WITH A CASE-STUDY OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are often aggregated into a single index for various purposes in environmental studies. Aggregated indices derived from the same data set can differ, usually because the aggregated indices' sensitivities are not thoroughly analyzed. Furthermore, if a sens...

  11. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, R. A.; Dugad, S. R. Gopal, A. V.; Gupta, S. K.; Prabhu, S. S.; Garde, C. S.

    2014-02-15

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 − σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  12. A micron resolution optical scanner for characterization of silicon detectors.

    PubMed

    Shukla, R A; Dugad, S R; Garde, C S; Gopal, A V; Gupta, S K; Prabhu, S S

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of high position resolution (∼10 μm) silicon detectors in recent times have highlighted the urgent need for the development of new automated optical scanners of micron level resolution suited for characterizing microscopic features of these detectors. More specifically, for the newly developed silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) that are compact, possessing excellent photon detection efficiency with gain comparable to photo-multiplier tube. In a short time, since their invention the SiPMs are already being widely used in several high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments as the photon readout element. The SiPM is a high quantum efficiency, multi-pixel photon counting detector with fast timing and high gain. The presence of a wide variety of photo sensitive silicon detectors with high spatial resolution requires their performance evaluation to be carried out by photon beams of very compact spot size. We have designed a high resolution optical scanner that provides a monochromatic focused beam on a target plane. The transverse size of the beam was measured by the knife-edge method to be 1.7 μm at 1 - σ level. Since the beam size was an order of magnitude smaller than the typical feature size of silicon detectors, this optical scanner can be used for selective excitation of these detectors. The design and operational details of the optical scanner, high precision programmed movement of target plane (0.1 μm) integrated with general purpose data acquisition system developed for recording static and transient response photo sensitive silicon detector are reported in this paper. Entire functionality of scanner is validated by using it for selective excitation of individual pixels in a SiPM and identifying response of active and dead regions within SiPM. Results from these studies are presented in this paper.

  13. Silicon nanowire field effect transistor for biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu

    Detection and recognition of chemical ions and biological molecules are important in basic science as well as in pharmacology and medicine. Nanotechnology has made it possible to greatly enhance detection sensitivity through the use of nanowires, nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanocantilevers, and quantum dots as sensing platforms. In this work silicon nanowires are used as the conductance channel between the source and drain of a FET (field effect transistor) device and the biomolecular binding on the surface of nanowire modifies the conductance like a change in gate voltage. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and unique character of the silicon nanowires, this device has significant advantages in real-time, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a wide range of species, including proteins, nucleic acids and other small molecules. Here we present a biosensor fabricated from CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatible top-down methods including electron beam lithography. This method enables scalable manufacturing of multiple sensor arrays with high efficiency. In a systematic study of the device characteristics with different wire widths, we have found the sensitivity of the device increases when wire width decreases. By operating the device in appropriate bias region, the sensitivity of the device can be improved without doping or high temperature annealing. Not only can this device be used to detect the concentration of proteins and metabolites like urea or glucose, but also dynamic information like the dissociation constant can be extracted from the measurement. The device is also used to detect the clinically related cancer antigen CA 15.3 and shows potential application in cancer studies.

  14. Regional Climate System Feedbacks from Land Use Changes in Southeast Asia: A sensitivity study using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, H. L.; Sloan, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    Many observational and modeling studies have demonstrated the strong links between changes in land use and climate, and anthropogenic alterations of the land surface are now recognized to have consequences at the local, regional, and global scales. However, the effects of such changes on the local and regional climate system are not well understood, and yet, are critical to understanding future regional climate change. In Southeast Asia, a region which has experienced rapid and dramatic anthropogenic land use change in the 20th Century, shifts in precipitation patterns in response to these changes have been documented from observational data. While most climate modeling studies of the Southeast Asian region have employed low- resolution general circulation models, previous regional modeling studies for Southeast Asia have focused on land use change feedbacks on timescales from days to months and only for portions of the region. This study employs a high-resolution regional climate model centered on the Southeast Asian region, including Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines, and parts of Papua New Guinea and northern Australia, to conduct two simulations over the 30-year period between 1975 and 2005. Specifically, the simulations are used to compare climates with natural potential vegetation to those with modern land use as land cover, including differences in seasonal and annual temperature and precipitation distributions.

  15. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  16. Towards a 700 mV silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Blakers, A. W.; Gauja, E.; Willison, M. R.; Szpitalak, T.

    1982-01-01

    The key to improved silicon solar cell performance lies in increasing cell open circuit voltage. Not only does improved voltage direclty increase cell efficiency, but it also increases the limiting value of fill factor and decreases the temperature sensitivity of the cell. Limits on attainable open circuit voltage are not well defined. A thermodynamic limit of 850 mV exists for black body silicon cells, with 700 mV long regarded as a practical limit. This paper describes experimental work which has resulted in experimental devices with open circuit voltages approaching 700 mV. Values up to 694 (AM0, 25 C) have been demonstrated. The cells are similar in structure to conventional p-n junction cells, but particular attention is paid to passivating the entire top surface of the cell, including regions under the top contact.

  17. Silicon on sapphire for ion implantation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisciotta, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Van der Pauw or bridge samples are ultrasonically cut from silicon on sapphire wafers. Contact pad regions are implanted with moderately heavy dose of ions. Ion of interest is implanted into sample; and, before being annealed in vacuum, sample is sealed with sputtered layer of silicon dioxide. Nickel or aluminum is sputtered onto contact pad areas and is sintered in nitrogen atmosphere.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to the time variation of the fine-structure constant and m{sub p}/m{sub e} in diatomic molecules: A closer examination of silicon monobromide

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-08-15

    Recently it was pointed out that transition frequencies in certain diatomic molecules have an enhanced sensitivity to variations in the fine-structure constant {alpha} and the proton-to-electron mass ratio m{sub p}/m{sub e} due to a near cancellation between the fine structure and vibrational interval in a ground electronic multiplet [V. V. Flambaum and M. G. Kozlov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150801 (2007)]. One such molecule possessing this favorable quality is silicon monobromide. Here we take a closer examination of SiBr as a candidate for detecting variations in {alpha} and m{sub p}/m{sub e}. We analyze the rovibronic spectrum by employing the most accurate experimental data available in the literature and perform ab initio calculations to determine the precise dependence of the spectrum on variations in {alpha}. Furthermore, we calculate the natural linewidths of the rovibronic levels, which place a fundamental limit on the accuracy to which variations may be determined.

  19. Construction of an X-ray detecting module and its application to relative-sensitivity measurement using a silicon PIN diode in conjunction with short-decay-time scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Shinichi; Sato, Eiichi; Hamaya, Tatsuki; Numahata, Wataru; Kogita, Hayato; Kami, Syouta; Arakawa, Yumeka; Oda, Yasuyuki; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya

    2014-12-01

    To detect low-dose-rate X-rays, we have developed an X-ray-detecting module for semiconductor diodes. The module consists of a current-voltage (I-V) amplifier, a voltage-voltage (V-V) amplifier, and an alternating-current adopter with a smoothing circuit. The photocurrents flowing through a diode are converted into voltages and amplified using the I-V and V-V amplifiers. To measure relative sensitivities, we used three silicon PIN diodes (Si-PIN), a cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite [YAP(Ce)] crystal, and a Lu2(SiO4)O [LSO] crystal. Three detectors are as follows: an Si-PIN, a YAP(Ce)-Si-PIN, and an LSO-Si-PIN. Using the three detectors, the amplifier output voltages were in proportion to the tube current at a constant tube voltage of 70 kV. Using a multichannel analyzer, the event-pulse-height spectra were measured to analyze X-ray-electric conversion effect in the three detectors. The output voltage of the Si-PIN was approximately twice as high as those obtained using the YAP(Ce)-Si-PIN and the LSO-Si-PIN at the measurement conditions.

  20. Advanced crystallization techniques of 'solar grade' silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, M.; Calligarich, C.; Rava, P.; Sardi, L.; Alessandri, M.; Redaelli, F.; Pizzini, S.

    Microstructural, electrical and photo-voltaic characteristics of polycrystal line silicon solar cells fabricated with silicon ingots containing 5, 100 and 500 ppmw iron are reported and discussed. All silicon ingots were grown by the directional solidification technique in graphite or special quartz molds and doped intentionally with iron, in order to evaluate the potentiality of the D.S. technique when employed with solar silicon feedstocks. Results indicate that structural breakdown limits the amount of the ingot which is usable for solar cells fabrication, but also that efficiencies in excess of 10 percent are obtained using the 'good' region of the ingot.

  1. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  2. Expression and colocalization of NMDA receptor and FosB/ΔFosB in sensitive brain regions in rats after chronic morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Tongzhou; Liu, You; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Liu, Hongzhi; Hu, Min; Qiao, Yuehua; Niu, Haichen

    2016-02-12

    Research in the last decade demonstrated that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) has an important role in opiate-induced neural and behavioral plasticity. In addition, increased levels of FosB-like proteins (FosB/ΔFosB) were found to be related to morphine withdrawal behaviors. However, the relationship between NMDAR and FosB/ΔFosB in sensitive brain regions during morphine withdrawal is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate NMDAR dynamics and FosB/ΔFosB levels in multiple brain regions and whether they are related in sensitive brain regions during morphine abstinence. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was adopted to test NMDAR and FosB/ΔfosB levels during morphine withdrawal in rats. Increased NMDAR and FosB/ΔFosB levels were found in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), central amygdaloid nucleuscapsular part (CeC), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and cingulate cortex (Cg). Double-immunofluorescence labeling indicated that NMDAR colocalized with Fos/ΔFosB in these five regions. These results suggest that multiple phenotypic regions are mediated by NMDAR and Fos/ΔFosB during morphine withdrawal, such as the motivational (AcbC, AcbSh), limbic (CeC, VTA) and executive (Cg) system pathways, and may be the primary targets of NMDAR and Fos/ΔfosB that impact morphine withdrawal behaviors.

  3. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication—A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r2 was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  4. Critical Climate-Sensitive and Important Grain-Producing Regions: Grain Production/Yield Variations Due to Climate Fluctuations. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Ideally, the Crop Country Inventory, CCI, is a methodology for the pre-harvest prediction of large variations in a country s crop production. This is accomplished by monitoring the historical climatic fluctuations, especially during the crop calendar period, in a climate sensitive large crop production region or sub-country, rather than the entire country. The argument can be made that the climatic fluctuations in the climatic sensitive region are responsible for the major annual crop country variations and that the remainder of the country, without major climatic fluctuations for a given year, can be assumed to be a steady-state crop producer. The principal data set that has been used is the Global Climate Mode (GCM) data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), taken over the last half century. As a test of its accuracy, GCM data can and has been correlated with the actual meteorological station data at the station site.

  5. Critical loads of acidity for 90,000 lakes in northern Saskatchewan: A novel approach for mapping regional sensitivity to acidic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, H.; Aherne, J.; Jeffries, D. S.; Scott, K. A.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) from large point sources are the primary concern for acidic deposition in western Canada, particularly in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) where prevailing winds may potentially carry SO2 over acid-sensitive lakes in northern Saskatchewan. A novel catchment-scale regression kriging approach was used to assess regional sensitivity and critical loads of acidity for the total lake population of northern Saskatchewan (89,947 lakes). Lake catchments were delineated using Thiessen polygons, and surface water chemistry was predicted for sensitivity indicators (calcium, pH, alkalinity, and acid neutralizing capacity). Critical loads were calculated with the steady state water chemistry model using regression-kriged base cations, sulphate, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations modelled from surface water observations (n > 800) and digital landscape-scale characteristics, e.g., climate, soil, vegetation, landcover, and geology maps. A large region (>13,726 km2) of two or more indicators of acid sensitivity (pH < 6 and acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, calcium < 50 μeq L-1) and low critical loads < 5 meq m-2 yr-1 were predicted on the Athabasca Basin. Exceedance of critical loads under 2006 modelled total sulphate deposition was predicted for 12% of the lakes (covering an area of 3742 km2), primarily located on the Athabasca Basin, within 100 km of the AOSR. There have been conflicting scientific reports of impacts from atmospheric emissions from the AOSR; the results of this study suggest that catchments in the Athabasca Basin within 100 km of the AOSR have received acidic deposition in excess of their critical loads and many of them may be at risk of ecosystem damage owing to their sensitivity.

  6. Sensitivity analysis and line edge roughness determination of 28-nm pitch silicon fins using Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry-based optical critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhairya; O'Mullane, Samuel; Sunkoju, Sravan; Gottipati, Abhishek; Hosler, Erik R.; Kamineni, Vimal; Preil, Moshe; Keller, Nick; Race, Joseph; Muthinti, Gangadhara Raja; Diebold, Alain C.

    2015-07-01

    Measurement and control of line edge roughness (LER) is one of the most challenging issues facing patterning technology. As the critical dimensions (CDs) of patterned structures decrease, an LER of only a few nanometers negatively impacts device performance. Here, Mueller matrix (MM) spectroscopic ellipsometry-based scatterometry is used to characterize LER in periodic line-space structures in 28-nm pitch Si fin samples fabricated by directed self-assembly patterning. The optical response of the MM elements is influenced by structural parameters like pitch, CDs, height, and side-wall angle, as well as the optical properties of the materials. Evaluation and decoupling MM element response to LER from other structural parameters requires sensitivity analysis using scatterometry models that include LER. Here, an approach is developed that can be used to characterize LER in Si fins by comparing the optical responses generated by systematically varying the grating shape and measurement conditions. Finally, the validity of this approach is established by comparing the results obtained from power spectral density analysis of top down scanning electron microscope images and cross-sectional transmission electron microscope image of the 28-nm pitch Si fins.

  7. Poliovirus temperature-sensitive mutant containing a single nucleotide deletion in the 5'-noncoding region of the viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Racaniello, V R; Meriam, C

    1986-12-01

    The effect on viral replication of deleting nucleotide 10 of the poliovirus RNA genome was determined. This deletion, which removes a base pair from a predicted hairpin structure in the viral RNA, was introduced into full-length cDNA. Virus recovered after transfection of HeLa cells with the mutated cDNA contained the expected deletion and was temperature sensitive for plaque formation. Analysis of viral replication by one-step growth experiments indicated that mutant virus production at the nonpermissive temperature was at least 100 times less than that of wild type virus, and release of virus from mutant-infected cells was delayed. The synthesis of positive- and negative-strand viral RNA in mutant virus-infected cells was temperature sensitive. Virus-specific protein synthesis in mutant virus-infected cells was not temperature sensitive but occurred at a slower rate than that of wild type virus at permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. Replication of the mutant virus was sensitive to actinomycin D, in contrast to the wild type parent virus, which was resistant to the drug. Mutant virus stocks contained a small percentage of ts+ viruses that were able to form plaques at the nonpermissive temperature. Nucleotide sequence analysis of genomic RNA from these ts+ viruses revealed a single base change at position 34 from a G to U. In the positive RNA strand, the effect of this mutation is to restore to the hairpin structure the single base pair whose formation was prevented by the original deletion. The ts+ pseudorevertants replicated to similar titers as wild type virus at 33 and 38.5 degrees and were partially sensitive to actinomycin D.

