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Sample records for silicone microelectrode array

  1. Silicon-substrate microelectrode arrays for parallel recording of neural activity in peripheral and cranial nerves.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, G T; Storment, C W; Halks-Miller, M; Belczynski, C R; Della Santina, C C; Lewis, E R; Maluf, N I

    1994-06-01

    A new process for the fabrication of regeneration microelectrode arrays for peripheral and cranial nerve applications is presented. This type of array is implanted between the severed ends of nerves, the axons of which regenerate through via holes in the silicon and are thereafter held fixed with respect to the microelectrodes. The process described is designed for compatibility with industry-standard CMOS or BiCMOS processes (it does not involve high-temperature process steps nor heavily-doped etch-stop layers), and provides a thin membrane for the via holes, surrounded by a thick silicon supporting rim. Many basic questions remain regarding the optimum via hole and microelectrode geometries in terms of both biological and electrical performance of the implants, and therefore passive versions were fabricated as tools for addressing these issues in on-going work. Versions of the devices were implanted in the rat peroneal nerve and in the frog auditory nerve. In both cases, regeneration was verified histologically and it was observed that the regenerated nerves had reorganized into microfascicles containing both myelinated and unmyelinated axons and corresponding to the grid pattern of the via holes. These microelectrode arrays were shown to allow the recording of action potential signals in both the peripheral and cranial nerve setting, from several microelectrodes in parallel.

  2. Dual-side and three-dimensional microelectrode arrays fabricated from ultra-thin silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiangang; Roukes, Michael L.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.

    2009-07-01

    A method for fabricating planar implantable microelectrode arrays was demonstrated using a process that relied on ultra-thin silicon substrates, which ranged in thickness from 25 to 50 µm. The challenge of handling these fragile materials was met via a temporary substrate support mechanism. In order to compensate for putative electrical shielding of extracellular neuronal fields, separately addressable electrode arrays were defined on each side of the silicon device. Deep reactive ion etching was employed to create sharp implantable shafts with lengths of up to 5 mm. The devices were flip-chip bonded onto printed circuit boards (PCBs) by means of an anisotropic conductive adhesive film. This scalable assembly technique enabled three-dimensional (3D) integration through formation of stacks of multiple silicon and PCB layers. Simulations and measurements of microelectrode noise appear to suggest that low impedance surfaces, which could be formed by electrodeposition of gold or other materials, are required to ensure an optimal signal-to-noise ratio as well a low level of interchannel crosstalk.

  3. Fabrication of implantable microelectrode arrays by laser cutting of silicone rubber and platinum foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuettler, M.; Stiess, S.; King, B. V.; Suaning, G. J.

    2005-03-01

    A new method for fabrication of microelectrode arrays comprised of traditional implant materials is presented. The main construction principle is the use of spun-on medical grade silicone rubber as insulating substrate material and platinum foil as conductor (tracks, pads and electrodes). The silicone rubber and the platinum foil are patterned by laser cutting using an Nd:YAG laser and a microcontroller-driven, stepper-motor operated x-y table. The method does not require expensive clean room facilities and offers an extremely short design-to-prototype time of below 1 day. First prototypes demonstrate a minimal achievable feature size of about 30 µm. The work presented here was carried out at The University of Newcastle, Australia.

  4. Microfabrication of an Implantable silicone Microelectrode array for an epiretinal prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, Mariam Nader

    2003-06-10

    Millions of people suffering from diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration are legally blind due to the loss of photoreceptor function. Fortunately a large percentage of the neural cells connected to the photoreceptors remain viable, and electrical stimulation of these cells has been shown to result in visual perception. These findings have generated worldwide efforts to develop a retinal prosthesis device, with the hope of restoring vision. Advances in microfabrication, integrated circuits, and wireless technologies provide the means to reach this challenging goal. This dissertation describes the development of innovative silicone-based microfabrication techniques for producing an implantable microelectrode array. The microelectrode array is a component of an epiretinal prosthesis being developed by a multi-laboratory consortium. This array will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces. Because the array is intended as a long-term implant, vital biological and physical design requirements must be met. A retinal implant poses difficult engineering challenges due to the size of the intraocular cavity and the delicate retina. Not only does it have to be biocompatible in terms of cytotoxicity and degradation, but it also has to be structurally biocompatible, with regard to smooth edges and high conformability; basically mimicking the biological tissue. This is vital to minimize stress and prevent physical damage to the retina. Also, the device must be robust to withstand the forces imposed on it during fabrication and implantation. In order to meet these biocompatibility needs, the use of non-conventional microfabrication materials such as silicone is required. This mandates the enhancement of currently available polymer-based fabrication techniques and the development of new microfabrication methods. Through an iterative process, devices

  5. Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrese, James C.; Rao, Naveen; Paroo, Kaivon; Triebwasser, Corey; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Franquemont, Lachlan; Donoghue, John P.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have the potential to restore lost function to people with disabilities if they work reliably for years. Current sensors fail to provide reliably useful signals over extended periods of time for reasons that are not clear. This study reports a comprehensive retrospective analysis from a large set of implants of a single type of intracortical MEA in a single species, with a common set of measures in order to evaluate failure modes. Approach. Since 1996, 78 silicon MEAs were implanted in 27 monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We used two approaches to find reasons for sensor failure. First, we classified the time course leading up to complete recording failure as acute (abrupt) or chronic (progressive). Second, we evaluated the quality of electrode recordings over time based on signal features and electrode impedance. Failure modes were divided into four categories: biological, material, mechanical, and unknown. Main results. Recording duration ranged from 0 to 2104 days (5.75 years), with a mean of 387 days and a median of 182 days (n = 78). Sixty-two arrays failed completely with a mean time to failure of 332 days (median = 133 days) while nine array experiments were electively terminated for experimental reasons (mean = 486 days). Seven remained active at the close of this study (mean = 753 days). Most failures (56%) occurred within a year of implantation, with acute mechanical failures the most common class (48%), largely because of connector issues (83%). Among grossly observable biological failures (24%), a progressive meningeal reaction that separated the array from the parenchyma was most prevalent (14.5%). In the absence of acute interruptions, electrode recordings showed a slow progressive decline in spike amplitude, noise amplitude, and number of viable channels that predicts complete signal loss by about eight years. Impedance measurements showed

  6. Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Barrese, James C; Rao, Naveen; Paroo, Kaivon; Triebwasser, Corey; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Franquemont, Lachlan; Donoghue, John P

    2013-12-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have the potential to restore lost function to people with disabilities if they work reliably for years. Current sensors fail to provide reliably useful signals over extended periods of time for reasons that are not clear. This study reports a comprehensive retrospective analysis from a large set of implants of a single type of intracortical MEA in a single species, with a common set of measures in order to evaluate failure modes. Since 1996, 78 silicon MEAs were implanted in 27 monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We used two approaches to find reasons for sensor failure. First, we classified the time course leading up to complete recording failure as acute (abrupt) or chronic (progressive). Second, we evaluated the quality of electrode recordings over time based on signal features and electrode impedance. Failure modes were divided into four categories: biological, material, mechanical, and unknown. Recording duration ranged from 0 to 2104 days (5.75 years), with a mean of 387 days and a median of 182 days (n = 78). Sixty-two arrays failed completely with a mean time to failure of 332 days (median = 133 days) while nine array experiments were electively terminated for experimental reasons (mean = 486 days). Seven remained active at the close of this study (mean = 753 days). Most failures (56%) occurred within a year of implantation, with acute mechanical failures the most common class (48%), largely because of connector issues (83%). Among grossly observable biological failures (24%), a progressive meningeal reaction that separated the array from the parenchyma was most prevalent (14.5%). In the absence of acute interruptions, electrode recordings showed a slow progressive decline in spike amplitude, noise amplitude, and number of viable channels that predicts complete signal loss by about eight years. Impedance measurements showed systematic early increases, which did

  7. Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Barrese, James C; Rao, Naveen; Paroo, Kaivon; Triebwasser, Corey; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Franquemont, Lachlan; Donoghue, John P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) using chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have the potential to restore lost function to people with disabilities if they work reliably for years. Current sensors fail to provide reliably useful signals over extended periods of time for reasons that are not clear. This study reports a comprehensive retrospective analysis from a large set of implants of a single type of intracortical MEA in a single species, with a common set of measures in order to evaluate failure modes. Approach Since 1996, 78 silicon MEAs were implanted in 27 monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We used two approaches to find reasons for sensor failure. First, we classified the time course leading up to complete recording failure as acute (abrupt) or chronic (progressive). Second, we evaluated the quality of electrode recordings over time based on signal features and electrode impedance. Failure modes were divided into four categories: biological, material, mechanical, and unknown. Main results Recording duration ranged from 0 to 2104 days (5.75 years), with a mean of 387 days and a median of 182 days (n = 78). Sixty-two arrays failed completely with a mean time to failure of 332 days (median = 133 days) while nine array experiments were electively terminated for experimental reasons (mean = 486 days). Seven remained active at the close of this study (mean = 753 days). Most failures (56%) occurred within a year of implantation, with acute mechanical failures the most common class (48%), largely because of connector issues (83%). Among grossly observable biological failures (24%), a progressive meningeal reaction that separated the array from the parenchyma was most prevalent (14.5%). In the absence of acute interruptions, electrode recordings showed a slow progressive decline in spike amplitude, noise amplitude, and number of viable channels that predicts complete signal loss by about eight years. Impedance measurements showed

  8. A silicon-based microelectrode array with a microdrive for monitoring brainstem regions of freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Márton, G; Baracskay, P; Cseri, B; Plósz, B; Juhász, G; Fekete, Z; Pongrácz, A

    2016-04-01

    Exploring neural activity behind synchronization and time locking in brain circuits is one of the most important tasks in neuroscience. Our goal was to design and characterize a microelectrode array (MEA) system specifically for obtaining in vivo extracellular recordings from three deep-brain areas of freely moving rats, simultaneously. The target areas, the deep mesencephalic reticular-, pedunculopontine tegmental-and pontine reticular nuclei are related to the regulation of sleep-wake cycles. The three targeted nuclei are collinear, therefore a single-shank MEA was designed in order to contact them. The silicon-based device was equipped with 3 × 4 recording sites, located according to the geometry of the brain regions. Furthermore, a microdrive was developed to allow fine actuation and post-implantation relocation of the probe. The probe was attached to a rigid printed circuit board, which was fastened to the microdrive. A flexible cable was designed in order to provide not only electronic connection between the probe and the amplifier system, but sufficient freedom for the movements of the probe as well. The microdrive was stable enough to allow precise electrode targeting into the tissue via a single track. The microelectrodes on the probe were suitable for recording neural activity from the three targeted brainstem areas. The system offers a robust solution to provide long-term interface between an array of precisely defined microelectrodes and deep-brain areas of a behaving rodent. The microdrive allowed us to fine-tune the probe location and easily scan through the regions of interest.

  9. In Vivo Validation of Custom-Designed Silicon-Based Microelectrode Arrays for Long-Term Neural Recording and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Manoonkitiwongsa, Panya S.; Wang, Cindy X.; McCreery, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and validated silicon-based neural probes for neural stimulating and recording in long-term implantation in the brain. The probes combine the deep reactive ion etching process and mechanical shaping of their tip region, yielding a mechanically sturdy shank with a sharpened tip to reduce insertion force into the brain and spinal cord, particularly, with multiple shanks in the same array. The arrays’ insertion forces have been quantified in vitro. Five consecutive chronically-implanted devices were fully functional from 3 to 18 months. The microelectrode sites were electroplated with iridium oxide, and the charge injection capacity measurements were performed both in vitro and after implantation in the adult feline brain. The functionality of the chronic array was validated by stimulating in the cochlear nucleus and recording the evoked neuronal activity in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The arrays’ recording quality has also been quantified in vivo with neuronal spike activity recorded up to 566 days after implantation. Histopathology evaluation of neurons and astrocytes using immunohistochemical stains indicated minimal alterations of tissue architecture after chronic implantation. PMID:22020666

  10. In-vivo implant mechanics of flexible, silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Winnie; Yoshida, Ken; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2006-05-01

    The mechanical behavior of an electrode during implantation into neural tissue can have a profound effect on the neural connections and signaling that takes place within the tissue. The objective of the present work was to investigate the in vivo implant mechanics of flexible, silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays recently developed by the VSAMUEL consortium (European Union, grant #IST-1999-10073). We have previously reported on both the electrical [1]-[3] and mechanical [4], [5] properties of the ACREO electrodes. In this paper, the tensile and compression forces were measured during a series of in vivo electrode insertions into the cerebral cortex of rats (7 acute experiments, 2-mm implant depth, 2-mm/s insertion velocity). We compared the ACREO silicon electrodes (40 opening angle, 1-8 shafts) to single-shaft tungsten electrodes (3 degrees and 10 degrees opening angles). The penetration force and dimpling increased with the cross-sectional area (statistical difference between the largest and the smallest electrode) and with the number of shafts (no statistical difference). We consistently observed tensile (drag) forces during the retraction phase, which indicates the brain tissue sticks to the electrode within a short time period. Treating the electrodes prior to insertion with silane (hydrophobic) or piranha (hydrophilic) significantly decreased the penetration force. In conclusion, our findings suggest that reusable electrodes for acute animal experiments must not only be strong enough to survive a maximal force that exceeded the penetration force, but must also be able to withstand high tension forces during retraction. Careful cleaning is not only important to avoid foreign body response, but can also reduce the stress applied to the electrode while penetrating the brain tissue.

  11. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  12. Revealing neuronal function through microelectrode array recordings

    PubMed Central

    Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Frey, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all possible sources around every sensor. Here, we review the current understanding of microelectrode signals and the techniques for analyzing them. We introduce the ongoing advancements in microelectrode technology, with focus on achieving higher resolution and quality of recordings by means of monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. We show how recent advanced microelectrode array measurement methods facilitate the understanding of single neurons as well as network function. PMID:25610364

  13. Dielectrophoretic immobilisation of antibodies on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Otto, Saskia; Kaletta, Udo; Bier, Frank F; Wenger, Christian; Hölzel, Ralph

    2014-03-07

    A silicon based chip device with a regular array of more than 100,000 cylindrical sub-microelectrodes has been developed for the dielectrophoretic (DEP) manipulation of nanoparticles and molecules in solution. It was fabricated by a standard CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) compatible process. The distribution of the electrical field gradient was calculated to predict the applicability of the setup. Heating due to field application was determined microscopically using a temperature sensitive fluorescent dye. Depending on voltage and frequency, temperature increase was found to be compatible with protein function. Successful field controlled immobilisation of biomolecules from solution was demonstrated with the autofluorescent protein R-phycoerythrin (RPE) and with fluorescently labelled IgG antibodies. Biological activity after DEP application was proven by immobilisation of an anti-RPE antibody and subsequent binding of RPE. These results demonstrate that the developed chip system allows the directed immobilisation of proteins onto microelectrodes by dielectrophoresis without the need for any chemical modification and that protein function is preserved. Being based on standard lithographical methods, further miniaturisation and on-chip integration of electronics towards a multiparameter single cell analysis system appear near at hand.

  14. Reducing surface area while maintaining implant penetrating profile lowers the brain foreign body response to chronically implanted planar silicon microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Skousen, John L; Merriam, Sr Mary Elizabeth; Srivannavit, Onnap; Perlin, Gaytri; Wise, Kensall D; Tresco, Patrick A

    2011-01-01

    A consistent feature of the foreign body response (FBR), irrespective of the type of implant, is persistent inflammation at the biotic-abiotic interface signaled by biomarkers of macrophage/microglial activation. Since macrophage-secreted factors shape the foreign body reaction, implant designs that reduce macrophage activation should improve biocompatibility and, with regard to recording devices, should improve reliability and longevity. At present, it is unclear whether the goal of seamless integration is possible or whether electrode developers can modulate specific aspects of the FBR by intentionally manipulating the constitutive properties of the implant. To explore this area, we studied the chronic brain FBR to planar solid silicon microelectrode arrays and planar lattice arrays with identical penetrating profiles but with reduced surface area in rats after an 8-week indwelling period. Using quantitative immunohistochemistry, we found that presenting less surface area after equivalent iatrogenic injury is accompanied by significantly less persistent macrophage activation, decreased blood brain barrier leakiness, and reduced neuronal cell loss. Our findings show that it is possible for implant developers to modulate specific aspects of the FBR by intentionally manipulating the constitutive properties of the implant. Our results also support the theory that the FBR to implanted electrode arrays, and likely other implants, can be explained by the presence of macrophages at the biotic-abiotic interface, which act as a sustained delivery source of bioactive agents that diffuse into the adjacent tissue and shape various features of the brain FBR. Further, our findings suggest that one method to improve the recording consistency and lifetime of implanted microelectrode arrays is to design implants that reduce the amount of macrophage activation at the biotic-abiotic interface and/or enhance the clearance or impact of their released factors. Copyright © 2011

  15. Chronic neural recordings using silicon microelectrode arrays electrochemically deposited with a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) film.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kip A; Uram, Jeffrey D; Yang, Junyan; Martin, David C; Kipke, Daryl R

    2006-03-01

    Conductive polymer coatings can be used to modify traditional electrode recording sites with the intent of improving the long-term performance of cortical microelectrodes. Conductive polymers can drastically decrease recording site impedance, which in turn is hypothesized to reduce thermal noise and signal loss through shunt pathways. Moreover, conductive polymers can be seeded with agents aimed at promoting neural growth toward the recording sites or minimizing the inherent immune response. The end goal of these efforts is to generate an ideal long-term interface between the recording electrode and surrounding tissue. The goal of this study was to refine a method to electrochemically deposit surfactant-templated ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films on the recording sites of standard 'Michigan' probes and to evaluate the efficacy of these modified sites in recording chronic neural activity. PEDOT-coated site performance was compared to control sites over a six-week evaluation period in terms of impedance spectroscopy, signal-to-noise ratio, number of viable unit potentials recorded and local field potential recordings. PEDOT sites were found to outperform control sites with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and number of viable unit potentials. The benefit of reduced initial impedance, however, was mitigated by the impedance contribution of typical silicon electrode encapsulation. Coating sites with PEDOT also reduced the amount of low-frequency drift evident in local field potential recordings. These findings indicate that electrode sites electrochemically deposited with PEDOT films are suitable for recording neural activity in vivo for extended periods. This study also provided a unique opportunity to monitor how neural recording characteristics develop over the six weeks following implantation.

  16. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Paras R.; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T.; Nofar, Justin B.; Marshall, Shaun P.; Kobylarek, Michael J.; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Approach. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Main results. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. Significance. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  17. Chronic in vivo stability assessment of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Patel, Paras R; Zhang, Huanan; Robbins, Matthew T; Nofar, Justin B; Marshall, Shaun P; Kobylarek, Michael J; Kozai, Takashi D Y; Kotov, Nicholas A; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2016-12-01

    Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes. Carbon fibers were first functionalized with one of two different formulations of PEDOT and subjected to accelerated aging in a heated water bath. After determining the best PEDOT formula to use, carbon fiber arrays were chronically implanted in rat motor cortex. Some rodents were also implanted with a single silicon electrode, while others received both. At the end of the study a subset of animals were perfused and the brain tissue sliced. Tissue sections were stained for astrocytes, microglia, and neurons. The local reactive responses were assessed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Electrophysiology recordings showed the carbon fibers detecting unit activity for at least 3 months with average amplitudes of ∼200 μV. Histology analysis showed the carbon fiber arrays with a minimal to non-existent glial scarring response with no adverse effects on neuronal density. Silicon electrodes showed large glial scarring that impacted neuronal counts. This study has validated the use of carbon fiber microelectrode arrays as a chronic neural recording technology. These electrodes have demonstrated the ability to detect single units with high amplitude over 3 months, and show the potential to record for even longer periods. In addition, the minimal reactive response should hold stable indefinitely, as any response by the immune system may reach a steady state after 12 weeks.

  18. Characterization of a light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyi; Xiong, Tao; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Li, Zhihong

    2011-12-01

    A light switchable microelectrode array for retinal prosthesis, which is performed with the photosensitive conductivity of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and of more advantages over the two major current retinal prosthetic categories, is characterized. Sensitivity to different visible wavelengths and light intensities are verified as well. Preliminary impedance test invitro shows appropriate impedance for neuron stimulation applications. It is indicated that such device provides a promising potential to restore a certain degree of visual function.

  19. Fabrication of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array for use on curved surfaces of neural tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung Joon; Kim, Sohee

    2013-12-01

    Conventionally, invasive neural microelectrodes for recording neuronal signals or stimulating the nervous system have been fabricated based on silicon substrate mainly due to well-established manufacturing processes. However, these silicon-based microelectrode devices have an issue of mechanical stability caused by the absence of flexibility when implanted onto curved surfaces of tissues. In this paper, a flexible and penetrating microelectrode array, a hybrid structure composed of silicon and elastomer, was devised and fabricated by bulk micromachining technologies. The structure uses individual silicon needles as independent electrodes in a square array and polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) as a base to support the needles. The dimensions of the electrode array and the needles are adjustable, depending on the number of needles, the pitch between the needles and the targeted penetration depth of the neural tissue. For mechanical characterization, the adhesion between PDMS and silicon was evaluated and the flexibility and integrity of the fabricated structure were investigated through flexural test and insertion test. Also, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the electrodes was measured. The results suggest that the proposed microelectrode array is promising for use in neuronal recording and stimulation over curved surfaces such as cortical surface and peripheral nerves with larger curvatures.

  20. Sonochemically Fabricated Microelectrode Arrays for Use as Sensing Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Collyer, Stuart D.; Davis, Frank; Higson, Séamus P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development, manufacture, modification and subsequent utilisation of sonochemically-formed microelectrode arrays is described for a range of applications. Initial fabrication of the sensing platform utilises ultrasonic ablation of electrochemically insulating polymers deposited upon conductive carbon substrates, forming an array of up to 70,000 microelectrode pores cm−2. Electrochemical and optical analyses using these arrays, their enhanced signal response and stir-independence area are all discussed. The growth of conducting polymeric “mushroom” protrusion arrays with entrapped biological entities, thereby forming biosensors is detailed. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this approach, lending itself ideally to mass fabrication coupled with unrivalled sensitivity and stir independence makes commercial viability of this process a reality. Application of microelectrode arrays as functional components within sensors include devices for detection of chlorine, glucose, ethanol and pesticides. Immunosensors based on microelectrode arrays are described within this monograph for antigens associated with prostate cancer and transient ischemic attacks (strokes). PMID:22399926

  1. Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-22

    and has been widely studied in connection with electrochromic display devices (Dautremont-Smith, 1982). Scheme IV illustrates a W03-based...oxides do provide an entry to a wide variety of new adcroelectrochemical devices . Quinone- Viologen Connected Microelectrodes: Use of an Electroactive...REPORT & PERIOO COVERED Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Interim Techni:cal Report Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications 6

  2. Microelectrode array fabrication by electrical discharge machining and chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Fofonoff, Timothy A; Martel, Sylvain M; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G; Donoghue, John P; Hunter, Ian W

    2004-06-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (EDM), with a complementary chemical etching process, is explored and assessed as a method for developing microelectrode array assemblies for intracortically recording brain activity. Assembly processes based on these methods are highlighted, and results showing neural activity successfully recorded from the brain of a mouse using an EDM-based device are presented. Several structures relevant to the fabrication of microelectrode arrays are also offered in order to demonstrate the capabilities of EDM.

  3. Graphene microelectrode arrays for neural activity detection.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaowei; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Ji; Huang, Shanluo; Cai, Qi; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate a method to fabricate graphene microelectrode arrays (MEAs) using a simple and inexpensive method to solve the problem of opaque electrode positions in traditional MEAs, while keeping good biocompatibility. To study the interface differences between graphene-electrolyte and gold-electrolyte, graphene and gold electrodes with a large area were fabricated. According to the simulation results of electrochemical impedances, the gold-electrolyte interface can be described as a classical double-layer structure, while the graphene-electrolyte interface can be explained by a modified double-layer theory. Furthermore, using graphene MEAs, we detected the neural activities of neurons dissociated from Wistar rats (embryonic day 18). The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal was 10.31 ± 1.2, which is comparable to those of MEAs made with other materials. The long-term stability of the MEAs is demonstrated by comparing differences in Bode diagrams taken before and after cell culturing.

  4. Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-22

    oxides. W03 is known to be such a redox active material and has been widely studied in connection with electrochromic display devices (Dautremont... devices . Quinone- Viologen Connected Microelectrodes: Use of an Electroactive Molecular Material With An Intrinsic pH Dependence. W03 is an example of an...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Modification of Microelectrode Arrays: New Interim Technical Report Microelectrochemical Devices for Sensor Applications 6

  5. Neurotoxicity testing using Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs): a growing trend

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are groups of extracellular electrodes that are 10-30 microns in diameter and can be utilized in vivo or in vitro. For in vitro uses, an MEA typically contains up to 64 electrodes and can be utilized to measure the activity of cells and tissues that a...

  6. Neurotoxicity testing using Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs): a growing trend

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are groups of extracellular electrodes that are 10-30 microns in diameter and can be utilized in vivo or in vitro. For in vitro uses, an MEA typically contains up to 64 electrodes and can be utilized to measure the activity of cells and tissues that a...

  7. Highly sensitive reduced graphene oxide microelectrode array sensor.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew M H; Kenry; Teck Lim, Chwee; Low, Hong Yee; Loh, Kian Ping

    2015-03-15

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has been fabricated into a microelectrode array (MEA) using a modified nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Through a modified NIL process, the rGO MEA was fabricated by a self-alignment of conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and rGO layer without etching of the rGO layer. The rGO MEA consists of an array of 10μm circular disks and microelectrode signature has been found at a pitch spacing of 60μm. The rGO MEA shows a sensitivity of 1.91nAμm(-1) to dopamine (DA) without the use of mediators or functionalization of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) active layer. The performance of rGO MEA remains stable when tested under highly resistive media using a continuous flow set up, as well as when subjecting it to mechanical stress. The successful demonstration of NIL for fabricating rGO microelectrodes on flexible substrate presents a route for the large scale fabrication of highly sensitive, flexible and thin biosensing platform.

  8. The measurement of compound neural action potential in sciatic nerve using microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chungkeun; Kim, Yongho; Shin, Hangsik; Kim, Yongjun; Lee, Myoungho

    2006-01-01

    As a method of observing regeneration of damaged nerves, research is being conducted on analyzing the electric signals of nerve fibers that are damaged and regenerating by implanting a microelectrode array between those nerves. Microelectrode arrays possess high impedance and a unique phase characteristic according to their structural features, thus it requires a phase linearity test and an impedance test to prevent neural signal distortion. Therefore, this paper analyzes the features of microelectrode array and designs a bioamplifier. We also measured signals from sciatic nerves in rats with microelectrode array.

  9. Highly doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes reduce noise in neuronal recordings in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saha, Rajarshi; Jackson, Nathan; Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2010-10-01

    The aims of this study are to 1) experimentally validate for the first time the nonlinear current-potential characteristics of bulk doped polycrystalline silicon in the small amplitude voltage regimes (0-200 μV) and 2) test if noise amplitudes ( 0-15 μV ) from single neuronal electrical recordings get selectively attenuated in doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes due to the above property. In highly doped polycrystalline silicon, bulk resistances of several hundred kilo-ohms were experimentally measured for voltages typical of noise amplitudes and 9-10 kΩ for voltages typical of neural signal amplitudes ( > 150-200 μV). Acute multiunit measurements and noise measurements were made in n=6 and n=8 anesthetized adult rats, respectively, using polycrystalline silicon and tungsten microelectrodes. There was no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitudes of action potentials recorded from either microelectrode (p > 0.10). However, noise power in the recordings from tungsten microelectrodes (26.36 ±10.13 pW) was significantly higher than the corresponding value in polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes (7.49 ±2.66 pW). We conclude that polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes result in selective attenuation of noise power in electrical recordings compared to tungsten microelectrodes. This reduction in noise compared to tungsten microelectrodes is likely due to the exponentially higher bulk resistances offered by highly doped bulk polycrystalline silicon in the range of voltages corresponding to noise in multiunit measurements.

  10. Three-dimensional micro-electrode array for recording dissociated neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Musick, Katherine; Khatami, David; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2009-07-21

    This work demonstrates the design, fabrication, packaging, characterization, and functionality of an electrically and fluidically active three-dimensional micro-electrode array (3D MEA) for use with neuronal cell cultures. The successful function of the device implies that this basic concept-construction of a 3D array with a layered approach-can be utilized as the basis for a new family of neural electrode arrays. The 3D MEA prototype consists of a stack of individually patterned thin films that form a cell chamber conducive to maintaining and recording the electrical activity of a long-term three-dimensional network of rat cortical neurons. Silicon electrode layers contain a polymer grid for neural branching, growth, and network formation. Along the walls of these electrode layers lie exposed gold electrodes which permit recording and stimulation of the neuronal electrical activity. Silicone elastomer micro-fluidic layers provide a means for loading dissociated neurons into the structure and serve as the artificial vasculature for nutrient supply and aeration. The fluidic layers also serve as insulation for the micro-electrodes. Cells have been shown to survive in the 3D MEA for up to 28 days, with spontaneous and evoked electrical recordings performed in that time. The micro-fluidic capability was demonstrated by flowing in the drug tetrotodoxin to influence the activity of the culture.

  11. Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays for electrochemical detection in HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Eric; Devilliers, Didier; Dardoize, François

    2015-01-01

    Boron doped diamond microelectrodes arrays (MEA) have been prepared in order to be used as new amperometric sensors in electrochemical cells for HPLC detectors. The following parameters were studied: number and diameter (15-40 µm) of the electrodes, distance between them (50-240 µm), and effect of the flow rate (0.1-3 mL/min). It was thus possible to find the optimum value of the parameters which give a good signal/noise ratio in the chronoamperometric responses, with a size of the electrochemical sensors as small as possible.

  12. Digital microfluidic operations on micro-electrode dot array architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Teng, D; Fan, S-K

    2011-12-01

    As digital microfluidics-based biochips find more applications, their complexity is expected to increase significantly owing to the trend of multiple and concurrent assays on the chip. There is a pressing need to deliver a top-down design methodology that the biochip designer can leverage the same level of computer-aided design support as the semi-conductor industry now does. Moreover, as microelectronics fabrication technology is scaling up and integrated device performance is improving, it is expected that these microfluidic biochips will be integrated with microelectronic components in next-generation system-on-chip designs. This study presents the analysis and experiments of digital microfluidic operations on a novel electrowetting-on-dielectric-based 'micro-electrode dot array architecture' that fosters a development path for hierarchical top-down design approach for digital microfluidics. The proposed architecture allows dynamic configurations and activations of identical basic microfluidic unit called 'micro-electrode cells' to design microfluidic components, layouts, routing, microfluidic operations and applications of the biochip hierarchically. Fundamental microfluidic operations have been successfully performed by the architecture. In addition, this novel architecture demonstrates a number of advantages and flexibilities over the conventional digital microfluidics in performing advanced microfluidic operations.

  13. Interdigitated array microelectrode capacitive sensor for detection of paraffinophilic mycobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Andrew M.; Peterson, Erik T. K.; Papautsky, Ian

    2008-02-01

    Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is an opportunistic pathogen that threatens public health and has high clinical relevance. While culture-based and molecular biology techniques for identification are available, these methods are prone to error and require weeks to perform. There is a critical need for improved portable lab-on-a-chip sensor technology which will enable accurate and rapid point-of-care detection of these microorganisms. In this work, a new capacitive sensing strategy is explored utilizing interdigitated array (IDA) microelectrodes and exploiting the paraffinophilic nature of MAC. In this approach, paraffin wax is deposited over IDA microelectrodes to selectively extract these microorganisms from samples. As bacteria consume the dielectric paraffin layer, the charging current of the IDA capacitor changes to facilitate detection. Several IDA geometries were designed and simulated using CFD-ACE+ modeling software and compared with mathematical models. Capacitance of fabricated devices was determined using a charge-based capacitance measurement (CBCM) technique. Modeling and experimental results were in good agreement. Detection of femto-Farad changes in capacitance is possible, making this a feasible technique for sensing small changes in the paraffin for detection of paraffinophilic MAC.

  14. BioMEA: a versatile high-density 3D microelectrode array system using integrated electronics.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Guillaume; Rousseau, Lionel; Billoint, Olivier; Gharbi, Sadok; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Joucla, Sébastien; Trevisiol, Michel; Bourgerette, Alain; Chauvet, Philippe; Moulin, Céline; Goy, François; Mercier, Bruno; Colin, Mikael; Spirkovitch, Serge; Fanet, Hervé; Meyrand, Pierre; Guillemaud, Régis; Yvert, Blaise

    2010-04-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks.

  15. Piezo-Driven Vibrating Insertion Device for Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    Microelectrode arrays are commonly used to measure neural activities in the brain, and arrays with some 100 electrodes are commercially available to date. However, insertion of a dense grid array deforms the brain, resulting in deterioration of the measurements. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a piezo-driven vibrating insertion device to reduce the insertion-induced deformation of the brain. We attempted under various conditions to insert the array into an agarose substrate, whose hardness was adjusted to that of the cerebral cortex of rats. Our experiments demonstrated that inverse-sawtooth vibration reduced the insertion-induced deformation of the substrate in proportion to the logarithm of an upstroke velocity when the velocity was higher than 10 mm/s, and vibrating insertion of the maximum velocity at 36.7 mm/s reduced the deformation by up to 40% as compared to insertion without vibration. In addition, we tested the vibrating insertion device in an electrophysiological experiment in the rat auditory cortex in vivo, and successfully measured tone-evoked neuronal activities.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor for carbaryl detection based on interdigitated array microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhili; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Cao, Yaoyao; Wang, Xiangyou

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor with superior accuracy and sensitivity was successfully developed based on interdigitated array microelectrodes (IAMs). IAMs have a series of parallel microband electrodes with alternating microbands connected together. Chitosan was used as the enzyme immobilization material, and AChE was used as the model enzyme for carbaryl detection to fabricate AChE biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with the fabricated biosensor to detect pesticide residues. Based on the inhibition of pesticides on the AChE activity, using carbaryl as model compounds, the biosensor exhibited a wide range, low detection limit, and high stability. Moreover, the biosensor can also be used as a new promising tool for pesticide residue analysis.

  17. Highly Doped Polycrystalline Silicon Microelectrodes Reduce Noise in Neuronal Recordings In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Rajarshi; Jackson, Nathan; Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are to 1) experimentally validate for the first time the nonlinear current-potential characteristics of bulk doped polycrystalline silicon in the small amplitude voltage regimes (0–200 μV) and 2) test if noise amplitudes (0–15 μV) from single neuronal electrical recordings get selectively attenuated in doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes due to the above property. In highly doped polycrystalline silicon, bulk resistances of several hundred kilo-ohms were experimentally measured for voltages typical of noise amplitudes and 9–10 kΩ for voltages typical of neural signal amplitudes (>150–200 μV). Acute multiunit measurements and noise measurements were made in n = 6 and n = 8 anesthetized adult rats, respectively, using polycrystalline silicon and tungsten microelectrodes. There was no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitudes of action potentials recorded from either microelectrode (p > 0.10). However, noise power in the recordings from tungsten microelectrodes (26.36 ± 10.13 pW) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the corresponding value in polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes (7.49 ± 2.66 pW). We conclude that polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes result in selective attenuation of noise power in electrical recordings compared to tungsten microelectrodes. This reduction in noise compared to tungsten microelectrodes is likely due to the exponentially higher bulk resistances offered by highly doped bulk polycrystalline silicon in the range of voltages corresponding to noise in multiunit measurements. PMID:20667815

  18. An Array of Microactuated Microelectrodes for Monitoring Single-Neuronal Activity in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Okandan, Murat; Gilletti, Aaron; Baker, Michael S.; Jain, Tilak

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of microelectrodes used for monitoring single-and multi-neuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time for several technical and biological reasons. We report here a novel Neural Probe chip with a 3-channel microactuated microelectrode array that will enable precise repositioning of the individual microelectrodes within the brain tissue after implantation. Thermal microactuators and associated microelectrodes in the Neural Probe chip are microfabricated using the Sandia’s Ultraplanar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiTV) process, a 5-layer polysilicon microma-chining technology of the Sandia National labs, Albuquerque, NM. The Neural Probe chip enables precise bi-directional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with a step resolution in the order of 8.8μm. The thermal microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation in either direction was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multi-unit activity. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats over a period of three days demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the microelectrode insulation and chip packaging will be necessary before this technology can be validated in chronic experiments. PMID:16119243

  19. An array of microactuated microelectrodes for monitoring single-neuronal activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Jit; Okandan, Murat; Gilletti, Aaron; Baker, Michael S; Jain, Tilak

    2005-08-01

    Arrays of microelectrodes used for monitoring single- and multi-neuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time for several technical and biological reasons. We report here a novel Neural Probe chip with a 3-channel microactuated microelectrode array that will enable precise repositioning of the individual microelectrodes within the brain tissue after implantation. Thermal microactuators and associated microelectrodes in the Neural Probe chip are microfabricated using the Sandia's Ultraplanar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiTV) process, a 5-layer polysilicon micromachining technology of the Sandia National labs, Albuquerque, NM. The Neural Probe chip enables precise bi-directional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with a step resolution in the order of 8.8 microm. The thermal microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation in either direction was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multi-unit activity. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats over a period of three days demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the microelectrode insulation and chip packaging will be necessary before this technology can be validated in chronic experiments.

  20. Microelectrode arrays: a new tool to measure embryonic heart activity.

    PubMed

    Reppel, Michael; Pillekamp, Frank; Lu, Zhong Ju; Halbach, Marcel; Brockmeier, Konrad; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Hescheler, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of the sequential excitation of cardiac tissue is of high relevance, both for clinical pathophysiological purposes, eg, detection of sustained ventricular arrhythmias, as well as for experimental electrophysiology. Clinically, different technical approaches such as single electrode measurements and bipolar mapping electrode catheters have been used. In experimental setups several techniques to record cardiac activity have been proposed. Beside the well-established intracellular current-clamp recordings of action potentials, recent studies have performed extracellularly activation sequence mapping or simultaneous multichannel action potential electrode array measurements. Measurement of extracellularly recorded field potentials (FPs) hereby especially provides detailed information about the origin and spread of excitation in the heart. A similar analytical approach for cardiac FPs advanced the analysis of excitation spread and arrhythmic activity in multicellular preparations like developmental differentiation tissue of mouse embryonic stem cells, multicellular preparations of isolated native embryonic cardiomyocytes or the embryonic heart in toto. The use of substrate-integrated Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs, Multi Channel Systems, Reutlingen, Germany) with 60 electrodes of 10-30 microm diameters on a 100-200 microm grid, coated with porous titanium nitride to minimize the impedance allows recording of FPs at a high signal to noise ratio. The possibility to electrically stimulate the tissue further expands the range of applications and bioassays. It may thus facilitate the evaluation of drug research providing detailed information about the interplay of the complex cardiac network, and might improve the predictability of physiological and pathophysiological conditions or drug effects in embryonic heart tissue.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection using microelectrode biochip array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Sung; Lee, Kyung-Sup; Park, Dae-Hee

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a microelectrode array DNA chip was fabricated on a glass slide using photolithography technology. Several probe DNAs with mercaptohexyl moiety at their 5' end were immobilized on the gold electrodes by a DNA arrayer utilizing the affinity between gold and sulfur. Then target DNAs were hybridized and reacted with Hoechst 33258, which is a DNA minor groove binder and electrochemically active dye. Cyclic voltammetry in a 5 mM ferricyanide/ferrocyanide solution at 100 mV s-1 confirmed the immobilization of probe DNA on the gold electrodes. Linear sweep voltammetry or cyclic voltammetry showed a difference between target DNA and control DNA in the anodic peak current values. This was derived from Hoechst 33258 concentrated at the electrode surface through association with formed hybrids. It is suggested that this DNA chip could recognize sequence specific genes. It is also suggested that a multichannel electrochemical DNA microarray is useful to develop a portable device for a clinical gene diagnostic system.

  2. Ordered polymeric microhole array made by selective wetting and applications for electrochemical microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hui; Hwang, Seongpil; Kwak, Juhyoun

    2011-07-05

    In this paper, we report the microelectrode array fabrication using selective wetting/dewetting of polymers on a chemical pattern which is a simple and convenient method capable of creating negative polymeric replicas using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a clean and nontoxic sacrificial layer. The fabricated hole-patterned polypropylene film on gold demonstrated enhanced electrochemical properties. The chemical pattern is fabricated by microcontact printing using octadecanethiol (ODT) as an ink on gold substrate. When PEG is spin-cast on the chemical pattern, PEG solution selectively dewets the ODT patterned areas and wets the remaining bare gold areas, leading to the formation of arrayed PEG dots. A negative replicas of the PEG dot array is obtained by spin-coating of polypropylene (PP) solution in hexane which preferentially interacts with the hydrophobic ODT region on the patterned gold surface. The arrayed PEG dots are not affected the during PP spin-coating step because of their intrinsic immiscibility. Consequently, the hole-patterned PP film is obtained after PEG removal. The electrochemical signal of the PP film demonstrates the negligible leakage current by high dielectric and self-healing of defects on the chemical pattern by the polymer. This method is applicable to fabrication of microelectrode arrays and possibly can be employed to fabricate a variety of functional polymeric structures, such as photomasks, arrays of biomolecules, cell arrays, and arrays of nanomaterials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Close-Packed Silicon Microelectrodes for Scalable Spatially Oversampled Neural Recording

    PubMed Central

    Scholvin, Jörg; Kinney, Justin P.; Bernstein, Jacob G.; Moore-Kochlacs, Caroline; Kopell, Nancy; Fonstad, Clifton G.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural recording electrodes are important tools for understanding neural codes and brain dynamics. Neural electrodes that are close-packed, such as in tetrodes, enable spatial oversampling of neural activity, which facilitates data analysis. Here we present the design and implementation of close-packed silicon microelectrodes, to enable spatially oversampled recording of neural activity in a scalable fashion. Methods Our probes are fabricated in a hybrid lithography process, resulting in a dense array of recording sites connected to submicron dimension wiring. Results We demonstrate an implementation of a probe comprising 1000 electrode pads, each 9 × 9 μm, at a pitch of 11 μm. We introduce design automation and packaging methods that allow us to readily create a large variety of different designs. Significance Finally, we perform neural recordings with such probes in the live mammalian brain that illustrate the spatial oversampling potential of closely packed electrode sites. PMID:26699649

  4. A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractTITLE: A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYSABSTRACT BODY: Microelectrode array (MEA) recordings are increasingly being used as an in vitro method to detect and characte...

  5. A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractTITLE: A MULTIPLEXED ASSAY FOR DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICANT EFFECTS ON SPONTANEOUS NETWORK ACTIVITY AND CELL VIABILITY FROM MICROELECTRODE ARRAYSABSTRACT BODY: Microelectrode array (MEA) recordings are increasingly being used as an in vitro method to detect and characte...

  6. A low noise multichannel integrated circuit for recording neuronal signals using microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Litke, A M

    2004-02-15

    This paper reports on the development of a fully integrated 32-channel integrated circuit (IC) for recording neuronal signals in neurophysiological experiments using microelectrode arrays. The IC consists of 32 channels of low-noise preamplifiers and bandpass filters, and an output analog multiplexer. The continuous-time RC active filters have a typical passband of 20-2000 Hz; the low and the high cut-off frequencies can be separately controlled by external reference currents. This chip provides a satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio for neuronal signals with amplitudes greater than 50 microV. For the nominal passband setting, an equivalent input noise of 3 microV rms has been achieved. A single channel occupies 0.35 mm(2) of silicon area and dissipates 1.7 mW of power. The chip was fabricated in a 0.7 microm CMOS process.