  8. [Role of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the arcuate region of the hypothalamus in the mechanism of luteinizing hormone release].

    PubMed

    Babichev, V N; Ignatkov, V Ia

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on rats; estradiol brought to the arcuate region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the blood luteinizing hormone (LH) level during the following stages of the estral cycle-diestrus 1, diestrus 2, and the first half day of the proestrus; as to the second half of the proestrus day--estradiol decreased its level. Changes in the LH level in the hypophysis under the influence of the microionophoretic introduction of estradiol into the arcuate region occurred during the second half of the day of diestrus 2 (reduction), and during the estrus (elevation). In the majority of cases a rise of the blood level was combined with the neuron activation in the arcuate region under the influence of estradiol.

  9. Schottky diode silicon liquid-crystal light valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, Keyvan; Efron, Uzi; Forber, Richard A.; Goodwin, Norman W.; Reif, Philip G.

    1991-06-01

    The authors report the operation of the Hughes Schottky diode-based silicon liquid crystal light valve (SLV) using readout light in the visible region. Limiting resolutions of 28 lp/mm limited by the Schottky diode periodicity, contrast ratios of >100:1, visible input light sensitivities of better than 50 (mu) W/cm2, and response times as fast as 5 ms have been measured. Both standard twisted nematic and homeotropically-aligned liquid crystal configurations have been utilized. The main parameter of this device is the leakage current of the Schottky diodes.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of a multilayer, finite-difference model of the Southeastern Coastal Plain regional aquifer system; Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pernik, Meribeth

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of a multilayer finite-difference regional flow model was tested by changing the calibrated values for five parameters in the steady-state model and one in the transient-state model. The parameters that changed under the steady-state condition were those that had been routinely adjusted during the calibration process as part of the effort to match pre-development potentiometric surfaces, and elements of the water budget. The tested steady-state parameters include: recharge, riverbed conductance, transmissivity, confining unit leakance, and boundary location. In the transient-state model, the storage coefficient was adjusted. The sensitivity of the model to changes in the calibrated values of these parameters was evaluated with respect to the simulated response of net base flow to the rivers, and the mean value of the absolute head residual. To provide a standard measurement of sensitivity from one parameter to another, the standard deviation of the absolute head residual was calculated. The steady-state model was shown to be most sensitive to changes in rates of recharge. When the recharge rate was held constant, the model was more sensitive to variations in transmissivity. Near the rivers, the riverbed conductance becomes the dominant parameter in controlling the heads. Changes in confining unit leakance had little effect on simulated base flow, but greatly affected head residuals. The model was relatively insensitive to changes in the location of no-flow boundaries and to moderate changes in the altitude of constant head boundaries. The storage coefficient was adjusted under transient conditions to illustrate the model 's sensitivity to changes in storativity. The model is less sensitive to an increase in storage coefficient than it is to a decrease in storage coefficient. As the storage coefficient decreased, the aquifer drawdown increases, the base flow decreased. The opposite response occurred when the storage coefficient was increased. (Author

  11. Epitaxial growth of hexagonal silicon polytypes on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, D. A.; Pirogov, A. V. Krivulin, N. O.; Bobrov, A. I.

    2015-01-15

    The formation of a single-crystal silicon polytype is observed in silicon-on-sapphire structures by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The appearance of inclusions with a structure different from that of diamond is attributed to the formation of strong-twinning regions and the aggregation of stacking faults, which form their own crystal structure in the crystal lattice of silicon. It is demonstrated that the given modification belongs to the 9R silicon polytype.

  12. The sensitivity to replacement and displacement of the eyes region in early adolescence, young and later adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Imhof, Margarete; Meinhardt, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a rather gradual developmental trajectory for processing vertical relational face information, lasting well into late adolescence (de Heering and Schlitz, 2008). Results from another recent study (Tanaka et al., 2014) indicate that children and young adolescents use a smaller spatial integration field for faces than do adults, which particularly affects assessment of long-range vertical relations. Here we studied sensitivity to replacement of eyes and eyebrows (F), variation of inter-eye distance (H), and eye height (V) in young adolescents (11–12 years), young (21–25 years), and middle-age adults (51–62 years). In order to provide a baseline for potential age effects the sensitivity to all three types of face manipulations was calibrated to equal levels for the young adults group. Both the young adolescents and the middle-age adults showed substantially lower sensitivity compared to young adults, but only the young adolescents had selective impairment for V relational changes. Their inversion effects were at similar levels for all types of face manipulations, while in both adult groups the inversion effects for V were considerably stronger than for H or F changes. These results suggest that young adolescents use a limited spatial integration field for faces, and have not reached a mature state in processing vertical configural cues. The H–V asymmetry of inversion effects found for both adult groups indicates that adults integrate across the whole face when they view upright stimuli. However, the notably lower sensitivity of middle-age adults for all types of face manipulations, which was accompanied by a strong general “same” bias, suggests early age-related decline in attending cues for facial difference. PMID:26321984

  13. Untranslated region-dependent exclusive expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Clark A; Gubbins, Earl J; Marks, Michael J; Putman, C Brent; Thimmapaya, Rama; Meyer, Michael D; Surowy, Carol S

    2006-07-01

    alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are recognized as the principal nicotine binding site in brain. Recombinant alpha4beta2 nAChR demonstrate biphasic concentration-response relationships with low- and high-EC50 components. This study shows that untranslated regions (UTR) can influence expression of high-sensitivity subforms of alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta2 nAChR. Oocytes injected with alpha4 and beta2 RNA lacking UTR expressed biphasic concentration-response relationships for acetylcholine with high-sensitivity EC50 values of 0.5 to 2.5 microM (14-24% of the population) and low-sensitivity EC50 values of 110 to 180 microM (76-86%). In contrast, message with UTR expressed exclusively the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 nAChR subform with an acetylcholine EC50 value of 2.2 microM. Additional studies revealed pharmacological differences between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subforms. Whereas the antagonists dihydro-beta-erythroidine (IC50 of 3-6 nM) and methyllycaconitine (IC50 of 40-135 nM) were not selective between high- and low-sensitivity alpha4beta2, chlorisondamine, mecamylamine, and d-tubocurarine were, respectively, 100-, 8-, and 5-fold selective for the alpha4beta2 subform with low sensitivity to acetylcholine. Conversely, agonists that selectively activated the high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 subform with respect to efficacy as well as potency were identified. Furthermore, two of these agonists were shown to activate mouse brain alpha4beta2 as well as the ferret high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. With the use of UTR-containing RNA, exclusive expression of a novel high-sensitivity alpha3beta2 nAChR was also achieved. These studies 1) provide further evidence for the existence of multiple subforms of alpha4beta2 nAChR, 2) extend that to alpha3beta2 nAChR, 3) demonstrate UTR influence on beta2-containing nAChR properties, and 4) reveal compounds that interact with alpha4beta2 in a subform-selective manner.

  14. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

  15. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions: Part I Africa and India

    SciTech Connect

    Sud, Yogesh C.; Wilcox, Eric; Lau, William K.; Walker, Greg K.; Liu, Xiaohong; Nenes, Athanasios; Lee , Dongmin; Kim, K. - M.; Zhou, Yaping; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2009-10-23

    Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) General Circulation Model (GCM) was employed to assess the influence of potential changes in aerosols on the regional circulation, ambient temperatures, and precipitation in four selected regions: India and Africa (current paper), as well as North and South America (companion paper). Ensemble-simulations were carried out with the GCM to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effects, hereafter ADE and AIE. Each simulation was started from the NCEP-analyzed initial conditions for May 1 and was integrated through May-June-July-August of each year: 1982-1987 to provide an ensemble set of six simulations. In the first set, called the baseline experiment (#1), climatological aerosols were prescribed. The next two experiments (#2 and #3) had two sets of simulations each: one with 2X and another with 1/2X the climatological aerosols over each of the four selected regions. In experiment#2, the anomaly regions were advectively restricted (AR), i.e., the large-scale prognostic fields outside the aerosol anomaly regions were prescribed while in experiment#3, the anomaly regions were advectively Interactive (AI) as is the case in a normal GCM integrations, but with the same aerosols anomalies as in experiment #2. Intercomparisons of circulation, diabatic heating, and precipitation difference fields showed large disparities among the AR and AI simulations, which raised serious questions about the AR assumption, commonly invoked in regional climate simulation studies. Consequently AI simulation mode was chosen for the subsequent studies. Two more experiments (#4 and #5) were performed in the AI mode in which ADE and AIE were activated one at a time. The results showed that ADE and AIE work in concert to make the joint influences larger than sum of each acting alone. Moreover, the ADE and AIE influences were vastly different for the Indian and Africa regions, which suggest an imperative need to include them rationally in

  16. Silicon Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    The use of silicon detectors has experienced an exponential growth in accelerator and space based experiments, similar to trends in the semiconductor industry as a whole, usually paraphrased as ``Moore's Law.'' Some of the essentials for this phenomenon will be presented, together with examples of the exciting science results which it enabled. With the establishment of a ``semiconductor culture'' in universities and laboratories around the world, an increased understanding of the sensors results in thinner, faster, more radiation-resistant detectors, spawning an amazing wealth of new technologies and applications, which will be the main subject of the presentation.

  17. Using the CMIP5 Model Intercomparison, a Study on Sensitivity of Global and Regional Terrestrial Carbon Storage to the Direct CO2 Effect and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Dan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics. Figure CaptionsFigure 1. Spatial distribution in sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to upward atmospheric CO2 concentration simulated from six the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models, units: gC m-2 ppm-1. Figure 2. Same as Figure 9, but to the warming (gC m-2 K-1)

  18. WRF/CMAQ AQMEII3 Simulations of U.S. Regional-Scale Ozone: Sensitivity to Processes and Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical boundary conditions are a key input to regional-scale photochemical models. In this study, performed during the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3), we perform annual simulations over North America with chemical boundary con...

  19. Recent developments in silicones for topical and transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Aliyar, Hyder; Schalau, Gerald

    2015-07-01

    Silicones have been used in medicines, cosmetics and medical devices for over 60 years. Polydimethylsiloxanes are polymers that are typically used either as an active in oral drug products or as excipients in topical and transdermal drug products. Inherent characteristics like hydrophobicity, adhesion and aesthetics allow silicones to offer function and performance to drug products. Recent technologies like swollen crosslinked silicone elastomer blend networks, sugar siloxanes, amphiphilic resin linear polymers and silicone hybrid pressure sensitive adhesives promise potential performance advantages and improved drug delivery efficacy. This article presents a review of recent silicone material developments focusing on their function as excipients influencing drug delivery in topical and transdermal systems.

  20. Silicon solar cell process development, fabrication and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minahan, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication of solar cells from several unconventional silicon materials is described, and cell performance measured and analyzed. Unconventional materials evaluated are edge defined film fed grown (EFG), heat exchanger method (HEM), dendritic web grown, and continuous CZ silicons. Resistivity, current voltage, and spectral sensitivity of the cells were measured. Current voltage was measured under AM0 and AM1 conditions. Maximum conversion efficiencies of cells fabricated from these and other unconventional silicons were compared and test results analyzed. The HEM and continuous CZ silicon were found to be superior to silicon materials considered previously.

  1. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  2. Silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fei; Cao, Zhaohui; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Chu, Binbin; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology suggests new and exciting opportunities for early diagnosis and therapy of cancer. During the recent years, silicon-based nanomaterials featuring unique properties have received great attention, showing high promise for myriad biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we will particularly summarize latest representative achievements on the development of silicon nanostructures as a powerful platform for cancer early diagnosis and therapy. First, we introduce the silicon nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting cancer markers (e.g., proteins, tumor-suppressor genes and telomerase activity, among others) with high sensitivity and selectivity under molecular level. Then, we summarize in vitro and in vivo applications of silicon nanostructures as efficient nanoagents for cancer therapy. Finally, we discuss the future perspective of silicon nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Simulating smoke transport from wildland fires with a regional-scale air quality model: sensitivity to spatiotemporal allocation of fire emissions.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Menendez, Fernando; Hu, Yongtao; Odman, Mehmet T

    2014-09-15

    Air quality forecasts generated with chemical transport models can provide valuable information about the potential impacts of fires on pollutant levels. However, significant uncertainties are associated with fire-related emission estimates as well as their distribution on gridded modeling domains. In this study, we explore the sensitivity of fine particulate matter concentrations predicted by a regional-scale air quality model to the spatial and temporal allocation of fire emissions. The assessment was completed by simulating a fire-related smoke episode in which air quality throughout the Atlanta metropolitan area was affected on February 28, 2007. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to evaluate the significance of emission distribution among the model's vertical layers, along the horizontal plane, and into hourly inputs. Predicted PM2.5 concentrations were highly sensitive to emission injection altitude relative to planetary boundary layer height. Simulations were also responsive to the horizontal allocation of fire emissions and their distribution into single or multiple grid cells. Additionally, modeled concentrations were greatly sensitive to the temporal distribution of fire-related emissions. The analyses demonstrate that, in addition to adequate estimates of emitted mass, successfully modeling the impacts of fires on air quality depends on an accurate spatiotemporal allocation of emissions.

  4. Neuropeptidase activity is down-regulated by estradiol in steroid-sensitive regions of the hypothalamus in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Lisa A.; Cyr, Nicole E.; Qiao, Jana W.; DeFries, Christa C.; Tetel, Marc J.; Wolfson, Adele J.

    2012-01-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) are neuropeptidases involved in the hydrolysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a key component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. GnRH is regulated in part by feedback from steroid hormones such as estradiol. Previously, we demonstrated that TOP levels are down-regulated by estradiol in reproductively-relevant regions of the female rodent brain. The present study supports these findings by showing that TOP enzyme activity, as well as protein levels, in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of female mice are controlled estradiol. We further demonstrate that PEP levels in this same brain region are down-regulated by estradiol in parallel with those of TOP. These findings provide evidence that these neuropeptidases are part of the fine control of hormone levels in the HPG axis. PMID:22672888

  5. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions. Part 2; The Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol perturbations over selected land regions are imposed in Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) general circulation model (GCM) to assess the influence of increasing aerosol concentrations on regional circulation patterns and precipitation in four selected regions: India, Africa, and North and South America. Part 1 of this paper addresses the responses to aerosol perturbations in India and Africa. This paper presents the same for aerosol perturbations over the Americas. GEOS-4 is forced with prescribed aerosols based on climatological data, which interact with clouds using a prognostic scheme for cloud microphysics including aerosol nucleation of water and ice cloud hydrometeors. In clear-sky conditions the aerosols interact with radiation. Thus the model includes comprehensive physics describing the aerosol direct and indirect effects on climate (hereafter ADE and AIE respectively). Each simulation is started from analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through June-July-August of each of the six years: 1982 1987 to provide a 6-ensemble set. Results are presented for the difference between simulations with double the climatological aerosol concentration and one-half the climatological aerosol concentration for three experiments: two where the ADE and AIE are applied separately and one in which both the ADE and AIE are applied. The ADE and AIE both yield reductions in net radiation at the top of the atmosphere and surface while the direct absorption of shortwave radiation contributes a net radiative heating in the atmosphere. A large net heating of the atmosphere is also apparent over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean that is attributable to the large aerosol perturbation imposed over Africa. This atmospheric warming and the depression of the surface pressure over North America contribute to a northward shift of the inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over northern America, an increase in precipitation over Central America

  6. [Serious complications following gluteal injection of silicone].

    PubMed

    Herink, C; Zwaka, P A; Schön, M P; Mempel, M; Seitz, C S

    2013-08-01

    Silicone has a broad range of medical applications and plays an important role, for example, in plastic reconstruction. The use of silicone, however, may result in unpredictable consequences for the patient. These range from swelling and erythema at the site of injection and regional lymphadenopathy to the development of disseminated granulomas distant from the administration site. We report a woman who developed extensive distally-spreading ulcerations in both buttocks several years after gluteal silicone injection. Potential systemic reactions of silicone include intrapulmonary granulomas, embolism and related pneumonitis. Moreover, an association with the development of autoimmune diseases and neoplasias has been discussed. Therapeutic options include surgically removing the silicone and topical or systemic anti-inflammatory drug therapy. However, due to the diffuse dissemination of silicone, the former is often not completely possible and for the latter empirical data are limited and follow-up studies are missing. Liquid silicone is no longer authorized in Europe or in the U.S.A. When silicone implants are used, the decision should be weighed carefully and the patient adequately counseled. In addition, follow-up care on a regular basis is mandatory for both those with implants and those who obtained injections of liquid silicone in the past.

  7. Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life in a face.

    PubMed

    Looser, Christine E; Guntupalli, Jyothi S; Wheatley, Thalia

    2013-10-01

    More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a 'core face network' of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we show that only responses in the inferior occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional organizational priority in later face-processing regions: the lateral fusiform gyri (latFG) and right superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, patterns evoked by human faces were maximally distinct from all other face categories in the latFG and parts of the extended face perception system. These results suggest that once a face configuration is perceived, faces are further scrutinized for whether the face is alive and worthy of social cognitive resources.

  8. Climate sensitivity runs and regional hydrologic modeling for predicting the response of the greater Florida Everglades ecosystem to climate change.

    PubMed

    Obeysekera, Jayantha; Barnes, Jenifer; Nungesser, Martha

    2015-04-01

    It is important to understand the vulnerability of the water management system in south Florida and to determine the resilience and robustness of greater Everglades restoration plans under future climate change. The current climate models, at both global and regional scales, are not ready to deliver specific climatic datasets for water resources investigations involving future plans and therefore a scenario based approach was adopted for this first study in restoration planning. We focused on the general implications of potential changes in future temperature and associated changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation, and sea levels at the regional boundary. From these, we developed a set of six climate and sea level scenarios, used them to simulate the hydrologic response of the greater Everglades region including agricultural, urban, and natural areas, and compared the results to those from a base run of current conditions. The scenarios included a 1.5 °C increase in temperature, ±10 % change in precipitation, and a 0.46 m (1.5 feet) increase in sea level for the 50-year planning horizon. The results suggested that, depending on the rainfall and temperature scenario, there would be significant changes in water budgets, ecosystem performance, and in water supply demands met. The increased sea level scenarios also show that the ground water levels would increase significantly with associated implications for flood protection in the urbanized areas of southeastern Florida.

  9. On Sensitivity of Spectral Radiative Fluxes to Atmospheric Water Vapor in the 940 nm Region (Numerical Simulation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, T.B.; Firsov, K.M.

    2005-03-18

    Water vapor is well known to be a critical component in many aspects of atmospheric research, such as radiative transfer and cloud and aerosol processes. This requires both improved measurements of the columnar water vapor and its profiles in the atmosphere in a wide range of conditions, and adjustment of water vapor parameterizations in radiation codes including the perfection of spectroscopic parameters. In this paper we will present the results of comparison of our calculations and downward solar fluxes measured with Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer under conditions of horizontally homogeneous clouds. We also will discuss the sensitivity of atmospheric radiation characteristics to variations of water vapor in the band 940 nm: these results may be useful for development of new methods of retrieval of the total column water vapor content (WVC) in the atmosphere from data of radiation observations.

  10. Efficacy of risk-based, culturally sensitive Ogaa (walleye) consumption advice for Anishinaabe tribal members in the Great Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    DeWeese, Adam D; Kmiecik, Neil E; Chiriboga, Esteban D; Foran, Jeffery A

    2009-05-01

    The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) has produced Ogaa (walleye-Sander vitreus) consumption advisories since 1996 for Anishinaabe from GLIFWC member tribes in the 1837 and 1842 ceded territories of Wisconsin. GLIFWC's advisory maps were revised in 2005 to address cultural sensitivities (to protect tribal lifeways), to utilize recent mercury exposure information, and to incorporate changes in advisory levels for methyl mercury. Lake-specific, risk-based, culturally sensitive consumption advice was provided on color-coded maps for two groups: children under age 15 years and females of childbearing age, and males 15 years and older and females beyond childbearing age. The maps were distributed to, and a behavioral intervention program developed for, the six GLIFWC member tribes in Wisconsin as well as member tribes in Minnesota and the 1842 ceded territory of Michigan. Tribal fish harvesters, tribal health care providers, women of childbearing age or with young children, tribal leaders, elders, and children were targeted specifically for the behavioral intervention. The efficacy of the behavioral intervention was assessed using surveys of 275 tribal fish harvesters from Wisconsin, 139 tribal harvesters from Michigan and Minnesota, and 156 Wisconsin women of childbearing age. Significant increases in the percentage of survey participants who indicated awareness of advisory maps occurred among Wisconsin harvesters (increase from 60% to 77%), Michigan and Minnesota harvesters (29% to 51%), and women of childbearing age in Wisconsin (40% to 87%). A significant increase in preference for smaller Ogaa occurred among tribal harvesters in Wisconsin (41% to 72%) and tribal harvesters in Michigan and Minnesota (49% to 71%), although not among women of childbearing age. The GLIFWC map-based advisory program did not adversely affect tribal harvest of Ogaa, which increased from 63,000 to 88,000 fish in the three states after the intervention.

  11. Sensitive imaging of organelles in label-free cells by surface plasmon resonance in deep-ultraviolet region (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Kikawada, Masakazu; Ono, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    In this research, we demonstrate the enhanced autofluorescence and high-sensitivity bioimaging of intracellular organelles using DUV-SPR. The Kretschmann configuration is used for excitation of DUV-SPR. We used an aluminum thickness of 24 nm. The alumina surface was estimated to be 6 nm by comparison between the experimental and calculated results. Reflectance after culturing of cells was measured. DUV-SPR is excited at an incident angle of 52° after the biological samples are cultured. MC3T3-E1 cells as Label-free cells are directly cultured on an aluminum and glass surfaces, and they were cultured on the both substrates in an incubator. Autofluorescence spectra excited of the label-free MC3T3-E1 cells was measured by 266-nm exictation. The autofluorescence intensity for the aluminum is higher than that for the glass. In the autofluorescence spectra, MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited two fluorescence peaks, which were located around 330 and 500 nm. These 330 and 500 nm emissions indicate aromatic amino acid and mitochondria, respectively. Both of the ehnahcement factors were 8 times. We also observed autofluorescence of aromatic amino acid and mitochondrial NADH in the label-free MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the aluminum and glass surfaces. In the autofluorescence image with DUV-SPR, organelles can be clearly observed in the MC3T3-E1 cells. On the other hand, the autofluorescence intensity is very weak in the image without DUV-SPR. Accordingly, DUV-SPR can facilitate the observation of proteins, DNA in nucleus, and other structures that cannot be excited by visible light. DUV-SPR is shown to be a powerful technique for acquiring high-sensitivity label-free observation of biological samples.

  12. A Sensitive Period of Mice Inhibitory System to Neonatal GABA Enhancement by Vigabatrin is Brain Region Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Levav-Rabkin, Tamar; Melamed, Osnat; Clarke, Gerard; Farber, Malca; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Grossman, Yoram; Golan, Hava M

    2010-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, have been associated with disturbances of the GABAergic system in the brain. We examined immediate and long-lasting influences of exposure to the GABA-potentiating drug vigabatrin (GVG) on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, before and during the developmental switch in GABA function (postnatal days P1–7 and P4–14). GVG induced a transient elevation of GABA levels. A feedback response to GABA enhancement was evident by a short-term decrease in glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67 levels. However, the number of GAD65/67-immunoreactive (IR) cells was greater in 2-week-old GVG-treated mice. A long-term increase in GAD65 and GAD67 levels was dependent on brain region and treatment period. Vesicular GABA transporter was insensitive to GVG. The overall effect of GVG on the Cl− co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2 was an enhancement of their synthesis, which was dependent on the treatment period and brain region studied. In addition, a short-term increase was followed by a long-term decrease in KCC2 oligomerization in the cell membrane of P4–14 hippocampi and cerebral cortices. Analysis of the Ca2+ binding proteins expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic cells, parvalbumin and calbindin, showed region-specific effects of GVG during P4–14 on parvalbumin-IR cell density. Moreover, calbindin levels were elevated in GVG mice compared to controls during this period. Cumulatively, these results suggest a particular susceptibility of the hippocampus to GVG when exposed during days P4–14. In conclusion, our studies have identified modifications of key components in the inhibitory system during a critical developmental period. These findings provide novel insights into the deleterious consequences observed in children following prenatal and neonatal exposure to GABA-potentiating drugs. PMID:20043003

  13. Diode laser detection of greenhouse gases in the near-infrared region by wavelength modulation spectroscopy: pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Takashi; Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence of the detection sensitivity of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4) using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with distributed feed-back diode lasers in the near infrared region. The spectral line shapes and the background noise of the second harmonics (2f) detection of the WMS were analyzed theoretically. We determined the optimum pressure conditions in the detection of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4), by taking into consideration the background noise in the WMS. At the optimum total pressure for the detection of CO(2), N(2)O and CH(4), the limits of detection in the present system were determined.

  14. Silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, N.N.; Crowe, J.T. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that, since silicon carbide (SiC) does not occur in nature, it must be synthesized by a high-temperature chemical reaction. The first commercial production began at the end of the 19th century when Acheson developed a process of reacting sand and coke in a resistance furnace. This process is still the basic SiC manufacturing process used today. High-quality silica sand (99.5% SiO{sub 2}), low-sulfur petroleum coke, and electricity (23.8 MJ/kg) are the major ingredients in the production of SiC. The reaction takes place in a trough-like furnace with a removable refractory side (or some similar configuration) and with permanent refractory ends holding carbon electrodes. When the furnace is started, the carbon electrodes are joined by the graphite core laid the length of the furnace near the center of the mixture which fills the furnace.

  15. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Mullani, N.; Gould, L.K.; Adler, S.S.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only.

  16. Thin silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  17. Identification of pH-sensitive regions in the mouse prion by the cysteine-scanning spin-labeling ESR technique

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yasuko; Inanami, Osamu . E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Hiraoka, Wakako; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-11-24

    We analyzed the pH-induced mobility changes in moPrP{sup C} {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheets by cysteine-scanning site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) with ESR. Nine amino acid residues of {alpha}-helix1 (H1, codon 143-151), four amino acid residues of {beta}-sheet1 (S1, codon 127-130), and four amino acid residues of {beta}-sheet2 (S2, codon 160-163) were substituted for by cysteine residues. These recombinant mouse PrP{sup C} (moPrP{sup C}) mutants were reacted with a methane thiosulfonate sulfhydryl-specific spin labeling reagent (MTSSL). The 1/{delta}H of the central ({sup 14}N hyperfine) component (M{sub I} = 0) in the ESR spectrum of spin-labeled moPrP{sup C} was measured as a mobility parameter of nitroxide residues (R1). The mobilities of E145R1 and Y149R1 at pH 7.4, which was identified as a tertiary contact site by a previous NMR study of moPrP, were lower than those of D143R1, R147R1, and R150R1 reported on the helix surface. Thus, the mobility in the H1 region in the neutral solution was observed with the periodicity associated with a helical structure. On the other hand, the values in the S2 region, known to be located in the buried side, were lower than those in the S1 region located in the surface side. These results indicated that the mobility parameter of the nitroxide label was well correlated with the 3D structure of moPrP. Furthermore, the present study clearly demonstrated three pH-sensitive sites in moPrP, i.e. (1) the N-terminal tertiary contact site of H1 (2) the C-terminal end of H1, and (3) the S2 region. In particular, among these pH-sensitive sites, the N-terminal tertiary contact region of H1 was found to be the most pH-sensitive one and was easily converted to a flexible structure by a slight decrease of pH in the solution. These data provided molecular evidence to explain the cellular mechanism for conversion from PrP{sup C} to PrP{sup Sc} in acidic organelles such as the endosome.

  18. A dynamic model of some malaria-transmitting anopheline mosquitoes of the Afrotropical region. I. Model description and sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most of the current biophysical models designed to address the large-scale distribution of malaria assume that transmission of the disease is independent of the vector involved. Another common assumption in these type of model is that the mortality rate of mosquitoes is constant over their life span and that their dispersion is negligible. Mosquito models are important in the prediction of malaria and hence there is a need for a realistic representation of the vectors involved. Results We construct a biophysical model including two competing species, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. Sensitivity analysis highlight the importance of relative humidity and mosquito size, the initial conditions and dispersion, and a rarely used parameter, the probability of finding blood. We also show that the assumption of exponential mortality of adult mosquitoes does not match the observed data, and suggest that an age dimension can overcome this problem. Conclusions This study highlights some of the assumptions commonly used when constructing mosquito-malaria models and presents a realistic model of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis and their interaction. This new mosquito model, OMaWa, can improve our understanding of the dynamics of these vectors, which in turn can be used to understand the dynamics of malaria. PMID:23342980

  19. Binding-pocket and lid-region substitutions render human STING sensitive to the species-specific drug DMXAA.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pu; Zillinger, Thomas; Wang, Weiyi; Ascano, Manuel; Dai, Peihong; Hartmann, Gunther; Tuschl, Thomas; Deng, Liang; Barchet, Winfried; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2014-09-25

    The drug DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid) showed therapeutic promise against solid tumors in mouse models but subsequently failed in human clinical trials. DMXAA was later discovered to activate mouse, but not human, STING, an adaptor protein in the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP-mediated signaling pathway, inducing type I interferon expression. To facilitate the development of compounds that target human STING, we combined structural, biophysical, and cellular assays to study mouse and human chimeric proteins and their interaction with DMXAA. We identified a single substitution (G230I) that enables a DMXAA-induced conformational transition of hSTING from an inactive "open" to an active "closed" state. We also identified a substitution within the binding pocket (Q266I) that cooperates with G230I and the previously identified S162A binding-pocket point substitution, rendering hSTING highly sensitive to DMXAA. These findings should facilitate the reciprocal engineering of DMXAA analogs that bind and stimulate wild-type hSTING and their exploitation for vaccine-adjuvant and anticancer drug development.