  7. Fabrication and testing of polyimide-based microelectrode arrays for cortical mapping of evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Myllymaa, Sami; Myllymaa, Katja; Korhonen, Hannu; Töyräs, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Djupsund, Kaj; Tanila, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2009-06-15

    Modern microfabrication techniques make it possible to develop microelectrode arrays that may be utilized not only in neurophysiological research but also in the clinic, e.g. in neurosurgery and as elements of neural prostheses. The aim of this study was to test whether a flexible microelectrode array is suitable for recording cortical surface field potentials in rats. Polyimide-based microelectrode arrays were fabricated by utilizing microfabrication techniques e.g. photolithography and magnetron sputter deposition. The present microelectrode array consists of eight platinum microelectrodes (round-shaped, Ø: 200 microm), transmission lines and connector pads sandwiched between two thin layers of biocompatible polyimide. The microelectrode arrays were electrochemically characterized by impedance spectroscopy in physiological saline solution and successfully tested in vivo by conducting acute and chronic measurements of evoked potentials on the surface of rat cortex. The arrays proved excellent flexibility and mechanical strength during handling and implantation onto the surface of cortex. The excellent electrochemical characteristics and stable in vivo recordings with high spatiotemporal resolution highlight the potential of these arrays. The fabrication protocol described here allows implementation of several other neural interfaces with different layouts, material selections or target areas either for recording or stimulation purposes.

  8. Evaluation of a Microelectrode Arrays for Neurotoxicity Testing Using a Chemical Training Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode array (MEA) approaches have been proposed as a tool for detecting functional changes in electrically active cells, including neurons, exposed to drugs, chemicals, or particles. However, conventional single well MEA systems lack the throughput necessary for screenin...

  9. Evaluation of Multi-Well Microelectrode Arrays for Neurotoxicity Screening Using a Chemical Training Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode array (MEA) approaches have been proposed as a tool for detecting functional changes in electrically-excitable cells, including neurons, exposed to drugs, chemical or particles. However, conventional single well-MEA systems lack the throughput necessary for screen...

  10. Microelectrode Arrays: A Physiologically-based Neurotoxicity Testing Platform for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) have been in use over the past decade and a half to study multiple aspects ofelectrically excitable cells. Inparticular, MEAs have been applied to explore the pharmacological and toxicological effects ofnumerous compounds on spontaneous activity ofneu...

  11. Evaluation of Multi-Well Microelectrode Arrays for Neurotoxicity Screening Using a Chemical Training Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode array (MEA) approaches have been proposed as a tool for detecting functional changes in electrically-excitable cells, including neurons, exposed to drugs, chemical or particles. However, conventional single well-MEA systems lack the throughput necessary for screen...

  12. Evaluation of a Microelectrode Arrays for Neurotoxicity Testing Using a Chemical Training Set

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode array (MEA) approaches have been proposed as a tool for detecting functional changes in electrically active cells, including neurons, exposed to drugs, chemicals, or particles. However, conventional single well MEA systems lack the throughput necessary for screenin...

  13. Low Frequency Activity of Cortical Networks on Microelectrode Arrays is Differentially Altered by Bicuculline and Carbaryl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals need to be characterized for their neurotoxicity potential. Neurons grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are an in vitro model used to screen chemicals for functional effects on neuronal networks. Typically, after removal of low frequency components, effec...

  14. Microelectrode Arrays: A Physiologically-based Neurotoxicity Testing Platform for the 21st Century

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) have been in use over the past decade and a half to study multiple aspects ofelectrically excitable cells. Inparticular, MEAs have been applied to explore the pharmacological and toxicological effects ofnumerous compounds on spontaneous activity ofneu...

  15. Low Frequency Activity of Cortical Networks on Microelectrode Arrays is Differentially Altered by Bicuculline and Carbaryl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals need to be characterized for their neurotoxicity potential. Neurons grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are an in vitro model used to screen chemicals for functional effects on neuronal networks. Typically, after removal of low frequency components, effec...

  16. Modelling small-patterned neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massobrio, Paolo; Martinoia, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    Cultured neurons coupled to planar substrates which exhibit 'well-defined' two-dimensional network architectures can provide valuable insights into cell-to-cell communication, network dynamics versus topology, and basic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and learning. In the literature several approaches were presented to drive neuronal growth, such as surface modification by silane chemistry, photolithographic techniques, microcontact printing, microfluidic channel flow patterning, microdrop patterning, etc. This work presents a computational model fit for reproducing and explaining the dynamics exhibited by small-patterned neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs). The model is based on the concept of meta-neuron, i.e., a small spatially confined number of actual neurons which perform single macroscopic functions. Each meta-neuron is characterized by a detailed morphology, and the membrane channels are modelled by simple Hodgkin-Huxley and passive kinetics. The two main findings that emerge from the simulations can be summarized as follows: (i) the increasing complexity of meta-neuron morphology reflects the variations of the network dynamics as a function of network development; (ii) the dynamics displayed by the patterned neuronal networks considered can be explained by hypothesizing the presence of several short- and a few long-term distance interactions among small assemblies of neurons (i.e., meta-neurons).

  17. Editor's highlight: Evaluation of a Microelectrode Array-based ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Thousands of compounds in the environment have not been characterized for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard. To address this issue, methods to screen compounds rapidly for DNT hazard evaluation are necessary and are being developed for key neurodevelopmental processes. In order to develop an assay for network formation, the current study evaluated effects of a training set of chemicals on network ontogeny by measuring spontaneous electrical activity in neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEA). Rat (0-24 h old) primary cortical cells were plated in 48 well MEA plates and exposed to six compounds: acetaminophen, bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis-1), domoic acid, mevastatin, sodium orthovanadate, and loperamide for a period of 12 days. Spontaneous network activity was recorded on days 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 and viability was assessed using the Cell Titer Blue® assay on day 12. Network activity (e.g. mean firing rate (MFR), burst rate (BR), etc), increased between days 5 and 12. Random Forest analysis indicated that across all compounds and times, temporal correlation of firing patterns (r), MFR, BR, #of active electrodes and % of spikes in a burst were the most influential parameters in separating control from treated wells. All compounds except acetaminophen (≤ 30 µM) caused concentration-related effects on one or more of these parameters. Domoic acid and sodium orthovanadate altered several of these parameters in the absence of cytotoxicity. Although

  18. Investigating brain functional evolution and plasticity using microelectrode array technology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate long and short-term plasticity responsible for memory formation in dissociated neuronal networks. In order to address this issue, a set of experiments was designed and implemented in which the microelectrode array electrode grid was divided into four quadrants, two of which were chronically stimulated, every two days for one hour with a stimulation paradigm that varied over time. Overall network and quadrant responses were then analyzed to quantify what level of plasticity took place in the network and how this was due to the stimulation interruption. The results demonstrate that there were no spatial differences in the stimulus-evoked activity within quadrants. Furthermore, the implemented stimulation protocol induced depression effects in the neuronal networks as demonstrated by the consistently lower network activity following stimulation sessions. Finally, the analysis demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of the stimulation decreased over time, thus suggesting a habituation phenomenon. These findings are sufficient to conclude that electrical stimulation is an important tool to interact with dissociated neuronal cultures, but localized stimuli are not enough to drive spatial synaptic potentiation or depression. On the contrary, the ability to modulate synaptic temporal plasticity was a feasible task to achieve by chronic network stimulation.

  19. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Varney, Michael W.; Aslam, Dean M.; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H.

    2011-01-01

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors. PMID:25586924

  20. Modelling small-patterned neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Massobrio, Paolo; Martinoia, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    Cultured neurons coupled to planar substrates which exhibit 'well-defined' two-dimensional network architectures can provide valuable insights into cell-to-cell communication, network dynamics versus topology, and basic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and learning. In the literature several approaches were presented to drive neuronal growth, such as surface modification by silane chemistry, photolithographic techniques, microcontact printing, microfluidic channel flow patterning, microdrop patterning, etc. This work presents a computational model fit for reproducing and explaining the dynamics exhibited by small-patterned neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs). The model is based on the concept of meta-neuron, i.e., a small spatially confined number of actual neurons which perform single macroscopic functions. Each meta-neuron is characterized by a detailed morphology, and the membrane channels are modelled by simple Hodgkin-Huxley and passive kinetics. The two main findings that emerge from the simulations can be summarized as follows: (i) the increasing complexity of meta-neuron morphology reflects the variations of the network dynamics as a function of network development; (ii) the dynamics displayed by the patterned neuronal networks considered can be explained by hypothesizing the presence of several short- and a few long-term distance interactions among small assemblies of neurons (i.e., meta-neurons).

  1. Human Islets Exhibit Electrical Activity on Microelectrode Arrays (MEA).

    PubMed

    Schönecker, S; Kraushaar, U; Guenther, E; Gerst, F; Ullrich, S; Häring, H-U; Königsrainer, A; Barthlen, W; Drews, G; Krippeit-Drews, P

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrates for the first time that the microelectrode array (MEA) technique allows analysis of electrical activity of islets isolated from human biopsies. We have shown before that this method, i.e., measuring beta cell electrical activity with extracellular electrodes, is a powerful tool to assess glucose responsiveness of isolated murine islets. In the present study, human islets were shown to exhibit glucose-dependent oscillatory electrical activity. The glucose responsiveness could be furthermore demonstrated by an increase of insulin secretion in response to glucose. Electrical activity was increased by tolbutamide and inhibited by diazoxide. In human islets bursts of electrical activity were markedly blunted by the Na(+) channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin which does not affect electrical activity in mouse islets. Thus, the MEA technique emerges as a powerful tool to decipher online the unique features of human islets.Additionally, this technique will enable research with human islets even if only a few islets are available and it will allow a fast and easy test of metabolic integrity of islets destined for transplantation.

  2. Electrophysiological characterization of Nsc-34 cell line using Microelectrode Array.

    PubMed

    Sabitha, K R; Sanjay, D; Savita, B; Raju, T R; Laxmi, T R

    2016-11-15

    Neurons communicate with each other through intricate network to evolve higher brain functions. The electrical activity of the neurons plays a crucial role in shaping the connectivity. With motor neurons being vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases, understanding the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons is the need of the hour, in order to comprehend the impairment of connectivity in these diseases. NSC-34 cell line serves as an excellent model to study the properties of motor neurons as they express Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Although NSC-34 cell lines have been used to study the effect of various toxicological, neurotrophic and neuroprotective agents, the electrical activity of these cells has not been elucidated. In the current study, we have characterized the electrophysiological properties of NSC-34 cell lines using Micro-Electrode Array (MEA) as a tool. Based on the spike waveform, firing frequency, auto- and cross-correlogram analysis, we demonstrate that NSC-34 cell culture has >2 distinct types of neuronal population: principal excitatory neurons, putative interneurons and unclassified neurons. The presence of interneurons in the NSC-34 culture was characterized by increased expression of GAD-67 markers. Thus, finding an understanding of the electrophysiological properties of different population of neurons in NSC-34 cell line, will have multiple applications in the treatment of neurological disorders.

  3. Estimating electrical conductivity tensors of biological tissues using microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Elad; La Rosa, Patricio S; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-10-01

    Finding the electrical conductivity of tissue is highly important for understanding the tissue's structure and functioning. However, the inverse problem of inferring spatial conductivity from data is highly ill-posed and computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose a novel method to solve the inverse problem of inferring tissue conductivity from a set of transmembrane potential and stimuli measurements made by microelectrode arrays (MEA). We first formalize the discrete forward model of transmembrane potential propagation, based on a reaction-diffusion model with an anisotropic inhomogeneous electrical conductivity-tensor field. Then, we propose a novel parallel optimization algorithm for solving the complex inverse problem of estimating the electrical conductivity-tensor field. Specifically, we propose a single-step approximation with a parallel block-relaxation optimization routine that simplifies the joint tensor field estimation problem into a set of computationally tractable subproblems, allowing the use of efficient standard optimization tools. Finally, using numerical examples of several electrical conductivity field topologies and noise levels, we analyze the performance of our algorithm, and discuss its application to real measurements obtained from smooth-muscle cardiac tissue, using data collected with a high-resolution MEA system.

  4. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays.

    PubMed

    Varney, Michael W; Aslam, Dean M; Janoudi, Abed; Chan, Ho-Yin; Wang, Donna H

    2011-08-15

    Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C) has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM). The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA), due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  5. An active, flexible carbon nanotube microelectrode array for recording electrocorticograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Chan; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Lee, Yu-Tao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Yew, Tri-Rung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng; Chang, Yen-Chung; Chen, Hsin

    2011-06-01

    A variety of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) has been developed for monitoring intra-cortical neural activity at a high spatio-temporal resolution, opening a promising future for brain research and neural prostheses. However, most MEAs are based on metal electrodes on rigid substrates, and the intra-cortical implantation normally causes neural damage and immune responses that impede long-term recordings. This communication presents a flexible, carbon-nanotube MEA (CMEA) with integrated circuitry. The flexibility allows the electrodes to fit on the irregular surface of the brain to record electrocorticograms in a less invasive way. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) further improve both the electrode impedance and the charge-transfer capacity by more than six times. Moreover, the CNTs are grown on the polyimide substrate directly to improve the adhesion to the substrate. With the integrated recording circuitry, the flexible CMEA is proved capable of recording the neural activity of crayfish in vitro, as well as the electrocorticogram of a rat cortex in vivo, with an improved signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the proposed CMEA can be employed as a less-invasive, biocompatible and reliable neuro-electronic interface for long-term usage.

  6. A Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Array for Improvement of Dielectrophoresis-Based Particle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Buyong, Muhamad Ramdzan; Larki, Farhad; Faiz, Mohd Syafiq; Hamzah, Azrul Azlan; Yunas, Jumrail; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the dielectrophoretic force (FDEP) response of Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays with tapered profile is investigated through experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A standard CMOS processing technique with a step for the formation of a tapered profile resist is implemented in the fabrication of Tapered Aluminium Microelectrode Arrays (TAMA). The FDEP is investigated through analysis of the Clausius-Mossotti factor (CMF) and cross-over frequency (fxo). The performance of TAMA with various side wall angles is compared to that of microelectrodes with a straight cut sidewall profile over a wide range of frequencies through FEM numerical simulations. Additionally, electric field measurement (EFM) is performed through scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to obtain the region of force focus in both platforms. Results showed that the tapered profile microelectrodes with angles between 60° and 70° produce the highest electric field gradient on the particles. Also, the region of the strongest electric field in TAMA is located at the bottom and top edge of microelectrode while the strongest electric field in microelectrodes with straight cut profile is found at the top corner of the microelectrode. The latter property of microelectrodes improves the probability of capturing/repelling the particles at the microelectrode’s side wall. PMID:25970255

  7. Fabrication and characterization of nonplanar microelectrode array circuits for use in arthroscopic diagnosis of cartilage diseases.

    PubMed

    Quenneville, Eric; Binette, Jean-Sébastien; Garon, Martin; Légaré, Anne; Meunier, Michel; Buschmann, Michael D

    2004-12-01

    A process to fabricate nonplanar microelectrode array circuits was developed and the microelectrodes were characterized. These platinum microelectrode arrays are for recording streaming potential signals generated during indentation of articular cartilage. The nonplanar substrate was produced by permanent deformation of a 7-in-diameter circular stainless-steel wafer to form 32 semi-spherical caps (radius of curvature = 4.65 mm and height = 250 microm) at the periphery. The wafer was covered with a 2.5-microm-thick layer of insulating polyimide. Standard microelectronic processes were applied to produce 32 circuits (60 mm long x 4 mm wide) with 37 exposed circular microelectrodes (diameter = 100 microm) centered over each semi-spherical cap. A 2.5-microm-thick photodefinable polyimide layer encapsulated the conducting lines. Capacitances between one microelectrode and either another microelectrode or the metallic substrate were 14.6 +/- 2.0 and 34.4 +/- 3.3 pF, respectively, at 100 Hz. The impedance of the microelectrodes in a 0.15 M saline bath (PBS) was 0.25 +/- 0.08 Mohms while the crosstalk (Vinduced/Vapplied) between two microelectrodes was 0.20 +/- 0.11%, at 100 Hz. Indentation measurements were performed on articular cartilage in vitro showing,streaming potentials that indicate electrode-tissue contact times and generation of streaming potentials.

  8. Alternative post-processing on a CMOS chip to fabricate a planar microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Herrera-May, Agustín L; Estrada-López, Johan J; Zuñiga-Islas, Carlos; Cervantes-Sanchez, Blanca; Soto, Enrique; Soto-Cruz, Blanca S

    2011-01-01

    We present an alternative post-processing on a CMOS chip to release a planar microelectrode array (pMEA) integrated with its signal readout circuit, which can be used for monitoring the neuronal activity of vestibular ganglion neurons in newborn Wistar strain rats. This chip is fabricated through a 0.6 μm CMOS standard process and it has 12 pMEA through a 4 × 3 electrodes matrix. The alternative CMOS post-process includes the development of masks to protect the readout circuit and the power supply pads. A wet etching process eliminates the aluminum located on the surface of the p+ -type silicon. This silicon is used as transducer for recording the neuronal activity and as interface between the readout circuit and neurons. The readout circuit is composed of an amplifier and tunable bandpass filter, which is placed on a 0.015 mm2 silicon area. The tunable bandpass filter has a bandwidth of 98 kHz and a common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 87 dB. These characteristics of the readout circuit are appropriate for neuronal recording applications.

  9. Alternative Post-Processing on a CMOS Chip to Fabricate a Planar Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Estrada-López, Johan J.; Zuñiga-Islas, Carlos; Cervantes-Sanchez, Blanca; Soto, Enrique; Soto-Cruz, Blanca S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an alternative post-processing on a CMOS chip to release a planar microelectrode array (pMEA) integrated with its signal readout circuit, which can be used for monitoring the neuronal activity of vestibular ganglion neurons in newborn Wistar strain rats. This chip is fabricated through a 0.6 μm CMOS standard process and it has 12 pMEA through a 4 × 3 electrodes matrix. The alternative CMOS post-process includes the development of masks to protect the readout circuit and the power supply pads. A wet etching process eliminates the aluminum located on the surface of the p+-type silicon. This silicon is used as transducer for recording the neuronal activity and as interface between the readout circuit and neurons. The readout circuit is composed of an amplifier and tunable bandpass filter, which is placed on a 0.015 mm2 silicon area. The tunable bandpass filter has a bandwidth of 98 kHz and a common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 87 dB. These characteristics of the readout circuit are appropriate for neuronal recording applications. PMID:22346681

  10. Development of an array of ion-selective microelectrodes aimed for the monitoring of extracellular ionic activities.

    PubMed

    Guenat, Olivier T; Generelli, Silvia; de Rooij, Nicolaas F; Koudelka-Hep, Milena; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we present the development and the characterization of a generic platform for cell culture able to monitor extracellular ionic activities (K+, NH4+) for real-time monitoring of cell-based responses, such as necrosis, apoptosis, or differentiation. The platform for cell culture is equipped with an array of 16 silicon nitride micropipet-based ion-selective microelectrodes with a diameter of either 2 or 6 microm. This array is located at the bottom of a 200-microm-wide and 350-microm-deep microwell where the cells are cultured. The characterization of the ion-selective microelectrode arrays in different standard and physiological solutions is presented. Near-Nernstian slopes were obtained for potassium- (58.6 +/- 0.8 mV/pK, n = 15) and ammonium-selective microelectrodes (59.4 +/- 3.9 mV/pNH4, n = 13). The calibration curves were highly reproducible and showed an average drift of 4.4 +/- 2.3 mV/h (n = 10). Long-term behavior and response after immersion in physiological solutions are also presented. The lifetime of the sensors was found to be extremely long with a high recovery rate.

  11. Chronic intracortical neural recordings using microelectrode arrays coated with PEDOT-TFB.

    PubMed

    Charkhkar, Hamid; Knaack, Gretchen L; McHail, Daniel G; Mandal, Himadri S; Peixoto, Nathalia; Rubinson, Judith F; Dumas, Theodore C; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2016-03-01

    Microelectrode arrays have been extensively utilized to record extracellular neuronal activity for brain-machine interface applications. Modifying the microelectrodes with conductive polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has been reported to be advantageous because it increases the effective surface area of the microelectrodes, thereby decreasing impedance and enhancing charge transfer capacity. However, the long term stability and integrity of such coatings for chronic recordings remains unclear. Previously, our group has demonstrated that use of the smaller counter ion tetrafluoroborate (TFB) during electrodeposition increased the stability of the PEDOT coatings in vitro compared to the commonly used counter ion poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). In the current work, we examined the long-term in vivo performance of PEDOT-TFB coated microelectrodes. To do so, we selectively modified half of the microelectrodes on NeuroNexus single shank probes with PEDOT-TFB while the other half of the microelectrodes were modified with gold as a control. The modified probes were then implanted into the primary motor cortex of rats. Single unit recordings were observed on both PEDOT-TFB and gold control microelectrodes for more than 12 weeks. Compared to the gold-coated microelectrodes, the PEDOT-TFB coated microelectrodes exhibited an overall significantly lower impedance and higher number of units per microelectrode specifically for the first four weeks. The majority of PEDOT-TFB microelectrodes with activity had an impedance magnitude lower than 400 kΩ at 1 kHz. Our equivalent circuit modeling of the impedance data suggests stability in the polymer-related parameters for the duration of the study. In addition, when comparing PEDOT-TFB microelectrodes with and without long-term activity, we observed a distinction in certain circuit parameters for these microelectrodes derived from equivalent circuit modeling prior to implantation. This observation may prove

  12. A High Aspect Ratio Microelectrode Array for Mapping Neural Activity in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, Andrew B.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-aspect-ratio penetrating microelectrode array was designed and fabricated for the purpose of recording neural activity. The array allows two dimensional recording of 64 sites in vitro with high aspect ratio penetrating electrodes. Traditional surface electrode arrays, although easy to fabricate, do not penetrate to the viable tissue such as central hippocampus slices and thus have a lower signal/noise ratio and lower selectivity than a penetrating array. In the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the CA1–CA3 pyramidal cell layer in the whole unfolded rodent hippocampus preparation is encased by the alveus on one side and the Schaffer tract on the other and requires penetrating electrodes for high signal to noise ratio recording. An array of 64 electrode spikes, each with a target height of 200 μm and diameter of 20μm, was fabricated in silicon on a transparent glass substrate. The impedance of the individual electrodes was measured to be approximately 1.5MΩ± 497kΩ. The signal to noise ratio was measured and found to be 19.4 ± 3 dB compared to 3.9 ± 0.8 dB S/N for signals obtained with voltage sensitive dye RH414. A mouse unfolded hippocampus preparation was bathed in solution containing 50 micro-molar 4-Amino Pyridine and a complex two dimensional wave of activity was recorded using the array. These results indicate that this novel penetrating electrode array is able to obtain data superior to that of voltage sensitive dye techniques for broad field two-dimensional neuronal activity recording. When used with the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the combination forms a uniquely capable tool for imaging hippocampal network activity in the entire hippocampus. PMID:22179041

  13. Quantification of zinc toxicity using neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Parviz, M; Gross, G W

    2007-05-01

    Murine neuronal networks, derived from embryonic frontal cortex (FC) tissue grown on microelectrode arrays, were used to investigate zinc toxicity at concentrations ranging from 20 to 2000 microM total zinc acetate added to the culture medium. Continual multi-channel recording of spontaneous action potential generation allowed a quantitative analysis of the temporal evolution of network spike activity generation at specific zinc acetate concentrations. Cultures responded with immediate concentration-dependent excitation lasting from 5 to 50 min and consisting of increased spiking and enhanced, coordinated bursting, followed by irreversible activity decay. The time to 50% and 90% activity loss was concentration dependent, highly reproducible, and formed linear functions in log-log plots. Above 100 microM total zinc acetate, the activity loss was associated with massive cell swelling, blebbing, and even vigorous neuronal cell lysing. Glia showed stress, but did not participate in the extensive cell swelling. Network activity loss generally preceded morphological changes. Cultures pretreated with the GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline (40 microM) and picrotoxin (1mM) lacked the initial excitation phase. This suggests that zinc-induced excitation may be mediated by interfering with GABA inhibition. Partial network protection was achieved by stopping spontaneous activity with either tetrodotoxin (200 nM) or lidocaine (250 microM). However, recovery was not complete and slow deterioration of network activity continued over 6-h periods. Removal of zinc by early medium changes showed irreversible, catastrophic network failure to develop in a concentration-dependent time window between 50% and 90% activity loss.

  14. DC microelectrode array for investigating the intracellular ion changes.

    PubMed

    Aryasomayajula, Aditya; Derix, Jonathan; Perike, Srikant; Gerlach, Gerald; Funk, R H

    2010-12-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are extensively being used to study the electrical properties of cells. Most of the MEAs use metal electrodes which are in direct contact with the cells. When using DC currents, this leads to undesirable chemical influencing of the cell. Also, metal electrodes are unsuitable for the measuring of constant potentials. A new kind of MEA is developed which replaces the metal electrodes by electrolyte-filled microchannels with Ag/AgCl-electrodes at their ends. The surface of the DCMEA consists of a nanoporous membrane that acts as a homogenous cell substrate, thus avoiding any topographical guidance of the cells. It is adhered to a polydimethylsiloxane layer with four electrode channels embedded in it, using a novel plasma bonding method. A transparent polymer ground plate connects the channels to the silver electrodes as shown in Fig. 1. This MEA allows for the stimulation of the cells with stationary, non-homogenous electric fields, e.g. to simulate the electrical environment near wounds in vitro. It has been proposed in the literature that intracellular ions are involved during cell migration. The DCMEA can be used to simulate in vitro electric fields to investigate intracellular ion changes. By loading cells with ion specific fluorescence dyes, real-time ion kinetic changes can directly be carried out on DCMEA. These studies will be performed by using a time lapse video microscope. In this paper we present the detailed fabrication and testing of the new DCMEA. Results on intracellular ion flows will be presented using this DCMEA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of long and different penetrating length neural microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Silva, A. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the design, fabrication and mechanical characterization of 3D microelectrode arrays (MEA) that comprise high aspect-ratio shafts and different penetrating lengths of electrodes (from 3 mm to 4 mm). The array’s design relies only on a bulk silicon substrate dicing saw technology. The encapsulation process is accomplished by a medical epoxy resin and platinum is used as the transduction layer between the probe and neural tissue. The probe’s mechanical behaviour can significantly affect the neural tissue during implantation time. Thus, we measured the MEA maximum insertion force in an agar gel phantom and a porcine cadaver brain. Successful 3D MEA were produced with shafts of 3 mm, 3.5 mm and 4 mm in length. At a speed of 180 mm min-1, the MEA show maximum penetrating forces per electrode of 2.65 mN and 12.5 mN for agar and brain tissue, respectively. A simple and reproducible fabrication method was demonstrated, capable of producing longer penetrating shafts than previously reported arrays using the same fabrication technology. Furthermore, shafts with sharp tips were achieved in the fabrication process simply by using a V-shaped blade.

  16. Microelectrode Arrays with Overlapped Diffusion Layers as Electroanalytical Detectors: Theory and Basic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tomčík, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This contribution contains a survey of basic literature dealing with arrays of microelectrodes with overlapping diffusion layers as prospective tools in contemporary electrochemistry. Photolithographic thin layer technology allows the fabrication of sensors of micrometric dimensions separated with a very small gap. This fact allows the diffusion layers of single microelectrodes to overlap as members of the array. Various basic types of microelectrode arrays with interacting diffusion layers are described and their analytical abilities are accented. Theoretical approaches to diffusion layer overlapping and the consequences of close constitution effects such as collection efficiency and redox cycling are discussed. Examples of basis applications in electroanalytical chemistry such as amperometric detectors in HPLC and substitutional stripping voltammetry are also given. PMID:24152927

  17. A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nandra, Mandheerej. S.; Lavrov, Igor A.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-01-01

    The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury. PMID:21841938

  18. A PARYLENE-BASED MICROELECTRODE ARRAY IMPLANT FOR SPINAL CORD STIMULATION IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Nandra, Mandheerej S; Lavrov, Igor A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-01-23

    The design and fabrication of an epidural spinal cord implant using a parylene-based microelectrode array is presented. Rats with hindlimb paralysis from a complete spinal cord transection were implanted with the device and studied for up to eight weeks, where we have demonstrated recovery of hindlimb stepping functionality through pulsed stimulation. The microelectrode array allows for a high degree of freedom and specificity in selecting the site of stimulation compared to wire-based implants, and triggers varied biological responses that can lead to an increased understanding of the spinal cord and locomotion recovery for victims of spinal cord injury.

  19. Spirally oriented Au microelectrode array sensor for detection of Hg (II).

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Ngoc; Hung, Le Quoc; Ha, Vu Thi Thu; Anh, Nguyen Hoang; Van Khai, Tran; Shim, Kwang Bo; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-05-30

    A simple and reproducible carbon microelectrode array (CMA), designed to eliminate diffusive interference among the microelectrodes, has been fabricated and used as a frame to build a gold (Au) microelectrode array (GMA) sensor. To prepare the CMA initially, rather than use an uncontrollable large number of carbon fibers, only 60 carbon fibers of regular size were used to ensure manageable and reproducible arrangement for array construction. In addition, for efficient spatial arrangement of the microelectrode and easy sensor preparation, carbon fibers were oriented in a spiral fashion by rolling around a Cu wire. The distance between carbon fibers was carefully determined to avoid overlap among individual diffusion layers, one of the important factors governing steady-state current response and sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. After the preparation of a spirally arranged CMA, Au was electrochemically deposited on the surface of individual carbon electrodes to build a final GMA sensor. Then, the GMA sensor was used to measure Hg(2+) in a low concentration range. Simultaneously, multiple GMA sensors were independently prepared to examine reproducibility in sensor fabrication as well as electrochemical measurement (sensor-to-sensor reproducibility). Overall, highly sensitive detection of Hg(2+) was possible using the proposed GMA sensor due to efficient arrangement of microelectrodes and the sensor-to-sensor reproducibility was superior owing to simplicity in sensor fabrication.

  20. Nanostructuration strategies to enhance microelectrode array (MEA) performance for neuronal recording and stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heim, Matthias; Yvert, Blaise; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are widely used tools for recording and stimulating extracellular neuronal activity. Major limitations when decreasing electrode size in dense arrays are increased noise level and low charge injection capability. Nanostructuration of the electrode sites on MEAs presents an efficient way to overcome these problems by decreasing the impedance of the electrode/solution interface. Here, we review different techniques used to achieve this goal including template assisted electrodeposition for generating macro- and mesoporous films, immobilization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and deposition of conducting polymers onto microelectrodes. When tested during in vitro and in vivo measurements, nanostructured MEAs display improved sensitivity during recording of neuronal activity together with a higher efficiency in the stimulation process compared to conventional microelectrodes.

  1. Low cost silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. V.; Cleland, J. W.; Westbrook, R. D.; Davis, H. L.; Wood, R. F.; Lindmayer, J.; Wakefield, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The economic production of silicon solar cell arrays circumvents p-n junction degradation by nuclear doping, in which the Si-30 transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron capture. Also considered are chemical purity specifications for improved silicon bulk states, surface induced states, and surface states.

  2. Monitoring Hippocampus Electrical Activity In Vitro on an Elastically Deformable Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhe; Graudejus, Oliver; Tsay, Candice; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Wagner, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Interfacing electronics and recording electrophysiological activity in mechanically active biological tissues is challenging. This challenge extends to recording neural function of brain tissue in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which is caused by rapid (within hundreds of milliseconds) and large (greater than 5% strain) brain deformation. Interfacing electrodes must be biocompatible on multiple levels and should deform with the tissue to prevent additional mechanical damage. We describe an elastically stretchable microelectrode array (SMEA) that is capable of undergoing large, biaxial, 2-D stretch while remaining functional. The new SMEA consists of elastically stretchable thin metal films on a silicone membrane. It can stimulate and detect electrical activity from cultured brain tissue (hippocampal slices), before, during, and after large biaxial deformation. We have incorporated the SMEA into a well-characterized in vitro TBI research platform, which reproduces the biomechanics of TBI by stretching the SMEA and the adherent brain slice culture. Mechanical injury parameters, such as strain and strain rate, can be precisely controlled to generate specific levels of damage. The SMEA allowed for quantification of neuronal function both before and after injury, without breaking culture sterility or repositioning the electrodes for the injury event, thus enabling serial and long-term measurements. We report tests of the SMEA and an initial application to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on neuron function, which could be employed as a high-content, drug-screening platform for TBI. PMID:19594385

  3. Spatial characterization of electric potentials generated by pulsed microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Kandagor, V; Cela, C J; Sanders, C A; Greenbaum, E; Lazzi, G; Humayun, M S; Zhou, D M; Castro, R; Gaikwad, S; Little, J

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a report on the in situ characterization of stimulating microelectrodes in the context of multielectrode retinal prosthetic implants. The experimental system approximately replicates the geometric and electrical parameters of Second Sight Medical Products' Argus II Retinal Implant. Topographic maps of electric potentials have been prepared for a 60 electrode structure in which selected electrodes were stimulated with biphasic repetitively pulsed charge densities at 100 microC·cm(-2). Surface contour maps were prepared using a 10 microm diameter recording electrode.

  4. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentiall...

  5. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  6. Effects of Organophosphorus Flame Retardants on Spontaneous Activity in Neuronal Networks Grown on Microelectrode Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS GROWN ON MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS TJ Shafer1, K Wallace1, WR Mundy1, M Behl2,. 1Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA, 2National Toxicology Program, NIEHS, RTP, NC...

  7. Development of a Microelectrode Array Sensing Platform for Combination Electrochemical and Spectrochemical Aqueous Ion Testing.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert D; Zhou, Anhong; Zufelt, Nephi A

    2009-02-02

    A microelectrode array sensor platform was designed and fabricated to increase diversity, flexibility, and versatility of testing capabilities over that of traditionally reported sensor platforms. These new sensor platforms consist of 18 individual addressable microelectrodes, photolithography fabricated, that employ a glass base substrate and a resist polymer layer that acts as an insulating agent to protect the circuitry and wiring of the sensor from undesired solution interactions. Individually addressable microelectrodes increase diversity by allowing isolated electrochemical testing between electrodes, global array testing, or some combination of electrodes to perform electrochemical methods. Furthermore, because of the optical transparency of the glass base substrate and the resist mask layer, along with the small size of the electrode array, spectrochemical analysis is possible within the sample area that acts as electrochemical cell and cuvette, while the microelectrode array passively resides within the optical path length during spectrochemical testing. This unique arrangement offers improved testing possibilities for various applications, including simultaneous electrochemical and spectrochemical analysis in environmental testing, identification or quantification of possible species for bioavailability in the biotechnology field, and process control in industrial applications. Electrochemical characteristics and spectrochemcial use of the sensor platform are proven with potassium ferricyanide, an electrochemical standard analyte, and electrochemical measurements are compared against a commercially available working electrode of similar size. Additionally, the electrochemical method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is performed with the sensor platform to detect copper and lead heavy metal ions in aqueous solution, demonstrating the potential for use with environmental samples.

  8. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the development of neural network activity using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multi-well MEA plates (mwMEAs) over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures made from postnatal rats, action potential spiking activity was essentiall...

  9. Development of a Microelectrode Array Sensing Platform for Combination Electrochemical and Spectrochemical Aqueous Ion Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Robert D.; Zhou, Anhong; Zufelt, Nephi A.

    2009-01-01

    A microelectrode array sensor platform was designed and fabricated to increase diversity, flexibility, and versatility of testing capabilities over that of traditionally reported sensor platforms. These new sensor platforms consist of 18 individual addressable microelectrodes, photolithography fabricated, that employ a glass base substrate and a resist polymer layer that acts as an insulating agent to protect the circuitry and wiring of the sensor from undesired solution interactions. Individually addressable microelectrodes increase diversity by allowing isolated electrochemical testing between electrodes, global array testing, or some combination of electrodes to perform electrochemical methods. Furthermore, because of the optical transparency of the glass base substrate and the resist mask layer, along with the small size of the electrode array, spectrochemical analysis is possible within the sample area that acts as electrochemical cell and cuvette, while the microelectrode array passively resides within the optical path length during spectrochemical testing. This unique arrangement offers improved testing possibilities for various applications, including simultaneous electrochemical and spectrochemical analysis in environmental testing, identification or quantification of possible species for bioavailability in the biotechnology field, and process control in industrial applications. Electrochemical characteristics and spectrochemcial use of the sensor platform are proven with potassium ferricyanide, an electrochemical standard analyte, and electrochemical measurements are compared against a commercially available working electrode of similar size. Additionally, the electrochemical method of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry is performed with the sensor platform to detect copper and lead heavy metal ions in aqueous solution, demonstrating the potential for use with environmental samples. PMID:20130752

  10. Microelectrode arrays: a general strategy for using oxidation reactions to site selectively modify electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bichlien H; Kesselring, David; Tesfu, Eden; Moeller, Kevin D

    2014-03-04

    Oxidation reactions are powerful tools for synthesis because they allow for the functionalization of molecules. Here, we present a general method for conducting these reactions on a microelectrode array in a site-selective fashion. The reactions are run as a competition between generation of a chemical oxidant at the electrodes in the array and reduction of the oxidant by a "confining agent" in the solution above the array. The "confining agent" does not need to be more reactive than the substrate fixed to the surface of the array. In many cases, the same substrate placed on the surface of the array can also be used in solution as the confining agent.

  11. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrese, James C.; Aceros, Juan; Donoghue, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Signal attenuation is a major problem facing intracortical sensors for chronic neuroprosthetic applications. Many studies suggest that failure is due to gliosis around the electrode tips, however, mechanical and material causes of failure are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to progressive signal decline by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize structural changes in chronically implanted arrays and histology to examine the tissue response at corresponding implant sites. Approach. We examined eight chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) explanted from non-human primates at times ranging from 37 to 1051 days post-implant. We used SEM, in vivo neural recordings, and histology (GFAP, Iba-1, NeuN). Three MEAs that were never implanted were also imaged as controls. Main results. SEM revealed progressive corrosion of the platinum electrode tips and changes to the underlying silicon. The parylene insulation was prone to cracking and delamination, and in some instances the silicone elastomer also delaminated from the edges of the MEA. Substantial tissue encapsulation was observed and was often seen growing into defects in the platinum and parylene. These material defects became more common as the time in vivo increased. Histology at 37 and 1051 days post-implant showed gliosis, disruption of normal cortical architecture with minimal neuronal loss, and high Iba-1 reactivity, especially within the arachnoid and dura. Electrode tracts were either absent or barely visible in the cortex at 1051 days, but were seen in the fibrotic encapsulation material suggesting that the MEAs were lifted out of the brain. Neural recordings showed a progressive drop in impedance, signal amplitude, and viable channels over time. Significance. These results provide evidence that signal loss in MEAs is truly multifactorial. Gliosis occurs in the first few months after implantation but does

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Barrese, James C; Aceros, Juan; Donoghue, John P

    2016-04-01

    Signal attenuation is a major problem facing intracortical sensors for chronic neuroprosthetic applications. Many studies suggest that failure is due to gliosis around the electrode tips, however, mechanical and material causes of failure are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to progressive signal decline by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize structural changes in chronically implanted arrays and histology to examine the tissue response at corresponding implant sites. We examined eight chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) explanted from non-human primates at times ranging from 37 to 1051 days post-implant. We used SEM, in vivo neural recordings, and histology (GFAP, Iba-1, NeuN). Three MEAs that were never implanted were also imaged as controls. SEM revealed progressive corrosion of the platinum electrode tips and changes to the underlying silicon. The parylene insulation was prone to cracking and delamination, and in some instances the silicone elastomer also delaminated from the edges of the MEA. Substantial tissue encapsulation was observed and was often seen growing into defects in the platinum and parylene. These material defects became more common as the time in vivo increased. Histology at 37 and 1051 days post-implant showed gliosis, disruption of normal cortical architecture with minimal neuronal loss, and high Iba-1 reactivity, especially within the arachnoid and dura. Electrode tracts were either absent or barely visible in the cortex at 1051 days, but were seen in the fibrotic encapsulation material suggesting that the MEAs were lifted out of the brain. Neural recordings showed a progressive drop in impedance, signal amplitude, and viable channels over time. These results provide evidence that signal loss in MEAs is truly multifactorial. Gliosis occurs in the first few months after implantation but does not prevent useful recordings for several years

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates

    PubMed Central

    Barrese, James C; Aceros, Juan; Donoghue, John P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Signal attenuation is a major problem facing intracortical sensors for chronic neuroprosthetic applications. Many studies suggest that failure is due to gliosis around the electrode tips, however, mechanical and material causes of failure are often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to progressive signal decline by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize structural changes in chronically implanted arrays and histology to examine the tissue response at corresponding implant sites. Approach We examined eight chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) explanted from non-human primates at times ranging from 37 to 1051 days post-implant. We used SEM, in vivo neural recordings, and histology (GFAP, Iba-1, NeuN). Three MEAs that were never implanted were also imaged as controls. Main results SEM revealed progressive corrosion of the platinum electrode tips and changes to the underlying silicon. The parylene insulation was prone to cracking and delamination, and in some instances the silicone elastomer also delaminated from the edges of the MEA. Substantial tissue encapsulation was observed and was often seen growing into defects in the platinum and parylene. These material defects became more common as the time in vivo increased. Histology at 37 and 1051 days post-implant showed gliosis, disruption of normal cortical architecture with minimal neuronal loss, and high Iba-1 reactivity, especially within the arachnoid and dura. Electrode tracts were either absent or barely visible in the cortex at 1051 days, but were seen in the fibrotic encapsulation material suggesting that the MEAs were lifted out of the brain. Neural recordings showed a progressive drop in impedance, signal amplitude, and viable channels over time. Significance These results provide evidence that signal loss in MEAs is truly multifactorial. Gliosis occurs in the first few months after implantation but does not

  15. Design, Fabrication, Simulation and Characterization of a Novel Dual-Sided Microelectrode Array for Deep Brain Recording and Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Huang, Hongen; Wang, Jue

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, a novel dual-sided microelectrode array is specially designed and fabricated for a rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model to study the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The fabricated microelectrode array can stimulate the subthalamic nucleus and simultaneously record electrophysiological information from multiple nuclei of the basal ganglia system. The fabricated microelectrode array has a long shaft of 9 mm and each planar surface is equipped with three stimulating sites (diameter of 100 μm), seven electrophysiological recording sites (diameter of 20 μm) and four sites with diameter of 50 μm used for neurotransmitter measurements in future work. The performances of the fabricated microelectrode array were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the stimulating effects of the fabricated microelectrode were evaluated by finite element modeling (FEM). Preliminary animal experiments demonstrated that the designed microelectrode arrays can record spontaneous discharge signals from the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus interna. The designed and fabricated microelectrode arrays provide a powerful research tool for studying the mechanisms of DBS in rat PD models.