  20. Could Poor Fens BE More Sensitive than Bogs to Elevated N Deposition in the Oil Sands Region of Northern Alberta?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, R. K.; Vile, M. A.; Scott, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Bogs and fens cover 29% of the 140,000 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area (OSAA) in northern Alberta, a region characterized by quite low background N deposition (1-2 kg/ha/yr). However, development of the oil sands resource has led to increasing emission of nitrogen oxides, which are then returned to regional ecosystems as elevated atmospheric N deposition. Given the nutrient deficient nature of bogs and poor fens, elevated N deposition from oil sands development could potentially affect peatland ecosystem structure and function. To evaluate the ecosystem-level effects of N deposition, since 2011, we have experimentally applied N to a bog and a poor fen near Mariana Lakes, Alberta, located far enough from the OSAA to be unaffected by oil sands emissions. Treatments include simulated rainfall equivalent to N deposition of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg/ha/yr, plus control plots receiving no added water (3 replicate plots per site per N treatment). Concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3- N, and DON at the top of the peatland water table did not increase with increasing N deposition, averaging 0.61, 0.09, and 1.07 mg/L, respectively, in the bog, and 0.53, 0.10, and 0.81 mg/L, respectively, in the poor fen. Ericaceous shrub abundance increased with increasing N deposition in both the bog and the poor fen, although plot-scale greenness (hand-held spectral measurement of the Normalized Difference Red Edge (NDRE) index) increased with N deposition in the poor fen, but not in the bog. Segmented regression indicated that in the poor fen, at N deposition above 14-16 kg/ha/yr, total microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass in the top 5 cm of peat increased with N deposition, with no effect at lower N deposition. No effect of N deposition on microbial, bacterial, or fungal biomass was observed at 5-10 cm in the poor fen, or at either 0-5 or 5-10 cm in the bog. In the poor fen, microbial, bacterial, and fungal biomass increased with NDRE, but the effect was not significant in the bog

  1. Bidirectional Modulation of Thermal and Chemical Sensitivity of TRPM8 Channels by the Initial Region of the N-terminal Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-01-01

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40–60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel. PMID:24917670

  2. Sensitivity of global and regional terrestrial carbon storage to the direct CO2 effect and climate change based on the CMIP5 model intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04 PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics.

  3. Bidirectional modulation of thermal and chemical sensitivity of TRPM8 channels by the initial region of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Pertusa, María; González, Alejandro; Hardy, Paulina; Madrid, Rodolfo; Viana, Félix

    2014-08-08

    TRPM8, a nonselective cation channel activated by cold, voltage, and cooling compounds such as menthol, is the principal molecular detector of cold temperatures in primary sensory neurons of the somatosensory system. The N-terminal domain of TRPM8 consists of 693 amino acids, but little is known about its contribution to channel function. Here, we identified two distinct regions within the initial N terminus of TRPM8 that contribute differentially to channel activity and proper folding and assembly. Deletion or substitution of the first 40 residues yielded channels with augmented responses to cold and menthol. The thermal threshold of activation of these mutants was shifted 2 °C to higher temperatures, and the menthol dose-response curve was displaced to lower concentrations. Site-directed mutagenesis screening revealed that single point mutations at positions Ser-26 or Ser-27 by proline caused a comparable increase in the responses to cold and menthol. Electrophysiological analysis of the S27P mutant revealed that the enhanced sensitivity to agonists is related to a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, increasing the probability of channel openings at physiological membrane potentials. In addition, we found that the region encompassing positions 40-60 is a key element in the proper folding and assembly of TRPM8. Different deletions and mutations within this region rendered channels with an impaired function that are retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results suggest a critical contribution of the initial region of the N-terminal domain of TRPM8 to thermal and chemical sensitivity and the proper biogenesis of this polymodal ion channel.

  4. Sensitivity of Global and Regional Terrestrial Carbon Storage to the Direct CO2 Effect and Climate Change Based on the CMIP5 Model Intercomparison

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jing; Dan, Li; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Global and regional land carbon storage has been significantly affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change. Based on fully coupled climate-carbon-cycle simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), we investigate sensitivities of land carbon storage to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change over the world and 21 regions during the 130 years. Overall, the simulations suggest that consistently spatial positive effects of the increasing CO2 concentrations on land carbon storage are expressed with a multi-model averaged value of 1.04PgC per ppm. The stronger positive values are mainly located in the broad areas of temperate and tropical forest, especially in Amazon basin and western Africa. However, large heterogeneity distributed for sensitivities of land carbon storage to climate change. Climate change causes decrease in land carbon storage in most tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, decrease in soil moisture (MRSO) and enhanced drought somewhat contribute to such a decrease accompanied with rising temperature. Conversely, an increase in land carbon storage has been observed in high latitude and altitude regions (e.g., northern Asia and Tibet). The model simulations also suggest that global negative impacts of climate change on land carbon storage are predominantly attributed to decrease in land carbon storage in tropics. Although current warming can lead to an increase in land storage of high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere due to elevated vegetation growth, a risk of exacerbated future climate change may be induced due to release of carbon from tropics. PMID:24748331

  5. Atmospheric sensitivity to roughness length in a regional atmospheric model over the Ohio-Tennessee River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanar, Arturo I.; Mahmood, Rezaul; Suarez, Astrid; Leeper, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    The response of a regional atmospheric model to small changes in roughness length of two vegetation categories (crops and deciduous broadleaf forest) was analyzed for three synoptic events in June 2006. These were characterized by two convective events (June 11 and 22) and one prefrontal event (June 17). The responses of the model, for precipitation, equivalent potential temperature and wind field were notable in general. However, the response became muted as roughness lengths were increased or decreased. Atmospheric response to these changes varied for different convective events. A small dependence on roughness length was found for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and planetary boundary layer heights during the convective event of June 11. For the June 22 event, the model response was weaker for the crop-only and forest-only roughness length experiments compared to the response when both the crop and forest-only roughness length were changed in combination.

  6. Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling emissions may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC emissions from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these reductions on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC emissions. We simulate a base case and several emission control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC emissions are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% reduction of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning emissions are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC emissions for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and emission control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.

  7. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species to variations in sea salt emissions in the North and Baltic Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, D.; Matthias, V.; Bieser, J.; Aulinger, A.; Quante, M.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the oceans' surfaces by wave breaking and bubble bursting processes. These particles impact atmospheric chemistry by affecting condensation of gas-phase species and nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with high air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North and Baltic Sea regions, Northwestern Europe, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system and evaluated against European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) measurement data. As model extension, sea salt emissions are scaled by water salinity because of low salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea and in certain river estuaries. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is separately considered. Additionally, the impact of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate, ammonium and sulfate concentrations is evaluated. The comparisons show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated when going inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. Dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to a minor increase of NH4+ and NO3- and a minor decrease of SO42- concentrations. However, the overall effect is very low and lower than the deviation from measurements. Size resolved measurements of Na+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- are needed for a more detailed analysis on the impact of sea salt particles.

  8. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Impact of Rain on Regional and Global Sea-Air Fluxes of CO2

    PubMed Central

    Shutler, J. D.; Land, P. E.; Woolf, D. K.; Quartly, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    The global oceans are considered a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Rain is known to alter the physical and chemical conditions at the sea surface, and thus influence the transfer of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It can influence gas exchange through enhanced gas transfer velocity, the direct export of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean, by altering the sea skin temperature, and through surface layer dilution. However, to date, very few studies quantifying these effects on global net sea-air fluxes exist. Here, we include terms for the enhanced gas transfer velocity and the direct export of carbon in calculations of the global net sea-air fluxes, using a 7-year time series of monthly global climate quality satellite remote sensing observations, model and in-situ data. The use of a non-linear relationship between the effects of rain and wind significantly reduces the estimated impact of rain-induced surface turbulence on the rate of sea-air gas transfer, when compared to a linear relationship. Nevertheless, globally, the rain enhanced gas transfer and rain induced direct export increase the estimated annual oceanic integrated net sink of CO2 by up to 6%. Regionally, the variations can be larger, with rain increasing the estimated annual net sink in the Pacific Ocean by up to 15% and altering monthly net flux by > ± 50%. Based on these analyses, the impacts of rain should be included in the uncertainty analysis of studies that estimate net sea-air fluxes of CO2 as the rain can have a considerable impact, dependent upon the region and timescale. PMID:27673683

  9. A Sensitivity Analysis of the Impact of Rain on Regional and Global Sea-Air Fluxes of CO2.

    PubMed

    Ashton, I G; Shutler, J D; Land, P E; Woolf, D K; Quartly, G D

    The global oceans are considered a major sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Rain is known to alter the physical and chemical conditions at the sea surface, and thus influence the transfer of CO2 between the ocean and atmosphere. It can influence gas exchange through enhanced gas transfer velocity, the direct export of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean, by altering the sea skin temperature, and through surface layer dilution. However, to date, very few studies quantifying these effects on global net sea-air fluxes exist. Here, we include terms for the enhanced gas transfer velocity and the direct export of carbon in calculations of the global net sea-air fluxes, using a 7-year time series of monthly global climate quality satellite remote sensing observations, model and in-situ data. The use of a non-linear relationship between the effects of rain and wind significantly reduces the estimated impact of rain-induced surface turbulence on the rate of sea-air gas transfer, when compared to a linear relationship. Nevertheless, globally, the rain enhanced gas transfer and rain induced direct export increase the estimated annual oceanic integrated net sink of CO2 by up to 6%. Regionally, the variations can be larger, with rain increasing the estimated annual net sink in the Pacific Ocean by up to 15% and altering monthly net flux by > ± 50%. Based on these analyses, the impacts of rain should be included in the uncertainty analysis of studies that estimate net sea-air fluxes of CO2 as the rain can have a considerable impact, dependent upon the region and timescale.

  10. Study of the sensitivity of a regional model in response to land cover change over northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Helin; Fu, Congbin

    1998-10-01

    Changing land surface types may have important consequences for the climate system. Predicting even the local, immediate effects of changing land surface types on the local energy and water balance has been difficult, because the land surface parameterization schemes used previously in climate models have been inadequate and the resolution of GCMs (global circulation models) has been too coarse to describe mesoscale forcings such as vegetation gradient adequately and to yield accurate regional climate detail. Grassland is a major ecosystem in northern China, playing a crucial role in the surface energy and water budget. Inclusion of a biosphere and atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) into the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (RegCM) permits an exploratory study of the possible effects of land cover change. Based on the observation of desertification processes in this area, an experiment with seven-day integration was designed in which all of the grassland in northern China is replaced by desert. The results show that, with the conversion of grassland into the desert, the surface hydrological cycle over northern China is weakened, with less precipitation and, in particular, a reduction in evaporation; the surface heat budget also changes, especially with the reduction in latent heat flux being much more than the reduction of net radiation, which results in an increase in surface temperature. These results are relevant to changes of parameters in BATS owing to changing land surface. Some detailed patterns of the effects of changing land surface on local energy and water balance have been simulated.

  11. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  12. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling identifies a folate-sensitive region of differential methylation upstream of ZFP57-imprinting regulator in humans.

    PubMed

    Amarasekera, Manori; Martino, David; Ashley, Sarah; Harb, Hani; Kesper, Dörthe; Strickland, Deborah; Saffery, Richard; Prescott, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy may affect the regulation of DNA methylation during fetal development. The genomic regions in the offspring that may be sensitive to folate exposure during in utero development have not been characterized. Using genome-scale profiling, we investigated DNA methylation in 2 immune cell types (CD4(+) and antigen-presenting cells) isolated from neonatal cord blood, selected on the basis of in utero folate exposure. High-folate (HF; n=11) and low-folate (LF; n=12) groups were selected from opposite extremes of maternal serum folate levels measured in the last trimester of pregnancy. A comparison of these groups revealed differential methylation at 7 regions across the genome. By far, the biggest effect observed was hypomethylation of a 923 bp region 3 kb upstream of the ZFP57 transcript, a regulator of DNA methylation during development, observed in both cell types. Levels of H3/H4 acetylation at ZFP57 promoter and ZFP57 mRNA expression were higher in CD4(+) cells in the HF group relative to the LF group. Hypomethylation at this region was replicated in an independent sample set. These data suggest that exposure to folate has effects on the regulation of DNA methylation during fetal development, and this may be important for health and disease.

  13. Mapping a blood pressure quantitative trait locus to a 5.7-cM region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Dutil, J; Deng, A Y

    2001-05-01

    A region on rat Chromosome (Chr) 2 of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat (S) was shown previously to contain a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure (BP). This was achieved first by linkage, followed by the use of congenic strains. A congenic strain, designated S.MNS-D2Mit6/Adh, contained a segment of Chr 2 from the Milan Normotensive (MNS) rat in the S genetic background. Since the region containing the QTL was roughly 80 cM in size, a further reduction was needed towards the positional or candidate gene cloning. Currently, two congenic substrains were made from the original strain S.MNS-D2Mit6/Adh. One of these two substrains showed a BP-lowering effect, whereas the other substrain did not. Deducing the segment not shared in the two substrains, the BP QTL has to be present in a chromosome region of roughly 5.7 cM between the marker D2Rat303 and the locus for the neutroendopeptidase gene (Nep). Nep is not included within the segment. This region does not seem to contain any candidate genes well known for the BP control. Thus, the final identification of the QTL will most likely lead to the discovery of a brand new gene for the BP regulation.

  14. Differential sensitivity of brainstem versus cortical astrocytes to changes in pH reveals functional regional specialization of astroglia.

    PubMed

    Kasymov, Vitaliy; Larina, Olga; Castaldo, Cinzia; Marina, Nephtali; Patrushev, Maxim; Kasparov, Sergey; Gourine, Alexander V

    2013-01-09

    Astrocytes might function as brain interoceptors capable of detecting different (chemo)sensory modalities and transmitting sensory information to the relevant neural networks controlling vital functions. For example, astrocytes that reside near the ventral surface of the brainstem (central respiratory chemosensitive area) respond to physiological decreases in pH with vigorous elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) and release of ATP. ATP transmits astroglial excitation to the brainstem respiratory network and contributes to adaptive changes in lung ventilation. Here we show that in terms of pH-sensitivity, ventral brainstem astrocytes are clearly distinct from astrocytes residing in the cerebral cortex. We monitored vesicular fusion in cultured rat brainstem astrocytes using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and found that ∼35% of them respond to acidification with an increased rate of exocytosis of ATP-containing vesicular compartments. These fusion events require intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and are independent of autocrine ATP actions. In contrast, the rate of vesicular fusion in cultured cortical astrocytes is not affected by changes in pH. Compared to cortical astrocytes, ventral brainstem astrocytes display higher levels of expression of genes encoding proteins associated with ATP vesicular transport and fusion, including vesicle-associated membrane protein-3 and vesicular nucleotide transporter. These results suggest that astrocytes residing in different parts of the rat brain are functionally specialized. In contrast to cortical astrocytes, astrocytes of the brainstem chemosensitive area(s) possess signaling properties that are functionally relevant-they are able to sense changes in pH and respond to acidification with enhanced vesicular release of ATP.

  15. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wiedinmyer, Christine; da Silva, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  16. Uncertainty evaluation of ozone production and its sensitivity to emission changes over the Ile-de-France region during summer periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguillaume, L.; Beekmann, M.; Derognat, C.