  16. Design, Fabrication, Simulation and Characterization of a Novel Dual-Sided Microelectrode Array for Deep Brain Recording and Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Huang, Hongen; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel dual-sided microelectrode array is specially designed and fabricated for a rat Parkinson’s disease (PD) model to study the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). The fabricated microelectrode array can stimulate the subthalamic nucleus and simultaneously record electrophysiological information from multiple nuclei of the basal ganglia system. The fabricated microelectrode array has a long shaft of 9 mm and each planar surface is equipped with three stimulating sites (diameter of 100 μm), seven electrophysiological recording sites (diameter of 20 μm) and four sites with diameter of 50 μm used for neurotransmitter measurements in future work. The performances of the fabricated microelectrode array were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the stimulating effects of the fabricated microelectrode were evaluated by finite element modeling (FEM). Preliminary animal experiments demonstrated that the designed microelectrode arrays can record spontaneous discharge signals from the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus interna. The designed and fabricated microelectrode arrays provide a powerful research tool for studying the mechanisms of DBS in rat PD models. PMID:27314356

  17. Characterization of surface modification on microelectrode arrays for in vitro cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Chen, Jia-Jin J; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2008-02-01

    This study aims to investigate surface-modified microelectrodes on the microelectrode arrays (MEAs) for neuronal interfaces with in vitro cell culture. The polyimide (PI) MEA was fabricated by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were utilized to modify the microelectrode surface of the MEA. The SAMs' modified surface of microelectrodes offered a reliable interface to immobilize biological ligands through covalent bonding. To increase biocompatibility, the poly-D-lysine (PDL) was immobilized on the SAMs' modified microelectrodes. Several analytical techniques were used to define the physical structure and functional groups of surface-modified gold microelectrodes on the MEA. Spectra of the Fourier transform infrared reflection (FTIR) were applied to characterize the molecular structure of MUA-SAMs and PDL on the microelectrodes. The spectra, two peaks of amide I (at 1,613 cm(-1)) and amide II (at 1,548 cm(-1)), revealed that covalent amide bonding existed in PDL-MUA-SAMs modified surfaces. The thickness and formation of the MUA and PDL were also observed and quantified by using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The impedance measurement of PDL-MUA-SAMs modified MEA only increased slightly to an average of 524.6 +/- 55.8 kOmega from 352.9 +/- 34.4 kOmega of bare gold microelectrode (p < 0.05, N = 20). In addition, the time-course changes of total impedance resulting from cell sealing resistance and gap reactance were recorded for 7 days for inferring the growth of cell lines on the electrode contact of modified MEA. The experiment of 3T3 fibroblasts, PC12 cells, primary glial cells, and primary cortical neurons cultured on the modified MEAs displayed a good adhesion rate. These biocompatibility assays demonstrated that the neuronal cells are able to grow in a proximity to PDL-MUA-SAMs modified microelectrodes of the MEAs for effective electrophysiological stimulation

  18. A nanoporous alumina microelectrode array for functional cell-chip coupling.

    PubMed

    Wesche, Manuel; Hüske, Martin; Yakushenko, Alexey; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2012-12-14

    The design of electrode interfaces has a strong impact on cell-based bioelectronic applications. We present a new type of microelectrode array chip featuring a nanoporous alumina interface. The chip is fabricated in a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes using state-of-the-art clean room technology and self-assembled generation of nanopores by aluminum anodization. The electrode characteristics are investigated in phosphate buffered saline as well as under cell culture conditions. We show that the modified microelectrodes exhibit decreased impedance compared to planar microelectrodes, which is caused by a nanostructuring effect of the underlying gold during anodization. The stability and biocompatibility of the device are demonstrated by measuring action potentials from cardiomyocyte-like cells growing on top of the chip. Cross sections of the cell-surface interface reveal that the cell membrane seals the nanoporous alumina layer without bending into the sub-50 nm apertures. The nanoporous microelectrode array device may be used as a platform for combining extracellular recording of cell activity with stimulating topographical cues.

  19. A nanoporous alumina microelectrode array for functional cell-chip coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Manuel; Hüske, Martin; Yakushenko, Alexey; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Mayer, Dirk; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Wolfrum, Bernhard

    2012-12-01

    The design of electrode interfaces has a strong impact on cell-based bioelectronic applications. We present a new type of microelectrode array chip featuring a nanoporous alumina interface. The chip is fabricated in a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes using state-of-the-art clean room technology and self-assembled generation of nanopores by aluminum anodization. The electrode characteristics are investigated in phosphate buffered saline as well as under cell culture conditions. We show that the modified microelectrodes exhibit decreased impedance compared to planar microelectrodes, which is caused by a nanostructuring effect of the underlying gold during anodization. The stability and biocompatibility of the device are demonstrated by measuring action potentials from cardiomyocyte-like cells growing on top of the chip. Cross sections of the cell-surface interface reveal that the cell membrane seals the nanoporous alumina layer without bending into the sub-50 nm apertures. The nanoporous microelectrode array device may be used as a platform for combining extracellular recording of cell activity with stimulating topographical cues.

  20. A novel AC electrothermal micropump for biofluid transport using circular interdigitated microelectrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Alinaghi; Dalton, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Electrokinetic micropumps have been widely used in lab-on-a-chip devices. The AC electrothermal (ACET) effect is highly efficient for biofluidic micropumping, but is unable to generate high flow rates. Attempts to increase ACET flows, such as applying a wide range of actuation voltages, using asymmetric microelectrode arrays and using 3D microelectrodes have been reported. In this paper a novel idea of employing circular coplanar asymmetric microelectrodes placed on the perimeter of a microchannel is explored. An array of microelectrodes is simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The micropump output shows relatively high flow rates compared to other ACET micropumps which have the same electrode dimensions. Moreover, the idea of using different micropumps with scaled dimensions is investigated. The results show that a highly efficient ACET micropump can be achieved if an appropriate electrode size-to-channel dimension ratio is selected. The results also show that a micropump with a scale of 0.2 can show negligible flow rate, but if the electrodes are used in a micropump with the scale of 1, a flow rate of 15 ×106 μm3/s can be generated. This new ACET pump design can be utilized for lab-on-a-chip applications, specifically in biofluid delivery systems.

  1. Hybrid silicon focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pommerrenig, D.; Enders, D.; Trousil, L.; Capps, R.; Irwin, E.; Tollestrup, E.; Dereniak, E.

    1983-01-01

    Applications were demonstrated for hybrid silicon infrared CCD arrays in both ground and space based astronomical instrumentation. The primary goal was to provide a point of departure for both instrument designs and further development of the device. The test device is an indium doped silicon (Si:In) version of the 32 x 32 Rockwell 30331 surface channel hybrid silicon IRCCD. The device structure and a typical instrument interface are shown. The motivation for further study is presented along with a discussion in detail of some of the issues.

  2. Robust Functionalization of Large Microelectrode Arrays by Using Pulsed Potentiostatic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Rothe, Joerg; Frey, Olivier; Madangopal, Rajtarun; Rickus, Jenna; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of microelectrodes is a central step in the development of microsensors and microsensor arrays. Here, we present an electrodeposition scheme based on voltage pulses. Key features of this method are uniformity in the deposited electrode coatings, flexibility in the overall deposition area, i.e., the sizes and number of the electrodes to be coated, and precise control of the surface texture. Deposition and characterization of four different materials are demonstrated, including layers of high-surface-area platinum, gold, conducting polymer poly(ethylenedioxythiophene), also known as PEDOT, and the non-conducting polymer poly(phenylenediamine), also known as PPD. The depositions were conducted using a fully integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip with an array of 1024 microelectrodes. The pulsed potentiostatic deposition scheme is particularly suitable for functionalization of individual electrodes or electrode subsets of large integrated microelectrode arrays: the required deposition waveforms are readily available in an integrated system, the same deposition parameters can be used to functionalize the surface of either single electrodes or large arrays of thousands of electrodes, and the deposition method proved to be robust and reproducible for all materials tested. PMID:28025569

  3. Toward a comparison of microelectrodes for acute and chronic recordings.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew P; Rajdev, Pooja; Ellison, Casey; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2009-07-28

    Several variations of microelectrode arrays are used to record and stimulate intracortical neuronal activity. Bypassing the immune response to maintain a stable recording interface remains a challenge. Companies and researchers are continuously altering the material compositions and geometries of the arrays in order to discover a combination that allows for a chronic and stable electrode-tissue interface. From this interface, they wish to obtain consistent quality recordings and a stable, low impedance pathway for charge injection over extended periods of time. Despite numerous efforts, no microelectrode array design has managed to evade the host immune response and remain fully functional. This study is an initial effort comparing several microelectrode arrays with fundamentally different configurations for use in an implantable epilepsy prosthesis. Specifically, NeuroNexus (Michigan) probes, Cyberkinetics (Utah) Silicon and Iridium Oxide arrays, ceramic-based thin-film microelectrode arrays (Drexel), and Tucker-Davis Technologies (TDT) microwire arrays are evaluated over a 31-day period in an animal model. Microelectrodes are compared in implanted rats through impedance, charge capacity, signal-to-noise ratio, recording stability, and elicited immune response. Results suggest significant variability within and between microelectrode types with no clear superior array. Some applications for the microelectrode arrays are suggested based on data collected throughout the longitudinal study. Additionally, specific limitations of assaying biological phenomena and comparing fundamentally different microelectrode arrays in a highly variable system are discussed with suggestions on how to improve the reliability of observed results and steps needed to develop a more standardized microelectrode design.

  4. Hygroscopic particle behavior studied by interdigitated array microelectrode impedance sensors.

    PubMed

    Schindelholz, Eric; Tsui, Lok-kun; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-01-09

    The hygroscopic behavior of soluble salts bears importance in many research fields including atmospheric sciences, corrosion, porous building materials, and pharmaceuticals. Several methods have been used to study deliquescence (solid to liquid) and efflorescence (liquid to solid) phase transitions of these salts. In this study, we measured the deliquescence and efflorescence RH values of single salt microparticles deposited on an interdigitated microelectrode sensor via electrical impedance. The salts examined were NaCl, LiCl, NaBr, KCl, and MgCl2. Measured values were in agreement with in situ optical microscopic observations and, with the exception of MgCl2, literature values. In the case of MgCl2, deliquescence occurred at 33% RH and 12-15% RH, with the latter range being previously unreported. The depressed deliquescence RH was hypothesized to be a result of the formation of a metastable MgCl2 hydrate. Incomplete efflorescence of MgCl2 was also observed after exposure to <1.5% RH for up to 22 h due to formation of solid shells which trapped fluid. The phenomena elucidated by these results provide an explanation for the anomalous water retention and uptake behavior of MgCl2 below 33% RH reported elsewhere in the literature. The results presented in this study validate the use of this method as an alternative or complementary method for study of bulk-phase transitions of substrate-deposited particles across a broad RH range. These findings also demonstrate the utility of this method for detection of fluid trapping which cannot be directly ascertained by gravimetric and line-of-sight techniques commonly used in the study of hygroscopic particles.

  5. The fabrication of microelectrode array biochip on PET using plate-to-plate NIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beh, Khi Khim; Samsuri, Fahmi; Lee, Lai Seng; Ooi, Su Guan; Ong, Wei Jie; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2017-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films are useful for various applications due to the characterization of PET were flexibility, thermal resistance and chemical resistant. PET Films are widely used in both commercial and industrial today since they are highly demand in the market. In this study, microelectrode array biochip was fabricated on flexible PET film using (plate-to-plate) nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The PET films acted as substrate while PDMS as the mould. The Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould was attached on top of the PET film and additionally clamped between two pieces of glass. A mild force was applied to it for REM (replica moulding). A study was carried out upon the surface profiling of the PDMS mould and PET to monitor the possibility of deformation after applying force upon the samples. The experiment shall present the finding of required force to REM the microelectrode array biochip pattern on the PET film.

  6. Indirect voltammetric detection of fluoride ions in toothpaste on a comb-shaped interdigitated microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Cernanská, Monika; Tomcík, Peter; Jánosíková, Zuzana; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dusan

    2011-02-15

    A novel technique based on dynamic electrochemistry for the detection of fluoride ions was developed. It is based on its strong complexation with ferric ion. Formed fluoroferric complex is cathodically inactive at the potential of the reduction of free ferric aquo ion. The voltammetric and amperometric response of platinum comb-shaped interdigitated microelectrode array is decreased after fluoride addition. This decrease serves for the quantification of fluoride ions added to the solution. The detection limit of 4.5×10(-5) mol dm(-3) was achieved when one of the segments of interdigitated microelectrode array (IDA) was used as an indicating electrode. The detection limit is about one order of magnitude lower than in the case of conventional platinum macroelectrode. In comparison with ISE electrodes this method is faster and also avoiding large error resulting from the antilogarithmization of ISE Nerstian response. The method was applied to the analysis of toothpaste.

  7. Cell culture chamber with gas supply for prolonged recording of human neuronal cells on microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, Joose; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Mäki, Antti-Juhana; Ristola, Mervi; Narkilahti, Susanna; Kallio, Pasi

    2017-03-15

    Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator. The proposed chamber consists of a gas permeable silicone structure that enables gas transfer into the chamber. We show that the culture chamber supports the growth of the human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neurons both inside and outside an incubator. The structure provides very low evaporation, stable pH and osmolarity, and maintains strong signaling of hESC-derived neuronal networks over three-day MEA experiments. Existing systems are typically complex including continuous perfusion of medium or relatively large amount of gas to supply. The proposed chamber requires only a supply of very low flow rate (1.5ml/min) of non-humidified 5% CO2 gas. Utilizing dry gas supply makes the proposed chamber simple to use. Using the proposed culture structure on top of MEA, we can maintain hESC-derived neural networks over three days outside an incubator. Technically, the structure requires very low flow rate of dry gas supporting, however, low evaporation and maintaining the pH of the culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selective Stimulation and Measurement in the Cochlear Nucleus With the Spike Microelectrode Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Selective Stimulation and Measurement in the Cochlear Nucleus with the Spike Microelectrode Array F. MASE1, H. TAKAHASHI1, T. EJIRI1, M. NAKAO1, N...aren’t always effective, because we don’t have sufficient knowledge of the auditory pathways and the Cochlear Nucleus (CN) functions to stimulate the... Cochlear Nucleus functionally. Our goals are to enhance our understanding of such functions and to develop effective stimulating strategies of the CN

  9. Preliminary study of the thermal impact of a microelectrode array implanted in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sohee; Normann, Richard A; Harrison, Reid; Solzbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    One requirement of a chronically implantable, wireless neural interface device is the integration of electronic circuitry with the microelectrode array. Since the electronic IC dissipates a certain amount of power, it will affect the temperature in the tissues surrounding the implant site. In this paper, the thermal influence of an integrated, 3-dimensional Utah electrode array, to be implanted in the brain was investigated with simulations using the finite element method (FEM). A temperature increase in the brain tissue was predicted using preliminary simulations with simplified models. The model and method used in the simulations were verified by simple in vitro experiments.

  10. Electrical impedance characterization of cell growth on interdigitated microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi Hyun; Pyun, Jae-Chul; Cho, Sungbo

    2014-11-01

    Electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing is a method for label-free and real-time monitoring of biological cells, which has been increasingly employed in the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we fabricated an interdigitated electrode (IDE) array, which consists of 10 fingers, with a length of 1.2 mm, width of 50 μm, spacing of 50 μm, and thickness of 75 nm. The impedance spectra of the fabricated IDE were measured without or with cells in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz using a lock-in amplifier based system and characterized by equivalent circuit modelling. Regarding the total impedance as a series resistance (R) and capacitance (C) model, R and C parameters were traced at a selected frequency during cell growth. It was able to monitor cell adherence and proliferation dependent on the behaviours and characteristics of cells on the fabricated IDE array by monitoring RC parameters. The degree of changes in RC value during cell growth was dependent on the type of cells used.

  11. A Multi-Channel, Flex-Rigid ECoG Microelectrode Array for Visual Cortical Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Tolstosheeva, Elena; Gordillo-González, Víctor; Biefeld, Volker; Kempen, Ludger; Mandon, Sunita; Kreiter, Andreas K.; Lang, Walter

    2015-01-01

    High-density electrocortical (ECoG) microelectrode arrays are promising signal-acquisition platforms for brain-computer interfaces envisioned, e.g., as high-performance communication solutions for paralyzed persons. We propose a multi-channel microelectrode array capable of recording ECoG field potentials with high spatial resolution. The proposed array is of a 150 mm2 total recording area; it has 124 circular electrodes (100, 300 and 500 μm in diameter) situated on the edges of concentric hexagons (min. 0.8 mm interdistance) and a skull-facing reference electrode (2.5 mm2 surface area). The array is processed as a free-standing device to enable monolithic integration of a rigid interposer, designed for soldering of fine-pitch SMD-connectors on a minimal assembly area. Electrochemical characterization revealed distinct impedance spectral bands for the 100, 300 and 500 μm-type electrodes, and for the array's own reference. Epidural recordings from the primary visual cortex (V1) of an awake Rhesus macaque showed natural electrophysiological signals and clear responses to standard visual stimulation. The ECoG electrodes of larger surface area recorded signals with greater spectral power in the gamma band, while the skull-facing reference electrode provided higher average gamma power spectral density (γPSD) than the common average referencing technique. PMID:25569757

  12. Rigid spine reinforced polymer microelectrode array probe and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Tabada, Phillipe; Pannu, Satinderpall S

    2014-05-27

    A rigid spine-reinforced microelectrode array probe and fabrication method. The probe includes a flexible elongated probe body with conductive lines enclosed within a polymeric material. The conductive lines connect microelectrodes found near an insertion end of the probe to respective leads at a connector end of the probe. The probe also includes a rigid spine, such as made from titanium, fixedly attached to the probe body to structurally reinforce the probe body and enable the typically flexible probe body to penetrate and be inserted into tissue, such as neural tissue. By attaching or otherwise fabricating the rigid spine to connect to only an insertion section of the probe body, an integrally connected cable section of the probe body may remain flexible.

  13. An electrochemical immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode for the detection of chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Guo, Yemin; Zhao, Wenping; Wang, Xiangyou

    2015-02-01

    An electrochemical immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrodes (IDAMs) was developed for sensitive, specific and rapid detection of chlorpyrifos. Anti-chlorpyrifos monoclonal antibodies were orientedly immobilized onto the gold microelectrode surface through protein A. Chlorpyrifos were then captured by the immobilized antibody, resulting in an impedance change in the IDAMs surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect chlorpyrifos. Under optimum conditions, the impedance value change of chlorpyrifos was proportional to its concentrations in the range of 10(0)-10(5) ng/mL. The detection limit was found to be 0.014 ng/mL for chlorpyrifos. The proposed chlorpyrifos immunosensor could be used as a screening method in pesticide determination for the analysis of environmental, agricultural and pharmaceutical samples due to its rapidity, sensitivity and low cost.

  14. Accurate resistivity mouse brain mapping using microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Delattre, Vincent; Fraering, Patrick C; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-10-15

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed in post-mortem mice brains using a flexible probe with an embedded micrometric electrode array. Combined with a peak resistance frequency method this allowed obtaining intrinsic resistivity values of brain tissues and structures with submillimetric resolution. Reproducible resistivity measurements are reported, which allows the resistivity in the cortex, ventricle, fiber tracts, thalamus and basal ganglia to be differentiated. Measurements of brain slices revealed resistivity profiles correlated with the local density of cell bodies hence allowing to discriminate between the different cortical layers. Finally, impedance measurements were performed on a model of cauterized mouse brain evidencing the possibility to measure the spatial extent and the degree of the tissue denaturation due to the cauterization.

  15. Rapid odor perception in rat olfactory bulb by microelectrode array*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Qi; Zhuang, Liu-jing; Li, Rong; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Responses of 302 mitral/tufted (M/T) cells in the olfactory bulb were recorded from 42 anesthetized freely breathing rats using a 16-channel microwire electrode array. Saturated vapors of four pure chemicals, anisole, carvone, citral and isoamyl acetate were applied. After aligning spike trains to the initial phase of the inhalation after odor onset, the responses of M/T cells showed transient temporal features including excitatory and inhibitory patterns. Both odor-evoked patterns indicated that mammals recognize odors within a short respiration cycle after odor stimulus. Due to the small amount of information received from a single cell, we pooled results from all responsive M/T cells to study the ensemble activity. The firing rates of the cell ensembles were computed over 100 ms bins and population vectors were constructed. The high dimension vectors were condensed into three dimensions for visualization using principal component analysis. The trajectories of both excitatory and inhibitory cell ensembles displayed strong dynamics during odor stimulation. The distances among cluster centers were enlarged compared to those of the resting state. Thus, we presumed that pictures of odor information sent to higher brain regions were depicted and odor discrimination was completed within the first breathing cycle. PMID:23225857

  16. Synchronization of neurons in micro-electrode array cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposti, F.; Signorini, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    A lot of methods were created in last decade for the spatio-temporal analysis of multi-electrode array (MEA) neuronal data sets. In this paper we show how a new simple analysis approach that considers the total network activity, is able to show interesting neuronal network system dynamical features. In particular, we perform two different analyses: a neuronal connectivity examination studying networks at different days in vitro (div) and an analysis of the long per- iod effects of the administration of two common neuroactive drugs, Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5), to spontaneously spiking mature neuronal networks. Our analysis is performed considering burst topology, i.e., cataloguing network bursts as Global (if they involve more than the 25% of the MEA channels) or Local (if less that 25%). In the first analysis, this division allows to understand the network connectivity developments. The networking increases from div 1 to 6 building up an undifferentiated highly connected network. From div 6 to 10 the networking decreases (pruning) till reaching a plateau in a small-world like organization. The second analysis highlights substantial differences between long period effects of TTX and AP5. Results show that AP5, selectively blocking NMDA receptors and inhibiting long term potentiation, is unable to produce activity twisting in a network that already reached a developmental plateau, but it is able to desynchronize sub-network (Local) activity. TTX, on the other side, blocking any type of electrical communication among neurons, acts on the whole network synchronization. The important activity increment in the post-TTX epoch (+66%), together with the Global activity explosion, suggests the possibility of a long-term inhibitory-synapse depression mechanism.

  17. Interdigitated microelectrode array-coupled bipolar semiconductor photodiode array (IMEA-PDA) microchip for on-chip electrochemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukdeb; Kim, Min Jung; Tak, Yu Kyung; Kwon, Ho Taik; Song, Joon Myong

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and testing of a microchip wherein interdigitated microelectrode arrays (IMEA) were integrated with bipolar semiconductor photodiode array (PDA) chip to fabricate a highly compact embodiment for on-chip handling of solutions and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. A 12 x 12 micro array of photodiodes, each coupled with an interdigitated microelectrode array (IMEA), an array of current amplifiers, and a photodiode element-addressing circuit were integrated into a single 2 x 2 cm² IC chip. Each photodiode had dimensions of 300 x 300 μm² and the photodiode-to-photodiode distance was 100 μm. The chip was successfully applied to the on-chip quantification of electro-chemiluminescing probe-labeled single stranded oligonucleotides. The minimum detectable limit at signal/noise ≥ 3 was found to be 5 x 10⁻¹⁴ moles of oligonucleotides with a sample volume as low as 5 microl (i.e., 10 fmole/μl). The attractive features of the developed IMEA-PDA microchip are that a plurality of samples can be analyzed simultaneously using a chip and that for a given sample the data can be averaged from values obtained from multiple, individually addressed pixels. These in turn bring in speed and statistical confidence in analysis. The IMEA-PDA microchip system has the potential to be used as a versatile and highly compact chemical analysis tool for chemical sensing and metrology applications.

  18. Field-programmable lab-on-a-chip based on microelectrode dot array architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gary; Teng, Daniel; Lai, Yi-Tse; Lu, Yi-Wen; Ho, Yingchieh; Lee, Chen-Yi

    2014-09-01

    The fundamentals of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) digital microfluidics are very strong: advantageous capability in the manipulation of fluids, small test volumes, precise dynamic control and detection, and microscale systems. These advantages are very important for future biochip developments, but the development of EWOD microfluidics has been hindered by the absence of: integrated detector technology, standard commercial components, on-chip sample preparation, standard manufacturing technology and end-to-end system integration. A field-programmable lab-on-a-chip (FPLOC) system based on microelectrode dot array (MEDA) architecture is presented in this research. The MEDA architecture proposes a standard EWOD microfluidic component called 'microelectrode cell', which can be dynamically configured into microfluidic components to perform microfluidic operations of the biochip. A proof-of-concept prototype FPLOC, containing a 30 × 30 MEDA, was developed by using generic integrated circuits computer aided design tools, and it was manufactured with standard low-voltage complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, which allows smooth on-chip integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. By integrating 900 droplet detection circuits into microelectrode cells, the FPLOC has achieved large-scale integration of microfluidics and microelectronics. Compared to the full-custom and bottom-up design methods, the FPLOC provides hierarchical top-down design approach, field-programmability and dynamic manipulations of droplets for advanced microfluidic operations.

  19. Selective Stimulation of the Spinal Cord Surface Using a Stretchable Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Kathleen Williams; Guo, Liang; DeWeerth, Stephen P.; Hochman, Shawn

    2011-01-01

    By electrically stimulating the spinal cord, it is possible to activate functional populations of neurons that modulate motor and sensory function. One method for accessing these neurons is via their associated axons, which project as functionally segregated longitudinal columns of white-matter funiculi (i.e., spinal tracts). To stimulate spinal tracts without penetrating the cord, we have recently developed technology that enables close-proximity, multi-electrode contact with the spinal cord surface. Our stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs) are fabricated using an elastomer polydimethylsiloxane substrate and can be wrapped circumferentially around the spinal cord to optimize electrode contact. Here, sMEAs were used to stimulate the surfaces of rat spinal cords maintained in vitro, and their ability to selectively activate axonal surface tracts was compared to rigid bipolar tungsten microelectrodes pressed firmly onto the cord surface. Along dorsal column tracts, the axonal response to sMEA stimulation was compared to that evoked by rigid microelectrodes through measurement of their evoked axonal compound action potentials (CAPs). Paired t-tests failed to reveal significant differences between the sMEA’s and the rigid microelectrode’s stimulus resolution, or in their ranges of evoked CAP conduction velocities. Additionally, dual-site stimulation using sMEA electrodes recruited spatially distinct populations of spinal axons. Site-specific stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus – a tract capable of evoking locomotor-like activity – recruited ventral root efferent activity that spanned several spinal segments. These findings indicate that the sMEA stimulates the spinal cord surface with selectivity similar to that of rigid microelectrodes, while possessing potential advantages concerning circumferential contact and mechanical compatibility with the cord surface. PMID:21541256

  20. Pre-implantation electrochemical characterization of a Parylene C sheath microelectrode array probe.

    PubMed

    Hara, Seth A; Kim, Brian J; Kuo, Jonathan T W; Lee, Curtis; Gutierrez, Christian A; Hoang, Tuan; Meng, Ellis

    2012-01-01

    We present the preliminary electrochemical characterization of 3D Parylene C sheath microelectrode array probes towards realizing reliable chronic neuroprosthetic recordings. Electrochemical techniques were used to verify electrode integrity after our novel post-fabrication thermoforming process was applied to flat surface micromachined structures to achieve a hollow sheath probe shape. Characterization of subsequent neurotrophic coatings was performed and accelerated life testing was used to simulate six months in vivo. Prior to probe implantation, crosstalk was measured and electrode surface properties were evaluated through the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. Microelectrode Array Recordings from the Ventral Roots in Chronically Implanted Cats

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Shubham; Bauman, Matthew J.; Fisher, Lee E.; Weber, Douglas J.; Gaunt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral spinal roots contain the axons of spinal motoneurons and provide the only location in the peripheral nervous system where recorded neural activity can be assured to be motor rather than sensory. This study demonstrates recordings of single unit activity from these ventral root axons using floating microelectrode arrays (FMAs). Ventral root recordings were characterized by examining single unit yield and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) with 32-channel FMAs implanted chronically in the L6 and L7 spinal roots of nine cats. Single unit recordings were performed for implant periods of up to 12 weeks. Motor units were identified based on active discharge during locomotion and inactivity under anesthesia. Motor unit yield and SNR were calculated for each electrode, and results were grouped by electrode site size, which were varied systematically between 25 and 160 μm to determine effects on signal quality. The unit yields and SNR did not differ significantly across this wide range of electrode sizes. Both SNR and yield decayed over time, but electrodes were able to record spikes with SNR >2 up to 12 weeks post-implant. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to record single unit activity from multiple isolated motor units with penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the ventral spinal roots. This approach could be useful for creating a spinal nerve interface for advanced neural prostheses, and results of this study will be used to improve design of microelectrodes for chronic neural recording in the ventral spinal roots. PMID:25071697

  2. 3-D Printed Adjustable Microelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haipeng; Rahman, Taibur; Du, Dan; Panat, Rahul; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-07-01

    Printed Electronics has emerged as an important fabrication technique that overcomes several shortcomings of conventional lithography and provides custom rapid prototyping for various sensor applications. In this work, silver microelectrode arrays (MEA) with three different electrode spacing were fabricated using 3-D printing by the aerosol jet technology. The microelectrodes were printed at a length scale of about 15 μm, with the space between the electrodes accurately controlled to about 2 times (30 μm, MEA30), 6.6 times (100 μm, MEA100) and 12 times (180 μm, MEA180) the trace width, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide and glucose were chosen as model analytes to demonstrate the performance of the MEA for sensor applications. The electrodes are shown to reduce hydrogen peroxide with a reduction current proportional to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide for certain concentration ranges. Further, the sensitivity of the current for the three electrode configurations was shown to decrease with an increase in the microelectrode spacing (sensitivity of MEA30: MEA100: MEA180 was in the ratio of 3.7: 2.8: 1), demonstrating optimal MEA geometry for such applications. The noise of the different electrode configurations is also characterized and shows a dramatic reduction from MEA30 to MEA100 and MEA180 electrodes. Further, it is shown that the response current is proportional to MEA100 and MEA180 electrode areas, but not for the area of MEA30 electrode (the current density of MEA30 : MEA100 : MEA180 is 0.25 : 1 : 1), indicating that the MEA30 electrodes suffer from diffusion overlap from neighboring electrodes. The work thus establishes the lower limit of microelectrode spacing for our geometry. The lowest detection limit of the MEAs was calculated (with S/N = 3) to be 0.45 μM. Glucose oxidase was immobilized on MEA100 microelectrodes to demonstrate a glucose biosensor application. The sensitivity of glucose biosensor was 1.73 μAmM(-1) and the calculated value of

  3. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Single-Cell Exocytosis Utilizing Individually Addressable Carbon Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Adams, Kelly L.; Luber, Sarah J.; Eves, Daniel J.; Heien, Michael L.; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2009-01-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of carbon microelectrode arrays (MEAs) and their application to spatially and temporally resolve neurotransmitter release from single pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The carbon MEAs are composed of individually addressable 2.5-μm-radius microdisks embedded in glass. The fabrication involves pulling a multibarrel glass capillary containing a single carbon fiber in each barrel into a sharp tip, followed by beveling the electrode tip to form an array (10−20 μm) of carbon microdisks. This simple fabrication procedure eliminates the need for complicated wiring of the independent electrodes, thus allowing preparation of high-density individually addressable microelectrodes. The carbon MEAs have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, steady-state and fast-scan voltammetry, and numerical simulations. Amperometric results show that subcellular heterogeneity in single-cell exocytosis can be electrochemically detected with MEAs. These ultrasmall electrochemical probes are suitable for detecting fast chemical events in tight spaces, as well as for developing multifunctional electrochemical microsensors. PMID:18232712

  4. Development of Microelectrode Arrays Using Electroless Plating for CMOS-Based Direct Counting of Bacterial and HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Kiichi; Ota, Shoko; Gamo, Kohei; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The development of two new types of high-density, electroless plated microelectrode arrays for CMOS-based high-sensitivity direct bacteria and HeLa cell counting are presented. For emerging high-sensitivity direct pathogen counting, two technical challenges must be addressed. One is the formation of a bacteria-sized microelectrode, and the other is the development of a high-sensitivity and high-speed amperometry circuit. The requirement for microelectrode formation is that the gold microelectrodes are required to be as small as the target cell. By improving a self-aligned electroless plating technique, the dimensions of the microelectrodes on a CMOS sensor chip in this work were successfully reduced to 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm. This is 1/20th of the smallest size reported in the literature. Since a bacteria-sized microelectrode has a severe limitation on the current flow, the amperometry circuit has to have a high sensitivity and high speed with low noise. In this work, a current buffer was inserted to mitigate the potential fluctuation. Three test chips were fabricated using a 0.6- μm CMOS process: two with 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm (1024 × 1024 and 4 × 4) sensor arrays and one with 6- μm square (16 × 16) sensor arrays; and the microelectrodes were formed on them using electroless plating. The uniformity among the 1024 × 1024 electrodes arranged with a pitch of 3.6 μm × 4.45 μm was optically verified. For improving sensitivity, the trenches on each microelectrode were developed and verified optically and electrochemically for the first time. Higher sensitivity can be achieved by introducing a trench structure than by using a conventional microelectrode formed by contact photolithography. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements obtained using the 1.2 μm × 2.05 μm 4 × 4 and 6- μm square 16 × 16 sensor array with electroless-plated microelectrodes successfully demonstrated direct counting of the bacteria-sized microbeads and HeLa cells.

  5. A Multimodal, SU-8 - Platinum - Polyimide Microelectrode Array for Chronic In Vivo Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Márton, Gergely; Orbán, Gábor; Kiss, Marcell; Fiáth, Richárd; Pongrácz, Anita; Ulbert, István

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of polymers as insulator and bulk materials of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) makes the realization of flexible, biocompatible sensors possible, which are suitable for various neurophysiological experiments such as in vivo detection of local field potential changes on the surface of the neocortex or unit activities within the brain tissue. In this paper the microfabrication of a novel, all-flexible, polymer-based MEA is presented. The device consists of a three dimensional sensor configuration with an implantable depth electrode array and brain surface electrodes, allowing the recording of electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals with laminar ones, simultaneously. In vivo recordings were performed in anesthetized rat brain to test the functionality of the device under both acute and chronic conditions. The ECoG electrodes recorded slow-wave thalamocortical oscillations, while the implanted component provided high quality depth recordings. The implants remained viable for detecting action potentials of individual neurons for at least 15 weeks. PMID:26683306

  6. Tracking axonal action potential propagation on a high-density microelectrode array across hundreds of sites.

    PubMed

    Bakkum, Douglas J; Frey, Urs; Radivojevic, Milos; Russell, Thomas L; Müller, Jan; Fiscella, Michele; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Axons are traditionally considered stable transmission cables, but evidence of the regulation of action potential propagation demonstrates that axons may have more important roles. However, their small diameters render intracellular recordings challenging, and low-magnitude extracellular signals are difficult to detect and assign. Better experimental access to axonal function would help to advance this field. Here we report methods to electrically visualize action potential propagation and network topology in cortical neurons grown over custom arrays, which contain 11,011 microelectrodes and are fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Any neuron lying on the array can be recorded at high spatio-temporal resolution, and simultaneously precisely stimulated with little artifact. We find substantial velocity differences occurring locally within single axons, suggesting that the temporal control of a neuron's output may contribute to neuronal information processing.

  7. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a photosensitive polyimide thin-film microelectrode array suitable for epiretinal stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epiretinal implants based on microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology with a polyimide (PI) material are being proposed for application. Many kinds of non-photosensitive PIs have good biocompatibility and stability as typical MEMS materials for implantable electrodes. However, the effects of MEMS microfabrication, sterilization and implantation using a photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) microelectrode array for epiretinal electrical stimulation has not been extensively examined. Methods A novel PSPI (Durimide 7510) microelectrode array for epiretinal electrical stimulation was designed, fabricated based on MEMS processing and microfabrication techniques. The biocompatibility of our new microelectrode was tested in vitro using an MTT assay and direct contact tests between the microelectrode surface and cells. Electrochemical impedance characteristics were tested based on a three-electrode testing method. The reliability and stability was evaluated by a chronic implantation of a non-functional array within the rabbit eye. Histological examination and SEM were performed to monitor possible damage of the retina and microelectrodes. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were recorded during the acute stimulation of the retina. Results The substrate was made of PSPI and the electrode material was platinum (Pt). The PSPI microelectrode array showed good biocompatibility and appropriate impedance characteristics for epiretinal stimulation. After a 6-month epiretinal implantation in the eyes of rabbits, we found no local retinal toxicity and no mechanical compression caused by the array. The Pt electrodes adhesion to the PSPI remained stable. A response to electrical stimuli was with recording electrodes lying on the visual cortex. Conclusion We provide a relevant design and fundamental characteristics of a PSPI microelectrode array. Strong evidences on testing indicate that implantation is safe in terms of mechanical pressure and biocompatibility of PSPI

  8. Quantifying long-term microelectrode array functionality using chronic in vivo impedance testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Abhishek; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term acquisition of high-quality neural recordings is a cornerstone of neuroprosthetic system design. Mitigating the experimental variability of chronically implanted arrays has been a formidable task because the sensor recording sites can be influenced by biotic and abiotic responses. Several studies have implicated changes in electrical interface impedance as a preliminary marker to infer electrode viability. Microelectrode impedance plays an important role in the monitoring of low amplitude and high-resolution extracellular neural signals. In this work, we seek to quantify long-term microelectrode array functionality and derive an impedance-based predictor for electrode functionality that correlates the recording site electrical properties with the functional neuronal recordings in vivo. High temporal resolution metrics of this type would allow one to assess, predict, and improve electrode performance in the future. In a large cohort of animals, we performed daily impedance measurements and neural signal recordings over long periods (up to 21 weeks) of time in rats using tungsten microwire arrays implanted into the somatosensory cortex. This study revealed that there was a time-varying trend in the modulation of impedance that was related to electrode performance. Single units were best detected from electrodes at time points when the electrode entered into the 40-150 KΩ impedance range. This impedance trend was modeled across the full cohort of animals to predict future electrode performance. The model was tested on data from all animals and was able to provide predictions of electrode performance chronically. Insight from this study can be combined with knowledge of electrode materials and histological analysis to provide a more comprehensive predictive model of electrode failure in the future.

  9. Platinum nanowire microelectrode arrays for neurostimulation applications: Fabrication, characterization, and in-vitro retinal cell stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, John J., III

    Implantable electrical neurostimulating devices are being developed for a number of applications, including artificial vision through retinal stimulation. The epiretinal prosthesis will use a two-dimensional array microelectrodes to address individual cells of the retina. MEMS fabrication processes can produce arrays of microelectrodes with these dimensions, but there are two critical issues that they cannot satisfy. One, the stimulating electrodes are the only part of the implanted electrical device that penetrate through the water impermeable package, and must do so without sacrificing hermeticity. Two, As electrode size decreases, the current density (A cm-2 ) increases, due to increased electrochemical impedance. This reduces the amount of charge that can be safely injected into the tissue. To date, MEMS processing method, cannot produce electrode arrays with good, prolonged hermetic properties. Similarly, MEMS approaches do not account for the increased impedance caused by decreased surface area. For these reasons there is a strong motivation for the development of a water-impermeable, substrate-penetrating electrode array with low electrochemical impedance. This thesis presents a stimulating electrode array fabricated from platinum nanowires using a modified electrochemical template synthesis approach. Nanowires are electrochemically deposited from ammonium hexachloroplatinate solution into lithographically patterned nanoporous anodic alumina templates to produce microarrays of platinum nanowires. The platinum nanowires penetrating through the ceramic aluminum oxide template serve as parallel electrical conduits through the water impermeable, electrically insulating substrate. Electrode impedance can be adjusted by either controlling the nanowire hydrous platinum oxide content or by partially etching the alumina template to expose additional surface area. A stepwise approach to this project was taken. First, the electrochemistry of ammonium

  10. 3D-nanostructured boron-doped diamond for microelectrode array neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Piret, Gaëlle; Hébert, Clément; Mazellier, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Cottance, Myline; Lissorgues, Gaelle; Heuschkel, Marc O; Picaud, Serge; Bergonzo, Philippe; Yvert, Blaise

    2015-06-01

    The electrode material is a key element in the design of long-term neural implants and neuroprostheses. To date, the ideal electrode material offering high longevity, biocompatibility, low-noise recording and high stimulation capabilities remains to be found. We show that 3D-nanostructured boron doped diamond (BDD), an innovative material consisting in a chemically stable material with a high aspect ratio structure obtained by encapsulation of a carbon nanotube template within two BDD nanolayers, allows neural cell attachment, survival and neurite extension. Further, we developed arrays of 20-μm-diameter 3D-nanostructured BDD microelectrodes for neural interfacing. These microelectrodes exhibited low impedances and low intrinsic recording noise levels. In particular, they allowed the detection of low amplitude (10-20 μV) local-field potentials, single units and multiunit bursts neural activity in both acute whole embryonic hindbrain-spinal cord preparations and long-term hippocampal cell cultures. Also, cyclic voltammetry measurements showed a wide potential window of about 3 V and a charge storage capacity of 10 mC.cm(-2), showing high potentiality of this material for neural stimulation. These results demonstrate the attractiveness of 3D-nanostructured BDD as a novel material for neural interfacing, with potential applications for the design of biocompatible neural implants for the exploration and rehabilitation of the nervous system.

  11. Microfabrication, characterization and in vivo MRI compatibility of diamond microelectrodes array for neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Clément; Warnking, Jan; Depaulis, Antoine; Garçon, Laurie Amandine; Mermoux, Michel; Eon, David; Mailley, Pascal; Omnès, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing still requires highly stable and biocompatible materials, in particular for in vivo applications. Indeed, most of the currently used materials are degraded and/or encapsulated by the proximal tissue leading to a loss of efficiency. Here, we considered boron doped diamond microelectrodes to address this issue and we evaluated the performances of a diamond microelectrode array. We described the microfabrication process of the device and discuss its functionalities. We characterized its electrochemical performances by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in saline buffer and observed the typical diamond electrode electrochemical properties, wide potential window and low background current, allowing efficient electrochemical detection. The charge storage capacitance and the modulus of the electrochemical impedance were found to remain in the same range as platinum electrodes used for standard commercial devices. Finally we observed a reduced Magnetic Resonance Imaging artifact when the device was implanted on a rat cortex, suggesting that boron doped-diamond is a very promising electrode material allowing functional imaging.

  12. Extracellular recordings from locally dense microelectrode arrays coupled to dissociated cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Berdondini, L; Massobrio, P; Chiappalone, M; Tedesco, M; Imfeld, K; Maccione, A; Gandolfo, M; Koudelka-Hep, M; Martinoia, S

    2009-03-15

    High-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) enabled by recent developments of microelectronic circuits (CMOS-MEA) and providing spatial resolutions down to the cellular level open the perspective to access simultaneously local and overall neuronal network activities expressed by in vitro preparations. The short inter-electrode separation results in a gain of information on the micro-circuit neuronal dynamics and signal propagation, but requires the careful evaluation of the time resolution as well as the assessment of possible cross-talk artifacts. In this respect, we have realized and tested Pt high-density (HD)-MEAs featuring four local areas with 10microm inter-electrode spacing and providing a suitable noise level for the assessment of the high-density approach. First, simulated results show how possible artifacts (duplicated spikes) can be theoretically observed on nearby microelectrodes only for very high-shunt resistance values (e.g. R(sh)=50 kOmega generates up to 60% of false positives). This limiting condition is not compatible with typical experimental conditions (i.e. dense but not confluent cultures). Experiments performed on spontaneously active cortical neuronal networks show that spike synchronicity decreases by increasing the time resolution and analysis results show that the detected synchronous spikes on nearby electrodes are likely to be unresolved (in time) fast local propagations. Finally, functional connectivity analysis results show stronger local connections than long connections spread homogeneously over the whole network demonstrating the expected gain in detail provided by the spatial resolution.