    2008-01-01

    The approach of Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis has been used for evaluating model uncertainty in ozone production and its sensitivity to emission changes. This approach has been applied to the ozone fields calculated by the CHIMERE regional model in the Ile-de-France area during the 1998 and 1999 summer seasons. The AIRPARIF network measurements of urban NO and O3 concentrations and rural O3 over the Ile-de-France region have been used for constraining the Monte Carlo simulations. Our results yield the following major conclusions: (1) The simulated formation of O3 plumes are mainly located in southwestern to southeastern directions downwind the Paris area. (2) Uncertainties on simulated ozone concentrations and several derived quantities are evaluated and reduced using the BMC approach; simulated urban and plume ozone concentrations are enhanced through the observational constraint as compared to those obtained from the unconstrained model. (3) The chemical regime over the urban area of Paris and within plumes is clearly VOC sensitive on the average over two summers. This statement is robust with respect to the BMC uncertainty analysis.

  17. Validation and sensitivity study for the MedCORDEX domain and the Carpathian Region using RegCM4.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, Rita; Pieczka, Ildiko; Andre, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the Med-CORDEX international initiative our research group is participating with the specific aim of contributing to the complex regional climate modelling database with RegCM4.3 experiments at 50 km horizontal resolution using the mosaic-type subgridding option in order to take into account subgrid processes. For this purpose, we used ERA-Interim data (1981-2010) and HadGEM2 global model outputs (1951-2005) as initial and lateral boundary conditions (ICBC) for the entire MED-44 CORDEX area covering the extended Mediterranean region of Europe. The 50-km resolution RegCM-outputs serve as an ICBC input for further downscaling using 10 km as a horizontal resolution for a smaller domain covering Central Europe with special focus on the Carpathian Region. In order to quantify the impact of the use of different parameterization schemes on regional climate model outputs, hindcast experiments are completed applying the RegCM4.3 model to the Carpathian Region and its surroundings at 10 km horizontal resolution with three different cumulus convection schemes (i.e., Kuo, Emanuel, and Grell schemes with different closure methods). Besides, sensitivity of outputs for subgrid-scale processes is also studied by activating the subgrid Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) model within other RegCM experiments. RegCM simulation results are sensitive to the driving data since the completed experiments with ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-driven 50-km outputs as ICBC result in different bias patterns. However, when the same driving data are used with different specific set-ups, the simulation results look quite similar. To some extent RegCM is able to reduce the errors inherited from the global datasets. Our validation results for temperature and precipitation suggest that for the Carpathian Region the overall best performance is achieved when using the mixed Grell-Emanuel scheme together with Fritsch & Chappell closure. Moreover, turning the subgrid model on

  18. Purified silicon production system

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  19. Altitude dependent sensitivity of equatorial atomic oxygen in the MLT region to the quasi-11-year and quasi-27-day solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednyts'kyy, Olexandr; Von Savigny, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We retrieved atomic oxygen concentration ([O]) profiles with help of volume emission rate (VER) profiles calculated from the measured by SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) emissions of green line nightglow in the MLT (Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere) region. We quantified the sensitivity of equatorial [O] to the 11-year and 27-day solar cycle forcing represented by such proxy indicators of solar activity as MgII index and Lyman-α with help of the wavelet, cross-correlation, superposed epoch, regression and harmonical analysis methods. We applied ordinary least squares bisector fitting on MgII index and F10.7 radio flux, which is measured in solar flux units (sfu), to convert the [O] sensitivity values in sfu and finally in percent changes. The same procedure was performed in the case of Lyman-α. Our results of the sensitivity analysis correspond well to the 11-year solar cycle response of O volume mixing ratios found in simulations performed with the WACCM3 (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, v. 3) and the HAMMONIA (3D Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere) model. We identified an 11-year solar cycle variation, quasi-biennial and annual/semi-annual oscillations as well as signatures of the 27-day cycle of solar activity as presented in the MLT O layer. The most remarkable result is that the found sensitivities agree within their uncertainties and do not depend on averaging method (annual, monthly and daily) of the [O] time series. We report on 11-year and 27-day solar cycle signatures in dependence on altitude intervals used to average the [O] time series.

  20. Sensitive and Specific Serodiagnosis of Lyme Disease by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with a Peptide Based on an Immunodominant Conserved Region of Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fang Ting; Steere, Allen C.; Marques, Adriana R.; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Miller, James N.; Philipp, Mario T.

    1999-01-01

    VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, contains an immunodominant conserved region named IR6. In the present study, the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a 26-mer synthetic peptide (C6) with the IR6 sequence was explored. Sensitivity was assessed with serum samples (n = 210) collected from patients with clinically defined Lyme disease at the acute (early localized or early disseminated disease), convalescent, or late disease phase. The sensitivities for acute-, convalescent-, and late-phase specimens were 74% (29 of 39), 85 to 90% (34 of 40 to 35 of 39), and 100% (59 of 59), respectively. Serum specimens from early neuroborreliosis patients were 95% positive (19 of 20), and those from an additional group of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome yielded a sensitivity of 62% (8 of 13). To assess the specificity of the peptide ELISA, 77 serum samples from patients with other spirochetal or chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, or neurologic diseases and 99 serum specimens from hospitalized patients in an area where Lyme disease is not endemic were examined. Only two potential false positives from the hospitalized patients were found, and the overall specificity was 99% (174 of 176). Precision, which was assessed with a panel of positive and negative serum specimens arranged in blinded duplicates, was 100%. Four serum samples with very high anti-OspA antibody titers obtained from four monkeys given the OspA vaccine did not react with the C6 peptide. This simple, sensitive, specific, and precise ELISA may contribute to alleviate some of the remaining problems in Lyme disease serodiagnosis. Because of its synthetic peptide base, it will be inexpensive to manufacture. It also will be applicable to serum specimens from OspA-vaccinated subjects. PMID:10565920

  1. Porous silicon as a substrate material for potentiometric biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, Marion; Schöning, M. J.; Frohnhoff, S.; Arens-Fischer, R.; Kordos, P.; Lüth, H.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time porous silicon has been investigated for the purpose of application as a substrate material for potentiometric biosensors operating in aqueous solutions. Porous silicon was prepared from differently doped silicon substrates by a standard anodic etching process. After oxidation, penicillinase, an enzyme sensitive to penicillin, was bound to the porous structure by physical adsorption. To characterize the electrochemical properties of the so build up penicillin biosensor, capacitance - voltage (C - V) measurements were performed on these field-effect structures.

  2. Porous silicon ammonia gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaillou, A.; Charrier, J.; Lorrain, N.; Sarret, M.; Haji, L.

    2006-04-01

    A planar optical waveguide is manufactured by the functionnalisation of oxidised mesoporous silicon with Bromothymol Blue to achieve a sensitive ammonia sensor suitable for low gas concentrations. The propagated light intensity is measured at the output of the waveguide. The sensitivity at low concentrations and the short time of reaction of the sensor are enhanced by a confinement effect of the gas molecules inside the pores. The dependence of the output signal with gas concentration is demonstrated. When the ammonia flow is stopped, the reversibility of the initial characteristics of the propagated light is naturally obtained with the disappearance of the gas molecules.

  3. Estimation of stream-aquifer exchanges at regional scale using a distributed model: Sensitivity to in-stream water level fluctuations, riverbed elevation and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratelli, Fulvia; Flipo, Nicolas; Moatar, Florentina

    2016-11-01

    Several studies on stream-aquifer interactions focus on the local scale. However, the estimation of stream-aquifer exchanges for a regional river network remains challenging. This study aims at assessing the sensitivity of distributed stream-aquifer exchanges to in-stream water level fluctuations, riverbed elevation and Manning roughness coefficient. An integrated distributed surface-subsurface model is applied to the Loire river basin (117,480 km2, France), where in-stream water level fluctuations are taken into account with a simplified Manning-Strickler approach. The stream-aquifer exchanges are analyzed at pluri-annual and annual scales, as well as during short-term hydrological events. The model simulates the spatio-temporal variability of in-stream water levels accurately, with Nash coefficients up to 0.96 for the Loire river. The river network mainly drains the aquifer system. The average net exchanged flow is 2 ·10-2 m3 s-1 km-1, which corresponds to 12% of the averaged discharge at the outlet of the basin. The assumption of constant river stages significantly impacts the total infiltration (-70%) and exfiltration (-10%) in the basin, whereas it has a negligible influence on the average net flux. The river fluctuations increase the time variability of the stream-aquifer exchanges and may determine flow reversals during flood events and also more frequently for river stretches at equilibrium with its nearby aquifer. This study highlights the importance of accounting for river stage fluctuations in the modeling of regional hydrosystems. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis indicates that it is mandatory to develop new methodologies to better estimate the riverbed elevation at high resolution for a river network at regional scale. In a lesser extent, errors on Manning coefficient affect the timing of infiltration and exfiltration, leading to temporally localized discrepancies. However it does not affect the estimates of the global net exchanges significantly.

  4. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Lantz, Jeffrey W.; Stalford, Harold L.

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  5. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Eremin, Vladimir; Verbitskaya, Elena; Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Kurfürst, Christoph; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 1016 protons/cm2 while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development-results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014-is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×1016 p/cm2 at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode.

  6. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    MedlinePlus

    ... to women of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with ... likely be inserted at the same time. Ruptured silicone implant If a silicone breast implant ruptures, you ...

  7. Compton imager using room temperature silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurfess, James D.; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2007-08-01

    We have been developing a multi-layer Compton Gamma Ray Imager using position-sensitive, intrinsic silicon detectors. Advantages of this approach include room temperature operation, reduced Doppler broadening, and use of conventional silicon fabrication technologies. We have obtained results on the imaging performance of a multi-layer instrument where each layer consists of a 2×2 array of double-sided strip detectors. Each detector is 63 mm×63 mm×2 mm thick and has 64 strips providing a strip pitch of approximately 0.9 mm. The detectors were fabricated by SINTEF ICT (Oslo Norway) from 100 mm diameter wafers. The use of large arrays of silicon detectors appears especially advantageous for applications that require excellent sensitivity, spectral resolution and imaging such as gamma ray astrophysics, detection of special nuclear materials, and medical imaging. The multiple Compton interactions (three or more) in the low-Z silicon enable the energy and direction of the incident gamma ray to be determined without full deposition of the incident gamma-ray energy in the detector. The performance of large volume instruments for various applications are presented, including an instrument under consideration for NASA's Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) mission and applications to Homeland Security. Technology developments that could further extend the sensitivity and performance of silicon Compton Imagers are presented, including the use of low-energy (few hundred keV) electron tracking within novel silicon detectors and the potential for a wafer-bonding approach to produce thicker, position-sensitive silicon detectors with an associated reduction of required electronics and instrument cost.

  8. Success of the PCR-based replication assay depends on the number of methylation sensitive restriction sites in the PCR amplifying region.

    PubMed

    Metta, M K; Tantravahi, S; Kunaparaju, R

    2015-06-02

    The PCR—based replication assay is one of the most simple, quick and economical methods for the analysis of episomal replication. However, in spite of its advantages the method has not been able to replace the southern—based replication assay, the latter of which is a tedious and time—consuming process. This is due to the generation of spurious amplification products in the PCR—based replication assay. The replication assay is based on the use of methylation—sensitive restriction endonucleases (eg. DpnI, MboI) to distinguish bacterial replicated (adenosine methylated) and mammalian replicated plasmids (adenosine non—methylated). In this work we addressed the problem by evaluating (a) restriction enzyme digestion and (b) the minimum number of restriction sites that are required in the amplifying region. The efficiency of restriction digestion was tested by subjecting the plasmid to one and two rounds of digestion. Multiple rounds of digestions were found to be inefficient in preventing false positives when the number of DpnI sites in the amplifying region is less than 8. However, use of a minimum of 15 DpnI sites in the amplifying region was found to overcome the false positives.

  9. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    PubMed

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  10. Silicon nanopillars for field enhanced surface spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Sabrina M; Merkulov, Igor A; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanopillar structures have continued to draw increased attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. Herein, electron beam lithography combined with reactive-ion etching is used to reproducibly create individual silicon nanopillars of various sizes, shapes, and heights. Finite difference time domain numerical analysis predicts enhancements in localized fields in the vicinity of appropriately-sized and coaxially-illuminated silicon nanopillars of approximately two orders of magnitude. By analyzing experimentally measured strength of the silicon Raman phonon line (500 cm-1), it was determined that nanopillars produced field enhancement that are consistent with these predictions. Additionally, we demonstrate that a thin layer of Zn phthalocyanine deposited on the nanopillar surface produced prominent Raman spectra yielding enhancement factors (EFs) better than 300. Finally, silicon nanopillars of cylindrical and elliptical shapes were labeled with different fluorophors and evaluated for their surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) capability. The EF derived from analysis of the acquired fluorescence microscopy images indicate that silicon nanopillar structures can provide enhancement comparable or even stronger than those typically achieved using plasmonic SEF structures without the drawbacks of the metal-based substrates. It is anticipated that scaled up arrays of silicon nanopillars will enable SEF assays with extremely high sensitivity, while a broader impact of the reported phenomena are anticipated in photovoltaics, subwavelength light focusing, and fundamental nanophotonics.

  11. Porous silicon nanocrystals in a silica aerogel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amonkosolpan, Jamaree; Wolverson, Daniel; Goller, Bernhard; Polisski, Sergej; Kovalev, Dmitry; Rollings, Matthew; Grogan, Michael D. W.; Birks, Timothy A.

    2012-07-01

    Silicon nanoparticles of three types (oxide-terminated silicon nanospheres, micron-sized hydrogen-terminated porous silicon grains and micron-size oxide-terminated porous silicon grains) were incorporated into silica aerogels at the gel preparation stage. Samples with a wide range of concentrations were prepared, resulting in aerogels that were translucent (but weakly coloured) through to completely opaque for visible light over sample thicknesses of several millimetres. The photoluminescence of these composite materials and of silica aerogel without silicon inclusions was studied in vacuum and in the presence of molecular oxygen in order to determine whether there is any evidence for non-radiative energy transfer from the silicon triplet exciton state to molecular oxygen adsorbed at the silicon surface. No sensitivity to oxygen was observed from the nanoparticles which had partially H-terminated surfaces before incorporation, and so we conclude that the silicon surface has become substantially oxidised. Finally, the FTIR and Raman scattering spectra of the composites were studied in order to establish the presence of crystalline silicon; by taking the ratio of intensities of the silicon and aerogel Raman bands, we were able to obtain a quantitative measure of the silicon nanoparticle concentration independent of the degree of optical attenuation.

  12. Porous silicon nanocrystals in a silica aerogel matrix

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles of three types (oxide-terminated silicon nanospheres, micron-sized hydrogen-terminated porous silicon grains and micron-size oxide-terminated porous silicon grains) were incorporated into silica aerogels at the gel preparation stage. Samples with a wide range of concentrations were prepared, resulting in aerogels that were translucent (but weakly coloured) through to completely opaque for visible light over sample thicknesses of several millimetres. The photoluminescence of these composite materials and of silica aerogel without silicon inclusions was studied in vacuum and in the presence of molecular oxygen in order to determine whether there is any evidence for non-radiative energy transfer from the silicon triplet exciton state to molecular oxygen adsorbed at the silicon surface. No sensitivity to oxygen was observed from the nanoparticles which had partially H-terminated surfaces before incorporation, and so we conclude that the silicon surface has become substantially oxidised. Finally, the FTIR and Raman scattering spectra of the composites were studied in order to establish the presence of crystalline silicon; by taking the ratio of intensities of the silicon and aerogel Raman bands, we were able to obtain a quantitative measure of the silicon nanoparticle concentration independent of the degree of optical attenuation. PMID:22805684

  13. Improving Solar Cells With Polycrystalline Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Campbell, Robert B.; Rai-Choudhury, Prosenjit

    1987-01-01

    In proposed solar-cell design, layers of polycrystalline silicon grown near front metal grid and back metal surface. Net electrical effect increases open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current, resulting in greater cell power output and energy conversion efficiency. Solar-cell configuration differs from existing one in that layers of doped polycrystalline silicon added to reduce recombination in emitter and back surface field regions.

  14. Two-Temperature-Zone Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanjurjo, A.; Nanis, L.; Kapur, V. K.; Weaver, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    When high purity silicon is synthesized by reduction of silicon tetrafluoride by sodium, very-fast highly exothermic reaction takes place. Controlled reaction is proposed in which SiF4-pressurized vertical reactor operates with two temperature zones. Liquid sodium feeds from nozzle at top of rector without reacting with SiF4. When sodium reaches higher temperature region at bottom, reaction takes place immediately.

  15. Excess seawater nutrients, enlarged algal symbiont densities and bleaching sensitive reef locations: 2. A regional-scale predictive model for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A; Heron, Scott F; Brodie, Jon E; Done, Terence J; Masiri, Itsara; Hinrichs, Saskia

    2017-01-15

    A spatial risk assessment model is developed for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia) that helps identify reef locations at higher or lower risk of coral bleaching in summer heat-wave conditions. The model confirms the considerable benefit of discriminating nutrient-enriched areas that contain corals with enlarged (suboptimal) symbiont densities for the purpose of identifying bleaching-sensitive reef locations. The benefit of the new system-level understanding is showcased in terms of: (i) improving early-warning forecasts of summer bleaching risk, (ii) explaining historical bleaching patterns, (iii) testing the bleaching-resistant quality of the current marine protected area (MPA) network (iv) identifying routinely monitored coral health attributes, such as the tissue energy reserves and skeletal growth characteristics (viz. density and extension rates) that correlate with bleaching resistant reef locations, and (v) targeting region-specific water quality improvement strategies that may increase reef-scale coral health and bleaching resistance.

  16. LDI-MS assisted by chemical-free gold nanoparticles: enhanced sensitivity and reduced background in the low-mass region.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Litti, Lucio; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2013-12-17

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) emerged as an effective technique for the detection of analytes with high sensitivity. The surface chemistry and the size of AuNPs are the crucial parameters for lowering the detection limits and increasing the selectivity of LDI-MS. Here we show that chemical-free size selected AuNPs, obtained by laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS), have very low background in the low mass region (<500 Da), contrary to citrate stabilized AuNPs (citrate-AuNPs) and dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP). This allowed better performances for the picomole detection of low mass analytes like arginine, fructose, atrazine, anthracene and paclitaxel. The results suggest that chemical-free LASiS-AuNPs can be an excellent matrix for nanoparticle-assisted LDI-MS.

  17. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  18. P-type silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O`Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary results on 16 CM{sup 2}, position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 {times} l0{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 {mu}m to 1200 {mu}m. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed.

  19. Silicon mirror suspensions for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, A. V.; Cunningham, L.; Hammond, G. D.; Haughian, K.; Hough, J.; Kroker, S.; Martin, I. W.; Nawrodt, R.; Rowan, S.; Schwarz, C.; van Veggel, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant limits to the sensitivity of current, and future, long-baseline interferometric gravitational wave detectors is thermal displacement noise of the test masses and their suspensions. This paper reports results of analytical and experimental studies of the limits to thermal noise performance of cryogenic silicon test mass suspensions set by two constraints on suspension fibre dimensions: the minimum dimensions required to allow conductive cooling for extracting incident laser beam heat deposited in the mirrors; and the minimum dimensions of fibres (set by their tensile strength) which can support test masses of the size envisaged for use in future detectors. We report experimental studies of breaking strength of silicon ribbons, and resulting design implications for the feasibility of suspension designs for future gravitational wave detectors using silicon suspension fibres. We analyse the implication of this study for thermal noise performance of cryogenically cooled silicon suspensions.

  20. Historical seismicity of the Mont Dore volcanic province (Auvergne, France) unraveled by a regional lacustrine investigation: New insights about lake sensitivity to earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassiot, Léo; Chapron, Emmanuel; Di Giovanni, Christian; Lajeunesse, Patrick; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Garcia, Marta; Bard, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    Lake sediments are relevant natural seismographs over long time scale. However, because tectonic events are not systematically recorded in lake sediments, one forthcoming challenge for paleoseismology is to better assess lake sensitivity to earthquakes. To this end, a limnogeological investigation, including hydroacoustic mapping techniques, core sampling and multi-proxy sediment analyses, has been conducted within four small volcanic lakes located in the Mont Dore province (Auvergne, France), an area with a moderate seismo-tectonic activity. Results show the existence of several gravity reworking processes in the lakes over the last millennium. Around AD 1300, the occurrence of synchronous events in lakes Pavin, Chauvet, Montcineyre and Guéry (100 km2 area) highlights an undocumented earthquake as a common trigger for slope failures in disconnected basins. At regional scale, the record of this tectonic event may have been favored by human-induced increase in sediment load (Chauvet and Montcineyre) and/or after an abrupt lake-level drop (Pavin) affecting the sediment stability. In addition, synchronous turbidites and mass-wasting deposits (MWD) recorded in lakes Pavin and Guéry provide evidence for a seismic activity during the XIXth century. Potential triggers are historical earthquakes that occurred either in the Mont Dore area or in the southern part of the Limagne fault at this time. Despite moderate seismic activity in this intraplate volcanic domain, these results highlight the role of tectonics as a major trigger in the sedimentary processes dominating these lacustrine infills. Within the diversity of studied sites, it appears that lake sensitivity to earthquakes was not constant over time. This sensitivity can be expressed as a combination of external factors, namely earthquake magnitude and lake-epicenter distance and internal factors such as lake morphology, nature of sediment, lake-level fluctuations and human-induced changes in catchment sedimentary

  1. Multi-year simulations and experimental seasonal predictions for rainy seasons in China by using a nested regional climate model (RegCM_NCC). Part I: Sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yihui; Shi, Xueli; Liu, Yiming; Liu, Yan; Li, Qingquan; Qian, Yongfu; Miao, Manqian; Zhai, Guoqing; Gao, Kun

    2006-05-01

    A modified version of the NCAR/RegCM2 has been developed at the National Climate Center (NCC), China Meteorological Administration, through a series of sensitivity experiments and multi-year simulations and hindcasts, with a special emphasis on the adequate choice of physical parameterization schemes suitable for the East Asian monsoon climate. This regional climate model is nested with the NCC/IAP (Institute of Atmospheric Physics) T63 coupled GCM to make an experimental seasonal prediction for China and East Asia. The four-year (2001 to 2004) prediction results are encouraging. This paper is the first part of a two-part paper, and it mainly describes the sensitivity study of the physical process parameterization represented in the model. The systematic errors produced by the different physical parameterization schemes such as the land surface processes, convective precipitation, cloud-radiation transfer process, boundary layer process and large-scale terrain features have been identified based on multi-year and extreme flooding event simulations. A number of comparative experiments has shown that the mass flux scheme (MFS) and Betts-Miller scheme (BM) for convective precipitation, the LPMI (land surface process model I) and LPMII (land surface process model II) for the land surface process, the CCM3 radiation transfer scheme for cloud-radiation transfer processes, the TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) scheme for the boundary layer processes and the topography treatment schemes for the Tibetan Plateau are suitable for simulations and prediction of the East Asia monsoon climate in rainy seasons. Based on the above sensitivity study, a modified version of the RegCM2 (RegCM_NCC) has been set up for climate simulations and seasonal predictions.

  2. Process for producing silicon

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Jerry M.; Carleton, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  3. Novel Metal Encapsulated Silicon Cage Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2002-03-01

    The discovery of novel nano-forms of carbon such as fullerenes and nanotubes created much interest in the search for similar novel structures of silicon for applications in nano-devices. However, these cage structures are not stable for silicon. Small silicon clusters having upto about 20 atoms are found to have prolate structures in which a 10-atom unit plays an important role. Here we report results of new findings(Vijay Kumar and Yoshiyuki Kawazoe, ``Metal-Encapsulated Fullerenelike and Cubic Caged Clusters of Silicon", Phys. Rev. Lett., 87[4] (2001), 045503-1-045503-4.) on a rich variety of caged silicon clusters that are realized by encapsulating a metal atom. The shape and size of these new clusters depend upon the metal atom which also determines their properties. As silicon is the most important material for devices, these findings offer new opportunities to design novel nano-silicon based devices. The results have been obtained by performing computer experiments using ab initio calculations in an effort to stabilize a silicon cage of 20 atoms. We have tried several metal atoms and used a cage shrinking approach. These led to the findings of fullerene and cubic type stable symmetric clusters in the range of 14 to 16 silicon atoms, depending on the encapsulated metal atom. A Frank-Kasper polyhedron, M@Si16 is found to be of lowest energy for M = Ti and Hf with exceptionally large gaps of about 2.35 eV that lie in the optical region. Further studies have been done to stabilize the smallest fullerene shape of 20 silicon atoms and to develop assemblies of clusters to form more interesting nano-scale structures like wires, which might be useful industrially to realize conducting atomic lines covered by semiconductor tubes.

  4. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Ladder Assembly Sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzmann, Paul; /Fermilab

    1994-08-17

    This is an abridged version of the assembly sequence described by the DO assembly subgroup of Cooper, Hrycyk, Kowalski, Rapidis, and Ratzmann. This primarily is used to indicate major steps during the sequence and to list fixturing requirements. Assembly - (1) Place support rails in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. The two rails get held under vacuum. (2) Apply adhesive to the region where contact will be made with the beryllium substrates. (3) Place underside beryllium pieces (active and dummy ends) into the (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. These pieces get placed in the fixture against the appropriate pins to mimic final positioning in the bulkhead. Apply vacuum to the beryllium pieces. Allow to cure? (4) Align silicon in (1) 3 Chip Ladder Construction fixture. Reference features on the fixture will be parameterized. Holes in the fixture near the silicon center line will be targeted to set the silicon axis relative to the beryllium slot edge. Z positioning of the detectors will be achieved by shimming between the detectors and butting up the end of the silicon against the fixture. (5) Remove silicon detectors and apply adhesive to the rails and upper surfaces of the beryllium. (6) Replace silicon and check final position of the detectors. (7) Release vacuum on the rails so they cure in a stress-free state. Allow adhesive to cure. (8) Apply adhesive and align HDI to the silicon using (2) 3 Chip HDI Gluing fixture. The HDI will have tabs which are held by the fixture for location relative to the detectors. Allow adhesive to cure. (9) Move ladder to (3) 3 Chip Wirebonding Fixture. Transfer fixture to the wirebonder and bond chip-silicon and silicon-silicon.

  5. Edge determination for polycrystalline silicon lines on gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, John S.; Vladar, Andras E.; Lowney, Jeremiah R.; Postek, Michael T., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    In a scanning electron microscope (SEM) top-down secondary electron image, areas within a few tens of nanometers of the line edges are characteristically brighter than the rest of the image. In general, the shape of the secondary electron signal within such edge regions depends upon the energy and spatial distribution of the electron beam and the sample composition, and it is sensitive to small variations in sample geometry. Assigning edge shape and position is done by finding a model sample that is calculated, on the basis of a mathematical model of the instrument-sample interaction, to produce an image equal to the one actually observed. Edge locations, and consequently line widths, are then assigned based upon this model sample. In previous years we have applied this strategy to lines with geometry constrained by preferential etching of single crystal silicon. With this study we test the procedure on polycrystalline silicon lines. Polycrystalline silicon lines fabricated according to usual industrial processes represent a commercially interesting albeit technically more challenging application of this method. With the sample geometry less constrained a priori, a larger set of possible sample geometries must be modeled and tested for a match to the observed line scan, and the possibility of encountering multiple acceptable matches is increased. For this study we have implemented a data analysis procedure that matches measured image line scans to a precomputed library of sample shapes and their corresponding line scans. Linewidth test patterns containing both isolated and dense lines separated form the underlying silicon substrate by a thin gate oxide have been fabricated. Line scans from test pattern images have been fitted to the library of modeled shapes.

  6. Electrodeposition of molten silicon

    DOEpatents

    De Mattei, Robert C.; Elwell, Dennis; Feigelson, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon dioxide is dissolved in a molten electrolytic bath, preferably comprising barium oxide and barium fluoride. A direct current is passed between an anode and a cathode in the bath to reduce the dissolved silicon dioxide to non-alloyed silicon in molten form, which is removed from the bath.

  7. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  8. Silicon force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Galambos, Paul C.; Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Nishida, Erik E.; Burnett, Damon J.; Lantz, Jeffrey W.

    2016-07-05

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a sensor for measurement of high forces and/or high load shock rate(s), whereby the sensor utilizes silicon as the sensing element. A plate of Si can have a thinned region formed therein on which can be formed a number of traces operating as a Wheatstone bridge. The brittle Si can be incorporated into a layered structure comprising ductile and/or compliant materials. The sensor can have a washer-like configuration which can be incorporated into a nut and bolt configuration, whereby tightening of the nut and bolt can facilitate application of a compressive preload upon the sensor. Upon application of an impact load on the bolt, the compressive load on the sensor can be reduced (e.g., moves towards zero-load), however the magnitude of the preload can be such that the load on the sensor does not translate to tensile stress being applied to the sensor.

  9. Apparatus and method for the horizontal, crucible-free growth of silicon sheet crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an apparatus for crucible-free growth of a sheet crystal of silicon, the apparatus comprising; means for providing a substantially enclosed space having an inert atmosphere; heating means for sequentially forming molten silicon from a source of substantially pure silicon within the space; means for vertically feeding a silicon source toward the heating means to form a molten layer of silicon at a top of the source; means for drawing a continuous silicon sheet crystal from the molten silicon layer within the space; wherein a meniscus of molten silicon is created by the drawing means. The apparatus includes means to control the shape of the meniscus, and the controlling means includes a repulsive RF generator for repulsive support of the meniscus as a molten silicon sheet crystal is drawn from the molten silicon. A crucible-free, non-dendritic growth method is described for continuously forming a silicon crystal sheet from a rod of substantially pure silicon, the method comprising: employing an RF heating means having first and second portions to provide a molten layer at an end of the silicon rod in an inert atmosphere by actively heating a first region at the end of the silicon rod while preventing an active heating of a second region of the end of the silicon rod.