  13. Hydrophilic modification of neural microelectrode arrays based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Su, Huan-Chieh; Chuang, Shih-Chang; Yen, Shiang-Jie; Chen, Yung-Chan; Lee, Yu-Tao; Chen, Hsin; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Yen-Chung; Yeh, Shih-Rung; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2010-12-01

    To decrease the impedance of microelectrode arrays, for neuroscience applications we have fabricated and tested MEA based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes. With decreasing physical size of a microelectrode, its impedance increases and charge-transfer capability decreases. To decrease the impedance, the effective surface area of the electrode must generally be increased. We explored the effect of plasma treatment on the surface wettability of MWCNT. With a steam-plasma treatment the surface of MWCNT becomes converted from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic; this hydrophilic property is attributed to -OH bonding on the surface of MWCNT. We reported the synthesis at 400 °C of MWCNT on nickel-titanium multilayered metal catalysts by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Applying plasma with a power less than 25 W for 10 s improved the electrochemical and biological properties, and circumvented the limitation of the surface reverting to a hydrophobic condition; a hydrophilic state is maintained for at least one month. The MEA was used to record neural signals of a lateral giant cell from an American crayfish. The response amplitude of the action potential was about 275 µV with 1 ms period; the recorded data had a ratio of signal to noise up to 40.12 dB. The improved performance of the electrode makes feasible the separation of neural signals and the recognition of their distinct shapes. With further development the rapid treatment will be useful for long-term recording applications.

  14. Further Evaluation of DNT Hazard Screening using Neural Networks from Rat Cortical Neurons on Multi-well Microelectrode Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals have not been characterized for their DNT potential. Due to the need for DNT hazard identification, efforts to develop screening assays for DNT potential is a high priority. Multi-well microelectrode arrays (MEA) measure the spontaneous activity of electr...

  15. Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons P Valdivia1, M Martin2, WR LeFew3, D Hall3, J Ross1, K Houck2 and TJ Shafer3 1Axion Biosystems, Atlanta GA and 2NCCT, 3ISTD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RT...

  16. Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of the Neuroactivity of ToxCast Compounds Using Multi-well Microelectrode Array Recordings in Primary Cortical Neurons P Valdivia1, M Martin2, WR LeFew3, D Hall3, J Ross1, K Houck2 and TJ Shafer3 1Axion Biosystems, Atlanta GA and 2NCCT, 3ISTD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RT...

  17. Further Evaluation of DNT Hazard Screening using Neural Networks from Rat Cortical Neurons on Multi-well Microelectrode Arrays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thousands of chemicals have not been characterized for their DNT potential. Due to the need for DNT hazard identification, efforts to develop screening assays for DNT potential is a high priority. Multi-well microelectrode arrays (MEA) measure the spontaneous activity of electr...

  18. A Research on Sour Sensation Mechanism of Fungiform Taste Receptor Cells Based on Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Peihua; Xiao, Lidan; Liu, Qingjun; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Taste receptor cells as the fundamental units of taste sensation are not only passive receivers to outside stimulus, but some primary process for the signals and information. In this paper, an innovation on acquisition of taste receptor cells was introduced and larger amount of cells could be obtained. A multichannel microelectrode array (MEA) system was applied in signal recording, which is used in non-invasive, multiple and simultaneous extracellular recording of taste receptor cells. The cells were treated with sour solutions of different pHs, and the relations between concentration of hydrogen and firing rate were observed. Firing rates on pH 7, pH 4 and pH 2 were approximately 1.38±0.01 (MEAN±SE)/s, 1.61±0.07/s and 2.75+0.15/s.

  19. 3D axonal network coupled to Microelectrode Arrays: A simulation model to study neuronal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Appali, Revathi; Sriperumbudur, Kiran K; van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Action Potentials in a neuron are generated and propagated by exchange of ions through the membrane. The model of Hodgkin and Huxley (HH) describes these time-dependent complex ion dynamics. We have implemented the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, one of the simplified versions of HH model on a pyramidal neuron with branches of axons to study the spontaneous activity of neurons. The network is then coupled to Micro-Electrode Arrays to record the extracellular potential in a neurochip environment. This in silico model is used to study the coupling of AP with the electrodes. Such a model is also a first step to investigate the morphological influence of neurons on their signaling properties.

  20. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond microelectrode arrays monitor cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Maybeck, Vanessa; Edgington, Robert; Bongrain, Alexandre; Welch, Joseph O; Scorsone, Emanuel; Bergonzo, Philippe; Jackman, Richard B; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of diamond-based electronics in the area of biological interfacing has not been as thoroughly explored as applications in electrochemical sensing. However, the biocompatibility of diamond, large safe electrochemical window, stability, and tunable electronic properties provide opportunities to develop new devices for interfacing with electrogenic cells. Here, the fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BNCD) electrodes and their interfacing with cardiomyocyte-like HL-1 cells to detect cardiac action potentials are presented. A nonreductive means of structuring doped and undoped diamond on the same substrate is shown. The resulting BNCD electrodes show high stability under mechanical stress generated by the cells. It is shown that by fabricating the entire surface of the MEA with NCD, in patterns of conductive doped, and isolating undoped regions, signal detection may be improved up to four-fold over BNCD electrodes passivated with traditional isolators.

  1. Multielement microelectrode array sensors and compact instrumentation development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.S.; Balazs, G.B.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Hargrove, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The increasing emphasis on environmental issues, waste reduction, and improved efficiency for industrial processes has spurred the development of new chemical sensors for field, or in-plant use. Specifically, sensors are needed to gauge the effectiveness of remediation efforts for sites which have become contaminated, to effect waste minimization, and to detect the presence of toxic, hazardous, or otherwise regulated chemicals in waste effluents, drinking water, and other environmental systems. In this regard, electrochemical sensors are particularly useful for the measurement of inorganics in aqueous systems. Electrochemical sensors have the attractive features of high sensitivity, low cost, small size, versatility of use, and are capable of stand-alone operation. This paper reviews our work on the development of microelectrode array sensors and user-friendly, compact instrumentation which we have developed for environmental and process control applications.

  2. Measurement of electrical conduction properties of intact embryonic murine hearts by extracellular microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David G; Natarajan, Anupama

    2012-01-01

    The study of the embryonic development of the cardiac conduction system and its congenital and toxicological defects requires protocols to measure electrical conduction through the myocardium. However, available methods either lack spatial information, necessitate the hearts to be sliced and mounted, or require specialized equipment. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are plates with embedded surface electrodes to measure localized extracellular ionic currents (field potentials) created by the depolarization and repolarization of cultured cells and tissue slices. Here we describe a protocol using MEAs to examine electrical conduction through intact and beating cultured hearts isolated from mouse embryos at 10.5 days postcoitus. This method allows measurements of conduction time, estimates of conduction velocity, atrioventricular conduction delay and block, and heart rate and rhythmicity.

  3. The potential of microelectrode arrays and microelectronics for biomedical research and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian L; Livi, Paolo; Lewandowska, Marta K; Fiscella, Michele; Roscic, Branka; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are devices that can be used in biomedical and basic in vitro research to provide extracellular electrophysiological information about biological systems at high spatial and temporal resolution. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) is a technology with which MEAs can be produced on a microscale featuring high spatial resolution and excellent signal-to-noise characteristics. CMOS MEAs are specialized for the analysis of complete electrogenic cellular networks at the cellular or subcellular level in dissociated cultures, organotypic cultures, and acute tissue slices; they can also function as biosensors to detect biochemical events. Models of disease or the response of cellular networks to pharmacological compounds can be studied in vitro, allowing one to investigate pathologies, such as cardiac arrhythmias, memory impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, or vision impairment caused by ganglion cell degeneration in the retina.

  4. Iridium Oxide Microelectrode Arrays for In Vitro Stimulation of Individual Rat Neurons from Dissociated Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Eick, Stefan; Wallys, Jens; Hofmann, Boris; van Ooyen, André; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We present the first in vitro extracellular stimulation of individual neurons from dissociated cultures with iridium oxide (IrOx) electrodes. Microelectrode arrays with sputtered IrOx films (SIROF) were developed for electrophysiological investigations with electrogenic cells. The microelectrodes were characterized with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, revealing rough and porous electrodes with enlarged surface areas. As shown by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the large surface area in combination with the good electrochemical properties of SIROF resulted in high charge storage capacity and low electrode impedance. Thus, we could transfer the good properties of IrOx as material for in vivo stimulation electrodes to multi-electrode arrays with electrode diameters as small as 10 μm for in vitro applications. Single rat cortical neurons from dissociated cultures were successfully stimulated to fire action potentials using single or trains of biphasic rectangular voltage-controlled stimulation pulses. The stimulated cell's membrane potential was simultaneously monitored using whole-cell current-clamp recordings. This experimental configuration allowed direct evaluation of the influence of pulse phase sequence, amplitude, and number on the stimulation success ratio and action potential latency. Negative phase first pulses were more effective for extracellular stimulation and caused reduced latency in comparison to positive phase first pulses. Increasing the pulse amplitude also improved stimulation reliability. However, in order to prevent cell or electrode damage, the pulse amplitude is limited to voltages below the threshold for irreversible electrochemical reactions at the electrode. As an alternative to increasing the amplitude, a higher number of stimulation pulses was also shown to increase stimulation success. PMID:19949459

  5. Iridium oxide microelectrode arrays for in vitro stimulation of individual rat neurons from dissociated cultures.

    PubMed

    Eick, Stefan; Wallys, Jens; Hofmann, Boris; van Ooyen, André; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We present the first in vitro extracellular stimulation of individual neurons from dissociated cultures with iridium oxide (IrO(x)) electrodes. Microelectrode arrays with sputtered IrO(x) films (SIROF) were developed for electrophysiological investigations with electrogenic cells. The microelectrodes were characterized with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, revealing rough and porous electrodes with enlarged surface areas. As shown by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the large surface area in combination with the good electrochemical properties of SIROF resulted in high charge storage capacity and low electrode impedance. Thus, we could transfer the good properties of IrO(x) as material for in vivo stimulation electrodes to multi-electrode arrays with electrode diameters as small as 10 mum for in vitro applications. Single rat cortical neurons from dissociated cultures were successfully stimulated to fire action potentials using single or trains of biphasic rectangular voltage-controlled stimulation pulses. The stimulated cell's membrane potential was simultaneously monitored using whole-cell current-clamp recordings. This experimental configuration allowed direct evaluation of the influence of pulse phase sequence, amplitude, and number on the stimulation success ratio and action potential latency. Negative phase first pulses were more effective for extracellular stimulation and caused reduced latency in comparison to positive phase first pulses. Increasing the pulse amplitude also improved stimulation reliability. However, in order to prevent cell or electrode damage, the pulse amplitude is limited to voltages below the threshold for irreversible electrochemical reactions at the electrode. As an alternative to increasing the amplitude, a higher number of stimulation pulses was also shown to increase stimulation success.

  6. How to Culture, Record and Stimulate Neuronal Networks on Micro-electrode Arrays (MEAs)

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Rolston, John D.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    For the last century, many neuroscientists around the world have dedicated their lives to understanding how neuronal networks work and why they stop working in various diseases. Studies have included neuropathological observation, fluorescent microscopy with genetic labeling, and intracellular recording in both dissociated neurons and slice preparations. This protocol discusses another technology, which involves growing dissociated neuronal cultures on micro-electrode arrays (also called multi-electrode arrays, MEAs). There are multiple advantages to using this system over other technologies. Dissociated neuronal cultures on MEAs provide a simplified model in which network activity can be manipulated with electrical stimulation sequences through the array's multiple electrodes. Because the network is small, the impact of stimulation is limited to observable areas, which is not the case in intact preparations. The cells grow in a monolayer making changes in morphology easy to monitor with various imaging techniques. Finally, cultures on MEAs can survive for over a year in vitro which removes any clear time limitations inherent with other culturing techniques.1 Our lab and others around the globe are utilizing this technology to ask important questions about neuronal networks. The purpose of this protocol is to provide the necessary information for setting up, caring for, recording from and electrically stimulating cultures on MEAs. In vitro networks provide a means for asking physiologically relevant questions at the network and cellular levels leading to a better understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:20517199

  7. Reusable conductimetric array of interdigitated microelectrodes for the readout of low-density microarrays.

    PubMed

    Mallén, Maria; Díaz-González, María; Bonilla, Diana; Salvador, Juan P; Marco, María P; Baldi, Antoni; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2014-06-17

    Low-density protein microarrays are emerging tools in diagnostics whose deployment could be primarily limited by the cost of fluorescence detection schemes. This paper describes an electrical readout system of microarrays comprising an array of gold interdigitated microelectrodes and an array of polydimethylsiloxane microwells, which enabled multiplexed detection of up to thirty six biological events on the same substrate. Similarly to fluorescent readout counterparts, the microarray can be developed on disposable glass slide substrates. However, unlike them, the presented approach is compact and requires a simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The system makes use of urease labeled affinity reagents for developing the microarrays and is based on detection of conductivity changes taking place when ionic species are generated in solution due to the catalytic hydrolysis of urea. The use of a polydimethylsiloxane microwell array facilitates the positioning of the measurement solution on every spot of the microarray. Also, it ensures the liquid tightness and isolation from the surrounding ones during the microarray readout process, thereby avoiding evaporation and chemical cross-talk effects that were shown to affect the sensitivity and reliability of the system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by carrying out the readout of a microarray for boldenone anabolic androgenic steroid hormone. Analytical results are comparable to those obtained by fluorescent scanner detection approaches. The estimated detection limit is 4.0 ng mL(-1), this being below the threshold value set by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Community.

  8. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  9. Neural Activity Propagation in an Unfolded Hippocampal Preparation with a Penetrating Micro-electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Reyes, Luis E.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing a new in vitro flat hippocampus preparation combined with a micro-machined array to map neural activity in the hippocampus. The transverse hippocampal slice preparation is the most common tissue preparation to study hippocampus electrophysiology. A longitudinal hippocampal slice was also developed in order to investigate longitudinal connections in the hippocampus. The intact mouse hippocampus can also be maintained in vitro because its thickness allows adequate oxygen diffusion. However, these three preparations do not provide direct access to neural propagation since some of the tissue is either missing or folded. The unfolded intact hippocampus provides both transverse and longitudinal connections in a flat configuration for direct access to the tissue to analyze the full extent of signal propagation in the hippocampus in vitro. In order to effectively monitor the neural activity from the cell layer, a custom made penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA) was fabricated and applied to the unfolded hippocampus. The PMEA with 64 electrodes of 200 µm in height could record neural activity deep inside the mouse hippocampus. The unique combination of an unfolded hippocampal preparation and the PMEA provides a new in-vitro tool to study the speed and direction of propagation of neural activity in the two-dimensional CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus with a high signal to noise ratio. PMID:25868081

  10. A novel stretchable micro-electrode array (SMEA) design for directional stretching of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, S.; Savov, A.; van de Stolpe, A.; Dekker, R.

    2014-03-01

    Stretchable micro-electrode arrays (SMEAs) are useful tools to study the electrophysiology of living cells seeded on the devices under mechanical stimulation. For such applications, the SMEAs are used as cell culture substrates; therefore, the surface topography and mechanical properties of the devices should be minimally affected by the embedded stretchable electrical interconnects. In this paper, a novel design and micro-fabrication technology for a pneumatically actuated SMEA are presented to achieve stretchability with minimal surface area dedicated to the electrical interconnects and a well-defined surface strain distribution combined with integrated diverse micro-patterns to enable alignment and directional stretching of cells. The special mechanical design also enables the SMEA to have a prolonged electro-mechanical fatigue life time required for long-term cyclic stretching of the cell cultures (stable resistance of electrical interconnects for more than 160 thousand cycles of 20% stretching and relaxing). The proposed fabrication method is based on the state of the art micro-fabrication techniques and materials and circumvents the processing problems associated with using unconventional methods and materials to fabricate stretchable electrode arrays. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of the SMEA shows 4.5 MΩ impedance magnitude at 1 kHz for a TiN electrode 12 um in diameter. Cell culture experiments demonstrate the robustness of the SMEAs for long-term culturing experiments and compatibility with inverted fluorescent microscopy.

  11. Develop Silicone Encapsulation Systems for Terrestrial Silicon Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results for Task 3 of the Low Cost Solar Array Project are presented. Task 3 is directed toward the development of a cost effective encapsulating system for photovoltaic modules using silicon based materials. The technical approach of the contract effort is divided into four special tasks: (1) technology review; (2) generation of concepts for screening and processing silicon encapsulation systems; (3) assessment of encapsulation concepts; and (4) evaluation of encapsulation concepts. The candidate silicon materials are reviewed. The silicon and modified silicon resins were chosen on the basis of similarity to materials with known weatherability, cost, initial tangential modulus, accelerated dirt pick-up test results and the ratio of the content of organic phenyl substitution of methyl substitution on the backbone of the silicon resin.

  12. Sonochemically fabricated microelectrode arrays for biosensors. Part III. AC impedimetric study of aerobic and anaerobic response of alcohol oxidase within polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Myler, Suzy; Collyer, Stuart D; Davis, Frank; Gornall, Davinia D; Higson, Seamus P J

    2005-10-15

    A sonochemically fabricated alcohol oxidase enzyme micro-electrode array is reported. Sensors of this type were fabricated by first depositing an insulating polydiaminobenzene film on supporting gold electrodes. Sonication and subsequent ablation exposed discrete areas of the underlying conducting electrode, which collectively act as a microelectrode array. Electropolymerisation of aniline has been used to generate in situ polyaniline containing entrapped alcohol oxidase. The physical and electrochemical properties of these films were studied and reported within this paper. The final composites were shown to behave with microelectrode performance characteristics for the detection of aqueous ethanol concentrations.

  13. Spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation during chronic implantation of a microelectrode array in a behaving macaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. S.; Parker, R. A.; House, P. A.; Bagley, E.; Wendelken, S.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2012-12-01

    Objective. It has been hypothesized that a vision prosthesis capable of evoking useful visual percepts can be based upon electrically stimulating the primary visual cortex (V1) of a blind human subject via penetrating microelectrode arrays. As a continuation of earlier work, we examined several spatial and temporal characteristics of V1 microstimulation. Approach. An array of 100 penetrating microelectrodes was chronically implanted in V1 of a behaving macaque monkey. Microstimulation thresholds were measured using a two-alternative forced choice detection task. Relative locations of electrically-evoked percepts were measured using a memory saccade-to-target task. Main results. The principal finding was that two years after implantation we were able to evoke behavioural responses to electric stimulation across the spatial extent of the array using groups of contiguous electrodes. Consistent responses to stimulation were evoked at an average threshold current per electrode of 204 ± 49 µA (mean ± std) for groups of four electrodes and 91 ± 25 µA for groups of nine electrodes. Saccades to electrically-evoked percepts using groups of nine electrodes showed that the animal could discriminate spatially distinct percepts with groups having an average separation of 1.6 ± 0.3 mm (mean ± std) in cortex and 1.0° ± 0.2° in visual space. Significance. These results demonstrate chronic perceptual functionality and provide evidence for the feasibility of a cortically-based vision prosthesis for the blind using penetrating microelectrodes.

  14. Recording nerve signals in canine sciatic nerves with a flexible penetrating microelectrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Donghak; Cho, Sung-Joon; Lee, Byeong Han; Min, Joongkee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Sohee

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Previously, we presented the fabrication and characterization of a flexible penetrating microelectrode array (FPMA) as a neural interface device. In the present study, we aim to prove the feasibility of the developed FPMA as a chronic intrafascicular recording tool for peripheral applications. Approach. For recording from the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, the FPMA was integrated with an interconnection cable and other parts that were designed to fit canine sciatic nerves. The uniformity of tip exposure and in vitro electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized. The capability of the device to acquire in vivo electrophysiological signals was evaluated by implanting the FPMA assembly in canine sciatic nerves acutely as well as chronically for 4 weeks. We also examined the histology of implanted tissues to evaluate the damage caused by the device. Main results. Throughout recording sessions, we observed successful multi-channel recordings (up to 73% of viable electrode channels) of evoked afferent and spontaneous nerve unit spikes with high signal quality (SNR  >  4.9). Also, minor influences of the device implantation on the morphology of nerve tissues were found. Significance. The presented results demonstrate the viability of the developed FPMA device in the peripheral nerves of medium-sized animals, thereby bringing us a step closer to human applications. Furthermore, the obtained data provide a driving force toward a further study for device improvements to be used as a bidirectional neural interface in humans.

  15. A wideband wireless neural stimulation platform for high-density microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Myers, Frank B; Simpson, Jim A; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2006-01-01

    We describe a system that allows researchers to control an implantable neural microstimulator from a PC via a USB 2.0 interface and a novel dual-carrier wireless link, which provides separate data and power transmission. Our wireless stimulator, Interestim-2B (IS-2B), is a modular device capable of generating controlled-current stimulation pulse trains across 32 sites per module with support for a variety of stimulation schemes (biphasic/monophasic, bipolar/monopolar). We have developed software to generate multi-site stimulation commands for the IS-2B based on streaming data from artificial sensory devices such as cameras and microphones. For PC interfacing, we have developed a USB 2.0 microcontroller-based interface. Data is transmitted using frequency-shift keying (FSK) at 6/12 MHz to achieve a data rate of 3 Mb/s via a pair of rectangular coils. Power is generated using a class-E power amplifier operating at 1 MHz and transmitted via a separate pair of spiral planar coils which are oriented perpendicular to the data coils to minimize cross-coupling. We have successfully demonstrated the operation of the system by applying it as a visual prosthesis. Pulse-frequency modulated stimuli are generated in real-time based on a grayscale image from a webcam. These pulses are projected onto an 11x11 LED matrix that represents a 2D microelectrode array.

  16. Characterization of Early Cortical Neural Network Development in Multiwell Microelectrode Array Plates

    PubMed Central

    Cotterill, Ellese; Hall, Diana; Wallace, Kathleen; Mundy, William R.; Eglen, Stephen J.; Shafer, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined neural network ontogeny using microelectrode array (MEA) recordings made in multiwell MEA (mwMEA) plates over the first 12 days in vitro (DIV). In primary cortical cultures, action potential spiking activity developed rapidly between DIV 5 and 12. Spiking was sporadic and unorganized at early DIV, and became progressively more organized with time, with bursting parameters, synchrony, and network bursting increasing between DIV 5 and 12. We selected 12 features to describe network activity; principal components analysis using these features demonstrated segregation of data by age at both the well and plate levels. Using random forest classifiers and support vector machines, we demonstrated that four features (coefficient of variation [CV] of within-burst interspike interval, CV of interburst interval, network spike rate, and burst rate) could predict the age of each well recording with >65% accuracy. When restricting the classification to a binary decision, accuracy improved to as high as 95%. Further, we present a novel resampling approach to determine the number of wells needed for comparing different treatments. Overall, these results demonstrate that network development on mwMEA plates is similar to development in single-well MEAs. The increased throughput of mwMEAs will facilitate screening drugs, chemicals, or disease states for effects on neurodevelopment. PMID:27028607

  17. In vitro evaluation of pyrethroid-mediated changes on neuronal burst parameters using microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Mohana Krishnan, Baskar; Prakhya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2016-12-01

    Effects of pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) on the burst parameters (mean burst rate [MBR], percent spikes in burst [PSB], mean burst duration [MBD], mean spikes in burst [MSB], mean interspike interval in burst [MISIB], and mean interburst interval [MIBI]) have been investigated using the microelectrode array technique. Rat cortical neuronal networks (between 24 and 35 DIV) were exposed to the five accumulative concentrations of pyrethroids (0.01μM, 0.1μM, 1μM, 10μM, and 100μM) after initially recording the baseline activity. When compared to the baseline, the burst parameter that had undergone the most change (either increase/decrease) at the initial concentrations was MBR, followed by MIBI and PSB. The other burst parameters (MSB, MBD, and MISIB) did not undergo much change (either increase/decrease) by the pyrethroids at the initial concentrations when compared to the baseline. The MBR of all pyrethroids rose at initial concentrations followed by decrease at higher concentrations. A drop in the MIBI accompanied the rise in the MBR. The rank orders of relative potency of pyrethroids on the IC50 of different burst parameters clearly distinguish type-1 pyrethroids (bifenthrin, permethrin) from the type-2 pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), with type-2 being more potent. The rank order of relative potency of pyrethroids based on the IC50 of MBR was beta-cyfluthrin>lambda-cyhalothrin>deltamethrin>cypermethrin>bifenthrin>permethrin.

  18. Modulation of cultured neural networks using neurotrophin release from hydrogel-coated microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie M.; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Roysam, Badrinath; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2008-06-01

    Polyacrylamide and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels were synthesized and characterized for use as drug release and substrates for neuron cell culture. Protein release kinetics was determined by incorporating bovine serum albumin (BSA) into hydrogels during polymerization. To determine if hydrogel incorporation and release affect bioactivity, alkaline phosphatase was incorporated into hydrogels and a released enzyme activity determined using the fluorescence-based ELF-97 assay. Hydrogels were then used to deliver a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hydrogels polymerized over planar microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Primary hippocampal neurons were cultured on both control and neurotrophin-containing hydrogel-coated MEAs. The effect of released BDNF on neurite length and process arborization was investigated using automated image analysis. An increased spontaneous activity as a response to the released BDNF was recorded from the neurons cultured on the top of hydrogel layers. These results demonstrate that proteins of biological interest can be incorporated into hydrogels to modulate development and function of cultured neural networks. These results also set the stage for development of hydrogel-coated neural prosthetic devices for local delivery of various biologically active molecules.

  19. Leptin Counteracts the Hypoxia-Induced Inhibition of Spontaneously Firing Hippocampal Neurons: A Microelectrode Array Study

    PubMed Central

    Gavello, Daniela; Rojo-Ruiz, Jonathan; Marcantoni, Andrea; Franchino, Claudio; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Besides regulating energy balance and reducing body-weight, the adipokine leptin has been recently shown to be neuroprotective and antiapoptotic by promoting neuronal survival after excitotoxic and oxidative insults. Here, we investigated the firing properties of mouse hippocampal neurons and the effects of leptin pretreatment on hypoxic damage (2 hours, 3% O2). Experiments were carried out by means of the microelectrode array (MEA) technology, monitoring hippocampal neurons activity from 11 to 18 days in vitro (DIV). Under normoxic conditions, hippocampal neurons were spontaneously firing, either with prevailing isolated and randomly distributed spikes (11 DIV), or with patterns characterized by synchronized bursts (18 DIV). Exposure to hypoxia severely impaired the spontaneous activity of hippocampal neurons, reducing their firing frequency by 54% and 69%, at 11 and 18 DIV respectively, and synchronized their firing activity. Pretreatment with 50 nM leptin reduced the firing frequency of normoxic neurons and contrasted the hypoxia-induced depressive action, either by limiting the firing frequency reduction (at both ages) or by increasing it to 126% (in younger neurons). In order to find out whether leptin exerts its effect by activating large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK), as shown on rat hippocampal neurons, we applied the BK channel blocker paxilline (1 µM). Our data show that paxilline reversed the effects of leptin, both on normoxic and hypoxic neurons, suggesting that the adipokine counteracts hypoxia through BK channels activation in mouse hippocampal neurons. PMID:22848520

  20. Penetrating microelectrode arrays with low-impedance sputtered iridium oxide electrode coatings.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Stuart F; Ehrlich, Julia; Plante, Timothy D; Van Wagenen, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Sputtered iridium oxide (SIROF) is a candidate low-impedance coating for neural stimulation and recording electrodes. SIROF on planar substrates has exhibited a high charge-injection capacity and impedance suitable for indwelling cortical microelectrode applications. In the present work, the properties of SIROF electrode coatings deposited onto multi-shank penetrating arrays intended for intracortical and intraneural applications were examined. The charge-injection properties under constant current pulsing were evaluated for a range of pulsewidths and current densities using voltage transients to determine maximum potential excursions in an inorganic model of interstitial fluid at 37 degrees C. The charge-injection capacity of the SIROFs was significantly improved by the use of positive potential biasing in the interpulse period, but even without bias, the SIROFs reversibly inject higher charge than other iridium oxides or platinum. Typical deliverable charge levels of 25 to 160 nC/phase were obtained with 2000 mum(2) electrodes depending on pulsewidth and interpulse bias. Similar sized platinum electrodes could inject 3 to 8 nC/phase.

  1. Establishment of a Long-Term Chick Forebrain Neuronal Culture on a Microelectrode Array Platform

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Serena Y.; Huang, Ting; Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Yongliang; Kindy, Mark; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2016-01-01

    The biosensor system formed by culturing primary animal neurons on a microelectrode array (MEA) platform is drawing an increasing research interest for its power as a rapid, sensitive, functional neurotoxicity assessment, as well as for many other electrophysiological related research purposes. In this paper, we established a long-term chick forebrain neuron culture (C-FBN-C) on MEAs with a more than 5 month long lifespan and up to 5 month long stability in morphology and physiological function; characterized the C-FBN-C morphologically, functionally, and developmentally; partially compared its functional features with rodent counterpart; and discussed its pros and cons as a novel biosensor system in comparison to rodent counterpart and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our results show that C-FBN-C on MEA platform 1) can be used as a biosensor of its own type in a wide spectrum of basic biomedical research; 2) is of value in comparative physiology in cross-species studies; and 3) may have potential to be used as an alternative, cost-effective approach to rodent counterpart within shared common functional domains (such as specific types of ligand-gated ion channel receptors and subtypes expressed in the cortical tissues of both species) in large-scale environmental neurotoxicant screening that would otherwise require millions of animals. PMID:26989485

  2. Establishment of a Long-Term Chick Forebrain Neuronal Culture on a Microelectrode Array Platform.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Serena Y; Huang, Ting; Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Yongliang; Kindy, Mark; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2015-01-01

    The biosensor system formed by culturing primary animal neurons on a microelectrode array (MEA) platform is drawing an increasing research interest for its power as a rapid, sensitive, functional neurotoxicity assessment, as well as for many other electrophysiological related research purposes. In this paper, we established a long-term chick forebrain neuron culture (C-FBN-C) on MEAs with a more than 5 month long lifespan and up to 5 month long stability in morphology and physiological function; characterized the C-FBN-C morphologically, functionally, and developmentally; partially compared its functional features with rodent counterpart; and discussed its pros and cons as a novel biosensor system in comparison to rodent counterpart and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our results show that C-FBN-C on MEA platform 1) can be used as a biosensor of its own type in a wide spectrum of basic biomedical research; 2) is of value in comparative physiology in cross-species studies; and 3) may have potential to be used as an alternative, cost-effective approach to rodent counterpart within shared common functional domains (such as specific types of ligand-gated ion channel receptors and subtypes expressed in the cortical tissues of both species) in large-scale environmental neurotoxicant screening that would otherwise require millions of animals.

  3. Low-Density Neuronal Networks Cultured using Patterned Poly-L-Lysine on Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sang Beom; Hynd, Matthew R.; Dowell-Mesfin, Natalie; Smith, Karen L.; Turner, James N.; Shain, William; Kim, Sung June

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic activity recorded from low-density networks of cultured rat hippocampal neurons was monitored using microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Neuronal networks were patterned with poly-L-lysine (PLL) using microcontact printing (µCP). Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) stamps were fabricated with relief structures resulting in patterns of 2 µm-wide lines for directing process growth and 20 µm-diameter circles for cell soma attachment. These circles were aligned to electrode sites. Different densities of neurons were plated in order to assess the minimal neuron density required for development of an active network. Spontaneous activity was observed at 10–14 days in networks using neuron densities as low as 200 cells/mm2. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the distribution of dendrites along the lines and the location of foci of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, on neuron somas and dendrites. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that single fluorescent tracks contained multiple processes. Evoked responses of selected portions of the networks were produced by stimulation of specific electrode sites. In addition, the neuronal excitability of the network was increased by the bath application of high K+ (10–12 mM). Application of DNQX, an AMPA antagonist, blocked all spontaneous activity, suggesting that the activity is excitatory and mediated through glutamate receptors. PMID:17049614

  4. Brain computer interface learning for systems based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V.; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Foldes, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning. PMID:26113812

  5. Brain computer interface learning for systems based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wei; Foldes, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) system transforms neural activity into control signals for external devices in real time. A BCI user needs to learn to generate specific cortical activity patterns to control external devices effectively. We call this process BCI learning, and it often requires significant effort and time. Therefore, it is important to study this process and develop novel and efficient approaches to accelerate BCI learning. This article reviews major approaches that have been used for BCI learning, including computer-assisted learning, co-adaptive learning, operant conditioning, and sensory feedback. We focus on BCIs based on electrocorticography and intracortical microelectrode arrays for restoring motor function. This article also explores the possibility of brain modulation techniques in promoting BCI learning, such as electrical cortical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and optogenetics. Furthermore, as proposed by recent BCI studies, we suggest that BCI learning is in many ways analogous to motor and cognitive skill learning, and therefore skill learning should be a useful metaphor to model BCI learning.

  6. Amorphous silicon carbide ultramicroelectrode arrays for neural stimulation and recording.

    PubMed

    Deku, Felix; Cohen, Yarden; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Kanneganti, Aswini; Gardner, Timothy; Cogan, Stuart

    2017-09-27

    Foreign body response to indwelling cortical microelectrodes limits the reliability of neural stimulation and recording, particularly for extended chronic applications in behaving animals. The extent to which this response compromises the chronic stability of neural devices depends on many factors including the materials used in the electrode construction, the size, and geometry of the indwelling structure. Here, we report on the development of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) based on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC). This technology utilizes a-SiC for its chronic stability and employs semiconductor manufacturing processes to create MEAs with small shank dimensions. The a-SiC films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and patterned by thin-film photolithographic techniques. To improve stimulation and recording capabilities with small contact areas, we investigated low impedance coatings on the electrode sites. The assembled devices were characterized in phosphate buffered saline for their electrochemical properties. MEAs utilizing a-SiC as both the primary structural element and encapsulation were fabricated successfully. These a-SiC MEAs had 16 penetrating shanks. Each shank has a cross-sectional area less than 60 µm<sup>2</sup> and electrode sites with a geometric surface area varying from 20-200 μm<sup>2</sup>. Electrode coatings of TiN and SIROF reduced 1 kHz electrode impedance to less than 100 kΩ from ~2.8 MΩ for 100 µm<sup>2</sup> Au electrode sites and increased the charge injection capacities to values greater than 3 mC/cm<sup>2</sup>. Finally, we demonstrated functionality by recording neural activity from basal ganglia nucleus of Zebra Finches and motor cortex of rat. The a-SiC MEAs provide a significant advancement in the development of microelectrodes that over the years has relied on silicon platforms for device manufacture. These flexible a-SiC MEAs have the potential for

  7. Silicon ball grid array chip carrier

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, David W.; Gassman, Richard A.; Chu, Dahwey

    2000-01-01

    A ball-grid-array integrated circuit (IC) chip carrier formed from a silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier is of particular use with ICs having peripheral bond pads which can be reconfigured to a ball-grid-array. The use of a semiconductor substrate such as silicon for forming the ball-grid-array chip carrier allows the chip carrier to be fabricated on an IC process line with, at least in part, standard IC processes. Additionally, the silicon chip carrier can include components such as transistors, resistors, capacitors, inductors and sensors to form a "smart" chip carrier which can provide added functionality and testability to one or more ICs mounted on the chip carrier. Types of functionality that can be provided on the "smart" chip carrier include boundary-scan cells, built-in test structures, signal conditioning circuitry, power conditioning circuitry, and a reconfiguration capability. The "smart" chip carrier can also be used to form specialized or application-specific ICs (ASICs) from conventional ICs. Types of sensors that can be included on the silicon ball-grid-array chip carrier include temperature sensors, pressure sensors, stress sensors, inertia or acceleration sensors, and/or chemical sensors. These sensors can be fabricated by IC processes and can include microelectromechanical (MEM) devices.

  8. High-density stretchable microelectrode arrays: An integrated technology platform for neural and muscular surface interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Numerous applications in neuroscience research and neural prosthetics, such as retinal prostheses, spinal-cord surface stimulation for prosthetics, electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording for epilepsy detection, etc., involve electrical interaction with soft excitable tissues using a surface stimulation and/or recording approach. These applications require an interface that is able to set up electrical communications with a high throughput between electronics and the excitable tissue and that can dynamically conform to the shape of the soft tissue. Being a compliant and biocompatible material with mechanical impedance close to that of soft tissues, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) offers excellent potential as the substrate material for such neural interfaces. However, fabrication of electrical functionalities on PDMS has long been very challenging. This thesis work has successfully overcome many challenges associated with PDMS-based microfabrication and achieved an integrated technology platform for PDMS-based stretchable microelectrode arrays (sMEAs). This platform features a set of technological advances: (1) we have fabricated uniform current density profile microelectrodes as small as 10 mum in diameter; (2) we have patterned high-resolution (feature as small as 10 mum), high-density (pitch as small as 20 mum) thin-film gold interconnects on PDMS substrate; (3) we have developed a multilayer wiring interconnect technology within the PDMS substrate to further boost the achievable integration density of such sMEA; and (4) we have invented a bonding technology---via-bonding---to facilitate high-resolution, high-density integration of the sMEA with integrated circuits (ICs) to form a compact implant. Taken together, this platform provides a high-resolution, high-density integrated system solution for neural and muscular surface interfacing. sMEAs of example designs are evaluated through in vitro and in vivo experimentations on their biocompatibility, surface conformability

  9. Modelling and Analysis of Electrical Potentials Recorded in Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs).

    PubMed

    Ness, Torbjørn V; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Potworowski, Jan; Łęski, Szymon; Głąbska, Helena; Wójcik, Daniel K; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2015-10-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs), substrate-integrated planar arrays of up to thousands of closely spaced metal electrode contacts, have long been used to record neuronal activity in in vitro brain slices with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the analysis of the MEA potentials has generally been mainly qualitative. Here we use a biophysical forward-modelling formalism based on the finite element method (FEM) to establish quantitatively accurate links between neural activity in the slice and potentials recorded in the MEA set-up. Then we develop a simpler approach based on the method of images (MoI) from electrostatics, which allows for computation of MEA potentials by simple formulas similar to what is used for homogeneous volume conductors. As we find MoI to give accurate results in most situations of practical interest, including anisotropic slices covered with highly conductive saline and MEA-electrode contacts of sizable physical extensions, a Python software package (ViMEAPy) has been developed to facilitate forward-modelling of MEA potentials generated by biophysically detailed multicompartmental neurons. We apply our scheme to investigate the influence of the MEA set-up on single-neuron spikes as well as on potentials generated by a cortical network comprising more than 3000 model neurons. The generated MEA potentials are substantially affected by both the saline bath covering the brain slice and a (putative) inadvertent saline layer at the interface between the MEA chip and the brain slice. We further explore methods for estimation of current-source density (CSD) from MEA potentials, and find the results to be much less sensitive to the experimental set-up.

  10. Low cost silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, K. V.; Serreze, H. B.; Bates, H. E.; Morrison, A. D.; Jewett, D. N.; Ho, J. C. T.; Schwuttke, G. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Kran, A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous growth methodology for silicon solar cell ribbons deals with capillary effects, die effects, thermal effects and crystal shape effects. Emphasis centers on the shape of the meniscus at the ribbon edge as a factor contributing to ribbon quality with respect to defect densities. Structural and electrical characteristics of edge defined, film-fed grown silicon ribbons are elaborated. Ribbon crystal solar cells produce AMO efficiencies of 6 to 10%.

  11. Develop Silicone Encapsulation Systems for Terrestrial Silicon Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of a study for Task 3 of the Low Cost Solar Array Project, directed toward the development of a cost effective encapsulation system for photovoltaic modules using silicon based materials, are reported. Results of the following are discussed: (1) weather-ometer stressing vs. weathering history of silicon and silicon modified materials; (2) humidity/temperature cycling exposure; (3) exposure at high humidity/high temperature; (4) outdoor exposure stress; (5) thermal cycling stress; and (6) UV screening agents. The plans for the next quarter are outlined.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons Cultured on Microelectrode Arrays Based on Fluorescence Microscopy Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Mari, João Fernando; Saito, José Hiroki; Neves, Amanda Ferreira; Lotufo, Celina Monteiro da Cruz; Destro-Filho, João-Batista; Nicoletti, Maria do Carmo

    2015-12-01

    Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) are devices for long term electrophysiological recording of extracellular spontaneous or evocated activities on in vitro neuron culture. This work proposes and develops a framework for quantitative and morphological analysis of neuron cultures on MEAs, by processing their corresponding images, acquired by fluorescence microscopy. The neurons are segmented from the fluorescence channel images using a combination of segmentation by thresholding, watershed transform, and object classification. The positioning of microelectrodes is obtained from the transmitted light channel images using the circular Hough transform. The proposed method was applied to images of dissociated culture of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cells. The morphological and topological quantitative analysis carried out produced information regarding the state of culture, such as population count, neuron-to-neuron and neuron-to-microelectrode distances, soma morphologies, neuron sizes, neuron and microelectrode spatial distributions. Most of the analysis of microscopy images taken from neuronal cultures on MEA only consider simple qualitative analysis. Also, the proposed framework aims to standardize the image processing and to compute quantitative useful measures for integrated image-signal studies and further computational simulations. As results show, the implemented microelectrode identification method is robust and so are the implemented neuron segmentation and classification one (with a correct segmentation rate up to 84%). The quantitative information retrieved by the method is highly relevant to assist the integrated signal-image study of recorded electrophysiological signals as well as the physical aspects of the neuron culture on MEA. Although the experiments deal with DRG cell images, cortical and hippocampal cell images could also be processed with small adjustments in the image processing parameter estimation.

  13. Micro-field evoked potentials recorded from the porcine sub-dural cortical surface utilizing a microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Hansford, Derek J; Fortin, Linda D; Obrietan, Karl H; Bergdall, Valerie K; Beversdorf, David Q

    2007-05-15

    A sub-dural surface microelectrode array designed to detect micro-field evoked potentials has been developed. The device is comprised of an array of 350-microm square gold contacts, with bidirectional spacing of 150 microm, contained within a polyimide Kapton material. Cytotoxicity testing suggests that the device is suitable for use with animal and human patients. Implementation of the device in animal studies revealed that reliable evoked potentials could be acquired. Further work will be needed to determine how these micro-field potentials, which demonstrate selectivity for one eye, relate to the distribution of the ocular dominance columns of the occipital cortex.

  14. Long-term, multisite, parallel, in-cell recording and stimulation by an array of extracellular microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hai, Aviad; Shappir, Joseph; Spira, Micha E

    2010-07-01

    Here we report on the development of a novel neuroelectronic interface consisting of an array of noninvasive gold-mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMmicroEs) that practically provide intracellular recordings and stimulation of many individual neurons, while the electrodes maintain an extracellular position. The development of this interface allows simultaneous, multisite, long-term recordings of action potentials and subthreshold potentials with matching quality and signal-to-noise ratio of conventional intracellular sharp glass microelectrodes or patch electrodes. We refer to the novel approach as "in-cell recording and stimulation by extracellular electrodes" to differentiate it from the classical intracellular recording and stimulation methods. This novel technique is expected to revolutionize the analysis of neuronal networks in relations to learning, information storage and can be used to develop novel drugs as well as high fidelity neural prosthetics and brain-machine systems.

  15. Abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir microelectrode arrays in chronic implants.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Abhishek; Xue, Qing-Shan; Dieme, Robert; Sankar, Viswanath; Mayrand, Roxanne C; Nishida, Toshikazu; Streit, Wolfgang J; Sanchez, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Pt/Ir electrodes have been extensively used in neurophysiology research in recent years as they provide a more inert recording surface as compared to tungsten or stainless steel. While floating microelectrode arrays (FMA) consisting of Pt/Ir electrodes are an option for neuroprosthetic applications, long-term in vivo functional performance characterization of these FMAs is lacking. In this study, we have performed comprehensive abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir arrays in 12 rats with implant periods ranging from 1 week up to 6 months. Each of the FMAs consisted of 16-channel, 1.5 mm long, and 75 μm diameter microwires with tapered tips that were implanted into the somatosensory cortex. Abiotic characterization included (1) pre-implant and post-explant scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study recording site changes, insulation delamination and cracking, and (2) chronic in vivo electrode impedance spectroscopy. Biotic characterization included study of microglial responses using a panel of antibodies, such as Iba1, ED1, and anti-ferritin, the latter being indicative of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Significant structural variation was observed pre-implantation among the arrays in the form of irregular insulation, cracks in insulation/recording surface, and insulation delamination. We observed delamination and cracking of insulation in almost all electrodes post-implantation. These changes altered the electrochemical surface area of the electrodes and resulted in declining impedance over the long-term due to formation of electrical leakage pathways. In general, the decline in impedance corresponded with poor electrode functional performance, which was quantified via electrode yield. Our abiotic results suggest that manufacturing variability and insulation material as an important factor contributing to electrode failure. Biotic results show that electrode performance was not correlated with microglial activation (neuroinflammation) as we were able

  16. Abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir microelectrode arrays in chronic implants

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Abhishek; Xue, Qing-Shan; Dieme, Robert; Sankar, Viswanath; Mayrand, Roxanne C.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Streit, Wolfgang J.; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Pt/Ir electrodes have been extensively used in neurophysiology research in recent years as they provide a more inert recording surface as compared to tungsten or stainless steel. While floating microelectrode arrays (FMA) consisting of Pt/Ir electrodes are an option for neuroprosthetic applications, long-term in vivo functional performance characterization of these FMAs is lacking. In this study, we have performed comprehensive abiotic-biotic characterization of Pt/Ir arrays in 12 rats with implant periods ranging from 1 week up to 6 months. Each of the FMAs consisted of 16-channel, 1.5 mm long, and 75 μm diameter microwires with tapered tips that were implanted into the somatosensory cortex. Abiotic characterization included (1) pre-implant and post-explant scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study recording site changes, insulation delamination and cracking, and (2) chronic in vivo electrode impedance spectroscopy. Biotic characterization included study of microglial responses using a panel of antibodies, such as Iba1, ED1, and anti-ferritin, the latter being indicative of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Significant structural variation was observed pre-implantation among the arrays in the form of irregular insulation, cracks in insulation/recording surface, and insulation delamination. We observed delamination and cracking of insulation in almost all electrodes post-implantation. These changes altered the electrochemical surface area of the electrodes and resulted in declining impedance over the long-term due to formation of electrical leakage pathways. In general, the decline in impedance corresponded with poor electrode functional performance, which was quantified via electrode yield. Our abiotic results suggest that manufacturing variability and insulation material as an important factor contributing to electrode failure. Biotic results show that electrode performance was not correlated with microglial activation (neuroinflammation) as we were able

  17. Nanophotonic ion production from silicon microcolumn arrays.

    PubMed

    Walker, Bennett N; Razunguzwa, Trust; Powell, Matthew; Knochenmuss, Richard; Vertes, Akos

    2009-01-01

    Nanoantennas for ions: Silicon microcolumn arrays harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions. The system behaves like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of polarization and the angle of incidence of the laser beam. Photonic ion sources promise to enable enhanced control of ion production on a micro- and nanometer scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

  18. The use of microelectrode array (MEA) to study rat peritoneal mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Chi-Kong; Law, Jessica Ka-Yan; Sam, Sze-Wing; Ingebrandt, Sven; Lau, Hang-Yung Alaster; Rudd, John Anthony; Chan, Mansun

    2008-06-01

    We performed this study to demonstrate the applicability of the microelectrode array (MEA) to study electrophysiological changes of rat peritoneal mast cells in the presence of compound 48/80 under normal, Ca(2+)-free, Ca(2+)-free with EDTA, and Cl(-)-free conditions. The use of high extracellular K(+) (KCl, 150 mM), charybdotoxin (ChTX, 100 nM), and Cl(-)-free containing ChTX buffers verified that the hyperpolarizing signal was due to the activation of mainly K(+) and, to a lesser extent, Cl(-) channels. Compound 48/80 concentration-dependently shortened the latent periods (the onset of response) and increased both the spatial (the K(+) and Cl(-) hyperpolarizing field potentials, HFP) and temporal measurements (the duration of response). Ca(2+)-free buffer had no effect on the latent period of compound 48/80 but increased the HFP at high concentrations. The latent period increased while the HFP diminished when cells were equilibrated in Ca(2+)-free buffer containing EDTA. Durations of the HFP were generally longer when cells were in either Ca(2+)-free or Ca(2+)-free containing EDTA buffers than when cells were in normal buffer. The EC(50) values confirmed that effects were only affected in Ca(2+)-free buffer containing EDTA but not in Ca(2+)-free or Cl(-)-free buffers, further reinforcing the hypothesis that the presence of Ca(2+) is not essential to the action of compound 48/80. The present study is the first application of MEA to study rat peritoneal mast cells, and our results indicate that it could be of value in future pharmacological research on other non-excitable cells.

  19. Microelectrode array (MEA) platform as a sensitive tool to detect and evaluate Ostreopsis cf. ovata toxicity.

    PubMed

    Alloisio, Susanna; Giussani, Valentina; Nobile, Mario; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Novellino, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components. In this study, in vitro neuronal networks coupled to microelectrode array (MEA)-based system are proposed, for the first time, as sensitive biosensors for the evaluation of marine alga toxicity on mammalian cells. Toxic effect was investigated by testing three different treatments of laboratory cultured Ostreopsis cf. ovata cells: filtered and re-suspended algal cells; filtered, re-suspended and sonicated algal cells; conditioned growth medium devoid of algal cells. The great sensitivity of this system revealed the mixture of PTLX-complex analogues naturally released in the growth medium and the different potency of the three treatments to inhibit the neuronal network spontaneous electrical activity. Moreover, by means of the multiparametric analysis of neuronal network activity, the approach revealed a different toxicity mechanism of the cellular component compared to the algal conditioned growth medium, highlighting the potential active role of the first treatment.

  20. Stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations are present in neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Newman, Jonathan P.; Shoemaker, James T.; Killian, Nathan J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (250–600 Hz) are present in the brains of epileptic animals and humans. The etiology of these oscillations and how they contribute to the diseased state remains unclear. This work identifies the presence of microstimulation-evoked high frequency oscillations (250–400 Hz) in dissociated neuronal networks cultured on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Oscillations are more apparent with higher stimulus voltages. As with in vivo studies, activity is isolated to a single electrode, however, the MEA provides improved spatial resolution with no spread of the oscillation to adjacent electrodes 200 μm away. Oscillations develop across four weeks in vitro. Oscillations still occur in the presence of tetrodotoxin and synaptic blockers, and they cause no apparent disruption in the ability of oscillation-presenting electrodes to elicit directly evoked action potentials (dAPs) or promote the spread of synaptic activity throughout the culture. Chelating calcium with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) causes a temporal prolongation of the oscillation. Finally, carbenoxolone significantly reduces or eliminates the high frequency oscillations. Gap junctions may play a significant role in maintaining the oscillation given the inhibitory effect of carbenoxolone, the propagating effect of reduced calcium conditions and the isolated nature of the activity as demonstrated in previous studies. This is the first demonstration of stimulus-evoked high frequency oscillations in dissociated cultures. Unlike current models that rely on complex in vivo recording conditions, this work presents a simple controllable model in neuronal cultures on MEAs to further investigate how the oscillations occur at the molecular level and how they may contribute to the pathophysiology of disease. PMID:22615686

  1. Real-time monitoring of extracellular adenosine using enzyme-linked microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hinzman, Jason M; Gibson, Justin L; Tackla, Ryan D; Costello, Mark S; Burmeister, Jason J; Quintero, Jorge E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Hartings, Jed A

    2015-12-15

    Throughout the central nervous system extracellular adenosine serves important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. However, current understanding of the in vivo regulation and effects of adenosine is limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of available measurement techniques. Here, we describe an enzyme-linked microelectrode array (MEA) with high spatial (7500 µm(2)) and temporal (4 Hz) resolution that can selectively measure extracellular adenosine through the use of self-referenced coating scheme that accounts for interfering substances and the enzymatic breakdown products of adenosine. In vitro, the MEAs selectively measured adenosine in a linear fashion (r(2)=0.98±0.01, concentration range=0-15 µM, limit of detection =0.96±0.5 µM). In vivo the limit of detection was 0.04±0.02 µM, which permitted real-time monitoring of the basal extracellular concentration in rat cerebral cortex (4.3±1.5 µM). Local cortical injection of adenosine through a micropipette produced dose-dependent transient increases in the measured extracellular concentration (200 nL: 6.8±1.8 µM; 400 nL: 19.4±5.3 µM) [P<0.001]. Lastly, local injection of dipyridamole, which inhibits transport of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporter, raised the measured extracellular concentration of adenosine by 120% (5.6→12.3 µM) [P<0.001]. These studies demonstrate that MEAs can selectively measure adenosine on temporal and spatial scales relevant to adenosine signaling and regulation in normal and pathologic states.

  2. Chronic intracortical microelectrode arrays induce non-uniform, depth-related tissue responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, Andrew J.; Desai, Himanshi A.; Otto, Kevin J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Brain-implanted microelectrode arrays show promise as future clinical devices. However, biological responses to various designs, compositions and locations of these implants have not been fully characterized, and may impact the long-term functionality of these devices. In order to improve our understanding of the tissue conditions at the interface of chronic brain-implanted microdevices, we proposed utilizing advanced histology and microscopy techniques to image implanted devices and surrounding tissue intact within brain slices. We then proposed utilizing these methods to examine whether depth within the cerebral cortex affected tissue conditions around implants. Approach. Histological data was collected from rodent brain slices containing intact, intracortical microdevices four weeks after implantation surgery. Thick tissue sections containing the chronic implants were processed with fluorescent antibody labels, and imaged in an optical clearing solution using laser confocal microscopy. Main Results. Tissue surrounding microdevices exhibited two major depth-related phenomena: a non-uniform microglial coating along the device length and a dense mass of cells surrounding the implant in cerebral cortical layers I and II. Detailed views of the monocyte-derived immune cells improve our understanding of the close and complex association that immune cells have with chronic brain implants, and illuminated a possible relationship between cortical depth and the intensity of a chronic monocyte response around penetrating microdevices. The dense mass of cells contained vimentin, a protein not typically expressed highly in CNS cells, evidence that non-CNS cells likely descended down the face of the penetrating devices from the pial surface. Significance. Image data of highly non-uniform and depth-dependent biological responses along a device provides novel insight into the complexity of the tissue response to penetrating brain-implanted microdevices. The presented

  3. Low cost silicon solar cell array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, F. T. C.

    1974-01-01

    The technological options available for producing low cost silicon solar cell arrays were examined. A project value of approximately $250/sq m and $2/watt is projected, based on mass production capacity demand. Recommendations are included for the most promising cost reduction options.

  4. Brain machine interfaces combining microelectrode arrays with nanostructured optical biochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Gonzalez, Timothy; Ghafer-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Chodavarapu, Vamsy; Musallam, Sam; Andrews, Mark

    2009-02-01

    Neural microelectrodes are an important component of neural prosthetic systems which assist paralyzed patients by allowing them to operate computers or robots using their neural activity. These microelectrodes are also used in clinical settings to localize the locus of seizure initiation in epilepsy or to stimulate sub-cortical structures in patients with Parkinson's disease. In neural prosthetic systems, implanted microelectrodes record the electrical potential generated by specific thoughts and relay the signals to algorithms trained to interpret these thoughts. In this paper, we describe novel elongated multi-site neural electrodes that can record electrical signals and specific neural biomarkers and that can reach depths greater than 8mm in the sulcus of non-human primates (monkeys). We hypothesize that additional signals recorded by the multimodal probes will increase the information yield when compared to standard probes that record just electropotentials. We describe integration of optical biochemical sensors with neural microelectrodes. The sensors are made using sol-gel derived xerogel thin films that encapsulate specific biomarker responsive luminophores in their nanostructured pores. The desired neural biomarkers are O2, pH, K+, and Na+ ions. As a prototype, we demonstrate direct-write patterning to create oxygen-responsive xerogel waveguide structures on the neural microelectrodes. The recording of neural biomarkers along with electrical activity could help the development of intelligent and more userfriendly neural prosthesis/brain machine interfaces as well as aid in providing answers to complex brain diseases and disorders.

  5. Needle-type environmental microsensors: design, construction and uses of microelectrodes and multi-analyte MEMS sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo Hyoung; Lee, Jin-Hwan; Choi, Woo-Hyuck; Hosni, Ahmed A.; Papautsky, Ian; Bishop, Paul L.

    2011-04-01

    The development of environmental microsensor techniques is a revolutionary advance in the measurement of both absolute levels and changes in chemical species in the field of environmental engineered and natural systems. The tiny tip (5-15 µm diameter) of microsensors makes them very attractive experimental tools for direct measurements of the chemical species of interest inside biological samples (e.g., biofilm, flocs). Microelectrodes fabricated from pulled micropipettes (e.g., dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential, ion-selective microelectrode) have contributed to greater understanding of biological mechanisms for decades using microscopic monitoring, and currently microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microfabrication technologies are being successfully applied to fabricate multi-analyte sensor systems for in situ monitoring. This review focuses on needle-type environmental microsensor technology, including microelectrodes and multi-analyte MEMS sensor arrays. Design, construction and applications to biofilm research of these sensors are described. Practical methods for biofilm microprofile measurements are presented and several in situ applications for a biofilm study are highlighted. Ultimately, the developed needle-type microsensors combined with molecular biotechnology (such as microscopic observation with fluorescent probes) show the tremendous promise of micro-environmental sensor technology.

  6. Junction-side illuminated silicon detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Patt, Bradley E.; Tull, Carolyn

    2004-03-30

    A junction-side illuminated detector array of pixelated detectors is constructed on a silicon wafer. A junction contact on the front-side may cover the whole detector array, and may be used as an entrance window for light, x-ray, gamma ray and/or other particles. The back-side has an array of individual ohmic contact pixels. Each of the ohmic contact pixels on the back-side may be surrounded by a grid or a ring of junction separation implants. Effective pixel size may be changed by separately biasing different sections of the grid. A scintillator may be coupled directly to the entrance window while readout electronics may be coupled directly to the ohmic contact pixels. The detector array may be used as a radiation hardened detector for high-energy physics research or as avalanche imaging arrays.

  7. Implantable liquid metal-based flexible neural microelectrode array and its application in recovering animal locomotion functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    With significant advantages in rapidly restoring the nerve function, electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is a crucial treatment of peripheral nerve injuries leading to common movement disorder. However, the currently available stimulating electrodes generally based on rigid conductive materials would cause a potential mechanical mismatch with soft neural tissues which thus reduces long-term effects of electrical stimulation. Here, we proposed and fabricated a flexible neural microelectrode array system based on the liquid metal GaIn alloy (75.5% Ga and 24.5% In by weight) and via printing approach. Such an alloy with a unique low melting point (10.35 °C) owns excellent electrical conductivity and high compliance, which are beneficial to serve as implantable flexible neural electrodes. The flexible neural microelectrode array embeds four liquid metal electrodes and stretchable interconnects in a PDMS membrane (500 µm in thickness) that possess a lower elastic modulus (1.055 MPa), which is similar to neural tissues with elastic moduli in the 0.1–1.5 MPa range. The electrical experiments indicate that the liquid metal interconnects could sustain over 7000 mechanical stretch cycles with resistance approximately staying at 4 Ω. Over the conceptual experiments on animal sciatic nerve electrical stimulation, the dead bullfrog implanted with flexible neural microelectrode array could even rhythmically contract and move its lower limbs under the electrical stimulations from the implant. This demonstrates a highly efficient way for quickly recovering biological nerve functions. Further, the good biocompatibility of the liquid metal material was justified via a series of biological experiments. This liquid metal modality for neural stimulation is expected to play important roles as biologic electrodes to overcome the fundamental mismatch in mechanics between biological tissues and electronic devices in the coming time.

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of exocytotic microdomains in adrenal chromaffin cells resolved by high-density diamond ultra-microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gosso, Sara; Turturici, Marco; Franchino, Claudio; Colombo, Elisabetta; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the ability of a high-density diamond microelectrode array targeted to resolve multi-site detection of fast exocytotic events from single cells. The array consists of nine boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond ultra-microelectrodes (9-Ch NCD-UMEA) radially distributed within a circular area of the dimensions of a single cell. The device can be operated in voltammetric or chronoamperometric configuration. Sensitivity to catecholamines, tested by dose–response calibrations, set the lowest detectable concentration of adrenaline to ∼5 μm. Catecholamine release from bovine or mouse chromaffin cells could be triggered by electrical stimulation or external KCl-enriched solutions. Spikes detected from the cell apex using carbon fibre microelectrodes showed an excellent correspondence with events measured at the bottom of the cell by the 9-Ch NCD-UMEA, confirming the ability of the array to resolve single quantal secretory events. Subcellular localization of exocytosis was provided by assigning each quantal event to one of the nine channels based on its location. The resulting mapping highlights the heterogeneous distribution of secretory activity in cell microdomains of 12–27 μm2. In bovine chromaffin cells, secretion was highly heterogeneous with zones of high and medium activity in 54% of the cell surface and zones of low or no activity in the remainder. The ‘non-active’ (‘silent’) zones covered 24% of the total and persisted for 6–8 min, indicating stable location. The 9-Ch NCD-UMEA therefore appears suitable for investigating the microdomain organization of neurosecretion with high spatial resolution. PMID:24879870

  9. Fluid flow study of an AC electrothermal micropump consisting of multiple arrays of microelectrodes for biofluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Alinaghi; Dalton, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Electrokinetics has many applications in a wide range of areas, such as lab-on-a-chip and biomedical microdevices. The electrothermal effect has been used for biofluid delivery systems since it has high pumping efficiency for high conductive liquids (>0.1 S/m) compared to other electrokinetic techniques such as electroosmosis. AC electrothermal (ACET) micropumps are based on the temperature gradient caused by Joule heating or an external heat source, which generates permittivity and conductivity gradients in the bulk of the liquid. When the liquid is subjected to an electric field, the ACET force is created. Electrode geometry significantly affects the electric field distribution, which can yield stronger ACET forces. Previously electrode dimension optimization has been performed for a single-array coplanar asymmetric configuration in order to obtain maximum ACET velocities. In this paper we expand the study to other governing parameters in a multiple-row microelectrode array configuration consisting of microelectrodes placed on top, bottom, and/or side walls of a microchannel. The studied parameters are the substrate material and thickness, ambient temperature, fluid viscosity, and actuation frequency. Electrode dimensions remain constant during the study (120 μm wide and 20 μm thin electrodes, 20 μm gap). The study is performed using finite element analysis software for one pair of microelectrodes on each array with periodic boundary conditions. The simulation data is then compared with experimental data for a single combination of the aforementioned parameters. The results show that the effect of these parameters on ACET flow can be significant.

  10. Creation of defined single cell resolution neuronal circuits on microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirlo, Russell Kirk

    2009-12-01

    The way cell-cell organization of neuronal networks influences activity and facilitates function is not well understood. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) and advancing cell patterning technologies have enabled access to and control of in vitro neuronal networks spawning much new research in neuroscience and neuroengineering. We propose that small, simple networks of neurons with defined circuitry may serve as valuable research models where every connection can be analyzed, controlled and manipulated. Towards the goal of creating such neuronal networks we have applied microfabricated elastomeric membranes, surface modification and our unique laser cell patterning system to create defined neuronal circuits with single-cell precision on MEAs. Definition of synaptic connectivity was imposed by the 3D physical constraints of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric membranes. The membranes had 20mum clear-through holes and 2-3mum deep channels which when applied to the surface of the MEA formed microwells to confine neurons to electrodes connected via shallow tunnels to direct neurite outgrowth. Tapering and turning of channels was used to influence neurite polarity. Biocompatibility of the membranes was increased by vacuum baking, oligomer extraction, and autoclaving. Membranes were bound to the MEA by oxygen plasma treatment and heated pressure. The MEA/membrane surface was treated with oxygen plasma, poly-D-lysine and laminin to improve neuron attachment, survival and neurite outgrowth. Prior to cell patterning the outer edge of culture area was seeded with 5x10 5 cells per cm and incubated for 2 days. Single embryonic day 7 chick forebrain neurons were then patterned into the microwells and onto the electrodes using our laser cell patterning system. Patterned neurons successfully attached to and were confined to the electrodes. Neurites extended through the interconnecting channels and connected with adjacent neurons. These results demonstrate that neuronal circuits can be

  11. Spectral Entropy Based Neuronal Network Synchronization Analysis Based on Microelectrode Array Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kapucu, Fikret E.; Välkki, Inkeri; Mikkonen, Jarno E.; Leone, Chiara; Lenk, Kerstin; Tanskanen, Jarno M. A.; Hyttinen, Jari A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrony and asynchrony are essential aspects of the functioning of interconnected neuronal cells and networks. New information on neuronal synchronization can be expected to aid in understanding these systems. Synchronization provides insight in the functional connectivity and the spatial distribution of the information processing in the networks. Synchronization is generally studied with time domain analysis of neuronal events, or using direct frequency spectrum analysis, e.g., in specific frequency bands. However, these methods have their pitfalls. Thus, we have previously proposed a method to analyze temporal changes in the complexity of the frequency of signals originating from different network regions. The method is based on the correlation of time varying spectral entropies (SEs). SE assesses the regularity, or complexity, of a time series by quantifying the uniformity of the frequency spectrum distribution. It has been previously employed, e.g., in electroencephalogram analysis. Here, we revisit our correlated spectral entropy method (CorSE), providing evidence of its justification, usability, and benefits. Here, CorSE is assessed with simulations and in vitro microelectrode array (MEA) data. CorSE is first demonstrated with a specifically tailored toy simulation to illustrate how it can identify synchronized populations. To provide a form of validation, the method was tested with simulated data from integrate-and-fire model based computational neuronal networks. To demonstrate the analysis of real data, CorSE was applied on in vitro MEA data measured from rat cortical cell cultures, and the results were compared with three known event based synchronization measures. Finally, we show the usability by tracking the development of networks in dissociated mouse cortical cell cultures. The results show that temporal correlations in frequency spectrum distributions reflect the network relations of neuronal populations. In the simulated data, CorSE unraveled the

  12. Spectral Entropy Based Neuronal Network Synchronization Analysis Based on Microelectrode Array Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Välkki, Inkeri; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Leone, Chiara; Lenk, Kerstin; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2016-01-01

    Synchrony and asynchrony are essential aspects of the functioning of interconnected neuronal cells and networks. New information on neuronal synchronization can be expected to aid in understanding these systems. Synchronization provides insight in the functional connectivity and the spatial distribution of the information processing in the networks. Synchronization is generally studied with time domain analysis of neuronal events, or using direct frequency spectrum analysis, e.g., in specific frequency bands. However, these methods have their pitfalls. Thus, we have previously proposed a method to analyze temporal changes in the complexity of the frequency of signals originating from different network regions. The method is based on the correlation of time varying spectral entropies (SEs). SE assesses the regularity, or complexity, of a time series by quantifying the uniformity of the frequency spectrum distribution. It has been previously employed, e.g., in electroencephalogram analysis. Here, we revisit our correlated spectral entropy method (CorSE), providing evidence of its justification, usability, and benefits. Here, CorSE is assessed with simulations and in vitro microelectrode array (MEA) data. CorSE is first demonstrated with a specifically tailored toy simulation to illustrate how it can identify synchronized populations. To provide a form of validation, the method was tested with simulated data from integrate-and-fire model based computational neuronal networks. To demonstrate the analysis of real data, CorSE was applied on in vitro MEA data measured from rat cortical cell cultures, and the results were compared with three known event based synchronization measures. Finally, we show the usability by tracking the development of networks in dissociated mouse cortical cell cultures. The results show that temporal correlations in frequency spectrum distributions reflect the network relations of neuronal populations. In the simulated data, CorSE unraveled the

  13. Neurotoxicity screening of (illicit) drugs using novel methods for analysis of microelectrode array (MEA) recordings.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, L; Verboven, A H A; Drega, W S; Schmeink, S; de Groot, M W G D M; van Kleef, R G D M; Wijnolts, F M J; de Groot, A; Meulenbelt, J; Westerink, R H S

    2016-07-01

    Annual prevalence of the use of common illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) is high, despite the often limited knowledge on the health risks of these substances. Recently, cortical cultures grown on multi-well microelectrode arrays (mwMEAs) have been used for neurotoxicity screening of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and toxins with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, the use of mwMEAs to investigate the effects of illicit drugs on neuronal activity is largely unexplored. We therefore first characterised the cortical cultures using immunocytochemistry and show the presence of astrocytes, glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Neuronal activity is concentration-dependently affected following exposure to six neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and nicotine). Most neurotransmitters inhibit neuronal activity, although glutamate and acetylcholine transiently increase activity at specific concentrations. These transient effects are not detected when activity is determined during the entire 30min exposure window, potentially resulting in false-negative results. As expected, exposure to the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline increases neuronal activity. Exposure to a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-receptor (diazepam) or to glutamate receptor antagonists (CNQX and MK-801) reduces neuronal activity. Further, we demonstrate that exposure to common drugs (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and amphetamine) and NPS (1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and methoxetamine (MXE)) decreases neuronal activity. MXE most potently inhibits neuronal activity with an IC50 of 0.5μM, whereas 4-FA is least potent with an IC50 of 113μM. Our data demonstrate the importance of analysing neuronal activity within different time windows during exposure to prevent false-negative results. We also show that cortical cultures grown on mwMEAs can successfully be applied to investigate the effects of

  14. Characterizing the Material Properties of Polymer-Based Microelectrode Arrays for Retinal Prosthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Christina Soyeun

    2003-06-01

    The Retinal Prosthesis project is a three year project conducted in part at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and funded by the Department of Energy to create an epiretinal microelectrode array for stimulating retinal cells. The implant must be flexible to conform to the retina, robust to sustain handling during fabrication and implantation, and biocompatible to withstand physiological conditions within the eye. Using poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS), LLNL aims to use microfabrication techniques to increase the number of electrodes and integrate electronics. After the initial designs were fabricated and tested in acute implantation, it became obvious that there was a need to characterize and understand the mechanical and electrical properties of these new structures. This knowledge would be imperative in gaining credibility for polymer microfabrication and optimizing the designs. Thin composite microfabricated devices are challenging to characterize because they are difficult to handle, and exhibit non-linear, viscoelastic, and anisotropic properties. The objective of this research is to device experiments and protocols, develop an analytical model to represent the composite behavior, design and fabricate test structures, and conduct experimental testing to determine the mechanical and electrical properties of PDMS-metal composites. Previous uniaxial stretch tests show an average of 7% strain before failure on resistive heaters of similar dimensions deposited on PDMS. Lack of background information and questionable human accuracy demands a more sophisticated and thorough testing method. An Instron tensile testing machine was set up to interface with a digital multiplexor and computer interface to simultaneously record and graph position, load, and resistance across devices. With a compliant load cell for testing polymers and electrical interconnect grips designed and fabricated to interface the sample to the electronics, real-time resistance measurements

  15. Diamond coated silicon field emitter array

    SciTech Connect

    S. Albin; W. Fu; A. Varghese; A. C. Lavarias; G. R. Myneni

    1999-07-01

    Diamond coated silicon tip arrays, with and without a self-aligned gate, were fabricated, and current-voltage characteristics of 400 tips were measured. Diamond films were grown uniformly on Si tips using microwave plasma after nucleation with 10 nm diamond suspension and substrate bias. An emission current of 57 ?A was obtained at 5 V from the ungated array tips separated from an anode at 2 ?m. In the case of the gated arrays with 1.5 ?m aperture, an emission current of 3.4 ?A was measured at a gate voltage of 80 V for an anode separation of 200 ?m. The turn-on voltages for these two types of devices were 0.2 and 40 V, respectively. Diamond coated Si tip arrays have potential applications in field emission based low voltage vacuum electronic devices and microsensors.

  16. Integrated Arrays on Silicon at Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhayay, Goutam; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecil; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alessandro; Mehdi, Imran; Llombert, Nuria; Thomas, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architecture for use in integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies and use of novel integrated antennas with silicon micromachining are reported. We report novel stacking of micromachined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages which easily leads to the development of 2- dimensioanl multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the terahertz frequency range. We also report an integrated micro-lens antenna that goes with the silicon micro-machined front-end. The micro-lens antenna is fed by a waveguide that excites a silicon lens antenna through a leaky-wave or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonant cavity. We utilized advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass submillimeter-wave heterodyne frontend. When the micro-lens antenna is integrated with the receiver front-end we will be able to assemble integrated heterodyne array receivers for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  17. Research on neural information detecting system measuring neuroelectricity in hippocampus in vivo and dopamine in vitro based on microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Mixia Wang; Shengwei Xu; Nansen Lin; Yilin Song; Song Zhang; Xinxia Cai

    2016-08-01

    Concurrently detecting the electrical activity of neurons and neurotransmitter release signals, will have a great significance in understanding the working mechanism of the brain. This paper describes a neural information detecting system based on microelectrode array(MEA) measuring neuroelectricity in hippocampus in vivo and dopamine(DA) in vitro. The detecting system contains of electrophysiological headstage, electrochemical headstage, microprocessor, electrophysiological signal amplifier, data acquisition module and neural signal analysis software. In electrophysiological test, the neural information detecting system was applied to detect neuroelectricity in hippocampus of SD rat with 16-channel microelectrode array in vivo. Active potentials were captured. The amplitude of the recorded neural spikes reached 182.90 μV, and signal to noise ratio was 7:1. For measure dopamine as neurotransmitter, there was a good linear relationship between response current and concentration of dopamine from 10nM to 18.88μ with correlation coefficient of 0.9974. Electrophysiological experiment and electrochemical experiment demonstrate the capability of the neural information detecting system to capture dual mode neural signal, which provides a convenient way to study dual mode operating mechanism of neural system.

  18. Biocompatibility of subretinal parylene-based Ti/Pt microelectrode array in rabbit for further artificial vision studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weihong; Wang, Xuqian; Zhao, Chan; Yang, Zhikun; Dai, Rongping; Dong, Fangtian

    2009-03-27

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of subretinal implanted parylene-based Ti/Pt microelectrode arrays (MEA). Eyes were enucleated 3 months after MEAs were implanted into the subretinal space of rabbits. Morphological changes of the retinas were investigated by H&E staining. Immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and opsin were performed to evaluate changes in Muller cells and photoreceptors in the retinas. Retina tissue around the array remained intact. Photoreceptor degeneration and glial cell activation were observed in the retina overlaying the MEA implant. However, the cells in the inner retinal layers were preserved. Photoreceptor degeneration and glial cell activation at the MEA-retina interface are expected to be a normal reaction to implantation. Material used in this experiment has good biocompatibility within the subretinal environment and is expected to be promising in the further retinal prosthesis studies.

  19. New Methods for the Site-Selective Placement of Peptides on a Microelectrode Array: Probing VEGF-v107 Binding as Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Graaf, Matthew D; Marquez, Bernadette V; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Lapi, Suzanne E; Moeller, Kevin D

    2016-10-21

    Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" reactions cannot be performed on a borate ester derived polymer coating on a microelectrode array because the Cu(II) precursor for the catalyst triggers background reactions between both acetylene and azide groups with the polymer surface. Fortunately, the Cu(II)-background reaction can itself be used to site-selectively add the acetylene and azide nucleophiles to the surface of the array. In this way, molecules previously functionalized for use in "click" reactions can be added directly to the array. In a similar fashion, activated esters can be added site-selectively to a borate ester coated array. The new chemistry can be used to explore new biological interactions on the arrays. Specifically, the binding of a v107 derived peptide with both human and murine VEGF was probed using a functionalized microelectrode array.

  20. In Vivo Neural Recording and Electrochemical Performance of Microelectrode Arrays Modified by Rough-Surfaced AuPt Alloy Nanoparticles with Nanoporosity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Jue

    2016-11-03

    In order to reduce the impedance and improve in vivo neural recording performance of our developed Michigan type silicon electrodes, rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles with nanoporosity were deposited on gold microelectrode sites through electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles, followed by chemical dealloying Cu. The AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified gold microelectrode sites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in vivo neural recording experiment. The SEM images showed that the prepared AuPt alloy nanoparticles exhibited cauliflower-like shapes and possessed very rough surfaces with many different sizes of pores. Average impedance of rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified sites was 0.23 MΩ at 1 kHz, which was only 4.7% of that of bare gold microelectrode sites (4.9 MΩ), and corresponding in vitro background noise in the range of 1 Hz to 7500 Hz decreased to 7.5 μ V rms from 34.1 μ V rms at bare gold microelectrode sites. Spontaneous spike signal recording was used to evaluate in vivo neural recording performance of modified microelectrode sites, and results showed that rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified microelectrode sites exhibited higher average spike signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 4.8 in lateral globus pallidus (GPe) due to lower background noise compared to control microelectrodes. Electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles combined with chemical dealloying Cu was a convenient way for increasing the effective surface area of microelectrode sites, which could reduce electrode impedance and improve the quality of in vivo spike signal recording.

  1. In Vivo Neural Recording and Electrochemical Performance of Microelectrode Arrays Modified by Rough-Surfaced AuPt Alloy Nanoparticles with Nanoporosity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Gong, Ruxue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the impedance and improve in vivo neural recording performance of our developed Michigan type silicon electrodes, rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles with nanoporosity were deposited on gold microelectrode sites through electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles, followed by chemical dealloying Cu. The AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified gold microelectrode sites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in vivo neural recording experiment. The SEM images showed that the prepared AuPt alloy nanoparticles exhibited cauliflower-like shapes and possessed very rough surfaces with many different sizes of pores. Average impedance of rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified sites was 0.23 MΩ at 1 kHz, which was only 4.7% of that of bare gold microelectrode sites (4.9 MΩ), and corresponding in vitro background noise in the range of 1 Hz to 7500 Hz decreased to 7.5 μVrms from 34.1 μVrms at bare gold microelectrode sites. Spontaneous spike signal recording was used to evaluate in vivo neural recording performance of modified microelectrode sites, and results showed that rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles modified microelectrode sites exhibited higher average spike signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 4.8 in lateral globus pallidus (GPe) due to lower background noise compared to control microelectrodes. Electro-co-deposition of Au-Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles combined with chemical dealloying Cu was a convenient way for increasing the effective surface area of microelectrode sites, which could reduce electrode impedance and improve the quality of in vivo spike signal recording. PMID:27827893

  2. Lead field theory provides a powerful tool for designing microelectrode array impedance measurements for biological cell detection and observation.

    PubMed

    Böttrich, Marcel; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2017-06-26

    Our aim is to introduce a method to enhance the design process of microelectrode array (MEA) based electric bioimpedance measurement systems for improved detection and viability assessment of living cells and tissues. We propose the application of electromagnetic lead field theory and reciprocity for MEA design and measurement result interpretation. Further, we simulated impedance spectroscopy (IS) with two- and four-electrode setups and a biological cell to illustrate the tool in the assessment of the capabilities of given MEA electrode constellations for detecting cells on or in the vicinity of the microelectrodes. The results show the power of the lead field theory in electromagnetic simulations of cell-microelectrode systems depicting the fundamental differences of two- and four-electrode IS measurement configurations to detect cells. Accordingly, the use in MEA system design is demonstrated by assessing the differences between the two- and four-electrode IS configurations. Further, our results show how cells affect the lead fields in these MEA system, and how we can utilize the differences of the two- and four-electrode setups in cell detection. The COMSOL simulator model is provided freely in public domain as open source. Lead field theory can be successfully applied in MEA design for the IS based assessment of biological cells providing the necessary visualization and insight for MEA design. The proposed method is expected to enhance the design and usability of automated cell and tissue manipulation systems required for bioreactors, which are intended for the automated production of cell and tissue grafts for medical purposes. MEA systems are also intended for toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on living cells. Our results demonstrate that lead field concept is expected to enhance also the development of such methods and devices.

  3. Versatile, modular 3D microelectrode arrays for neuronal ensemble recordings: from design to fabrication, assembly, and functional validation in non-human primates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, F.; Livi, A.; Lanzilotto, M.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable 3D microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates. Approach. System assembly relies on a microfabricated stacking component that is combined with Michigan-style silicon-based electrode arrays interfacing highly flexible polyimide cables. Based on the novel stacking component, the lead time for implementing prototypes with altered electrode pitches is minimal. Once the fabrication and assembly accuracy of the stacked probes have been characterized, their recording performance is assessed during in vivo chronic experiments in awake rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) trained to execute reaching-grasping motor tasks. Main results. Using a single set of fabrication tools, we implemented three variants of the stacking component for electrode distances of 250, 300 and 350 µm in the stacking direction. We assembled neural probes with up to 96 channels and an electrode density of 98 electrodes mm-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the shank alignment is accurate to a few µm at an angular alignment better than 1°. Three 64-channel probes were chronically implanted in two monkeys providing single-unit activity on more than 60% of all channels and excellent recording stability. Histological tissue sections, obtained 52 d after implantation from one of the monkeys, showed minimal tissue damage, in accordance with the high quality and stability of the recorded neural activity. Significance. The versatility of our fabrication and assembly approach should significantly support the development of ideal interface geometries for a broad

  4. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of spontaneous network activity in cortical networks grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used...

  5. Characterization of ToxCast Phase II compounds disruption of spontaneous network activity in cortical networks grown on multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) plates.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of multi-well microelectrode array (mwMEA) systems has increased in vitro screening throughput making them an effective method to screen and prioritize large sets of compounds for potential neurotoxicity. In the present experiments, a multiplexed approach was used...

  6. Surface properties of pulsed laser deposited Ir, Rh, and Ir 0.9Rh 0.1 thin films for use as microelectrode arrays in electroanalytical heavy metal trace sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Drogoff, B.; El Khakani, M. A.; Silva, P. R. M.; Chaker, M.; Ross, G. G.

    1999-11-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of iridium, rhodium, and Ir 0.9Rh 0.1 thin films onto a-SiC:H-coated silicon substrates for use in heavy metal sensors has been achieved by ablating iridium and/or rhodium targets with a KrF excimer laser. The deposited films are polycrystalline and exhibited very smooth surfaces with an average roughness value ( Ra) of ˜1 nm. The wettability by mercury of their surface was investigated by means of the contact angle measurement technique, and compared to that of Ag and Pt films. The PLD films (whether Ir, Rh, or Ir 0.9Rh 0.1) were found to present an almost identical Hg-wetting behavior, which is characterized by a high static contact angle of 132±2°. Moreover, in contrast to the cases of Pt or Ag films, where amalgamation with Hg rapidly occurs during the contact angle measurements, no evident interaction of Hg with the surface of the PLD films was observed. Microelectrode arrays of each of the three films (Ir, Rh and Ir 0.9Rh 0.1) were fabricated and used as a conducting base onto which Hg microdrops are electroplated. Reproducible and uniform Hg deposits on the microelectrode arrays were obtained. The electroanalytical performance of these Hg-electroplated microelectrode arrays based sensors was then evaluated by means of Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV), in synthetic solutions containing Zn, Cd and Pb ion traces. Over a concentration range as wide as 0.2-20 ppb, the detected signals are found to exhibit a strong linear correlation with ion concentration. For a preconcentration time of only 5 min, detection limits as low as 0.2 ppb for both Cd and Pb, and 0.5 ppb for Zn were achieved.

  7. Precaution for volume conduction in rodent cortical electroencephalography using high-density polyimide-based microelectrode arrays on the skull

    PubMed Central

    Venzi, M.; Poppendieck, W.; Hoffmann, K. P.; Åberg, E.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, significant progress has been made to link spatial changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral density, connectivity strength, and phase-amplitude modulation to neurological, physiological, and psychological correlates. In contrast, standard rodent EEG techniques employ only few electrodes, which results in poor spatial resolution. Recently, a technique was developed to overcome this limitation in mice. This technique was based on a polyimide-based microelectrode (PBM) array applied on the mouse skull, maintaining a significant number of electrodes with consistent contact, electrode impedance, and mechanical stability. The present study built on this technique by extending it to rats. Therefore, a similar PBM array, but adapted to rats, was designed and fabricated. In addition, this array was connected to a wireless EEG headstage, allowing recording in untethered, freely moving rats. The advantage of a high-density array relies on the assumption that the signal recorded from the different electrodes is generated from distinct sources, i.e., not volume-conducted. Therefore, the utility and validity of the array were evaluated by determining the level of synchrony between channels due to true synchrony or volume conduction during basal vigilance states and following a subanesthetic dose of ketamine. Although the PBM array allowed recording with high signal quality, under both drug and drug-free conditions, high synchronization existed due to volume conduction between the electrodes even in the higher spectral frequency range. Discrimination existed only between frontally and centrally/distally grouped electrode pairs. Therefore, caution should be used in interpreting spatial data obtained from high-density PBM arrays in rodents. PMID:26864767

  8. Precaution for volume conduction in rodent cortical electroencephalography using high-density polyimide-based microelectrode arrays on the skull.

    PubMed

    Stienen, P J; Venzi, M; Poppendieck, W; Hoffmann, K P; Åberg, E

    2016-04-01

    In humans, significant progress has been made to link spatial changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral density, connectivity strength, and phase-amplitude modulation to neurological, physiological, and psychological correlates. In contrast, standard rodent EEG techniques employ only few electrodes, which results in poor spatial resolution. Recently, a technique was developed to overcome this limitation in mice. This technique was based on a polyimide-based microelectrode (PBM) array applied on the mouse skull, maintaining a significant number of electrodes with consistent contact, electrode impedance, and mechanical stability. The present study built on this technique by extending it to rats. Therefore, a similar PBM array, but adapted to rats, was designed and fabricated. In addition, this array was connected to a wireless EEG headstage, allowing recording in untethered, freely moving rats. The advantage of a high-density array relies on the assumption that the signal recorded from the different electrodes is generated from distinct sources, i.e., not volume-conducted. Therefore, the utility and validity of the array were evaluated by determining the level of synchrony between channels due to true synchrony or volume conduction during basal vigilance states and following a subanesthetic dose of ketamine. Although the PBM array allowed recording with high signal quality, under both drug and drug-free conditions, high synchronization existed due to volume conduction between the electrodes even in the higher spectral frequency range. Discrimination existed only between frontally and centrally/distally grouped electrode pairs. Therefore, caution should be used in interpreting spatial data obtained from high-density PBM arrays in rodents. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A flexible and implantable microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertical carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wenwen; Chen, Chaoyang; Feng, Zhaoying; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Chengpeng; Masurkar, Nirul; Cavanaugh, John; Ming-Cheng Cheng, Mark

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible and biocompatible parylene substrate. A simple microfabrication process is proposed to unite the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. Briefly, the CNTs electrode is encapsulated by two layers of parylene and the device is released using xenon difluoride (XeF2). The process is compatible with wafer-scale post complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. Lower impedance and larger interfacial capacitance have been demonstrated using CNTs compared to a Pt electrode. The flexible CNT electrodes have been utilized for extracellular neuronal recording and stimulation in rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of the device is about 12.5. The threshold voltage for initiating action potential is about 0.5 V.