  10. Metal electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell having an N-type region wherein the contact to the N-type region is composed of a material having a work function of about 3.7 electron volts or less. Suitable materials include strontium, barium and magnesium and rare earth metals such as gadolinium and yttrium.

  11. Ellipsometric study of silicon nitride on gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Bu-Abbud, G. H.; Woollam, J. A.; Liu, D.; Chung, Y.; Langer, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for optimizing the sensitivity of ellipsometric measurements for thin dielectric films on semiconductors is described in simple physical terms. The technique is demonstrated for the case of sputtered silicon nitride films on gallium arsenide.

  12. Surface property modification of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1984-01-01

    The main emphasis of this work has been to determine the wear rate of silicon in fluid environments and the parameters that influence wear. Three tests were carried out on single crystal Czochralski silicon wafers: circular and linear multiple-scratch tests in fluids by a pyramidal diamond simulated fixed-particle abrasion; microhardness and three-point bend tests were used to determine the hardness and fracture toughness of abraded silicon and the extent of damage induced by abrasion. The wear rate of (100) and (111) n and p-type single crystal Cz silicon abraded by a pyramidal diamond in ethanol, methanol, acetone and de-ionized water was determined by measuring the cross-sectional areas of grooves of the circular and linear multiple-scratch tests. The wear rate depends on the loads on the diamond and is highest for ethanol and lowest for de-ionized water. The surface morphology of the grooves showed lateral and median cracks as well as a plastically deformed region. The hardness and fracture toughness are critical parameters that influence the wear rate. Microhardness tests were conducted to determine the hardness as influenced by fluids. Median cracks and the damage zone surrounding the indentations were also related to the fluid properties.

  13. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 06: The influence of regional dose sensitivity on salivary loss and recovery in the parotid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H; Thomas, S; Moiseenko, V; Hovan, A; Wu, J

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC 2010) survey of radiation dose-volume effects on salivary gland function has called for improved understanding of intragland dose sensitivity and the effectiveness of partial sparing in salivary glands. Regional dose susceptibility of sagittally- and coronally-sub-segmented parotid gland has been studied. Specifically, we examine whether individual consideration of sub-segments leads to improved prediction of xerostomia compared with whole parotid mean dose. Methods: Data from 102 patients treated for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency were used in this study. Whole mouth stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline), three months, and one year after cessation of radiotherapy. Organ volumes were contoured using treatment planning CT images and sub-segmented into regional portions. Both non-parametric (local regression) and parametric (mean dose exponential fitting) methods were employed. A bootstrap technique was used for reliability estimation and cross-comparison. Results: Salivary loss is described well using non-parametric and mean dose models. Parametric fits suggest a significant distinction in dose response between medial-lateral and anterior-posterior aspects of the parotid (p<0.01). Least-squares and least-median squares estimates differ significantly (p<0.00001), indicating fits may be skewed by noise or outliers. Salivary recovery exhibits a weakly arched dose response: the highest recovery is seen at intermediate doses. Conclusions: Salivary function loss is strongly dose dependent. In contrast no useful dose dependence was observed for function recovery. Regional dose dependence was observed, but may have resulted from a bias in dose distributions.

  14. Simulated Sensitivity of Seasonal Ozone Exposure in the Great Lakes Region to Changes in Anthropogenic Emissions in the Presence of Interannual Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Heilman, Warren E.

    2005-09-01

    A coupled meteorological and chemical modeling system with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the Great Lakes region between May and September of 1999 and 2001. Model performance was evaluated using operational surface and upper-air meteorological measurements and surface ozone data. The overall temporal and spatial variations in hourly ozone concentrations and ozone exposure from control simulations agreed reasonably well with the observations at most locations. The simulated ozone exposure was higher during the summer of 1999 than during 2001, similar to the observations. The emission projection simulation that employed the meteorological conditions of 1999 and increased anthropogenic emissions projected for the year 2020 produced increases in ozone exceeding 80 ppb over the lower peninsula of Michigan, the eastern half of the upper peninsula of Michigan, and over Ontario just north of Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Relatively large increases in ozone exceeding 60 ppb were also produced over agricultural regions. Despite the projected increase in anthropogenic emissions for the year 2020, increases in ozone exceeding 60 ppb occurred only over the lake surfaces and in central Michigan when the meteorological conditions of the summer of 2001 were applied. The meteorological conditions during the summer of 2001 were not as favorable for ozone production and did not result in increased ozone. For both summers, increases in anthropogenic emissions projected for the year 2020 decreased ozone exposure in the immediate vicinity of the largest metropolitan areas. The simulated ozone from this study will be used in the near future as input to biological models to assess the response of ozone-sensitive tree species to current and future ozone levels in the Great Lakes region.

  15. Friction and wear behavior of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single crystal silicon carbide in sliding contact with titanium. Results indicate that the friction coefficient is greater in vacuum than in argon and that this is due to the greater adhesion or adhesive transfer in vacuum. Thin films of silicon carbide transferred to titanium also adhered to silicon carbide both in argon at atmospheric pressure and in high vacuum. Cohesive bonds fractured on both the silicon carbide and titanium surfaces. The wear debris of silicon carbide created by fracture plowed the silicon carbide surface in a plastic manner. The friction characteristics of titanium in contact with silicon carbide were sensitive to the surface roughness of silicon carbide, and the friction coefficients were higher for a rough surface of silicon carbide than for a smooth one. The difference in friction results was due to plastic deformation (plowing of titanium).

  16. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  17. Porous silicon gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M.

    1995-08-01

    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  18. A silicon electrostatic ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenichiro; Higuchi, Kohei; Tanigawa, Hiroshi

    1989-11-01

    An electric ultrasonic transducer is developed by using a silicon IC process. Design considerations are first presented to obtain high sensitivity and the desired frequency responses in air. The measured transmitter sensitivity is 19.1 dB (0 dB = 1 microbar/V) at a point 50 cm away from the devices, when the devices are operated at 150 kHz. The receiving sensitivity is 0.47 mV/Pa in the 10-130-kHz range, with bias voltages as low as 30 V. An electronic sector scanning operation is also achieved by time-sequentially driving seven elements arranged in a linear array on the same chip. The results should be helpful in the design of phased-array transducers integrated with electronic scanning circuits.

  19. Instability in radiatively melted silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, K. A.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    1985-04-01

    Bosch and Lemons [Phys. Rev. Letters 47 (1981) 1151] were first to report that on heating of silicon with a laser, the heated area can break up into small regions of solid and liquid. Thus phenomenon produces undesirable surface roughness on silicon which has been melted using irradiation from a laser or heat lamps. It is due to the higher reflectivity of liquid silicon so that radiative heating produces small regions of superheated solid in contact with small regions of supercooled liquid. In this paper, the instabilities resulting from this unusual thermal situation have been analyzed. It is shown that a stable pattern can develop provided that the spacing between the solid and liquid is small enough. For a 1/2 μm thick layer of polysilicon on silica, the calculated stable spacing is less than about 10 μm, in accord with experiment.

  20. Quantification of ice production in Laptev Sea polynyas and its sensitivity to thin-ice parameterizations in a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, Oliver; Heinemann, Günther; Preußer, Andreas; Willmes, Sascha; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    The quantification of sea-ice production in the Laptev Sea polynyas is important for the Arctic sea-ice budget and the heat loss to the atmosphere. We estimated the ice production for the winter season 2007/2008 (November-April) based on simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at a horizontal resolution of 5 km and compared it to remote sensing estimates. A reference and five sensitivity simulations were performed with different assumptions on grid-scale and subgrid-scale ice thickness considered within polynyas, using a tile approach for fractional sea ice. In addition, the impact of heat loss on the atmospheric boundary layer was investigated. About 29.1 km3 of total winter ice production was estimated for the reference simulation, which varies by up to +124 % depending on the thin-ice assumptions. For the most realistic assumptions based on remote sensing of ice thickness the ice production increases by +39 %. The use of the tile approach enlarges the area and enhances the magnitude of the heat loss from polynyas up to +110 % if subgrid-scale open water is assumed and by +20 % for realistic assumptions. This enhanced heat loss causes in turn higher ice production rates and stronger impact on the atmospheric boundary layer structure over the polynyas. The study shows that ice production is highly sensitive to the thin-ice parameterizations for fractional sea-ice cover. In summary, realistic ice production estimates could be retrieved from our simulations. Neglecting subgrid-scale energy fluxes might considerably underestimate the ice production in coastal polynyas, such as in the Laptev Sea, with possible consequences on the Arctic sea-ice budget.

  1. [PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF GIBBERELLIN-SENSITIVE AND GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARFING GENES IN COMMON WHEAT OF THE SOUTHERN STEP REGION OF BLACK SEA].

    PubMed

    Chebotar, G A; Chebotar, S V; Motsnyy, I I

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the pleiotropic effects of GA-sensitive (Rht8) and GA-insensitive (Rht-B1, Rht-D1) dwarfing genes and a gene that determines the response of plants to photoperiod--Ppd-D1 were carried out for three years in the southern step region of Black Sea bank on five different genetic backgrounds. It is shown that in addition to direct effects on plant height GA-sensitive and GA-insensitive dwarfing genes have pleiotropic effects on all studied traits except the number of fertile spikelets. Presence of the dwarfing genes in the genotype of tall forms led to the decrease of stem and ear length, and at the same time to the increase of ear density. The number of spikelets per spike decreased due to sterile spikelets, whereas the number of fertile spikelets did not change. There was a significant increase in the number of grains per ear as a result of increasing of spikelets in ears. The number and weight of grains did not decrease, even though the plants were characterized by a smaller number of productive stems. The presence of Rht8x allele on genetic background of variety Stepnyak resulted in a significant decrease of plants productivity. However, in combination with Ppd-D1a allele plants with Rht8x increased the potential productivity, and surpassed the parental form (Rht8a Ppd-D1b). The presence of Rht-B1e allele resulted in reduction of grain mass per spike and 1000-grain weight, increase of l/h, and left the number of grains per spike stable in comparison with Rht8c.

  2. Protective function of silicon deposition in Saccharina japonica sporophytes (Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Hajime

    2012-10-01

    We investigated biogenic silica deposition in sporophytes of kelp, Saccharina japonica (Laminariaceae). Silicon content was measured in different sporophyte regions and there was a trend for the silicon content to increase longitudinally from the stipe-blade transition to apical regions. The transverse trend was for the content to be higher in the marginal region than in the medial region. The silicon content was also higher in the scar and sorus regions compared with the adjacent vegetative regions. High silicon content was detected in the margin of the disc and in the sorus region of cultured sporophyte discs. Moreover, rhodamine 123 staining suggested that silicon was deposited in the mouth of the marginal wound of the disc. Rhodamine 123 fluorescence was also detected in the paraphyses and mucilaginous caps of sori. These results suggest that silicon plays important roles in tissue protection and vegetative tissue wound healing. It is also suggested that silicon is required for the protection of reproductive tissues. We also discuss the physiological and ecological roles of biogenic silica deposition in kelp and its management in cultivated fields.

  3. Complex studies of properties of nanostructured silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchenko, A. I.; Melnichenko, M. M.; Svezhentsova, K. V.; Shmyryeva, O. M.

    2006-08-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon layers ( 3â€``35nm ) have been formed upon single-crystal silicon substrates of very large area (100 cm2), multicrystalline silicon substrates and metallurgical silicon substrates by stain etching. We studied optical and structural properties of nanocrystalline silicon by photoluminescence, reflection, scanning tunnel microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electronic spectroscopy and SIMS methods. Researches of properties of nc-Si, received by a method of chemical processing, have confirmed an opportunity of creation of this multifunctional material with stable characteristics. The authors have observed the sensors systems with use of nanocrystalline silicon as a sensitive layer, which properties depend on thickness of a received layer and are controlled by parameters of technological process. On an example of the photoluminescent sensor with nc-Si layer it is shown, that such sensor can be successfully used for definition of small concentrations of toxins (pesticides phosalone 10 -8-10 -9 mol/l ), and also for specific biological pollutant, such as protein components, polysaccharides, cells used during biotechnological synthesis.

  4. Solution-processed polycrystalline silicon on paper

    SciTech Connect

    Trifunovic, M.; Ishihara, R.; Shimoda, T.

    2015-04-20

    Printing electronics has led to application areas which were formerly impossible with conventional electronic processes. Solutions are used as inks on top of large areas at room temperatures, allowing the production of fully flexible circuitry. Commonly, research in these inks have focused on organic and metal-oxide ink materials due to their printability, while these materials lack in the electronic performance when compared to silicon electronics. Silicon electronics, on the other hand, has only recently found their way in solution processes. Printing of cyclopentasilane as the silicon ink has been conducted and devices with far superior electric performance have been made when compared to other ink materials. A thermal annealing step of this material, however, was necessary, which prevented its usage on inexpensive substrates with a limited thermal budget. In this work, we introduce a method that allows polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) production directly from the same liquid silicon ink using excimer laser irradiation. In this way, poly-Si could be formed directly on top of paper even with a single laser pulse. Using this method, poly-Si transistors were created at a maximum temperature of only 150 °C. This method allows silicon device formation on inexpensive, temperature sensitive substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate or paper, which leads to applications that require low-cost but high-speed electronics.

  5. Solution-processed polycrystalline silicon on paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifunovic, M.; Shimoda, T.; Ishihara, R.

    2015-04-01

    Printing electronics has led to application areas which were formerly impossible with conventional electronic processes. Solutions are used as inks on top of large areas at room temperatures, allowing the production of fully flexible circuitry. Commonly, research in these inks have focused on organic and metal-oxide ink materials due to their printability, while these materials lack in the electronic performance when compared to silicon electronics. Silicon electronics, on the other hand, has only recently found their way in solution processes. Printing of cyclopentasilane as the silicon ink has been conducted and devices with far superior electric performance have been made when compared to other ink materials. A thermal annealing step of this material, however, was necessary, which prevented its usage on inexpensive substrates with a limited thermal budget. In this work, we introduce a method that allows polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) production directly from the same liquid silicon ink using excimer laser irradiation. In this way, poly-Si could be formed directly on top of paper even with a single laser pulse. Using this method, poly-Si transistors were created at a maximum temperature of only 150 °C. This method allows silicon device formation on inexpensive, temperature sensitive substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate or paper, which leads to applications that require low-cost but high-speed electronics.

  6. Photonic crystal sensors based on porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-04-09

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  7. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  8. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-20

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people's health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  9. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity. PMID:28317861

  10. A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in slot waveguide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Flueckiger, Jonas; Schmidt, Shon; Grist, Samantha; Fard, Sahba T; Kirk, James; Doerfler, Matt; Cheung, Karen C; Ratner, Daniel M; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-10-01

    We present a novel silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted Bragg gratings in a slot waveguide. The optical field is concentrated inside the slot region, leading to efficient light-matter interaction. The Bragg gratings are formed with sidewall corrugations on the outside of the waveguide, and a phase shift is introduced to create a sharp resonant peak within the stop band. We experimentally demonstrate a high sensitivity of 340 nm/RIU measured in salt solutions and a high quality factor of 1.5 × 10⁴, enabling a low intrinsic limit of detection of 3 × 10⁻⁴ RIU. Furthermore, the silicon device was fabricated by a CMOS foundry, facilitating high-volume and low-cost production. Finally, we demonstrate the device's ability to interrogate specific biomolecular interactions, resulting in the first of its kind label-free biosensor.