  10. A flexible and implantable microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertical carbon nanotubes and a biocompatible polymer substrate.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wenwen; Chen, Chaoyang; Feng, Zhaoying; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Chengpeng; Masurkar, Nirul; Cavanaugh, John; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2015-03-27

    This paper presents a novel microelectrode arrays using high-temperature grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible and biocompatible parylene substrate. A simple microfabrication process is proposed to unite the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. Briefly, the CNTs electrode is encapsulated by two layers of parylene and the device is released using xenon difluoride (XeF2). The process is compatible with wafer-scale post complementary metal oxide semiconductor integration. Lower impedance and larger interfacial capacitance have been demonstrated using CNTs compared to a Pt electrode. The flexible CNT electrodes have been utilized for extracellular neuronal recording and stimulation in rats. The signal-to-noise ratio of the device is about 12.5. The threshold voltage for initiating action potential is about 0.5 V.

  11. Tissue-Level Cardiac Electrophysiology Studied in Murine Myocardium Using a Microelectrode Array: Autonomic and Thermal Modulation.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jem D; Montaigne, David; Tinker, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, and this has both pathophysiological, and possibly therapeutic importance. Furthermore, chamber differences in electrophysiology exist between atria and ventricles, yet there have been few direct comparisons. There is substantial literature on ion channel modulation at the single-cell level but less work on how this affects tissue-level parameters. We used a microelectrode array system to explore these issues using murine atrial and ventricular tissue slices. Activation time, conduction velocity and repolarisation were measured, and their modulation by temperature and pharmacological autonomic agonists were assessed. The system recorded reliable measurements under control conditions in the absence of drug/thermal challenge, and significant baseline differences were found in chamber electrophysiology. The sodium channel blocker mexiletine, produced large magnitude changes in all three measured parameters. Carbachol and isoprenaline induced differing effects in atria and ventricles, whereas temperature produced similar effects on activation and repolarisation.

  12. Micro-flow Immunosensor Based on Thin-film Interdigitated Gold Array Microelectrodes for Cancer Biomarker Detection.

    PubMed

    Ravalli, Andrea; Lozzi, Luca; Marrazza, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the development of a micro-flow label-free impedimetric biosensor based on the use of thin-film interdigitated gold array microelectrodes (IDA) for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). The immunosensor is developed through the electropolymerization of anthranilic acid (AA) on the surface of IDA electrodes followed by the covalent attachment of anti-CA125 monoclonal antibody. CA125 protein affinity reaction was then evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor was characterized by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Using the optimized experimental conditions, the developed immunosensor showed a good analytical performance for CA125 detection from 0 to 100 U/mL with estimated limit of detection (LOD = 3Sblank/Slope) of 7 U/mL.

  13. Multiple Single-Unit Long-Term Tracking on Organotypic Hippocampal Slices Using High-Density Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wei; Senčar, Jure; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Jäckel, David; Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Radivojevic, Milos; Hierlemann, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA) was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals. An unsupervised iterative spike-sorting algorithm, based on PCA and k-means clustering, was developed to assign the activities to the single units. Spike-triggered average extracellular waveforms of an action potential recorded across neighboring electrodes, termed “footprints” of single-units were generated and tracked over weeks. The developed system offers the potential to study chronic impacts of drugs or genetic modifications on individual neurons in slice preparations over extended times. PMID:27920665

  14. Micropatterned arrays of porous silicon: toward sensory biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Flavel, Benjamin S; Sweetman, Martin J; Shearer, Cameron J; Shapter, Joseph G; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2011-07-01

    We describe the fabrication of arrays of porous silicon spots by means of photolithography where a positive photoresist serves as a mask during the anodization process. In particular, photoluminescent arrays and porous silicon spots suitable for further chemical modification and the attachment of human cells were created. The produced arrays of porous silicon were chemically modified by means of a thermal hydrosilylation reaction that facilitated immobilization of the fluorescent dye lissamine, and alternatively, the cell adhesion peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine. The latter modification enabled the selective attachment of human lens epithelial cells on the peptide functionalized regions of the patterns. This type of surface patterning, using etched porous silicon arrays functionalized with biological recognition elements, presents a new format of interfacing porous silicon with mammalian cells. Porous silicon arrays with photoluminescent properties produced by this patterning strategy also have potential applications as platforms for in situ monitoring of cell behavior.

  15. Spatial characteristics of evoked potentials elicited by a MEMS microelectrode array for suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Sui, Xiaohong; Liu, Wenjia; Lu, Yiliang; Cao, Pengjia; Ma, Zengguang; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu; Li, Liming

    2015-09-01

    Suprachoroidal-transretinal stimulation (STS) can potentially restore vision. This study investigated the spatial characteristics of cortical electrical evoked potentials (EEPs) elicited by STS. A 4 × 4 thin-film platinum microelectrode stimulating array (200 μm electrode diameter and 400 μm center-to-center distance) was fabricated by a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques and implanted into the suprachoroidal space of albino rabbits. The current threshold to elicit reliable EEPs by a single electrode was 41.6 ± 12.6 μA, corresponding to a 66.2 ± 20.1 μC · cm(-2) charge density per phase, which was lower than the reported safety limits. Spatially differentiated cortical responses could be evoked by STS through different rows or columns of electrical stimulation; furthermore, shifts in the location of the maximum cortical activities were consistent with cortical visuotopic maps; increasing the number of simultaneously stimulating electrodes increased the response amplitudes of EEPs and expanded the spatial spread as well. In addition, long-term implantation and electrical stimulation of the MEMS electrode array in suprachoroidal space are necessary to evaluate systematically the safety and biocompatibility of this approach. This study indicates that the STS approach by a MEMS-based platinum electrode array is a feasible alternative for visual restoration, and relatively high spatial discrimination may be achieved.

  16. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Conversion Program was established to find methods of economically generating enough electrical power to meet future requirements. Activities and progress in the following areas are discussed: silicon-refinement processes; silicon-sheet-growth techniques; encapsulants; manufacturing of off-the-shelf solar arrays; and procurement of semistandardized solar arrays.

  17. LSSA (Low-cost Silicon Solar Array) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Methods are explored for economically generating electrical power to meet future requirements. The Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LSSA) was established to reduce the price of solar arrays by improving manufacturing technology, adapting mass production techniques, and promoting user acceptance. The new manufacturing technology includes the consideration of new silicon refinement processes, silicon sheet growth techniques, encapsulants, and automated assembly production being developed under contract by industries and universities.

  18. Individually addressable microelectrode arrays fabricated with gold-coated pencil graphite particles for multiplexed and high sensitive impedance immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Nie, Jinfang; Zhang, Yuwei; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2009-09-15

    A renewable, site-selective immobilization platform of microelectrode array (MEA) for multiplexed immunoassays has been initially developed using pencil graphite particles coated with gold layers as microelectrodes. The graphite particles available on the common pencil were utilized for directing the electro-deposition of gold layers with uniform microstructures which displayed a well-defined sigmoidal voltammetric response. In the concept-of-proof experiments, the resulting MEA platform was modified with functionalized monolayer, on which anti-human IgG antibodies could be stably immobilized in a site-selective way through binding chemistry to selectively capture human IgG antigens from the sample media. The subsequent introduction of anti-human IgG antibodies conjugated with 15 nm electro-active gold nanoparticles to recognize the captured IgG proteins resulted in a significant decrease in the interfacial electron-transfer resistance. High sensitive electrochemical quantification by gold nanoparticle-amplified impedance responses could thus be achieved. Experimental results show that the developed MEA sensor can allow for the detection of human IgG with wide linear range (0.05-100 ng ml(-1)) and sensitivity over 10(3) larger than that of the conventional, bulk gold electrode. The rapid regeneration of the used MEA platform can additionally be realized by a simple electrochemical treatment. The high selectivity of four individually addressable MEA platforms for multiple antigens in a single sample has been further demonstrated in the multiplexed immunoassay experiments. Such a site-selective immobilization strategy of MEA platform may open a new door towards the development of various simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and reusable biological sensors and biochips.

  19. Spatial analysis of slowly oscillating electric activity in the gut of mice using low impedance arrayed microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Mizuki; Kajioka, Shunichi; Shozib, Habibul B; Sawamura, Kenta; Nakayama, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Smooth and elaborate gut motility is based on cellular cooperation, including smooth muscle, enteric neurons and special interstitial cells acting as pacemaker cells. Therefore, spatial characterization of electric activity in tissues containing these electric excitable cells is required for a precise understanding of gut motility. Furthermore, tools to evaluate spatial electric activity in a small area would be useful for the investigation of model animals. We thus employed a microelectrode array (MEA) system to simultaneously measure a set of 8×8 field potentials in a square area of ∼1 mm(2). The size of each recording electrode was 50×50 µm(2), however the surface area was increased by fixing platinum black particles. The impedance of microelectrode was sufficiently low to apply a high-pass filter of 0.1 Hz. Mapping of spectral power, and auto-correlation and cross-correlation parameters characterized the spatial properties of spontaneous electric activity in the ileum of wild-type (WT) and W/W(v) mice, the latter serving as a model of impaired network of pacemaking interstitial cells. Namely, electric activities measured varied in both size and cooperativity in W/W(v) mice, despite the small area. In the ileum of WT mice, procedures suppressing the excitability of smooth muscle and neurons altered the propagation of spontaneous electric activity, but had little change in the period of oscillations. In conclusion, MEA with low impedance electrodes enables to measure slowly oscillating electric activity, and is useful to evaluate both histological and functional changes in the spatio-temporal property of gut electric activity.

  20. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Jeffrey M; Marconnet, Amy M; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M; Panzer, Matthew A; Goodson, Kenneth E; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-06

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  1. Thermal conductivity in porous silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisse, Jeffrey M.; Marconnet, Amy M.; Kim, Dong Rip; Rao, Pratap M.; Panzer, Matthew A.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2012-10-01

    The nanoscale features in silicon nanowires (SiNWs) can suppress phonon propagation and strongly reduce their thermal conductivities compared to the bulk value. This work measures the thermal conductivity along the axial direction of SiNW arrays with varying nanowire diameters, doping concentrations, surface roughness, and internal porosities using nanosecond transient thermoreflectance. For SiNWs with diameters larger than the phonon mean free path, porosity substantially reduces the thermal conductivity, yielding thermal conductivities as low as 1 W/m/K in highly porous SiNWs. However, when the SiNW diameter is below the phonon mean free path, both the internal porosity and the diameter significantly contribute to phonon scattering and lead to reduced thermal conductivity of the SiNWs.

  2. Design of two dimensional silicon nanowire arrays for antireflection and light trapping in silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wuchang; Jia, Rui; Li, Haofeng; Chen, Chen; Sun, Yun; Jin, Zhi; Liu, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride coated nanowire arrays have been investigated as an efficient antireflection structure for silicon solar cells. The minimum average reflectance could reach 1.62% under AM1.5 spectrum. Scattering effects of silicon nanowire arrays also result in enhanced absorption in the substrate, and analytical results show that the scattered light can be well trapped in silicon substrate when the back surface is passivated by silicon dioxide. This ultra-low surface reflection property combined with light trapping effect may have potential applications in silicon solar cells with thin substrate.

  3. In Situ Characterization of Stimulating Microelectrode Arrays: Study of an Idealized Structure Based on Argus II Retinal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandagor, Vincent; Cela, Carlos J.; Sanders, Charlene A.; Greenbaum, Elias; Lazzi, Gianluca; Zhou, David D.; Castro, Richard; Gaikwad, Sanjay; Little, Jim

    The development of a retinal prosthesis for artificial sight includes a study of the factors affecting the structural and functional stability of chronically implanted microelectrode arrays. Although neuron depolarization and propagation of electrical signals have been studied for nearly a century, the use of multielectrode stimulation as a proposed therapy to treat blindness is a frontier area of modern ophthalmology research. Mapping and characterizing the topographic information contained in the electric field potentials and understanding how this information is transmitted and interpreted in the visual cortex is still very much a work in progress. In order to characterize the electrical field patterns generated by the device, an in vitro prototype that mimics several of the physical and chemical parameters of the in vivo visual implant device was fabricated. We carried out multiple electrical measurements in a model "eye," beginning with a single electrode, followed by a 9-electrode array structure, both idealized components based on the Argus II retinal implants. Correlating the information contained in the topographic features of the electric fields with psychophysical testing in patients may help reduce the time required for patients to convert the electrical patterns into graphic signals.

  4. Silicon microhole array prepared by ICP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duanmu, Qingduo; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Guozheng; Gao, Yanjun; Li, Ye; Jiang, Delong; Fu, Lichen; Tian, Jingquan

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a silicon micro-hole arrays (Si-MHA) prepared by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etching, a dry etching method. By ICP etcher, we carried out several experimental researches and process exploration for micromachining Si-MHA. The mechanism of lateral etching, sidewall passivation, gas micro-transport and some process parameters in Si-MHA micromachining, such as gas switching time, flow rate, etching rate, were analyzed. The footing effect, lag effect, longitudinal strips and RIE grass effect occurred in the ICP etching process were also studied. These process problems had reappeared in the micro-hole arrays process though these problems had be solved in the field of integrated circuits process and microelectromechanical system (MEMS). The study results reported here had demonstrated a Si-MHA that the diameter was 15 μm, the center distance 30 μm, and the depth 240 μm prepared by ICP, and had led the author to believe that the deep pore structure and the deep trench with high aspect ratio were very different in etching process. The former is a closed structure for the gas transport, and the latter is an open structure, so the process of deep hole structure is a puzzle in micromachining and MEMS technology.

  5. A 16 x 16 element extrinsic silicon detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Two bismuth-doped silicon accumulation-mode charge-injection device (AMCID) infrared detector arrays are studied. The geometry and composition of the arrays, and a description of the cold and warm electronics components of the system are described. Instructions for setting up and operating the array system, plus results of a functional test, are included.

  6. Silicon-based wire electrode array for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Weihua; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shanshan; Fang, Xiaolei; Chen, Sanyuan; Gui, Qiang; Tang, Rongyu; Chen, Yuanfang; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    Objectives. Metal-wire electrode arrays are widely used to record and stimulate neurons. Commonly, these devices are fabricated from a long insulated metal wire by cutting it into the proper length and using the cross-section as the electrode site. The assembly of a micro-wire electrode array with regular spacing is difficult. With the help of micro-machine technology, a silicon-based wire electrode array (SWEA) is proposed to simplify the assembling process and provide a wire-type electrode with tapered tips. Approach. Silicon wires with regular spacing coated with metal are generated from a silicon wafer through micro-fabrication and are ordered into a 3D array. A silicon wafer is cut into a comb-like structure with hexagonal teeth on both sides by anisotropic etching. To establish an array of silicon-based linear needles through isotropic wet etching, the diameters of these hexagonal teeth are reduced; their sharp edges are smoothed out and their tips are sharpened. The needle array is coated with a layer of parylene after metallization. The tips of the needles are then exposed to form an array of linear neural electrodes. With these linear electrode arrays, an array of area electrodes can be fabricated. Main results. A 6  ×  6 array of wire-type electrodes based on silicon is developed using this method. The time required to manually assemble the 3D array decreases significantly with the introduction of micro-fabricated 2D array. Meanwhile, the tip intervals in the 2D array are accurate and are controlled at no more than 1%. The SWEA is effective both in vitro and in vivo. Significance. Using this method, the SWEA can be batch-prepared in advance along with its parameters, such as spacing, length, and diameter. Thus, neural scientists can assemble proper electrode arrays in a short time.

  7. Nano-Ampere Stimulation Window for Cultured Neurons on Micro-Electrode Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    the electrical potential and σ the conductivity of the NANO -AMPÈRE STIMULATION WINDOW FOR CULTURED NEURONS ON MICRO -ELECTRODE ARRAYS J.R. Buitenweg1... Nano -Ampere Stimulatin Window for Cultured Neurons on Micro -Electrode Arrays Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project...membrane, using a nano -ampère current through the extracellular electrode. Also, a stimulation window is observed. These findings can be explained by a

  8. A Compact Microelectrode Array Chip with Multiple Measuring Sites for Electrochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Dimaki, Maria; Vergani, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Kwasny, Dorota; Sasso, Luigi; Carminati, Marco; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Emneus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of a microchip with 12 identical but individually addressable electrochemical measuring sites, each consisting of a set of interdigitated electrodes acting as a working electrode as well as two circular electrodes functioning as a counter and reference electrode in close proximity. The electrodes are made of gold on a silicon oxide substrate and are passivated by a silicon nitride membrane. A method for avoiding the creation of high edges at the electrodes (known as lift-off ears) is presented. The microchip design is highly symmetric to accommodate easy electronic integration and provides space for microfluidic inlets and outlets for integrated custom-made microfluidic systems on top. PMID:24878592

  9. A compact microelectrode array chip with multiple measuring sites for electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Dimaki, Maria; Vergani, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Kwasny, Dorota; Sasso, Luigi; Carminati, Marco; Gerrard, Juliet A; Emneus, Jenny; Svendsen, Winnie E

    2014-05-28

    In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication and electrochemical characterization of a microchip with 12 identical but individually addressable electrochemical measuring sites, each consisting of a set of interdigitated electrodes acting as a working electrode as well as two circular electrodes functioning as a counter and reference electrode in close proximity. The electrodes are made of gold on a silicon oxide substrate and are passivated by a silicon nitride membrane. A method for avoiding the creation of high edges at the electrodes (known as lift-off ears) is presented. The microchip design is highly symmetric to accommodate easy electronic integration and provides space for microfluidic inlets and outlets for integrated custom-made microfluidic systems on top.

  10. A new 3-D finite-element model based on thin-film approximation for microelectrode array recording of extracellular action potential.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Céline; Glière, Alain; Barbier, Daniel; Joucla, Sebastien; Yvert, Blaise; Mailley, Pascal; Guillemaud, Régis

    2008-02-01

    A transient finite-element model has been developed to simulate an extracellular action potential recording in a tissue slice by a planar microelectrode array. The thin-film approximation of the active neuron membrane allows the simulation within single finite-element software of the intracellular and extracellular potential fields. In comparison with a compartmental neuron model, it is shown that the thin-film approximation-based model is able to properly represent the neuron bioelectrical behavior in terms of transmembrane current and potential. Moreover, the model is able to simulate extracellular action potential recordings with properties similar to those observed in biological experiments. It is demonstrated that an ideal measurement system model can be used to represent the recording microelectrode, provided that the electronic recording system adapts to the electrode-tissue interface impedance. By comparing it with a point source approximated neuron, it is also shown that the neuron three-dimensional volume should be taken into account to simulate the extracellular action potential recording. Finally, the influence of the electrode size on the signal amplitude is evaluated. This parameter, together with the microelectrode noise, should be taken into account in order to optimize future microelectrode designs in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. A new high-density (25 electrodes/mm2) penetrating microelectrode array for recording and stimulating sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Sharma, R.; Mathews, K. S.; Fernandez, E.; Yoo, J.; Christensen, B.; Tresco, P.; Rieth, L.; Solzbacher, F.; Normann, R. A.; Tathireddy, P.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Among the currently available neural interface devices, there has been a need for a penetrating electrode array with a high electrode-count and high electrode-density (the number of electrodes/mm2) that can be used for electrophysiological studies of sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures. We have developed such a penetrating microelectrode array with both a high electrode-density (25 electrodes/mm2) and high electrode-count (up to 96 electrodes) for small nervous system structures, based on the existing Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Such high electrode-density arrays are expected to provide greater access to nerve fibers than the conventionally spaced USEA especially in small diameter nerves. Approach. One concern for such high density microelectrode arrays is that they may cause a nerve crush-type injury upon implantation. We evaluated this possibility during acute (<10 h) in vivo experiments with electrode arrays implanted into small diameter peripheral nerves of anesthetized rats (sciatic nerve) and cats (pudendal nerve). Main results. Successful intrafascicular implantation and viable nerve function was demonstrated via microstimulation, single-unit recordings and histological analysis. Measurements of the electrode impedances and quantified electrode dimensions demonstrated fabrication quality. The results of these experiments show that such high density neural interfaces can be implanted acutely into neural tissue without causing a complete nerve crush injury, while mediating intrafascicular access to fibers in small diameter peripheral nerves. Significance. This new penetrating microelectrode array has characteristics un-matched by other neural interface devices currently available for peripheral nervous system neurophysiological research.

  12. Extracellularly Recorded Somatic and Neuritic Signal Shapes and Classification Algorithms for High-Density Microelectrode Array Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Frey, Urs

    2016-01-01

    High-density microelectrode arrays (HDMEA) have been recently introduced to study principles of neural function at high spatial resolution. However, the exact nature of the experimentally observed extracellular action potentials (EAPs) is still incompletely understood. The soma, axon and dendrites of a neuron can all exhibit regenerative action potentials that could be sensed with HDMEA electrodes. Here, we investigate the contribution of distinct neuronal sources of activity in HDMEA recordings from low-density neuronal cultures. We recorded EAPs with HDMEAs having 11,011 electrodes and then fixed and immunostained the cultures with β3-tubulin for high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Immunofluorescence images overlaid with the activity maps showed EAPs both at neuronal somata and distal neurites. Neuritic EAPs had mostly narrow triphasic shapes, consisting of a positive, a pronounced negative peak and a second positive peak. EAPs near somata had wide monophasic or biphasic shapes with a main negative peak, and following optional positive peak. We show that about 86% of EAP recordings consist of somatic spikes, while the remaining 14% represent neuritic spikes. Furthermore, the adaptation of the waveform shape during bursts of these neuritic spikes suggested that they originate from axons, rather than from dendrites. Our study improves the understanding of HDMEA signals and can aid in the identification of the source of EAPs. PMID:27683541

  13. On-line observation of cell growth in a three-dimensional matrix on surface-modified microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Kyriakides, Themis R; Chen, Jia-Jin J

    2009-06-01

    Despite many successful applications of microelectrode arrays (MEAs), typical two-dimensional in-vitro cultures do not project the full scale of the cell growth environment in the three-dimensional (3D) in-vivo setting. This study aims to on-line monitor in-vitro cell growth in a 3D matrix on the surface-modified MEAs with a dynamic perfusion culture system. A 3D matrix consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel supplemented with poly-D-lysine was subsequently synthesized in situ on the self-assembled monolayer modified MEAs. FTIR spectrum analysis revealed a peak at 2100 cm(-1) due to the degradation of the structure of the 3D matrix. After 2 wks, microscopic examination revealed that the non-degraded area was around 1500 microm(2) and provided enough space for cell growth. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the degraded 3D matrix was non-cytotoxic allowing the growth of NIH3T3 fibroblasts and cortical neurons in vitro. Time-course changes of total impedance including resistance and reactance were recorded for 8 days to evaluate the cell growth in the 3D matrix on the MEA. A consistent trend reflecting changes of reactance and total impedance was observed. These in-vitro assays demonstrate that our 3D matrix can construct a biomimetic system for cell growth and analysis of cell surface interactions.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans.

  15. A multi-laboratory evaluation of microelectrode array-based measurements of neural network activity for acute neurotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Andrea; Chiappalone, Michela; De Camargos Lopes, Ricardo; Scelfo, Bibiana; Novellino, Antonio; Defranchi, Enrico; Palosaari, Taina; Weisschu, Timo; Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Martinoia, Sergio; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Mack, Cina M; Landsiedel, Robert; Whelan, Maurice; Bal-Price, Anna; Shafer, Timothy J

    2017-05-01

    There is a need for methods to screen and prioritize chemicals for potential hazard, including neurotoxicity. Microelectrode array (MEA) systems enable simultaneous extracellular recordings from multiple sites in neural networks in real time and thereby provide a robust measure of network activity. In this study, spontaneous activity measurements from primary neuronal cultures treated with three neurotoxic or three non-neurotoxic compounds was evaluated across four different laboratories. All four individual laboratories correctly identifed the neurotoxic compounds chlorpyrifos oxon (an organophosphate insecticide), deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and domoic acid (an excitotoxicant). By contrast, the other three compounds (glyphosate, dimethyl phthalate and acetaminophen) considered to be non-neurotoxic ("negative controls"), produced only sporadic changes of the measured parameters. The results were consistent across the different laboratories, as all three neurotoxic compounds caused concentration-dependent inhibition of mean firing rate (MFR). Further, MFR appeared to be the most sensitive parameter for effects of neurotoxic compounds, as changes in electrical activity measured by mean frequency intra burst (MFIB), and mean burst duration (MBD) did not result in concentration-response relationships for some of the positive compounds, or required higher concentrations for an effect to be observed. However, greater numbers of compounds need to be tested to confirm this. The results obtained indicate that measurement of spontaneous electrical activity using MEAs provides a robust assessment of compound effects on neural network function. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Femtomolar Detection of Silver Nanoparticles by Flow-Enhanced Direct-Impact Voltammetry at a Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the femtomolar detection of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by direct-impact voltammetry. This is achieved through the use of a random array of microelectrodes (RAM) integrated into a purpose-built flow cell, allowing combined diffusion and convection to the electrode surface. A coupled RAM-flow cell system is implemented and is shown to give reproducible wall-jet type flow characteristics, using potassium ferrocyanide as a molecular redox species. The calibrated flow system is then used to detect and quantitatively size Ag nanoparticles at femtomolar concentrations. Under flow conditions, it is found the nanoparticle impact frequency increases linearly with the volumetric flow rate. The resulting limit of detection is more than 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the previous detection limit for direct-impact voltammetry (900 fM) [J. Ellison et al. Sens. Actuators, B2014, 200, 47], and is more than 30 times smaller than the previous detection limit for mediated-impact voltammetry (83 fM) [T. M. Alligrant et al. Langmuir2014, 30, 13462]. PMID:27494652

  17. Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) with Microelectrode Arrays for Investigation of Cancer Cell – Fibroblasts Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Trong Binh; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal cells, surrounding blood vessels and extracellular matrix components, has been defined as a crucial factor that influences the proliferation, drug-resistance, invasion and metastasis of malignant epithelial cells. Among other factors, the communications and interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells have been reported to play pivotal roles in cancer promotion and progression. To investigate these relationships, an on-chip co-culture model was developed to study the cellular interaction between A549—human lung carcinoma cells and MRC-5—human lung epithelial cells in both normal proliferation and treatment conditions. In brief, a co-culture device consisting of 2 individual fluidic chambers in parallel, which were separated by a 100 μm fence was utilized for cell patterning. Microelectrodes arrays were installed within each chamber including electrodes at various distances away from the confrontation line for the electrochemical impedimetric sensing assessment of cell-to-cell influence. After the fence was removed and cell-to-cell contact occurred, by evaluating the impedance signal responses representing cell condition and behavior, both direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions through conditioned media were investigated. The impact of specific distances that lead to different influences of fibroblast cells on cancer cells in the co-culture environment was also defined. PMID:27088611

  18. Femtomolar Detection of Silver Nanoparticles by Flow-Enhanced Direct-Impact Voltammetry at a Microelectrode Array.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Stanislav V; Bartlett, Thomas R; Fair, Peter; Fletcher, Stephen; Compton, Richard G

    2016-09-06

    We report the femtomolar detection of silver (Ag) nanoparticles by direct-impact voltammetry. This is achieved through the use of a random array of microelectrodes (RAM) integrated into a purpose-built flow cell, allowing combined diffusion and convection to the electrode surface. A coupled RAM-flow cell system is implemented and is shown to give reproducible wall-jet type flow characteristics, using potassium ferrocyanide as a molecular redox species. The calibrated flow system is then used to detect and quantitatively size Ag nanoparticles at femtomolar concentrations. Under flow conditions, it is found the nanoparticle impact frequency increases linearly with the volumetric flow rate. The resulting limit of detection is more than 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the previous detection limit for direct-impact voltammetry (900 fM) [J. Ellison et al. Sens. Actuators, B 2014, 200, 47], and is more than 30 times smaller than the previous detection limit for mediated-impact voltammetry (83 fM) [T. M. Alligrant et al. Langmuir 2014, 30, 13462].

  19. A planar microelectrode array for simultaneous detection of electrically evoked dopamine release from distinct locations of a single isolated neuron.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik Anil; Luk, Collin C; Leow, Pei Ling; Lee, Arthur J; Zaidi, Wali; Syed, Naweed I

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmission is a key process of communication between neurons. Although much is known about this process and the influence it has on the function of the body, little is understood about the dynamics of signalling from structural regions of a single neuron. In this study we have fabricated and characterised a microelectrode array (MEA) which was utilised for simultaneous multi-site recordings of dopamine release from an isolated single neuron. The MEA consisted of gold electrodes that were created in plane with the insulation layer using a chemical mechanical planarization process. The detection limit for dopamine measurements was 11 ± 3 nM and all the gold electrodes performed in a consistent fashion during amperometric recordings of 100 nM dopamine. Fouling of the gold electrode was investigated, where no significant change in the current was observed over 4 hours when monitoring 100 nM dopamine. The MEA was accessed using freshly isolated dopaminergic somas from the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, where electrically evoked dopamine release was clearly observed. Measurements were conducted at four structural locations of a single isolated neuron, where electrically evoked dopamine release was observed from the cell body, axonal regions and the terminal. Over time, the release of dopamine varied over the structural regions of the neuron. Such information can provide an insight into the signalling mechanism of neurons and how they potentially form synaptic connections.

  20. Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) with Microelectrode Arrays for Investigation of Cancer Cell-Fibroblasts Interaction.

    PubMed

    Tran, Trong Binh; Baek, Changyoon; Min, Junhong

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment, including stromal cells, surrounding blood vessels and extracellular matrix components, has been defined as a crucial factor that influences the proliferation, drug-resistance, invasion and metastasis of malignant epithelial cells. Among other factors, the communications and interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells have been reported to play pivotal roles in cancer promotion and progression. To investigate these relationships, an on-chip co-culture model was developed to study the cellular interaction between A549-human lung carcinoma cells and MRC-5-human lung epithelial cells in both normal proliferation and treatment conditions. In brief, a co-culture device consisting of 2 individual fluidic chambers in parallel, which were separated by a 100 μm fence was utilized for cell patterning. Microelectrodes arrays were installed within each chamber including electrodes at various distances away from the confrontation line for the electrochemical impedimetric sensing assessment of cell-to-cell influence. After the fence was removed and cell-to-cell contact occurred, by evaluating the impedance signal responses representing cell condition and behavior, both direct and indirect cell-to-cell interactions through conditioned media were investigated. The impact of specific distances that lead to different influences of fibroblast cells on cancer cells in the co-culture environment was also defined.

  1. High-throughput cardiac safety evaluation and multi-parameter arrhythmia profiling of cardiomyocytes using microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Kristin H; Lewis, Gregory F; Gay, Elaine A; Sellgren, Katelyn L; Grego, Sonia

    2015-10-15

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) recording extracellular field potentials of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CM) provide a rich data set for functional assessment of drug response. The aim of this work is the development of a method for a systematic analysis of arrhythmia using MEAs, with emphasis on the development of six parameters accounting for different types of cardiomyocyte signal irregularities. We describe a software approach to carry out such analysis automatically including generation of a heat map that enables quick visualization of arrhythmic liability of compounds. We also implemented signal processing techniques for reliable extraction of the repolarization peak for field potential duration (FPD) measurement even from recordings with low signal to noise ratios. We measured hiPS-CM's on a 48 well MEA system with 5minute recordings at multiple time points (0.5, 1, 2 and 4h) after drug exposure. We evaluated concentration responses for seven compounds with a combination of hERG, QT and clinical proarrhythmia properties: Verapamil, Ranolazine, Flecainide, Amiodarone, Ouabain, Cisapride, and Terfenadine. The predictive utility of MEA parameters as surrogates of these clinical effects were examined. The beat rate and FPD results exhibited good correlations with previous MEA studies in stem cell derived cardiomyocytes and clinical data. The six-parameter arrhythmia assessment exhibited excellent predictive agreement with the known arrhythmogenic potential of the tested compounds, and holds promise as a new method to predict arrhythmic liability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P; Koudelka-Hep, M; Zimmer, J

    2001-03-30

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized by Nissl staining, Timm sulphide silver-staining, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, the slice cultures grown on chips did not differ from conventionally grown slice cultures. Neither were there any signs of astrogliosis or neurodegeneration around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and develop normally with display of normal subfield differentiated susceptibilities to known excito- and neurotoxins. From this it is anticipated that the set

  3. High efficiency, site-specific transfection of adherent cells with siRNA using microelectrode arrays (MEA).

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetan; Muthuswamy, Jit

    2012-09-13

    The discovery of RNAi pathway in eukaryotes and the subsequent development of RNAi agents, such as siRNA and shRNA, have achieved a potent method for silencing specific genes for functional genomics and therapeutics. A major challenge involved in RNAi based studies is the delivery of RNAi agents to targeted cells. Traditional non-viral delivery techniques, such as bulk electroporation and chemical transfection methods often lack the necessary spatial control over delivery and afford poor transfection efficiencies. Recent advances in chemical transfection methods such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and nanoparticles have resulted in highly enhanced transfection efficiencies. However, these techniques still fail to offer precise spatial control over delivery that can immensely benefit miniaturized high-throughput technologies, single cell studies and investigation of cell-cell interactions. Recent technological advances in gene delivery have enabled high-throughput transfection of adherent cells, a majority of which use microscale electroporation. Microscale electroporation offers precise spatio-temporal control over delivery (up to single cells) and has been shown to achieve high efficiencies. Additionally, electroporation based approaches do not require a prolonged period of incubation (typically 4 hours) with siRNA and DNA complexes as necessary in chemical based transfection methods and lead to direct entry of naked siRNA and DNA molecules into the cell cytoplasm. As a consequence gene expression can be achieved as early as six hours after transfection. Our lab has previously demonstrated the use of microelectrode arrays (MEA) for site-specific transfection in adherent mammalian cell cultures. In the MEA based approach, delivery of genetic payload is achieved via localized micro-scale electroporation of cells. An application of electric pulse to selected electrodes generates local electric field that leads to electroporation of cells present in the region

  4. Development of 30 micrometers extrinsic silicon multiplexed infrared deterctor array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orias, G.; Campbell, D.

    1986-01-01

    Two hybrid infrared (IR) detector arrays of antimony-doped silicon (Si:Sb) were produced and tested to evaluate their potential for use in low-background IR astronomy applications. The format of the arrays is 58 x 62 elements, with 76 micron-square pixels. A random-access, switched metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) silicon multiplexer is used to read out the array elements. Reduced-background tests of signal, noise, and noise equivalent power were conducted over the temperature range 3.2 to 12 K. The arrays were found to have good sensitivity and good uniformity.

  5. Spraylon fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A development program was performed for evaluating, modifying, and optimizing the Lockheed formulated liquid transparent filmforming Spraylon fluorocarbon protective coating for silicon solar cells and modules. The program objectives were designed to meet the requirements of the low-cost automated solar cell array fabrication process. As part of the study, a computer program was used to establish the limits of the safe working stress in the coated silicon solar cell array system under severe thermal shock.

  6. A silicon carbide array for electrocorticography and peripheral nerve recording.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Botia, C A; Luna, L E; Neely, R M; Chamanzar, M; Carraro, C; Carmena, J M; Sabes, P N; Maboudian, R; Maharbiz, M M

    2017-10-01

    Current neural probes have a limited device lifetime of a few years. Their common failure mode is the degradation of insulating films and/or the delamination of the conductor-insulator interfaces. We sought to develop a technology that does not suffer from such limitations and would be suitable for chronic applications with very long device lifetimes. We developed a fabrication method that integrates polycrystalline conductive silicon carbide with insulating silicon carbide. The technology employs amorphous silicon carbide as the insulator and conductive silicon carbide at the recording sites, resulting in a seamless transition between doped and amorphous regions of the same material, eliminating heterogeneous interfaces prone to delamination. Silicon carbide has outstanding chemical stability, is biocompatible, is an excellent molecular barrier and is compatible with standard microfabrication processes. We have fabricated silicon carbide electrode arrays using our novel fabrication method. We conducted in vivo experiments in which electrocorticography recordings from the primary visual cortex of a rat were obtained and were of similar quality to those of polymer based electrocorticography arrays. The silicon carbide electrode arrays were also used as a cuff electrode wrapped around the sciatic nerve of a rat to record the nerve response to electrical stimulation. Finally, we demonstrated the outstanding long term stability of our insulating silicon carbide films through accelerated aging tests. Clinical translation in neural engineering has been slowed in part due to the poor long term performance of current probes. Silicon carbide devices are a promising technology that may accelerate this transition by enabling truly chronic applications.

  7. Development of three-dimension microelectrode array for bioelectric measurement using the liquidmetal-micromolding technique

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran Yang, Xueyao; Chen, Weixing; Jin, Cuiyun; Fu, Jingjing; Liu, Jing

    2013-11-04

    A method of manufacturing three-dimension microneedle electrode arrays is presented in this paper using the micromolding technology with liquid metal at room temperature, based on the physical property of the Bi-In-Sn liquid metal alloy, being its melting point especially low. Observed under scanning electron microscopy, the needle body of the electrode chip manufactured using this method has a good consistency. Skin penetration test in-vitro indicates that the microneedle electrode can pierce the stratum corneum and cross the high-impedance layer to acquire electrical signals. Electrical impedance and polarization voltage experimental results show that the electrode chips have great electric characteristics and meet the practical application demands.

  8. Development of three-dimension microelectrode array for bioelectric measurement using the liquidmetal-micromolding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ran; Yang, Xueyao; Jin, Cuiyun; Fu, Jingjing; Chen, Weixing; Liu, Jing

    2013-11-01

    A method of manufacturing three-dimension microneedle electrode arrays is presented in this paper using the micromolding technology with liquid metal at room temperature, based on the physical property of the Bi-In-Sn liquid metal alloy, being its melting point especially low. Observed under scanning electron microscopy, the needle body of the electrode chip manufactured using this method has a good consistency. Skin penetration test in-vitro indicates that the microneedle electrode can pierce the stratum corneum and cross the high-impedance layer to acquire electrical signals. Electrical impedance and polarization voltage experimental results show that the electrode chips have great electric characteristics and meet the practical application demands.

  9. Portable wireless electrocorticography system with a flexible microelectrodes array for epilepsy treatment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kejun; Zhang, Shaomin; Dong, Shurong; Li, Shijian; Yu, Chaonan; Xu, Kedi; Chen, Wanke; Guo, Wei; Luo, Jikui; Wu, Zhaohui

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we present a portable wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) system. It uses a high resolution 32-channel flexible ECoG electrodes array to collect electrical signals of brain activities and to stimulate the lesions. Electronic circuits are designed for signal acquisition, processing and transmission using Bluetooth Low Energy 4 (LTE4) for wireless communication with cell phone. In-vivo experiments on a rat show that the flexible ECoG system can accurately record electrical signals of brain activities and transmit them to cell phone with a maximal sampling rate of 30 ksampling/s per channel. It demonstrates that the epilepsy lesions can be detected, located and treated through the ECoG system. The wireless ECoG system has low energy consumption and high brain spatial resolution, thus has great prospects for future application.

  10. Microfabricated Silicon Microneedle Array for Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jing; Tay, Francis Eh; Miao, Jianmin; Iliescu, Ciprian

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents developed processes for silicon microneedle arrays microfabrication. Three types of microneedles structures were achieved by isotropic etching in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using SF6/O2 gases, combination of isotropic etching with deep etching, and wet etching, respectively. A microneedle array with biodegradable porous tips was further developed based on the fabricated microneedles.

  11. A 1024-Channel CMOS Microelectrode Array With 26,400 Electrodes for Recording and Stimulation of Electrogenic Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ballini, Marco; Müller, Jan; Livi, Paolo; Chen, Yihui; Frey, Urs; Stettler, Alexander; Shadmani, Amir; Viswam, Vijay; Jones, Ian Lloyd; Jäckel, David; Radivojevic, Milos; Lewandowska, Marta K; Gong, Wei; Fiscella, Michele; Bakkum, Douglas J; Heer, Flavio; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    To advance our understanding of the functioning of neuronal ensembles, systems are needed to enable simultaneous recording from a large number of individual neurons at high spatiotemporal resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, stimulation capability is highly desirable for investigating, for example, plasticity and learning processes. Here, we present a microelectrode array (MEA) system on a single CMOS die for in vitro recording and stimulation. The system incorporates 26,400 platinum electrodes, fabricated by in-house post-processing, over a large sensing area (3.85 × 2.10 mm(2)) with sub-cellular spatial resolution (pitch of 17.5 μm). Owing to an area and power efficient implementation, we were able to integrate 1024 readout channels on chip to record extracellular signals from a user-specified selection of electrodes. These channels feature noise values of 2.4 μVrms in the action-potential band (300 Hz-10 kHz) and 5.4 μVrms in the local-field-potential band (1 Hz-300 Hz), and provide programmable gain (up to 78 dB) to accommodate various biological preparations. Amplified and filtered signals are digitized by 10 bit parallel single-slope ADCs at 20 kSamples/s. The system also includes 32 stimulation units, which can elicit neural spikes through either current or voltage pulses. The chip consumes only 75 mW in total, which obviates the need of active cooling even for sensitive cell cultures.

  12. Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Frega, Monica; van Gestel, Sebastianus H C; Linda, Katrin; van der Raadt, Jori; Keller, Jason; Van Rhijn, Jon-Ruben; Schubert, Dirk; Albers, Cornelis A; Nadif Kasri, Nael

    2017-01-08

    Neurons derived from human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) provide a promising new tool for studying neurological disorders. In the past decade, many protocols for differentiating hiPSCs into neurons have been developed. However, these protocols are often slow with high variability, low reproducibility, and low efficiency. In addition, the neurons obtained with these protocols are often immature and lack adequate functional activity both at the single-cell and network levels unless the neurons are cultured for several months. Partially due to these limitations, the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks are still not well characterized. Here, we adapt a recently published protocol that describes production of human neurons from hiPSCs by forced expression of the transcription factor neurogenin-2(12). This protocol is rapid (yielding mature neurons within 3 weeks) and efficient, with nearly 100% conversion efficiency of transduced cells (>95% of DAPI-positive cells are MAP2 positive). Furthermore, the protocol yields a homogeneous population of excitatory neurons that would allow the investigation of cell-type specific contributions to neurological disorders. We modified the original protocol by generating stably transduced hiPSC cells, giving us explicit control over the total number of neurons. These cells are then used to generate hiPSC-derived neuronal networks on micro-electrode arrays. In this way, the spontaneous electrophysiological activity of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks can be measured and characterized, while retaining interexperimental consistency in terms of cell density. The presented protocol is broadly applicable, especially for mechanistic and pharmacological studies on human neuronal networks.

  13. A microchannel device tailored to laser axotomy and long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology of functional regeneration.

    PubMed

    Habibey, Rouhollah; Golabchi, Asiyeh; Latifi, Shahrzad; Difato, Francesco; Blau, Axel

    2015-12-21

    We designed a miniaturized and thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel device compatible with commercial microelectrode array (MEA) chips. It was optimized for selective axonal ablation by laser microdissection (LMD) to investigate the electrophysiological and morphological responses to a focal injury in distinct network compartments over 45 days in vitro (45 DIV). Low-density cortical or hippocampal networks (<3500 neurons per device) were cultured in quasi-closed somal chambers. Their axons were selectively filtered through neurite cavities and guided into the PDMS microchannels aligned over the recording electrodes. The device geometries amplified extracellularly recorded signals in the somal reservoir and the axonal microchannels to detectable levels. Locally extended areas along the microchannel, so-called working stations, forced axonal bundles to branch out and thereby allowed for their repeatable and controllable local, partial or complete dissections. Proximal and distal changes in the activity and morphology of the dissected axons were monitored and compared to those of their parent networks and of intact axons in the control microchannels. Microscopy images confirmed progressive anterograde degeneration of distal axonal segments over four weeks after surgery. Dissection on cortical and hippocampal axons revealed different cell type- and age-dependent network responses. At 17 DIV, network activity increased in both the somal and proximal microchannel compartments of the dissected hippocampal or cortical axons. At later days (24 DIV), the hippocampal networks were more susceptible to axonal injury. While their activity decreased, that in the cortical cultures actually increased. Subsequent partial dissections of the same axonal bundles led to a stepwise activity reduction in the distal hippocampal or cortical axonal fragments. We anticipate that the MEA-PDMS microchannel device for the combined morphological and electrophysiological study of axonal

  14. Interfacing 3D Engineered Neuronal Cultures to Micro-Electrode Arrays: An Innovative In Vitro Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Mariateresa; Frega, Monica; Martinoia, Sergio; Pesce, Mattia; Massobrio, Paolo

    2015-10-18

    Currently, large-scale networks derived from dissociated neurons growing and developing in vitro on extracellular micro-transducer devices are the gold-standard experimental model to study basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of neuronal cell assemblies. However, in vitro studies have been limited to the recording of the electrophysiological activity generated by bi-dimensional (2D) neural networks. Nonetheless, given the intricate relationship between structure and dynamics, a significant improvement is necessary to investigate the formation and the developing dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) networks. In this work, a novel experimental platform in which 3D hippocampal or cortical networks are coupled to planar Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) is presented. 3D networks are realized by seeding neurons in a scaffold constituted of glass microbeads (30-40 µm in diameter) on which neurons are able to grow and form complex interconnected 3D assemblies. In this way, it is possible to design engineered 3D networks made up of 5-8 layers with an expected final cell density. The increasing complexity in the morphological organization of the 3D assembly induces an enhancement of the electrophysiological patterns displayed by this type of networks. Compared with the standard 2D networks, where highly stereotyped bursting activity emerges, the 3D structure alters the bursting activity in terms of duration and frequency, as well as it allows observation of more random spiking activity. In this sense, the developed 3D model more closely resembles in vivo neural networks.

  15. QSpike tools: a generic framework for parallel batch preprocessing of extracellular neuronal signals recorded by substrate microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Mufti; Pulizzi, Rocco; Vasilaki, Eleni; Giugliano, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) have emerged as a mature technique to investigate brain (dys)functions in vivo and in in vitro animal models. Often referred to as “smart” Petri dishes, MEAs have demonstrated a great potential particularly for medium-throughput studies in vitro, both in academic and pharmaceutical industrial contexts. Enabling rapid comparison of ionic/pharmacological/genetic manipulations with control conditions, MEAs are employed to screen compounds by monitoring non-invasively the spontaneous and evoked neuronal electrical activity in longitudinal studies, with relatively inexpensive equipment. However, in order to acquire sufficient statistical significance, recordings last up to tens of minutes and generate large amount of raw data (e.g., 60 channels/MEA, 16 bits A/D conversion, 20 kHz sampling rate: approximately 8 GB/MEA,h uncompressed). Thus, when the experimental conditions to be tested are numerous, the availability of fast, standardized, and automated signal preprocessing becomes pivotal for any subsequent analysis and data archiving. To this aim, we developed an in-house cloud-computing system, named QSpike Tools, where CPU-intensive operations, required for preprocessing of each recorded channel (e.g., filtering, multi-unit activity detection, spike-sorting, etc.), are decomposed and batch-queued to a multi-core architecture or to a computers cluster. With the commercial availability of new and inexpensive high-density MEAs, we believe that disseminating QSpike Tools might facilitate its wide adoption and customization, and inspire the creation of community-supported cloud-computing facilities for MEAs users. PMID:24678297

  16. Impedance biosensor for the rapid detection of Listeria spp. based on aptamer functionalized Pt-interdigitated microelectrodes array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, R.; Rong, Y.; Vanegas, D. C.; Claussen, J.; McLamore, E. S.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most common causes of food illness deaths worldwide, with multiple outbreaks in the United States alone. Current methods to detect foodborne pathogens are laborious and can take several hours to days to produce results. Thus, faster techniques are needed to detect bacteria within the same reliability level as traditional techniques. This study reports on a rapid, accurate, and sensitive aptamer biosensor device for Listeria spp. detection based on platinum interdigitated array microelectrodes (Pt-IDEs). Pt-IDEs with different geometric electrode gaps were fabricated by lithographic techniques and characterized by cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potential amperometry (DCPA) measurements of reversible redox species. Based on these results, 50 μm Pt-IDE was chosen to further functionalize with a Listeria monocytogenes DNA aptamer selective to the cell surface protein internalin A, via metal-thiol self-assembly at the 5' end of the 47-mer's. EIS analysis was used to detect Listeria spp. without the need for label amplification and pre-concentration steps. The optimized aptamer concentration of 800 nM was selected to capture the bacteria through internalin A binding and the aptamer hairpin structure near the 3' end. The aptasensor was capable of detecting a wide range of bacteria concentration from 10 to 106 CFU/mL at lower detection limit of 5.39 +/- 0.21 CFU/mL with sensitivity of 268.1 +/- 25.40 (Ohms/log [CFU/mL]) in 17 min. The aptamer based biosensor offers a portable, rapid and sensitive alternative for food safety applications with one of the lowest detection limits reported to date.

  17. Editor's Highlight: Evaluation of a Microelectrode Array-Based Assay for Neural Network Ontogeny Using Training Set Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jasmine P; Hall, Diana; Frank, Christopher L; Wallace, Kathleen; Mundy, William R; Shafer, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    Thousands of compounds in the environment have not been characterized for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard. To address this issue, methods to screen compounds rapidly for DNT hazard evaluation are necessary and are being developed for key neurodevelopmental processes. In order to develop an assay for network formation, this study evaluated effects of a training set of chemicals on network ontogeny by measuring spontaneous electrical activity in neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Rat (0-24 h old) primary cortical cells were plated in 48 well-MEA plates and exposed to 6 compounds: acetaminophen, bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis-1), domoic acid, mevastatin, sodium orthovanadate, and loperamide for a period of 12 days. Spontaneous network activity was recorded on days 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 and viability was assessed using the Cell Titer Blue assay on day 12. Network activity (e.g. mean firing rate [MFR], burst rate [BR], etc), increased between days 5 and 12. Random Forest analysis indicated that across all compounds and times, temporal correlation of firing patterns (r), MFR, BR, number of active electrodes and % of spikes in a burst were the most influential parameters in separating control from treated wells. All compounds except acetaminophen (≤ 30 µM) caused concentration-related effects on one or more of these parameters. Domoic acid and sodium orthovanadate altered several of these parameters in the absence of cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxicity was observed with Bis1, mevastatin, and loperamide, some parameters were affected by these compounds at concentrations below those resulting in cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that this assay may be suitable for screening of compounds for DNT hazard identification.

  18. Study of the union method of microelectrode array and AFM for the recording of electromechanical activities in living cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jian; Tu, Chunlong; Huang, Bobo; Liang, Yitao; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-07-01

    Electrophysiology and mechanics are two essential components in the functions of cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells. The simultaneous recording of electrophysiological and mechanical activities is important for the understanding of mechanisms underlying cell functions. For example, on the one hand, mechanisms under cardiovascular drug effects will be investigated in a comprehensive way by the simultaneous recording of electrophysiological and mechanical activities. On the other hand, computational models of electromechanics provide a powerful tool for the research of cardiomyocytes. The electrical and mechanical activities are important in cardiomyocyte models. The simultaneous recording of electrophysiological and mechanical activities can provide much experimental data for the models. Therefore, an efficient method for the simultaneous recording of the electrical and mechanical data from cardiomyocytes is required for the improvement of cardiac modeling. However, as far as we know, most of the previous methods were not easy to be implemented in the electromechanical recording. For this reason, in this study, a union method of microelectrode array and atomic force microscope was proposed. With this method, the extracellular field potential and beating force of cardiomyocytes were recorded simultaneously with a low root-mean-square noise level of 11.67 μV and 60 pN. Drug tests were conducted to verify the feasibility of the experimental platform. The experimental results suggested the method would be useful for the cardiovascular drug screening and refinement of the computational cardiomyocyte models. It may be valuable for exploring the functional mechanisms of cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells under physiological or pathological conditions.

  19. A method for electrophysiological characterization of hamster retinal ganglion cells using a high-density CMOS microelectrode array

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ian L.; Russell, Thomas L.; Farrow, Karl; Fiscella, Michele; Franke, Felix; Müller, Jan; Jäckel, David; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of neuronal cell types in the mammalian retina is important for the understanding of human retinal disease and the advancement of sight-restoring technology, such as retinal prosthetic devices. A somewhat less utilized animal model for retinal research is the hamster, which has a visual system that is characterized by an area centralis and a wide visual field with a broad binocular component. The hamster retina is optimally suited for recording on the microelectrode array (MEA), because it intrinsically lies flat on the MEA surface and yields robust, large-amplitude signals. However, information in the literature about hamster retinal ganglion cell functional types is scarce. The goal of our work is to develop a method featuring a high-density (HD) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) MEA technology along with a sequence of standardized visual stimuli in order to categorize ganglion cells in isolated Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) retina. Since the HD-MEA is capable of recording at a higher spatial resolution than most MEA systems (17.5 μm electrode pitch), we were able to record from a large proportion of RGCs within a selected region. Secondly, we chose our stimuli so that they could be run during the experiment without intervention or computation steps. The visual stimulus set was designed to activate the receptive fields of most ganglion cells in parallel and to incorporate various visual features to which different cell types respond uniquely. Based on the ganglion cell responses, basic cell properties were determined: direction selectivity, speed tuning, width tuning, transience, and latency. These properties were clustered to identify ganglion cell types in the hamster retina. Ultimately, we recorded up to a cell density of 2780 cells/mm2 at 2 mm (42°) from the optic nerve head. Using five parameters extracted from the responses to visual stimuli, we obtained seven ganglion cell types. PMID:26528115

  20. Low cost silicon solar array project silicon materials task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A program was established to develop a high temperature silicon production process using existing electric arc heater technology. Silicon tetrachloride and a reductant will be injected into an arc heated mixture of hydrogen and argon. Under these high temperature conditions, a very rapid reaction is expected to occur and proceed essentially to completion, yielding silicon and gaseous sodium chloride. Techniques for high temperature separation and collection of the molten silicon will be developed using standard engineering approaches, and the salt vapor will later be electrolytically separated into its elemental constituents for recycle. Preliminary technical evaluations and economic projections indicate not only that this process appears to be feasible, but that it also has the advantages of rapid, high capacity production of good quality molten silicon at a nominal cost.

  1. Rapid detection of viable microorganisms based on a plate count technique using arrayed microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Avneet; Tan, Shaoqing Tim; Mehta, Ram; Bahreyni, Behraad

    2013-06-26

    Development of a miniaturized biosensor system that can be used for rapid detection and counting of microorganisms in food or water samples is described. The developed microsystem employs a highly sensitive impedimetric array of biosensors to monitor the growth of bacterial colonies that are dispersed across an agar growth medium. To use the system, a sample containing the bacteria is cultured above the agar layer. Using a multiplexing network, the electrical properties of the medium at different locations are continuously measured, recorded, and compared against a baseline signal. Variations of signals from different biosensors are used to reveal the presence of bacteria in the sample, as well as the locations of bacterial colonies across the biochip. This technique forms the basis for a label-free bacterial detection for rapid analysis of food samples, reducing the detection time by at least a factor of four compared to the current required incubation times of 24 to 72 hours for plate count techniques. The developed microsystem has the potential for miniaturization to a stage where it could be deployed for rapid analysis of food samples at commercial scale at laboratories, food processing facilities, and retailers.

  2. Restoring motor control and sensory feedback in people with upper extremity amputations using arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the median and ulnar nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. S.; Wark, H. A. C.; Hutchinson, D. T.; Warren, D. J.; O'Neill, K.; Scheinblum, T.; Clark, G. A.; Normann, R. A.; Greger, B.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. An important goal of neuroprosthetic research is to establish bidirectional communication between the user and new prosthetic limbs that are capable of controlling >20 different movements. One strategy for achieving this goal is to interface the prosthetic limb directly with efferent and afferent fibres in the peripheral nervous system using an array of intrafascicular microelectrodes. This approach would provide access to a large number of independent neural pathways for controlling high degree-of-freedom prosthetic limbs, as well as evoking multiple-complex sensory percepts. Approach. Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs, 96 recording/stimulating electrodes) were implanted for 30 days into the median (Subject 1-M, 31 years post-amputation) or ulnar (Subject 2-U, 1.5 years post-amputation) nerves of two amputees. Neural activity was recorded during intended movements of the subject’s phantom fingers and a linear Kalman filter was used to decode the neural data. Microelectrode stimulation of varying amplitudes and frequencies was delivered via single or multiple electrodes to investigate the number, size and quality of sensory percepts that could be evoked. Device performance over time was assessed by measuring: electrode impedances, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), stimulation thresholds, number and stability of evoked percepts. Main results. The subjects were able to proportionally, control individual fingers of a virtual robotic hand, with 13 different movements decoded offline (r = 0.48) and two movements decoded online. Electrical stimulation across one USEA evoked >80 sensory percepts. Varying the stimulation parameters modulated percept quality. Devices remained intrafascicularly implanted for the duration of the study with no significant changes in the SNRs or percept thresholds. Significance. This study demonstrated that an array of 96 microelectrodes can be implanted into the human peripheral nervous system for up to 1 month durations. Such an

  3. Develop Silicone Encapsulation Systems for Terrestrial Silicon Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A cost effective encapsulant system was identified and a silicone acrylic cover material containing a durable ultraviolet screening agent was prepared. The effectiveness of the cover material in protecting photo-oxidatively sensitive polymers was demonstrated.

  4. Coherent acoustic vibrations in silicon submicron spiral arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masashi; Liu, Jianxun; Ye, Dexian; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2009-08-01

    Mechanical properties of complex silicon submicron structures have been studied both experimentally and theoretically using time resolved ultrafast spectroscopy and finite element analysis. Periodic and random arrays of single-turned silicon submircron spirals were grown using the oblique angle deposition technique. Resonant vibrational modes of the submicron spirals were coherently excited by femtosecond laser pulses. Excitation of multiple harmonics of the resonant vibrations has been observed, and the mode patterns of the excited vibrations in the submicron spirals have been calculated.

  5. A silicon carbide array for electrocorticography and peripheral nerve recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Botia, C. A.; Luna, L. E.; Neely, R. M.; Chamanzar, M.; Carraro, C.; Carmena, J. M.; Sabes, P. N.; Maboudian, R.; Maharbiz, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Current neural probes have a limited device lifetime of a few years. Their common failure mode is the degradation of insulating films and/or the delamination of the conductor-insulator interfaces. We sought to develop a technology that does not suffer from such limitations and would be suitable for chronic applications with very long device lifetimes. Approach. We developed a fabrication method that integrates polycrystalline conductive silicon carbide with insulating silicon carbide. The technology employs amorphous silicon carbide as the insulator and conductive silicon carbide at the recording sites, resulting in a seamless transition between doped and amorphous regions of the same material, eliminating heterogeneous interfaces prone to delamination. Silicon carbide has outstanding chemical stability, is biocompatible, is an excellent molecular barrier and is compatible with standard microfabrication processes. Main results. We have fabricated silicon carbide electrode arrays using our novel fabrication method. We conducted in vivo experiments in which electrocorticography recordings from the primary visual cortex of a rat were obtained and were of similar quality to those of polymer based electrocorticography arrays. The silicon carbide electrode arrays were also used as a cuff electrode wrapped around the sciatic nerve of a rat to record the nerve response to electrical stimulation. Finally, we demonstrated the outstanding long term stability of our insulating silicon carbide films through accelerated aging tests. Significance. Clinical translation in neural engineering has been slowed in part due to the poor long term performance of current probes. Silicon carbide devices are a promising technology that may accelerate this transition by enabling truly chronic applications.

  6. Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the field action potential duration in rapid atrial pacing rabbits model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the field action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action field action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial field action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P < 0.05). 4-AP superfusion significantly prolonged FAPD. In pace/amiodarone groups, 4-Ap superfusion extended fAPD. MEA was a sensitive and stable reporter for the measurement of the tissue action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical

  7. Comparison of electrically evoked cortical potential thresholds generated with subretinal or suprachoroidal placement of a microelectrode array in the rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuyuki; Franco, Luisa M.; Jackson, Douglas J.; Naber, John F.; Ofer Ziv, R.; Rizzo, Joseph F., III; Kaplan, Henry J.; Enzmann, Volker

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the study was to directly compare the threshold electrical charge density of the retina (retinal threshold) in rabbits for the generation of electrical evoked potentials (EEP) by delivering electrical stimulation with a custom-made microelectrode array (MEA) implanted into either the subretinal or suprachoroidal space. Nine eyes of seven Dutch-belted rabbits were studied. The electroretinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and EEP were recorded. Electrodes for the VEP and EEP were placed on the dura mater overlying the visual cortex. The EEP was recorded following electrical stimulation of the MEA placed either subretinally beneath the visual streak of the retina or in the suprachoroidal space in the rabbit eye. An ab externo approach was used for placement of the MEA. Liquid perfluorodecaline (PFCL; 0.4 ml) was placed within the vitreous cavity to flatten the neurosensory retina on the MEA after subretinal implantation. The retinal threshold for generation of an EEP was determined for each MEA placement by three consecutive measurements consisting of 100 computer-averaged recordings. Animals were sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment and the eyes were enucleated for histological examination. The retinal threshold to generate an EEP was 9 ± 7 nC (0.023 ± 0.016 mC cm-2) within the subretinal space and 150 ± 122 nC (0.375 ± 0.306 mC cm-2) within the suprachoroidal space. Histology showed disruption of the outer retina with subretinal but not suprachoroidal placement. The retinal threshold to elicit an EEP is significantly lower with subretinal placement of the MEA compared to suprachoroidal placement (P < 0.05). The retinal threshold charge density with a subretinal MEA is well below the published charge limit of 1 mC cm-2, which is the level below which chronic stimulation of the retina is considered necessary to avoid tissue damage (Shannon 1992 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 39 424-6). Supported in part by The Charles D Kelman, MD

  8. Silicon resonant cavity enhanced photodetector arrays for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsley, Matthew Kent

    High bandwidth short distance communications standards are being developed based on parallel optical interconnect fiber arrays to meet the needs of increasing data rates of inter-chip communication in modern computer architecture. To ensure that this standard becomes an attractive option for computer systems, low cost components must be implemented on both the transmitting and receiving end of the fibers. To meet this low cost requirement silicon based receiver circuits are the most viable option, however, manufacturing high speed, high efficiency silicon photodetectors presents a technical challenge. Resonant cavity enhanced photodetectors have been shown to provide the required bandwidth-efficiency product but have remained a challenge to reproduce through commercially available fabrication techniques. In this work, commercially reproducible silicon wafers with a high reflectance buried distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) have been designed and fabricated. The substrates consist of a two-period, 90% reflecting, DBR fabricated using a double silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process. Resonant-cavity-enhanced (RCE) Si photodetectors have been fabricated with 40% quantum efficiency at 860 nm, a FWHM of 25 ps, and a 3dB bandwidth in excess of 10 GHz. Si RCE 12 x 1 photodetector arrays have been fabricated and packaged with silicon based amplifiers to demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost monolithic silicon photoreceiver array.

  9. Silicon resonant-cavity-enhanced photodetector arrays for optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsley, Matthew K.; Dosunmu, Olufemi I.; Muller, Paul; Unlu, M. Selim; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2003-08-01

    High bandwidth short distance communications standards are being developed based on parallel optical interconnect fiber arrays to meet the needs of increasing data rates of inter-chip communication in modern computer architecture. To ensure that this standard becomes an attractive option for computer systems, low cost components must be implemented on both the transmitting and receiving end of the fibers. To meet this low cost requirement silicon based receiver circuits are the most viable option, however, manufacturing high speed, high efficiency silicon photodetectors presents a technical challenge. Resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) Si photodetectors have been shown to provide the required bandwidth-efficiency product and we have recently developed a method to reproduce them through commercially available fabrication techniques. In this work, commercially reproducible silicon wafers with a 90% reflectance buried distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) are used to create Si-RCE photodetector arrays for optical interconnects. The Si-RCE photodetectors have 40% quantum efficiency at 860 nm, a FWHM of 25 ps, and a 3dB bandwidth in excess of 10 GHz. We also demonstrate Si-RCE 12×1 photodetector arrays that have been fabricated and packaged with silicon based amplifiers to demonstrate the feasibility of a low cost monolithic silicon photoreceiver array.

  10. Hot microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Andrzej S

    2002-03-15

    Heat generation at disk microelectrodes by a high-amplitude (few volt) and high-frequency (0.1-2 GHz) alternating voltage is described. This method allows changing electrode temperature very rapidly and maintaining it well above the boiling point of solution for a very long time without any indication of boiling. The size of the hot zone in solution is determined by the radius of the electrode. There is no obvious limit in regard to the electrode size, so theoretically, by this method, it should be possible to create hot spots that are much smaller than those created with laser beams. That could lead to potential applications in medicine and biology. The heat-generating waveform does not electrically interfere with normal electroanalytical measurements. The noise level at hot microelectrodes is only slightly higher, as compared to normal microelectodes, but diffusion-controlled currents at hot microelectrodes may be up to 7 times higher, and an enhancement of kinetically controlled currents may be even larger. Hot microelectrodes can be used for end-column detection in capillary electrophoresis and for in-line or in vivo analyses. Temperature gradients at hot microelectrodes may exceed 1.5 x 10(5) K/cm, which makes them useful in studies of Soret diffusion and thermoelectric phenomena.

  11. Neural control of cursor trajectory and click by a human with tetraplegia 1000 days after implant of an intracortical microelectrode array

    PubMed Central

    Simeral, J D; Kim, S-P; Black, M J; Donoghue, J P; Hochberg, L R

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing pilot clinical trial of the BrainGate neural interface system aims in part to assess the feasibility of using neural activity obtained from a small-scale, chronically implanted, intracortical microelectrode array to provide control signals for a neural prosthesis system. Critical questions include how long implanted microelectrodes will record useful neural signals, how reliably those signals can be acquired and decoded, and how effectively they can be used to control various assistive technologies such as computers and robotic assistive devices, or to enable functional electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscles. Here we examined these questions by assessing neural cursor control and BrainGate system characteristics on five consecutive days 1000 days after implant of a 4 × 4 mm array of 100 microelectrodes in the motor cortex of a human with longstanding tetraplegia subsequent to a brainstem stroke. On each of five prospectively-selected days we performed time-amplitude sorting of neuronal spiking activity, trained a population-based Kalman velocity decoding filter combined with a linear discriminant click state classifier, and then assessed closed-loop point-and-click cursor control. The participant performed both an eight-target center-out task and a random target Fitts metric task which was adapted from a human-computer interaction ISO standard used to quantify performance of computer input devices. The neural interface system was further characterized by daily measurement of electrode impedances, unit waveforms and local field potentials. Across the five days, spiking signals were obtained from 41 of 96 electrodes and were successfully decoded to provide neural cursor point-and-click control with a mean task performance of 91.3% ± 0.1% (mean ± s.d.) correct target acquisition. Results across five consecutive days demonstrate that a neural interface system based on an intracortical microelectrode array can provide repeatable, accurate point

  12. Neural control of cursor trajectory and click by a human with tetraplegia 1000 days after implant of an intracortical microelectrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeral, J. D.; Kim, S.-P.; Black, M. J.; Donoghue, J. P.; Hochberg, L. R.

    2011-04-01

    The ongoing pilot clinical trial of the BrainGate neural interface system aims in part to assess the feasibility of using neural activity obtained from a small-scale, chronically implanted, intracortical microelectrode array to provide control signals for a neural prosthesis system. Critical questions include how long implanted microelectrodes will record useful neural signals, how reliably those signals can be acquired and decoded, and how effectively they can be used to control various assistive technologies such as computers and robotic assistive devices, or to enable functional electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscles. Here we examined these questions by assessing neural cursor control and BrainGate system characteristics on five consecutive days 1000 days after implant of a 4 × 4 mm array of 100 microelectrodes in the motor cortex of a human with longstanding tetraplegia subsequent to a brainstem stroke. On each of five prospectively-selected days we performed time-amplitude sorting of neuronal spiking activity, trained a population-based Kalman velocity decoding filter combined with a linear discriminant click state classifier, and then assessed closed-loop point-and-click cursor control. The participant performed both an eight-target center-out task and a random target Fitts metric task which was adapted from a human-computer interaction ISO standard used to quantify performance of computer input devices. The neural interface system was further characterized by daily measurement of electrode impedances, unit waveforms and local field potentials. Across the five days, spiking signals were obtained from 41 of 96 electrodes and were successfully decoded to provide neural cursor point-and-click control with a mean task performance of 91.3% ± 0.1% (mean ± s.d.) correct target acquisition. Results across five consecutive days demonstrate that a neural interface system based on an intracortical microelectrode array can provide repeatable, accurate point

  13. Flexible nanohybrid microelectrode based on carbon fiber wrapped by gold nanoparticles decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube arrays: In situ electrochemical detection in live cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Jian; Sun, Yimin; Wang, Lu; Dong, Xulin; Ren, Jinghua; He, Wenshan; Xiao, Fei

    2017-09-22

    The rapidly growing demand for in situ real-time monitoring of chemical information in vitro and in vivo has attracted tremendous research efforts into the design and construction of high-performance biosensor devices. Herein, we develop a new type of flexible nanohybrid microelectrode based on carbon fiber wrapped by gold nanoparticles decorated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays, and explore its practical application in in situ electrochemical detection of cancer biomarker H2O2 secreted from live cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that carbon fiber material with microscale size and fascinating mechanical properties can be used as a robust and flexible microelectrode substrate in the electrochemical biosensor system. And the highly ordered nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays that grown on carbon fiber possess high surface area-to-volume ratio and abundant active sites, which facilitate the loading of high-density and uniformly dispersed gold nanoparticles on it. Benefited from the unique microstructure and excellent electrocatalytic properties of different components in the nanohybrid fiber microelectrode, an effective electrochemical sensing platform based on it has been built up for the sensitive and selective detection of H2O2, the detection limit is calculated to be 50nM when the signal-to-noise ratio is 3:1, and the linear dynamic range is up to 4.3mM, with a high sensitivity of 142µAcm(-2)mM(-1). These good sensing performances, coupled with its intrinsic mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility, allow for its use in in situ real-time tracking H2O2 secreted from breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MBA-MD-231, and evaluating the sensitivity of different cancer cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatments, which hold great promise for clinic application in cancer diagnose and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip for neural-electrical and neural-chemical interfaces: characterization of comb interdigitated electrode towards dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Chen, You-Yin

    2013-03-15

    Microelectrode array platforms have attracted considerable interest owing to their ability to facilitate interactive communications between investigators and neuronal network. We herein present an integrated multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip harnessed with multiple measurement modalities of both neural-electrical and neural-chemical recordings to enable simultaneous monitoring of action potential and the level of the specific neurotransmitter. A dopamine sensor modality fabricated in interdigitated electrodes (IDE) fashion was realized and characterized, subsequently applied to trace dopamine exocytosis in PC12 cells cultured on such mMEA chip. Facile fabrication process leveraging electroplating technique to implement the regulation of gap width was investigated and resulted in preferred IDE configuration. Collection efficiency and amplification effect were systematically evaluated. The as-fabricated sensing device exhibited a favorable diffusion-determining behavior reflected by the steady state current output, and in virtue of this feature, to detect dopamine in connection with limit of detection at 0.62 μM. The current signal was observed linear against the level of dopamine over the investigated concentration range with a resulting sensitivity of 0.096 nA μM(-1).

  15. Nanoscale laminin coating modulates cortical scarring response around implanted silicon microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; McConnell, George C.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2006-12-01

    Neural electrodes could significantly enhance the quality of life for patients with sensory and/or motor deficits as well as improve our understanding of brain functions. However, long-term electrical connectivity between neural tissue and recording sites is compromised by the development of astroglial scar around the recording probes. In this study we investigate the effect of a nanoscale laminin (LN) coating on Si-based neural probes on chronic cortical tissue reaction in a rat model. Tissue reaction was evaluated after 1 day, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-implant for coated and uncoated probes using immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate activated microglia/macrophages (ED-1), astrocytes (GFAP) and neurons (NeuN). The coating did not have an observable effect on neuronal density or proximity to the electrode surface. However, the response of microglia/macrophages and astrocytes was altered by the coating. One day post-implant, we observed an ~60% increase in ED-1 expression near LN-coated probe sites compared with control uncoated probe sites. Four weeks post-implant, we observed an ~20% reduction in ED-1 expression along with an ~50% reduction in GFAP expression at coated relative to uncoated probe sites. These results suggest that LN has a stimulatory effect on early microglia activation, accelerating the phagocytic function of these cells. This hypothesis is further supported by the increased mRNA expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6) in cultured microglia on LN-bound Si substrates. LN immunostaining of coated probes immediately after insertion and retrieval demonstrates that the coating integrity is not compromised by the shear force during insertion. We speculate, based on these encouraging results, that LN coating of Si neural probes could potentially improve chronic neural recordings through dispersion of the astroglial scar.

  16. Performance of a MedArray silicone hollow fiber oxygenator.

    PubMed

    LaFayette, Nathan G; Schewe, Rebecca E; Montoya, J Patrick; Cook, Keith E

    2009-01-01

    A silicone hollow fiber oxygenator was evaluated to characterize gas transfer and biocompatibility. The device's fiber bundle was composed of MedArray's silicone hollow fibers with a 320 microm outside diameter, a 50 microm wall thickness, a surface area of 0.45 m, and a 0.49 void fraction. An in vitro gas exchange study was performed comparing the MedArray device (n = 9) with the Medtronic 0600 oxygenator (n = 6) using Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards and blood flow rates of 0.5-1.75 L/min, and an oxygen to blood flow ratio of two. Biocompatibility and resistance studies were performed in vivo using a swine venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation model (MedArray n = 5, Medtronic n = 5). Average O(2) transfer at 1 L/min was 86 ml/min/m in the MedArray device and 101.1 ml/min/m in the Medtronic device. At 0.5 L/min the MedArray and Medtronic device average resistance was 15.5 and 148.5 mm Hg/(L/min), respectively. Both devices had similar platelet consumption and hemolysis. Results indicate that the MedArray device has lower O(2) transfer efficiency, similar biocompatibility, and lower resistance than the Medtronic 0600 oxygenator. Optimization of the MedArray fiber bundle and housing design is necessary to improve O(2) transfer efficiency while maintaining lower device resistance than the Medtronic oxygenator.

  17. Wrinkled single-layer graphenes fabricated by silicon nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zibo; Wu, Yutong; Nan, Jingjie; Tang, Xiaoduo; Zhang, Junhu; Yang, Bai

    2016-11-01

    The degree of crumpling affects the optoelectronic properties of graphene, which are very important for the performance of graphene-based devices and materials. In this article, we report an approach to tune the formation of wrinkles on single-layer graphene (SLG) by silicon nanopillar (SNP) arrays. By using gold nanoparticles as an etching mask, SNP arrays with different heights could be prepared by tuning the duration of etching. The formation of wrinkles on these SNP arrays was studied systematically. We found that thermal treatment could lead to a wrapping behavior of graphene around SNP arrays, which was accompanied by the emergence of many more wrinkles. Controllable wettability, conductivity and transmittance were demonstrated. This ability to tune wrinkles using SNP arrays can be employed to engineer the fabrication of graphene-related devices and other optoelectronic applications.

  18. Silicon Wafer-Scale Substrate for Microshutters and Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Franz, David E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Snodgrass, Stephen; Costen, Nicholas; Zincke, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The silicon substrate carrier was created so that a large-area array (in this case 62,000+ elements of a microshutter array) and a variety of discrete passive and active devices could be mounted on a single board, similar to a printed circuit board. However, the density and number of interconnects far exceeds the capabilities of printed circuit board technology. To overcome this hurdle, a method was developed to fabricate this carrier out of silicon and implement silicon integrated circuit (IC) technology. This method achieves a large number of high-density metal interconnects; a 100-percent yield over a 6-in. (approximately equal to 15-cm) diameter wafer (one unit per wafer); a rigid, thermally compatible structure (all components and operating conditions) to cryogenic temperatures; re-workability and component replaceability, if required; and the ability to precisely cut large-area holes through the substrate. A method that would employ indium bump technology along with wafer-scale integration onto a silicon carrier was also developed. By establishing a silicon-based version of a printed circuit board, the objectives could be met with one solution. The silicon substrate would be 2 mm thick to survive the environmental loads of a launch. More than 2,300 metal traces and over 1,500 individual wire bonds are required. To mate the microshutter array to the silicon substrate, more than 10,000 indium bumps are required. A window was cut in the substrate to allow the light signal to pass through the substrate and reach the microshutter array. The substrate was also the receptacle for multiple unpackaged IC die wire-bonded directly to the substrate (thus conserving space over conventionally packaged die). Unique features of this technology include the implementation of a 2-mmthick silicon wafer to withstand extreme mechanical loads (from a rocket launch); integrated polysilicon resistor heaters directly on the substrate; the precise formation of an open aperture

  19. Preparation of electrochemically active silicon nanotubes in highly ordered arrays.

    PubMed

    Grünzel, Tobias; Lee, Young Joo; Kuepper, Karsten; Bachmann, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Silicon as the negative electrode material of lithium ion batteries has a very large capacity, the exploitation of which is impeded by the volume changes taking place upon electrochemical cycling. A Si electrode displaying a controlled porosity could circumvent the difficulty. In this perspective, we present a preparative method that yields ordered arrays of electrochemically competent silicon nanotubes. The method is based on the atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide onto the pore walls of an anodic alumina template, followed by a thermal reduction with lithium vapor. This thermal reduction is quantitative, homogeneous over macroscopic samples, and it yields amorphous silicon and lithium oxide, at the exclusion of any lithium silicides. The reaction is characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry for thin silica films, and by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for nanoporous samples. After removal of the lithium oxide byproduct, the silicon nanotubes can be contacted electrically. In a lithium ion electrolyte, they then display the electrochemical waves also observed for other bulk or nanostructured silicon systems. The method established here paves the way for systematic investigations of how the electrochemical properties (capacity, charge/discharge rates, cyclability) of nanoporous silicon negative lithium ion battery electrode materials depend on the geometry.

  20. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  1. Arrays of ultrathin silicon solar microcells

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A.; Rockett, Angus A.; Nuzzo, Ralph; Yoon, Jongseung; Baca, Alfred

    2015-08-11

    Provided are solar cells, photovoltaics and related methods for making solar cells, wherein the solar cell is made of ultrathin solar grade or low quality silicon. In an aspect, the invention is a method of making a solar cell by providing a solar cell substrate having a receiving surface and assembling a printable semiconductor element on the receiving surface of the substrate via contact printing. The semiconductor element has a thickness that is less than or equal to 100 .mu.m and, for example, is made from low grade Si.

  2. Arrays of ultrathin silicon solar microcells

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John A; Rockett, Angus A; Nuzzo, Ralph; Yoon, Jongseung; Baca, Alfred

    2014-03-25

    Provided are solar cells, photovoltaics and related methods for making solar cells, wherein the solar cell is made of ultrathin solar grade or low quality silicon. In an aspect, the invention is a method of making a solar cell by providing a solar cell substrate having a receiving surface and assembling a printable semiconductor element on the receiving surface of the substrate via contact printing. The semiconductor element has a thickness that is less than or equal to 100 .mu.m and, for example, is made from low grade Si.

  3. Bandgap tuning of silicon nanowire arrays for application to all-silicon tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Mitsugu; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Yamada, Akira

    2017-04-01

    To reduce the diameter of silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for bandgap tuning, a diameter reduction (DR) process incorporating H3PO4 oxidation and HF etching was conducted for SiNW arrays with a diameter of 30 nm and a length of 15 µm. After the DR process, the diameter of SiNW arrays around the tip was successfully reduced to below 10 nm. From the cathode luminescence measurement, the bandgap around the tip of SiNW arrays was estimated to be 1.2 eV, suggesting that bandgap widening occurred owing to the quantum size effect.

  4. Microelectrode Arrays of Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Channels for Real-Time Detection of Exocytotic Events from Cultured Chromaffin Cells and Slices of Adrenal Glands.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Marcantoni, Andrea; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-08-02

    A microstructured graphitic 4 × 4 multielectrode array was embedded in a single-crystal diamond substrate (4 × 4 μG-SCD MEA) for real-time monitoring of exocytotic events from cultured chromaffin cells and adrenal slices. The current approach relies on the development of a parallel ion beam lithographic technique, which assures the time-effective fabrication of extended arrays with reproducible electrode dimensions. The reported device is suitable for performing amperometric and voltammetric recordings with high sensitivity and temporal resolution, by simultaneously acquiring data from 16 rectangularly shaped microelectrodes (20 × 3.5 μm(2)) separated by 200 μm gaps. Taking advantage of the array geometry we addressed the following specific issues: (i) detect both the spontaneous and KCl-evoked secretion simultaneously from several chromaffin cells directly cultured on the device surface, (ii) resolve the waveform of different subsets of exocytotic events, and (iii) monitoring quantal secretory events from thin slices of the adrenal gland. The frequency of spontaneous release was low (0.12 and 0.3 Hz, respectively, for adrenal slices and cultured cells) and increased up to 0.9 Hz after stimulation with 30 mM KCl in cultured cells. The spike amplitude as well as rise and decay time were comparable with those measured by carbon fiber microelectrodes and allowed to identify three different subsets of secretory events associated with "full fusion" events, "kiss-and-run" and "kiss-and-stay" exocytosis, confirming that the device has adequate sensitivity and time resolution for real-time recordings. The device offers the significant advantage of shortening the time to collect data by allowing simultaneous recordings from cell populations either in primary cell cultures or in intact tissues.

  5. Simultaneous recording of brain extracellular glucose, spike and local field potential in real time using an implantable microelectrode array with nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Fan, Xinyi; Zhang, Song; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengwei; Wang, Mixia; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the main substrate for neurons in the central nervous system. In order to efficiently characterize the brain glucose mechanism, it is desirable to determine the extracellular glucose dynamics as well as the corresponding neuroelectrical activity in vivo. In the present study, we fabricated an implantable microelectrode array (MEA) probe composed of platinum electrochemical and electrophysiology microelectrodes by standard micro electromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The MEA probe was modified with nano-materials and implanted in a urethane-anesthetized rat for simultaneous recording of striatal extracellular glucose, local field potential (LFP) and spike on the same spatiotemporal scale when the rat was in normoglycemia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During these dual-mode recordings, we observed that increase of extracellular glucose enhanced the LFP power and spike firing rate, while decrease of glucose had an opposite effect. This dual mode MEA probe is capable of examining specific spatiotemporal relationships between electrical and chemical signaling in the brain, which will contribute significantly to improve our understanding of the neuron physiology.

  6. In Situ Real-Time Monitoring of Glutamate and Electrophysiology from Cortex to Hippocampus in Mice Based on a Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinyi; Song, Yilin; Ma, Yuanlin; Zhang, Song; Xiao, Guihua; Yang, Lili; Xu, Huiren; Zhang, Dai; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus contribute to epilepsy, schizophrenia and other neurological or mental disorders of the brain. Since the function of the hippocampus depends heavily on the glutamate (Glu) signaling pathways, in situ real-time detection of Glu neurotransmitter release and electrophysiological signals in hippocampus is of great significance. To achieve the dual-mode detection in mouse hippocampus in vivo, a 16-channel implantable microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. Twelve microelectrode sites were modified with platinum black for electrophysiological recording and four sites were modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and 1,3-phenylenediamine (mPD) for selective electrochemical detection of Glu. The MEA was implanted from cortex to hippocampus in mouse brain for in situ real-time monitoring of Glu and electrophysiological signals. It was found that the Glu concentration in hippocampus was roughly 50 μM higher than that in the cortex, and the firing rate of concurrently recorded spikes declined from 6.32 ± 4.35 spikes/s in cortex to 0.09 ± 0.06 spikes/s in hippocampus. The present results demonstrated that the dual-mode MEA probe was capable in neurological detections in vivo with high spatial resolution and dynamical response, which lays the foundation for further pathology studies in the hippocampus of mouse models with nervous or mental disorders. PMID:28042814

  7. Fabrication and size dependent properties of porous silicon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuezhen; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Roberto; Rich, Ryan; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Coffer, Jeffery L

    2013-06-28

    A general method for the formation of a broad family of silicon nanotube arrays (Si NTAs) relevant to diverse fields--ranging from energy storage to therapeutic platforms--is described. Such nanotubes demonstrate a thickness-dependent dissolution behavior important to its potential use in drug delivery. Under selected conditions, novel porous silicon nanotubes can be prepared when the shell thickness is on the order of 12 nm or less, capable of being loaded with small molecules such as luminescent ruthenium dyes associated with dye-sensitized photovoltaic devices.

  8. Recent progress in patterned silicon nanowire arrays: fabrication, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Qiu, Teng; Zhang, Wenjun; Chu, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Currently there is great interest in patterned silicon nanowire arrays and applications. The accurately controlled fabrication of patterned silicon nanowire arrays with the desirable axial crystallographic orientation using simpler and quicker ways is very desirable and of great importance to material synthesis and future nanoscale optoelectronic devices that employ silicon. The recent advances in manipulating patterned silicon nanowire arrays and patents are reviewed with a focus on the progress of nanowire fabrication and applications.

  9. Highly Flexible Silicone Coated Neural Array for Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, P.; Van Beek-King, J.; Sharpe, A.; Crawford, J.; Tridandapani, S.; McKinnon, B.; Blake, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present an effective method for tailoring the flexibility of a commercial thin-film polymer electrode array for intracochlear electrical stimulation. Using a pneumatically driven dispensing system, an average 232 ± 64 μm (mean ± SD) thickness layer of silicone adhesive coating was applied to stiffen the underside of polyimide multisite arrays. Additional silicone was applied to the tip to protect neural tissue during insertion and along the array to improve surgical handling. Each array supported 20 platinum sites (180 μm dia., 250 μm pitch), spanning nearly 28 mm in length and 400 μm in width. We report an average intracochlear stimulating current threshold of 170 ± 93 μA to evoke an auditory brainstem response in 7 acutely deafened felines. A total of 10 arrays were each inserted through a round window approach into the cochlea's basal turn of eight felines with one delamination occurring upon insertion (preliminary results of the in vivo data presented at the 48th Annual Meeting American Neurotology Society, Orlando, FL, April 2013, and reported in Van Beek-King 2014). Using microcomputed tomography imaging (50 μm resolution), distances ranging from 100 to 565 μm from the cochlea's central modiolus were measured. Our method combines the utility of readily available commercial devices with a straightforward postprocessing step on the order of 24 hours. PMID:26236714

  10. Large area, dense silicon nanowire array chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Talin, A. Alec; Hunter, Luke L.; Leonard, Francois; Rokad, Bhavin

    2006-10-09

    The authors present a simple top-down approach based on nanoimprint lithography to create dense arrays of silicon nanowires over large areas. Metallic contacts to the nanowires and a bottom gate allow the operation of the array as a field-effect transistor with very large on/off ratios. When exposed to ammonia gas or cyclohexane solutions containing nitrobenzene or phenol, the threshold voltage of the field-effect transistor is shifted, a signature of charge transfer between the analytes and the nanowires. The threshold voltage shift is proportional to the Hammett parameter and the concentration of the nitrobenzene and phenol analytes.

  11. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY ON SILICON NANOWELL ARRAYS

    PubMed Central

    Gulbakan, Basri; Park, Dooho; Kang, Myungchan; Kececi, Kaan; Martin, Charles R.; Powell, David H.; Tan, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for fabrication of nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Porous silicon nanowell arrays were prepared by argon plasma etching through an alumina mask. Porous silicon prepared in this way proved to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS) using adenosine, Pro-Leu-Gly tripeptide and [Des-Arg9]-bradykinin as the model compounds. It also allows the analyses of complex biological samples such as a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin, and a carnitine standard mixture. Nanowell array surfaces were also used for direct quantification of the illicit drug fentanyl in red blood cell extracts. This method also allows full control of the surface features. MS results suggested that the pore depth has significant effect on the ion signals. Significant improvement in the ionization was observed by increasing the pore depth from 10 nm to 50 nm. These substrates are useful for laser desorption ionization in both the atmospheric pressure and vacuum regimes. PMID:20731384

  12. Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry on silicon nanowell arrays.

    PubMed

    Gulbakan, Basri; Park, Dooho; Kang, Myungchan; Kececi, Kaan; Martin, Charles R; Powell, David H; Tan, Weihong

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes a new technique for fabrication of nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Porous silicon nanowell arrays were prepared by argon plasma etching through an alumina mask. Porous silicon prepared in this way proved to be an excellent substrate for desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectrometry (MS) using adenosine, Pro-Leu-Gly tripeptide, and [Des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as the model compounds. It also allows the analyses of complex biological samples such as a tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin and a carnitine standard mixture. Nanowell array surfaces were also used for direct quantification of the illicit drug fentanyl in red blood cell extracts. This method also allows full control of the surface features. MS results suggested that the pore depth has a significant effect on the ion signals. Significant improvement in the ionization was observed by increasing the pore depth from 10 to 50 nm. These substrates are useful for laser desorption ionization in both the atmospheric pressure and vacuum regimes.

  13. Proton computed tomography using a 1D silicon diode array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Cammin, Jochen; Bisello, Francesca; Solberg, Timothy D; McDonough, James E; Zhu, Timothy C; Menichelli, David; Teo, Boon-Keng Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Proton radiography (PR) and proton computed tomography (PCT) can be used to measure proton stopping power directly. However, practical and cost effective proton imaging detectors are not widely available. In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of proton imaging using a silicon diode array. A one-dimensional silicon diode detector array (1DSDA) was aligned with the central axis (CAX) of the proton beam. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs were used to find the correspondence between the water equivalent thickness (WET) and 1DSDA channel number. Two-dimensional proton radiographs were obtained by translation and rotation of a phantom relative to CAX while the proton nozzle and 1DSDA were kept stationary. A PCT image of one slice of the phantom was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. PR and PCT images of the PMMA cube were successfully acquired using the 1DSDA. The WET of the phantom was measured using PR data. The resolution and maximum error in WET measurement are 2.0 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Structures down to 2.0 mm in size could be resolved completely. Reconstruction of a PCT image showed very good agreement with simulation. Limitations in spatial resolution are attributed to limited spatial sampling, beam collimation, and proton scatter. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using silicon diode arrays for proton imaging. Such a device can potentially offer fast image acquisition and high spatial and energy resolution for PR and PCT.

  14. Deployable aerospace PV array based on amorphous silicon alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Walter, Lee; Dobias, David; Flaisher, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The development of the first commercial, ultralight, flexible, deployable, PV array for aerospace applications is discussed. It is based on thin-film, amorphous silicon alloy, multijunction, solar cells deposited on a thin metal or polymer by a proprietary, roll-to-roll process. The array generates over 200 W at AM0 and is made of 20 giant cells, each 54 cm x 29 cm (1566 sq cm in area). Each cell is protected with bypass diodes. Fully encapsulated array blanket and the deployment mechanism weigh about 800 and 500 g, respectively. These data yield power per area ratio of over 60 W/sq m specific power of over 250 W/kg (4 kg/kW) for the blanket and 154 W/kg (6.5 kg/kW) for the power system. When stowed, the array is rolled up to a diameter of 7 cm and a length of 1.11 m. It is deployed quickly to its full area of 2.92 m x 1.11 m, for instant power. Potential applications include power for lightweight space vehicles, high altitude balloons, remotely piloted and tethered vehicles. These developments signal the dawning of a new age of lightweight, deployable, low-cost space arrays in the range from tens to tens of thousands of watts for near-term applications and the feasibility of multi-100 kW to MW arrays for future needs.

  15. Deployable aerospace PV array based on amorphous silicon alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Walter, Lee; Dobias, David; Flaisher, Harvey

    1989-04-01

    The development of the first commercial, ultralight, flexible, deployable, PV array for aerospace applications is discussed. It is based on thin-film, amorphous silicon alloy, multijunction, solar cells deposited on a thin metal or polymer by a proprietary, roll-to-roll process. The array generates over 200 W at AM0 and is made of 20 giant cells, each 54 cm x 29 cm (1566 sq cm in area). Each cell is protected with bypass diodes. Fully encapsulated array blanket and the deployment mechanism weigh about 800 and 500 g, respectively. These data yield power per area ratio of over 60 W/sq m specific power of over 250 W/kg (4 kg/kW) for the blanket and 154 W/kg (6.5 kg/kW) for the power system. When stowed, the array is rolled up to a diameter of 7 cm and a length of 1.11 m. It is deployed quickly to its full area of 2.92 m x 1.11 m, for instant power. Potential applications include power for lightweight space vehicles, high altitude balloons, remotely piloted and tethered vehicles. These developments signal the dawning of a new age of lightweight, deployable, low-cost space arrays in the range from tens to tens of thousands of watts for near-term applications and the feasibility of multi-100 kW to MW arrays for future needs.

  16. Effects of adsorbed proteins, an antifouling agent and long-duration DC voltage pulses on the impedance of silicon-based neural microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Sommakia, Salah; Rickus, Jenna L; Otto, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    The successful use of implantable neural microelectrodes as neuroprosthetic devices depends on the mitigation of the reactive tissue response of the brain. One of the factors affecting the ultimate severity of the reactive tissue response and the in vivo electrical properties of the microelectrodes is the initial adsorption of proteins onto the surface of the implanted microelectrodes. In this study we quantify the increase in microelectrode impedance magnitude at physiological frequencies following electrode immersion in a 10% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. We also demonstrate the efficacy of a common antifouling molecule, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in preventing a significant increase in microelectrode impedance. In addition, we show the feasibility of using long-duration DC voltage pulses to remove adsorbed proteins from the microelectrode surface.

  17. Covalent Attachment of Ferrocene to Silicon Microwire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Kang, Onkar S; Bruce, Jared P; Herbert, David E; Freund, Michael S

    2015-12-09

    A fully integrated, freestanding device for photoelectrochemical fuel generation will likely require covalent attachment of catalysts to the surface of the photoelectrodes. Ferrocene has been utilized in the past as a model system for molecular catalyst integration on planar silicon; however, the surface structure of high-aspect ratio silicon microwires envisioned for a potential device presents potential challenges with respect to stability, characterization, and mass transport. Attachment of vinylferrocene to Cl-terminated surfaces of silicon microwires was performed thermally. By varying the reaction time, solutions of vinylferrocene in di-n-butyl ether were employed to control the extent of functionalization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemistry were used to estimate the density and surface coverage of the silicon microwire arrays with ferrocenyl groups, which could be controllably varied from 1.23 × 10(-11) to 4.60 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) or 1 to 30% of a monolayer. Subsequent backfill of the remaining Si-Cl sites with methyl groups produced ferrocenyl-terminated surfaces that showed unchanged cyclic volammograms following two months in air, under ambient conditions, and repeated electrochemical cycling.

  18. Performance improvement for silicon-based arrayed waveguide grating router.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Le, Zichun; Hu, Jinhua; He, Jian-Jun

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the impact of aberration on spectral performance of silicon-based arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) router with the conventional design using a constant pitch along the grating circle for the array waveguides near the free propagation region (FPR), and simulation results show that due to existence of large aberration, side lobes occur in spectral responses of peripheral output channels for the center input light while more serious side lobes appear in most output channels within a free spectral range (FSR) for the edge channel input. Therefore, there is a high crosstalk in conventional N × N silicon AWG, which is very detrimental for router applications. In order to address it, a simple design with a constant projected period on a line tangent to the grating at its pole for the array waveguides near the FPR is proposed, and aberrations of all output wavelengths within a FSR are kept at a rather low level both for the center and edge input. Then we fabricate two kinds of AWG routers with the conventional and proposed design respectively on a SOI wafer, and experimental results show that spectral responses of the AWG router with the proposed design are significantly improved compared to those obtained in the conventional design, especially for the edge channel input.

  19. Amorphous silicon cell array powered solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    An array of an even number of amorphous silicon solar cells are serially connected between first and second terminals of opposite polarity. The terminals are connected to one input terminal of a DC motor whose other input terminal is connected to the mid-cell of the serial array. Vane elements are adjacent the end cells to selectively shadow one or the other of the end cells when the array is oriented from a desired attitude relative to the sun. The shadowing of one cell of a group of cells on one side of the mid-cell reduces the power of that group substantially so that full power from the group of cells on the other side of the mid-cell drives the motor to reorient the array to the desired attitude. The cell groups each have a full power output at the power rating of the motor. When the array is at the desired attitude the power output of the two groups of cells balances due to their opposite polarity so that the motor remains unpowered.

  20. Label-free enumeration of colorectal cancer cells from lymphocytes performed at a high cell-loading density by using interdigitated ring-array microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoxing; Poon, Randy Y C; Wong, Cesar S C; Yobas, Levent

    2014-11-15

    We report the label-free enumeration of human colorectal-carcinoma cells from blood lymphocytes by using interdigitated ring-array microelectrodes; this enumeration was based on the dielectrophoretic selection of cells. Because of the novel design of the device, a continuous flow of cells is uniformly distributed into parallel streams through 300 rings (~40 μm in diameter each) that are integrated into the electrode digits. Using this array, 82% of cancer cells were recovered and 99% of blood lymphocytes were removed. Most of the cancer cells recovered were viable (94%) and could be cultivated for >8 days, during which period they retained their normal cell morphology and proliferation rates. The recovery rate correlated closely with cancer-cell loadings in spiked samples and this relationship was linear over a range of at least 2 orders of magnitude. Importantly, because of the 3D structure of the rings, these results were obtained at a high cell-loading concentration (10(7)cells/mL). The rings could be further optimized for use in accurate label-free identification and measurement of circulating tumor cells in cancer research and disease management.

  1. New approaches to eliminating common-noise artifacts in recordings from intracortical microelectrode arrays: inter-electrode correlation and virtual referencing

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Kunal J; Rao, Chinmay R; Clement, Ryan S

    2009-01-01

    Intracortical microelectrode arrays record multi-unit extracellular activity for neurophysiology studies and for brain-machine interface applications. The common first step is neural spike detection; a process complicated by common-noise signals from motion artifacts, electromyographic activity, and electric field pickup, especially in awake/behaving subjects. Often common-noise spikes are very similar to neural spikes in their magnitude, spectral, and temporal features. Provided sufficient spacing exists between electrodes of the array, a local neural spike is rarely recorded on multiple electrodes simultaneously. This is not true for distant common-noise sources. Two new techniques compatible with standard spike detection schemes are introduced and evaluated. The first method, virtual referencing (VR), takes the average recording from all functional electrodes in the array (represents the signal from a virtual electrode at the array's center) and subtracts it from the test electrode signal. The second method, inter-electrode correlation (IEC), computes a correlation coefficient between threshold exceeding candidate spike segments on the test electrode and concurrent segments from remaining electrodes. When sufficient correlation is detected, the candidate spike is rejected as originating from a distant common-noise source. The performance of these algorithms was compared with standard thresholding and differential referencing approaches using neural recordings from unanaesthetized rats. By evaluating characteristics of mean-spike waveforms generated by each method under different levels of common-noise, it was found that IEC consistently offered the most robust means of neural spike-detection. Furthermore, IEC's rejection of supra-threshold events not likely originating from local neurons significantly reduces data handling for downstream spike sorting and processing operations. PMID:19394363

  2. New approaches to eliminating common-noise artifacts in recordings from intracortical microelectrode arrays: inter-electrode correlation and virtual referencing.

    PubMed

    Paralikar, Kunal J; Rao, Chinmay R; Clement, Ryan S

    2009-06-30

    Intracortical microelectrode arrays record multi-unit extracellular activity for neurophysiology studies and for brain-machine interface applications. The common first step is neural spike-detection; a process complicated by common-noise signals from motion artifacts, electromyographic activity, and electric field pickup, especially in awake/behaving subjects. Often common-noise spikes are very similar to neural spikes in their magnitude, spectral, and temporal features. Provided sufficient spacing exists between electrodes of the array, a local neural spike is rarely recorded on multiple electrodes simultaneously. This is not true for distant common-noise sources. Two new techniques compatible with standard spike-detection schemes are introduced and evaluated. The first method, virtual referencing (VR), takes the average recording from all functional electrodes in the array (represents the signal from a virtual-electrode at the array's center) and subtracts it from the test electrode signal. The second method, inter-electrode correlation (IEC), computes a correlation coefficient between threshold exceeding candidate spike segments on the test electrode and concurrent segments from remaining electrodes. When sufficient correlation is detected, the candidate spike is rejected as originating from a distant common-noise source. The performance of these algorithms was compared with standard thresholding and differential referencing approaches using neural recordings from un-anaesthetized rats. By evaluating characteristics of mean-spike waveforms generated by each method under different levels of common-noise, it was found that IEC consistently offered the most robust means of neural spike-detection. Furthermore, IEC's rejection of supra-threshold events not likely originating from local neurons significantly reduces data handling for downstream spike sorting and processing operations.

  3. Review of machine learning and signal processing techniques for automated electrode selection in high-density microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2014-08-01

    Recently developed CMOS-based microprobes contain hundreds of electrodes on a single shaft with interelectrode distances as small as 30 µm. So far, neuroscientists manually select a subset of those electrodes depending on their appraisal of the "usefulness" of the recorded signals, which makes the process subjective but more importantly too time consuming to be useable in practice. The ever-increasing number of recording electrodes on microelectrode probes calls for an automated selection of electrodes containing "good quality signals" or "signals of interest." This article reviews the different criteria for electrode selection as well as the basic signal processing steps to prepare the data to compute those criteria. We discuss three of them. The first two select the electrodes based on "signal quality." The first criterion computes the penalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); the second criterion models the neuroscientist's appraisal of signal quality. Last, our most recent work allows the selection of electrodes that capture particular anatomical cell types. The discussed algorithms perform what is called in the literature "electronic depth control" in contrast to the mechanical repositioning of the electrode shafts in search of "good quality signals" or "signals of interest."

  4. Array Automated Assembly Task Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, S. S.; Jones, G. T.; Allison, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of solar cells and module process steps for low-cost solar arrays is reported. Specific topics covered include: (1) a system to automatically measure solar cell electrical performance parameters; (2) automation of wafer surface preparation, printing, and plating; (3) laser inspection of mechanical defects of solar cells; and (4) a silicon antireflection coating system. Two solar cell process steps, laser trimming and holing automation and spray-on dopant junction formation, are described.

  5. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  6. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-01

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  7. Optimized antireflective silicon nanostructure arrays using nanosphere lithography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohaeng; Bae, Jiwoong; Hong, Soonwook; Yang, Hwichul; Kim, Young-Beom

    2016-05-27

    Broadband optical antireflective arrays of sub-wavelength structures were fabricated on silicon substrates using colloidal nanosphere lithography in conjunction with reactive ion etching. The morphology of the nanostructures, including the shape, base diameter and height, was precisely controlled by modifying the conventional process of nanosphere lithography. We investigated their effects on the optical characteristics based on experimentally measured reflectance performance. The Si nanostructure arrays demonstrated optical antireflection performance with an average reflectance of about 1% across the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm, i.e. near-ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This fabrication method can be used to create a large surface area and offers a promising approach for antireflective applications.

  8. High performance silicon solar arrays employing advanced structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockey, D. E.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Adams, L.

    1981-01-01

    Specific design features to reduce cell mass, lower panel operating temperatures, and improve power to mass ratios for silicon solar cell arrays in space applications are presented. Because mass constraints limit payload capacity for launch into GEO, graphite/epoxy structures combined with high performance Si cells are needed to deliver a power/mass ratio of 265 W/kg, notably for Solar Electric Propulsion systems, compared with existing level of 65 W/kg. Shallow diffusion and back surface field cell technology have raised cell efficiencies to 15%, with a back emissivity of 1.64. Structural design requirements comprise Shuttle interface compatibility, full ground test capability, low mass, and high stiffness. Three array alternatives are discussed, and the STACBEAM configuration, which consists of a triangular truss and a piston deployer with folding accomplished on simple hinges, provides 0.2 Hz stiffness and achieves the design power/mass goals.

  9. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. PMID:24787839

  10. Copper nanorod array assisted silicon waveguide polarization beam splitter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangsik; Qi, Minghao

    2014-04-21

    We present the design of a three-dimensional (3D) polarization beam splitter (PBS) with a copper nanorod array placed between two silicon waveguides. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of a metal nanorod array selectively cross-couples transverse electric (TE) mode to the coupler waveguide, while transverse magnetic (TM) mode passes through the original input waveguide without coupling. An ultra-compact and broadband PBS compared to all-dielectric devices is achieved with the LSPR. The output ports of waveguides are designed to support either TM or TE mode only to enhance the extinction ratios. Compared to silver, copper is fully compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  11. Elliptical silicon arrays with anisotropic optical and wetting properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Xianzhe; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Xun; Zhu, Difu; Hao, Yudong; Ren, Zhiyu; Yang, Bai

    2010-08-17

    We demonstrate a facile etching method to fabricate silicon elliptical pillar arrays (Si-EPAs) with unique anisotropic optical and wetting characters using polystyrene elliptical hemisphere arrays (EHAs) as mask. The EHAs were fabricated via a modified micromolding method. By varying the experimental conditions in the fabrication process, the morphology of the resulting microstructures can be controlled exactly. Because of the anisotropic morphology of the elliptical pillar, the Si-EPA shows unique anisotropic properties, such as anisotropic surface reflection and anisotropic wetting property. Additionally, through oblique evaporation deposition of Au and selective chemical modification to turn the elliptical pillars into "Janus" elliptical pillars, the "Janus" Si-EPA shows more peculiar anisotropic properties owing to the further increased asymmetry. We believe that the Si-EPAs will have potential applications in anisotropic optical and electronic devices.

  12. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  13. Synthesis and characterization of silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.

    The overall objective of this thesis was the development of processes for the fabrication of radial p-n silicon nanowires (SiNWs) using bottom-up nanowire growth techniques on silicon and glass substrates. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth was carried out on Si(111) substrates using SiCl4 as the silicon precursor. Growth conditions including temperature, PSiCl4, PH2, and position were investigated to determine the optimum growth conditions for epitaxially oriented silicon nanowire arrays. The experiments revealed that the growth rate of the silicon nanowires exhibits a maximum as a function of PSiCl4 and P H2. Gas phase equilibrium calculations were used in conjunction with a mass transport model to explain the experimental data. The modeling results demonstrate a similar maximum in the mass of solid silicon predicted to form as a function of PSiCl4 and PH2, which results from a change in the gas phase concentration of SiHxCly and SiClx species. This results in a shift in the process from growth to etching with increasing PSiCl4. In general, for the atmospheric pressure conditions employed in this study, growth at higher temperatures >1000°C and higher SiCl4 concentrations gave the best results. The growth of silicon nanowire arrays on anodized alumina (AAO)-coated glass substrates was also investigated. Glass will not hold up to the high temperatures required for Si nanowire growth with SiCl4 so SiH 4 was used as the Si precursor instead. Initial studies were carried out to measure the resistivity of p-type and n-type silicon nanowires grown in freestanding AAO membranes. A series of nanowire samples were grown in which the doping and the nanowire length inside the membrane were varied. Circular metal contacts were deposited on the top surface of the membranes and the resistance of the nanowire arrays was measured. The measured resistance versus nanowire length was plotted and the nanowire resistivity was extracted from the slope. The resistivity of the silicon

  14. Microelectrodes integrated cell-chip for drug effects study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Cui, Hui-Fang; Ye, Jian-Shan; Chong, Ser-Choong; Lim, Tit-Meng; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Cheong, Hui-Wing

    2006-01-01

    Silicon-based microelectrode chips are useful tools for temporal recording of neurotransmitter releasing from neural cells. Both invasive and non-invasive methods are targeted by different group researchers to perform electrical stimulating on neural cells. A microfabricated microelectrodes integrated biochip will be presented in this paper, which describes the dopaminergic cells growing on the chip directly. The dopamine exocytosis can be detected non-invasively from drug incubated dopaminergic cells growing on the chip. The abovementioned silicon-based electrochemical sensor chip has been designed with an electrode array located on the bottom of reaction chamber and each electrode is individually electrical controlled. MN9D, a mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic cell line, has been grown on the surface of the biochip chamber directly. Dopamine exocytosis from the chip-grown MN9D cells was detected using amperometry technology. The amperometric detection limit of dopamine of the biochip microelectrodes was found from 0.06μM to 0.21μM (S/N=3) statistically for the electrode diameters from 10 μm to 90 μm, the level of dopamine exocytosis from MN9D cells was undetectable whithout drug incubation. In contrast, after MN9D cells were incubated with L-dopa, a dopamine precursor, K+ induced dopamine extocytosis was temporally detected. The microelectrodes integrated biochip provides a non-invasive, temporal detection of dopamine exocytosis from dopaminergic cells, and holds the potential for applications in studying the mechanisms of dopamine exocytosis, and drug screening. It also provides a tool for pharmaceutical research and drug screening on dopaminergic cells, extendably to be used for other cell culture and drug effects study.

  15. Demonstration of Lasercom and Spatial Tracking with a Silicon Geiger-Mode APD Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-26

    Demonstration of lasercom and spatial tracking with a silicon Geiger-Mode APD array Timothy M. Yarnalla, Benjamin W. Horkleya,b, Ajay S. Garga, and...per information bit. 4. SPATIAL TRACKING A GM-APD array such as this one has a great deal of potential for use in a tracking system. The spatial ...counting receiver with the potential to act as a spatial tracker based on a silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array (GM-APD). This array enables

  16. Enhanced Sensitivity for Electrochemical Detection Using Screen-Printed Diamond Electrodes via the Random Microelectrode Array Effect.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Udagawa, Ikuto; Aikawa, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Hironori; Shitanda, Isao; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-02-02

    The electrochemical properties of screen-printed diamond electrodes with various insulating polyester (PES) resin binder/boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP) ratios were investigated for high sensitivity electrochemical detection. For PES/BDDP weight ratios in the range of 0.3-0.5, the BDDP-printed electrodes exhibited cyclic voltammetry (CV) characteristics for Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) that are typical of a planar electrode, whereas microelectrode-like characteristics with sigmoidal CV curves were observed for PES/BDDP ratios of 1.0-2.0. Cu elemental mapping images of copper-electrodeposited BDDP-printed electrodes indicated the formation of island structures with conductive BDDP domains surrounded by an insulating PES matrix for large PES/BDDP ratios. The electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also investigated using polycrystalline BDD thin-film and BDDP-printed electrodes (PES/BDDP ratio = 0.3 and 1.0). As a result, the signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for the voltammetric detection of AA and 8-OHdG were in the order BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 1.0) > BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 0.3) > polycrystalline BDD thin film electrode, based on the large faradaic current with respect to the background current. Therefore, the BDDP-printed electrode with a large insulating binder/BDDP ratio has the potential for use as a disposable electrode for electrochemical detection. The electrode is cheaper, lighter and more sensitive than conventional BDD electrodes.

  17. High-throughput PCR in silicon based microchamber array.

    PubMed

    Nagai, H; Murakami, Y; Yokoyama, K; Tamiya, E

    2001-12-01

    Highly integrated hybridization assay and capillary electrophoresis have improved the throughput of DNA analysis. The shift to high throughput analysis requires a high speed DNA amplification system, and several rapid PCR systems have been developed. In these thermal cyclers, the temperature was controlled by effective methodology instead of a large heating/cooling block preventing rapid thermal cycling. In our research, high speed PCR was performed using a silicon-based microchamber array and three heat blocks. The highly integrated microchamber array was fabricated by semiconductor microfabrication techniques. The temperature of the PCR microchamber was controlled by alternating between three heat blocks of different temperature. In general, silicon has excellent thermal conductivity, and the heat capacity is small in the miniaturized sample volume. Hence, the heating/cooling rate was rapid, approximately 16 degrees C/s. The rapid PCR was therefore completed in 18 min for 40 cycles. The thermal cycle time was reduced to 1/10 of a commercial PCR instrument (Model 9600, PE Applied Biosystems-3 h).

  18. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of Porous Silicon Nanowire Arrays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Guo, Siping; Sun, Xianzhong; Feng, Jiayou; Wang, Yan

    2010-08-05

    Herein, we prepare vertical and single crystalline porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) via a two-step metal-assisted electroless etching method. The porosity of the nanowires is restricted by etchant concentration, etching time and doping lever of the silicon wafer. The diffusion of silver ions could lead to the nucleation of silver nanoparticles on the nanowires and open new etching ways. Like porous silicon (PS), these porous nanowires also show excellent photoluminescence (PL) properties. The PL intensity increases with porosity, with an enhancement of about 100 times observed in our condition experiments. A "red-shift" of the PL peak is also found. Further studies prove that the PL spectrum should be decomposed into two elementary PL bands. The peak at 850 nm is the emission of the localized excitation in the nanoporous structure, while the 750-nm peak should be attributed to the surface-oxidized nanostructure. It could be confirmed from the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. These porous SiNW arrays may be useful as the nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  19. Incubator-independent cell-culture perfusion platform for continuous long-term microelectrode array electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, Dirk; Konduri, Anil Krishna; Latifi, Shahrzad; Habibey, Rouhollah; Golabchi, Asiyeh; Martiniuc, Aurel Vasile; Knoll, Alois; Ingebrandt, Sven; Blau, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Most in vitro electrophysiology studies extract information and draw conclusions from representative, temporally limited snapshot experiments. This approach bears the risk of missing decisive moments that may make a difference in our understanding of physiological events. This feasibility study presents a simple benchtop cell-culture perfusion system adapted to commercial microelectrode arrays (MEAs), multichannel electrophysiology equipment and common inverted microscopy stages for simultaneous and uninterrupted extracellular electrophysiology and time-lapse imaging at ambient CO2 levels. The concept relies on a transparent, replica-casted polydimethylsiloxane perfusion cap, gravity- or syringe-pump-driven perfusion and preconditioning of pH-buffered serum-free cell-culture medium to ambient CO2 levels at physiological temperatures. The low-cost microfluidic in vitro enabling platform, which allows us to image cultures immediately after cell plating, is easy to reproduce and is adaptable to the geometries of different cell-culture containers. It permits the continuous and simultaneous multimodal long-term acquisition or manipulation of optical and electrophysiological parameter sets, thereby considerably widening the range of experimental possibilities. Two exemplary proof-of-concept long-term MEA studies on hippocampal networks illustrate system performance. Continuous extracellular recordings over a period of up to 70 days revealed details on both sudden and gradual neural activity changes in maturing cell ensembles with large intra-day fluctuations. Correlated time-lapse imaging unveiled rather static macroscopic network architectures with previously unreported local morphological oscillations on the timescale of minutes. PMID:26543581

  20. Microelectrode arrays in combination with in vitro models of spinal cord injury as tools to investigate pathological changes in network activity: facts and promises.

    PubMed

    Mladinic, Miranda; Nistri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) represent an important tool to study the basic characteristics of spinal networks that control locomotion in physiological conditions. Fundamental properties of this neuronal rhythmicity like burst origin, propagation, coordination, and resilience can, thus, be investigated at multiple sites within a certain spinal topography and neighboring circuits. A novel challenge will be to apply this technology to unveil the mechanisms underlying pathological processes evoked by spinal cord injury (SCI). To achieve this goal, it is necessary to fully identify spinal networks that make up the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) and to understand their operational rules. In this review, the use of isolated spinal cord preparations from rodents, or organotypic spinal slice cultures is discussed to study rhythmic activity. In particular, this review surveys our recently developed in vitro models of SCI by evoking excitotoxic (or even hypoxic/dysmetabolic) damage to spinal networks and assessing the impact on rhythmic activity and cell survival. These pathological processes which evolve via different cell death mechanisms are discussed as a paradigm to apply MEA recording for detailed mapping of the functional damage and its time-dependent evolution.

  1. In-Vivo Characterization of Glassy Carbon Micro-Electrode Arrays for Neural Applications and Histological Analysis of the Brain Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria

    The aim of this work is to fabricate and characterize glassy carbon Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) for sensing and stimulating neural activity, and conduct histological analysis of the brain tissue after the implant to determine long-term performance. Neural applications often require robust electrical and electrochemical response over a long period of time, and for those applications we propose to replace the commonly used noble metals like platinum, gold and iridium with glassy carbon. We submit that such material has the potential to improve the performances of traditional neural prostheses, thanks to better charge transfer capabilities and higher electrochemical stability. Great interest and attention is given in this work, in particular, to the investigation of tissue response after several weeks of implants in rodents' brain motor cortex and the associated materials degradation. As part of this work, a new set of devices for Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been designed and fabricated to improve durability and quality of the previous generation of devices, designed and manufactured by the same research group in 2014. In-vivo long-term impedance measurements and brain activity recordings were performed to test the functionality of the neural devices. In-vitro electrical characterization of the carbon electrodes, as well as the study of the adhesion mechanisms between glassy carbon and different substrates is also part of the research described in this book.

  2. Post-implantation impedance spectroscopy of subretinal micro-electrode arrays, OCT imaging and numerical simulation: towards a more precise neuroprosthesis monitoring tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Pascale; Roux, Sébastien; Matonti, Frédéric; Dupont, Florent; Agache, Vincent; Chavane, Frédéric

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Previous studies have shown that single-frequency impedance measurements could provide useful information about the distance between the neuroprosthesis and the retina. This work investigates the use of impedance spectroscopy in monitoring subretinal implantations of flexible micro-electrode arrays and focuses on determining what is governing impedance profiles. Approach. In this study, we use impedance spectroscopy together with optical coherence tomography imaging and numerical simulation to quantitatively evaluate the constituent elements of measured impedance. Main results. We show the existence of specific impedance spectrum profiles for retinal detection and retinal detachment that are in good agreement with numerical simulations. These simulations suggest that monopolar impedance is mainly influenced by the subretinal space. Numerical simulations also provide a quantitative prediction of the lateral spread of current density in the vicinity of the measuring contact as a function of retina-electrode distance. Significance. In general, our results point to the need for scanning a large frequency range for impedance measurements since capacitive and resistive regimes are strongly dependent on retina-electrode proximity. We believe that these results will contribute to a better understanding of electrical stimulation in neuroprostheses and ultimately improve their efficiency.

  3. Methodology for Rapid Measures of Glutamate Release in Rat Brain Slices Using Ceramic-Based Microelectrode Arrays: Basic Characterization and Drug Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Jorge E.; Pomerleau, François; Huettl, Peter; Johnson, Kirk W.; Offord, James; Gerhardt, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive excitability or hyperexcitability of glutamate-containing neurons in the brain has been proposed as a possible explanation for anxiety, stress-induced disorders, epilepsy, and some neurodegenerative diseases. However, direct measurement of glutamate on a rapid time scale has proven to be difficult. Here we adapted enzyme-based microelectrode arrays (MEA) capable of detecting glutamate in vivo, to assess the effectiveness of hyperexcitability modulators on glutamate release in brain slices of the rat neocortex. Using glutamate oxidase coated ceramic MEAs coupled with constant voltage amperometry, we measured resting glutamate levels and synaptic overflow of glutamate after K+ stimulation in brain slices. MEAs reproducibly detected glutamate on a second-by-second time scale in the brain slice preparation after depolarization with high K+ to evoke glutamate release. This stimulus-evoked glutamate release was robust, reproducible, and calcium dependent. The K+-evoked glutamate release was modulated by ligands to the a2δ subunit of voltage sensitive calcium channels (PD-0332334 and PD-0200390). Meanwhile, agonists to Group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors (LY379268 and LY354740), which are known to alter hyperexcitability of glutamate neurons, attenuated K+-evoked glutamate release but did not alter resting glutamate levels. This new MEA technology provides a means of directly measuring the chemical messengers involved in glutamate neurotransmission and thereby helping to reveal the role multiple glutamatergic system components have on glutamate signaling. PMID:21664606

  4. Simultaneous determination and speciation of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in natural water with minimum handling and artifacts, by voltammetry on a gel-integrated microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Pei, J; Tercier-Waeber, M L; Buffle, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports a new approach based on a gel-integrated Hg-plated-Ir-based microelectrode array (GIME), for measuring Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn speciation in natural waters. This paper focuses on the quantitative discrimination between mobile and colloidal metal species (size limit of a few nanometers), for which most classical separation techniques present severe drawbacks. Previous papers have shown qualitatively that GIME combined with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) has the basic characteristics required to discriminate between these two fractions directly on the unperturbed sample. In addition, because of the large sensitivity provided by GIME, complexation parameters (equilibrium constants and site concentrations) can be determined in little-perturbed samples, particularly without metal addition or with small addition compared with natural concentrations. The advantages of this procedure are exemplified and the possible artifacts occurring when titrating the sample with metals, in particular intermetallic compound formation and other problems, are discussed in detail. The present paper shows that the characteristics of GIME make it a unique tool to get quantitative information on metal speciation at nanomolar or even subnanomolar levels, with only minor sample handling.

  5. A Low-Noise, Modular, and Versatile Analog Front-End Intended for Processing In Vitro Neuronal Signals Detected by Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Regalia, Giulia; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The collection of good quality extracellular neuronal spikes from neuronal cultures coupled to Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs) is a binding requirement to gather reliable data. Due to physical constraints, low power requirement, or the need of customizability, commercial recording platforms are not fully adequate for the development of experimental setups integrating MEA technology with other equipment needed to perform experiments under climate controlled conditions, like environmental chambers or cell culture incubators. To address this issue, we developed a custom MEA interfacing system featuring low noise, low power, and the capability to be readily integrated inside an incubator-like environment. Two stages, a preamplifier and a filter amplifier, were designed, implemented on printed circuit boards, and tested. The system is characterized by a low input-referred noise (<1 μV RMS), a high channel separation (>70 dB), and signal-to-noise ratio values of neuronal recordings comparable to those obtained with the benchmark commercial MEA system. In addition, the system was successfully integrated with an environmental MEA chamber, without harming cell cultures during experiments and without being damaged by the high humidity level. The devised system is of practical value in the development of in vitro platforms to study temporally extended neuronal network dynamics by means of MEAs. PMID:25977683

  6. The use of microelectrode array (MEA) to study the protective effects of potassium channel openers on metabolically compromised HL-1 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Law, J K Y; Yeung, C K; Hofmann, B; Ingebrandt, S; Rudd, J A; Offenhäusser, A; Chan, M

    2009-02-01

    The microelectrode array (MEA) was used to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel activation using potassium channel openers (KCOs) on HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to acute chemically induced metabolic inhibition. Beat frequency and extracellular action potential (exAP) amplitude were measured in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (sodium azide (NaN(3)) or 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG)) or KCOs (pinacidil (PIN, a cyanoguanidine derivative, activates sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels) or SDZ PCO400 (SDZ, a benzopyran derivative, activates mitochondrial K(ATP) channels)). The protective effects of these KCOs on metabolically inhibited HL-1 cells were subsequently investigated. Signal shapes indicated that NaN(3) and 2-DG reduced the rate of the sodium (Na(+)) influx signal as reflected by a reduction in beat frequency. PIN and SDZ appeared to reduce both rate of depolarization and extent of the Na(+) influx signals. Pre-treating cardiomyocytes with PIN (0.1 mM), but not SDZ, prevented the reduction of beat frequency associated with NaN(3)- or 2-DG-induced metabolic inhibition. The exAP amplitude was not affected by either KCO. The cardioprotective effect of PIN relative to SDZ may be due to the opening of different K(ATP) channels. This metabolic inhibition model on the MEA may provide a stable platform for the study of cardiac pathophysiology in the future.

  7. High-density microelectrode array recordings and real-time spike sorting for closed-loop experiments: an emerging technology to study neural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Franke, Felix; Jäckel, David; Dragas, Jelena; Müller, Jan; Radivojevic, Milos; Bakkum, Douglas; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Understanding plasticity of neural networks is a key to comprehending their development and function. A powerful technique to study neural plasticity includes recording and control of pre- and post-synaptic neural activity, e.g., by using simultaneous intracellular recording and stimulation of several neurons. Intracellular recording is, however, a demanding technique and has its limitations in that only a small number of neurons can be stimulated and recorded from at the same time. Extracellular techniques offer the possibility to simultaneously record from larger numbers of neurons with relative ease, at the expenses of increased efforts to sort out single neuronal activities from the recorded mixture, which is a time consuming and error prone step, referred to as spike sorting. In this mini-review, we describe recent technological developments in two separate fields, namely CMOS-based high-density microelectrode arrays, which also allow for extracellular stimulation of neurons, and real-time spike sorting. We argue that these techniques, when combined, will provide a powerful tool to study plasticity in neural networks consisting of several thousand neurons in vitro.

  8. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Regalia, Giulia; Coelli, Stefania; Biffi, Emilia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting "building blocks" into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis.

  9. A Framework for the Comparative Assessment of Neuronal Spike Sorting Algorithms towards More Accurate Off-Line and On-Line Microelectrode Arrays Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal spike sorting algorithms are designed to retrieve neuronal network activity on a single-cell level from extracellular multiunit recordings with Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). In typical analysis of MEA data, one spike sorting algorithm is applied indiscriminately to all electrode signals. However, this approach neglects the dependency of algorithms' performances on the neuronal signals properties at each channel, which require data-centric methods. Moreover, sorting is commonly performed off-line, which is time and memory consuming and prevents researchers from having an immediate glance at ongoing experiments. The aim of this work is to provide a versatile framework to support the evaluation and comparison of different spike classification algorithms suitable for both off-line and on-line analysis. We incorporated different spike sorting “building blocks” into a Matlab-based software, including 4 feature extraction methods, 3 feature clustering methods, and 1 template matching classifier. The framework was validated by applying different algorithms on simulated and real signals from neuronal cultures coupled to MEAs. Moreover, the system has been proven effective in running on-line analysis on a standard desktop computer, after the selection of the most suitable sorting methods. This work provides a useful and versatile instrument for a supported comparison of different options for spike sorting towards more accurate off-line and on-line MEA data analysis. PMID:27239191

  10. Vascular lumen simulation and highly-sensitive nitric oxide detection using three-dimensional gelatin chip coupled to TiC/C nanowire arrays microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Mei; Wang, Xue-Ying; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Shi-Jing; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu; Chu, Paul K

    2012-11-07

    Reproducing the physiological environment of blood vessels for the in vitro investigation of endothelial cell functions is very challenging. Here, we describe a vascular-like structure based on a three-dimensional (3D) gelatin chip with good compatibility and permeability which is also cost-effective and easy to produce. The controllable lumen diameter and wall thickness enable close mimicking of blood vessels in vitro. The 3D gelatin matrix between adjacent lumens is capable of generating soluble-factor gradients inside, and diffusion of molecules with different molecular weights through the matrix is studied. The cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferate on the gelatin lumen linings to form a vascular lumen. The hemodynamic behavior including adhesion, alignment of endothelial cells (ECs) under shear stress and pulsatile stretch is studied. Furthermore, a microelectrode comprising TiC/C nanowire arrays is fabricated to detect nitric oxide with sub-nM detection limits and NO generation from the cultured ECs is monitored in real time. This vascular model reproduces the surrounding parenchyma of endothelial cells and mimics the hemodynamics inside blood vessels very well, thereby enabling potential direct investigation of hemodynamics, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis in vitro.

  11. Smart integration of silicon nanowire arrays in all-silicon thermoelectric micro-nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Luis; Santos, Jose-Domingo; Roncaglia, Alberto; Narducci, Dario; Calaza, Carlos; Salleras, Marc; Donmez, Inci; Tarancon, Albert; Morata, Alex; Gadea, Gerard; Belsito, Luca; Zulian, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Micro and nanotechnologies are called to play a key role in the fabrication of small and low cost sensors with excellent performance enabling new continuous monitoring scenarios and distributed intelligence paradigms (Internet of Things, Trillion Sensors). Harvesting devices providing energy autonomy to those large numbers of microsensors will be essential. In those scenarios where waste heat sources are present, thermoelectricity will be the obvious choice. However, miniaturization of state of the art thermoelectric modules is not easy with the current technologies used for their fabrication. Micro and nanotechnologies offer an interesting alternative considering that silicon in nanowire form is a material with a promising thermoelectric figure of merit. This paper presents two approaches for the integration of large numbers of silicon nanowires in a cost-effective and practical way using only micromachining and thin-film processes compatible with silicon technologies. Both approaches lead to automated physical and electrical integration of medium-high density stacked arrays of crystalline or polycrystalline silicon nanowires with arbitrary length (tens to hundreds microns) and diameters below 100 nm.

  12. High Spatiotemporal Resolution ECoG Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials with Flexible Micro-Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kaiju, Taro; Doi, Keiichi; Yokota, Masashi; Watanabe, Kei; Inoue, Masato; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Hirata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels. However, few studies have discussed the actual validity of high-density ECoG arrays. In this study, we developed novel high-density flexible ECoG arrays and conducted decoding analyses with monkey somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Using MEMS technology, we made 96-channel Parylene electrode arrays with an inter-electrode distance of 700 μm and recording site area of 350 μm2. The arrays were mainly placed onto the finger representation area in the somatosensory cortex of the macaque, and partially inserted into the central sulcus. With electrical finger stimulation, we successfully recorded and visualized finger SEPs with a high spatiotemporal resolution. We conducted offline analyses in which the stimulated fingers and intensity were predicted from recorded SEPs using a support vector machine. We obtained the following results: (1) Very high accuracy (~98%) was achieved with just a short segment of data (~15 ms from stimulus onset). (2) High accuracy (~96%) was achieved even when only a single channel was used. This result indicated placement optimality for decoding. (3) Higher channel counts generally improved prediction accuracy, but the efficacy was small for predictions with feature vectors that included time-series information. These results suggest that ECoG signals with high spatiotemporal resolution could enable greater decoding precision or external device control. PMID:28442997

  13. A movable microelectrode array for chronic basal ganglia single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording in freely behaving rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Zeng, Jia; Chen, Ting; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Li, Ying; Lin, Zhangya; Wu, Xiyue; Chen, Fuyong; Kang, Dezhi; Zhang, Shizhong

    2014-09-01

    The basal ganglia-cortical circuits are important for information process to brain function. However, chronic recording of single-unit activities in the basal ganglia nucleus has not yet been well established. We present a movable bundled microwire array for chronic subthalamic nucleus (STN) single-unit electrocorticogram co-recording. The electrode assembly contains a screw-advanced microdrive and a microwire array. The array consists of a steel guide tube, five recording wires and one referenced wire which form the shape of a guiding hand, and one screw electrode for cortico-recording. The electrode can acquire stable cortex oscillation-driven STN firing units in rats under different behaving conditions for 8 weeks. We achieved satisfying signal-to-noise ratio, portions of cells retaining viability, and spike waveform similarities across the recording sections. Using this method, we investigated neural correlations of the basal ganglia-cortical circuits in different behaving conditions. This method will become a powerful tool for multi-region recording to study normal statements or movement disorders.

  14. Electroassisted transfer of vertical silicon wire arrays using a sacrificial porous silicon layer.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Jeffrey M; Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Cai, Lili; Rao, Pratap M; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-09-11

    An electroassisted method is developed to transfer silicon (Si) wire arrays from the Si wafers on which they are grown to other substrates while maintaining their original properties and vertical alignment. First, electroassisted