  11. Hydatid detection using the near-infrared transmission angular spectra of porous silicon microcavity biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Zhenhong; Lü, Guodong

    2017-03-01

    Hydatid, which is a parasitic disease, occurs today in many regions worldwide. Because it can present a serious threat to people’s health, finding a fast, convenient, and economical means of detection is important. This paper proposes a label- and spectrophotometer-free apparatus that uses optical biological detection based on porous silicon microcavities. In this approach, the refractive index change induced by the biological reactions of a sample in a porous silicon microcavity is detected by measuring the change in the incidence angle corresponding to the maximum transmitted intensity of a near-infrared probe laser. This paper reports that the proposed method can achieve the label-free detection of 43 kDa molecular weight hydatid disease antigens with high sensitivity.

  12. Nanocrystalline silicon/amorphous silicon dioxide superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchet, P.M.; Tsybeskov, L.; Zacharias, M. |; Hirschman, K. |

    1998-12-31

    Thin layers made of densely packed silicon nanocrystals sandwiched between amorphous silicon dioxide layers have been manufactured and characterized. An amorphous silicon/amorphous silicon dioxide superlattice is first grown by CVD or RF sputtering. The a-Si layers are recrystallized in a two-step procedure (nucleation + growth) for form layers of nearly identical nanocrystals whose diameter is given by the initial a-Si layer thickness. The recrystallization is monitored using a variety of techniques, including TEM, X-Ray, Raman, and luminescence spectroscopies. When the a-Si layer thickness decreases (from 25 nm to 2.5 nm) or the a-SiO{sub 2} layer thickness increases (from 1.5 nm to 6 nm), the recrystallization temperature increases dramatically compared to that of a single a-Si film. The removal of the a-Si tissue present between the nanocrystals, the passivation of the nanocrystals, and their doping are discussed.

  13. Silicon germanium carbon heteroepitaxial growth on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, James W.

    1993-10-01

    This project represents the initiation of band-gap engineering of Si-based devices at Arizona State University by James W. Mayer. While at Cornell, he directed the Microscience and Technology program supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporation. His Work on heteoepitaxy of SiGe on silicon convinced him that heteroepitaxy on Si was a viable technique for forming smaller band gap layers on silicon but the requirement was for larger energy-gap materials. In the fall of 1991, James Mayer visited Tom Picraux of Sandia National Laboratories and Clarence Tracy of Motorola Semiconductor Products to discuss the possibility of a joint program to investigate Silicon Germanium Carbon Heteroepitaxial Growth on Silicon. This represented a new research and development initiate for band gap engineering.

  14. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, S. C.; Bugg, W. M.; Kroeger, R. S.; Weidemann, A. W.; White, S. L.; Brau, J. E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68-190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X(sub 0) sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X(sub 0) sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  15. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; White, S.L.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Huber, J.; Hwang, H.; Park, H.; Pitts, K.T.; Zeitlin, C.J.; Gioumousis, A.; Haller, G.; Seward, P.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68--190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X{sub 0} sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X{sub 0} sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline.

  16. Coating Circuit Boards With Silicone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudiano, S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques appropriate to boards containing CMOS circuits detailed. Document presents procedure for applying thin conformal coating to such electronic assemblies as printed-circuit boards and wire-wrapped boards. Coating is from 1 to 7 mils (25 to 178 micrometers) thick and composed of room-temperature-vulcanizing (RTV) silicone. Specifies materials, equipment, spraying method, and quality requirements. Takes into account special needs of circuits made with complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) devices on circuit boards. Special attention given to preventing damage by electrostatic discharge, to which CMOS circuits especially sensitive.

  17. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  18. Microfabricated silicon biosensors for microphysiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousse, L. J.; Libby, J. M.; Parce, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Microphysiometers are biosensor devices that measure the metabolic rate of living cells by detecting the rate of extracellular acidification caused by a small number of cells. The cells are entrapped in a microvolume chamber, whose bottom surface is a silicon sensor chip. In a further miniaturization step, we have recently fabricated multichannel flow-through chips that will allow greater throughput and multiplicity. Microphysiometer technology can be applied to the detection of microorganisms. We describe the sensitive detection of bacteria and yeast. Further applications of microphysiometry to the characterization of microorganisms can be anticipated.

  19. Constitutive mutations in the controlling site region of the araBAD operon of Escherichia coli B/r that decrease sensitivity to catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Colomé, J; Wilcox, G; Englesberg, E

    1977-02-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli B/r containing a deletion of the regulatory gene araC are Ara-. Slow-growing revertants of these strains were isolated and designated aralc because they contain a second mutation in a controlling site, aral, that allows for a low level of constitutive expression of the araBAD operon (Englesbert et al., 1969). We mutagenized aralc delta C strains and selected mutants that grow faster in mineral L-arabinose medium. The new mutations, called araXc, map very close to the original aralc mutations and are in the controlling site region between araB and araC. The aralcXc delta C strains have a higher constitutive level of expression of the araBAD operon than the aralc delta C parents. The araXc mutations are cis acting and decrease the araBAD operon's sensitivity to catabolite repression. The araBAD operon is expressed equally well in ara delta C and ara C cya crp backgrounds. The repressor form of ara C protein is able to repress the constitutive synthesis due to the ara Xc allele.

  20. Accurate and sensitive real-time PCR assays using intergenic spacer 1 region to differentiate Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato and Cryptococcus neoformans sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eliandro Reis; Azevedo, Caroline Souza; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Pelisson, Marsileni; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Venancio, Emerson José; Barros, Tânia Fraga; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two accurate and sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to differentiate pathogenic Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato (s.l.) and C. neoformans sensu lato (s.l.) targeting the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region from rDNA locus were developed. Specific primers were designed based on their IGS1 sequence analyses and the optimal real-time PCR assays showed that the dissociation curves generated two different melting peaks, at 82.8 and 84.2ºC for C. gattii s.l. and C. neoformans s.l., respectively. No amplifications were observed in the negative template control. The minimum limit of detection of both primers was 100 plasmid copies per reaction, and they were highly specific when tested with a range of fungal DNAs. Overall, the results showed that the designed primers completely differentiated C. gattii s.l. and C. neoformans s.l. from clinical and environmental sources with great accuracy when compared to phenotypic identification, with no cross-reactivity to other fungal DNA.

  1. Process Development for Silicon Carbide Based Structural Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-31

    silicon carbide base structural ceramics with reduced microstructural flaw size by in situ reaction of silicon with fine, ultra-uniform pored carbon skeletons that are produced from liquid polymer solutions without particulate additions. Thus far, very uniform carbon skeletons in two pore sizes (2.5 and 0.27 microns) have been produced and siliconized. Very uniform samples of approx 1 cm cross section have been produced in a silicon carbide material of approx 5 microns average size. Limited regions of material with carbide size less than 1 micron have

  2. Optical properties of silicon inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong

    Silicon inverse opals are artificial structures in which nearly monodisperse, close-packed air bubbles are embedded in a silicon matrix. If properly tailored, this structure can exhibit a photonic band gap (PBG) in the near infrared spectral region. The PBG can block light propagation in any direction, allowing the control of light flow in the material. Silicon inverse opals can be fabricated by infiltrating amorphous silicon into silica colloidal crystals and then etching away the silica. In this thesis, the structural defects of silica colloidal crystals and the optical properties of silicon inverse opals are studied. First, by using laser-scanning confocal microscopy, the concentration and distribution of stacking faults and vacancies were quantified in silica colloidal crystals. It's shown that silica colloidal crystals show strong tendency toward face-center-cubic structure with the vacancy density as small as 5 x 10-4. Second, by combining optical microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the transmission and reflection spectra of silicon inverse opals along the [111] direction were measured. Combined with the calculation of transmission and reflection spectra by Transfer Matrix Methods, it is concluded that the strong light attenuation in silicon inverse opals is due to the enhanced absorption (>600%) in silicon materials. Third, by using optical pump-probe techniques, the photo-induced ultra-fast reflection changes in silicon inverse opals were examined. The pump-generated free carriers cause the reflection in the band gap region to change after ˜0.5 ps. For the first few ps, the main effect is a decrease in reflectivity due to nonlinear absorption. After ˜5 ps, this effect disappears and an unexpected blue spectral shift is seen in the photonic band gap. The refractive index decreases due to optically-induced strain born the thermal expansion mismatch between silicon and its native oxide. Finally, by infiltrating silicon inverse

  3. Silicon micro-mold

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  4. Growth of silicon bump induced by swift heavy ion at the silicon oxide-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect

    Carlotti, J.-F.; Touboul, A.D.; Ramonda, M.; Caussanel, M.; Guasch, C.; Bonnet, J.; Gasiot, J.

    2006-01-23

    Thin silicon oxide layers on silicon substrates are investigated by scanning probe microscopy before and after irradiation with 210 MeV Au+ ions. After irradiation and complete chemical etching of the silicon oxide layer, silicon bumps grown on the silicon surface are observed. It is shown that each impinging ion induces one silicon bump at the interface. This observation is consistent with the thermal spike theory. Ion energy loss is transferred to the oxide and induces local melting. Silicon-bump formation is favored when the oxide and oxide-silicon interface are silicon rich.

  5. Silicon MINP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.; Addis, F. W.; Miller, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The MINP solar cell concept refers to a cell structure designed to be a base region dominated device. Thus, it is desirable that recombination losses are reduced to the point that they occur only in the base region. The most unique feature of the MINP cell design is that a tunneling contact is utilized for the metallic contact on the front surface. The areas under the collector grid and bus bar are passivated by a thin oxide of tunneling thickness. Efforts must also be taken to minimize recombination at the surface between grid lines, at the junction periphery and within the emitter. Results of both theoretical and experimental studies of silicon MINP cells are given. Performance calculations are described which give expected efficiencies as a function of base resistivity and junction depth. Fabrication and characterization of cells are discussed which are based on 0.2 ohm-cm substrates, diffused emitters on the order of 0.15 to 0.20 microns deep, and with Mg MIS collector grids. A total area AM 1 efficiency of 16.8% was achieved. Detailed analyses of photocurrent and current loss mechanisms are presented and utilized to discuss future directions of research. Finally, results reported by other workers are discussed.

  6. Highly porous silicon membranes fabricated from silicon nitride/silicon stacks.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chengzhu; Striemer, Christopher C; Gaborski, Thomas R; McGrath, James L; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2014-07-23

    Nanopore formation in silicon films has previously been demonstrated using rapid thermal crystallization of ultrathin (15 nm) amorphous Si films sandwiched between nm-thick SiO2 layers. In this work, the silicon dioxide barrier layers are replaced with silicon nitride, resulting in nanoporous silicon films with unprecedented pore density and novel morphology. Four different thin film stack systems including silicon nitride/silicon/silicon nitride (NSN), silicon dioxide/silicon/silicon nitride (OSN), silicon nitride/silicon/silicon dioxide (NSO), and silicon dioxide/silicon/silicon dioxide (OSO) are tested under different annealing temperatures. Generally the pore size, pore density, and porosity positively correlate with the annealing temperature for all four systems. The NSN system yields substantially higher porosity and pore density than the OSO system, with the OSN and NSO stack characteristics fallings between these extremes. The higher porosity of the Si membrane in the NSN stack is primarily due to the pore formation enhancement in the Si film. It is hypothesized that this could result from the interfacial energy difference between the silicon/silicon nitride and silicon/silicon dioxide, which influences the Si crystallization process.

  7. SILICON CARBIDE FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This state-of-the-art survey on silicon carbide for semiconductors includes a bibliography of the most important references published as of the end...of 1964. The various methods used for growing silicon carbide single crystals are reviewed, as well as their properties and devices fabricated from...them. The fact that the state of-the-art of silicon carbide semiconductors is not further advanced may be attributed to the difficulties of growing

  8. Silicon Carbide Shapes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Free-standing silicon carbide shapes are produced by passing a properly diluted stream of a reactant gas, for example methyltrichlorosilane, into a...reaction chamber housing a thin walled, hollow graphite body heated to 1300-1500C. After the graphite body is sufficiently coated with silicon carbide , the...graphite body is fired, converting the graphite to gaseous CO2 and CO and leaving a silicon carbide shaped article remaining.

  9. Selective surface functionalization of silicon nanowires via nanoscale joule heating.

    PubMed

    Park, Inkyu; Li, Zhiyong; Pisano, Albert P; Williams, R Stanley

    2007-10-01

    In this letter, we report a novel approach to selectively functionalize the surface of silicon nanowires located on silicon-based substrates. This method is based upon highly localized nanoscale Joule heating along silicon nanowires under an applied electrical bias. Numerical simulation shows that a high-temperature (>800 K) with a large thermal gradient can be achieved by applying an appropriate electrical bias across silicon nanowires. This localized heating effect can be utilized to selectively ablate a protective polymer layer from a region of the chosen silicon nanowire. The exposed surface, with proper postprocessing, becomes available for surface functionalization with chemical linker molecules, such as 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilanes, while the surrounding area is still protected by the chemically inert polymer layer. This approach is successfully demonstrated on silicon nanowire arrays fabricated on SOI wafers and visualized by selective attachment of gold nanoparticles.

  10. Infrared luminescence from spark-processed silicon and erbium-doped spark-processed silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanghoon

    Spark-processed silicon has substantial potential as an optical material. In the past 15 years, our group has investigated a multitude of properties of this unique material, concentrating mostly on the visible and near UV spectral region. The present study expands our endeavors to infrared photoluminescence (PL) of undoped spark-processed silicon. A broad infrared photoluminescence peak at around 945 nm under Ar ion laser excitation was observed at room temperature when investigating a spark-processed layer on a silicon wafer. This light emission is interpreted to be the result of energy transfers between certain energy levels involving the spark-processed silicon matrix. The infrared PL intensity of spark-processed silicon was found to be proportional to the excitation energy. However, telecommunication requires presently a light emission near 1.54 mum (because fiber-optics "conductors" have a minimum in absorption at this wavelength). This cannot be achieved with pure spark-processed silicon. Therefore spark-processed silicon needs to be doped with a rare-earth element such as erbium to shift the emission to longer wavelengths. It is known that erbium has a light emission from intrashell energy transition, that is, from 4I13/2 →4I15/2. Erbium was deposited on a silicon wafer followed by spark-processing, which enables diffusion of some erbium into the SiOx matrix, thus achieving opto-electronically active spark-processed silicon. Rapid thermal annealing enhances the 1.54 mum wavelength intensity from erbium-doped spark-processed silicon. The processing conditions that result in the most efficient photoluminescence have been established and will be presented in this dissertation. In contrast to erbium-doped crystalline silicon, whose light emission is highly affected by temperature (103 times reduction in intensity when heating from 12 K to 150 K), the intensity of erbium-doped spark-processed silicon decreases by only a factor of 4 when heated from 15 K to room

  11. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  12. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert A.; Seager, Carleton H.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical con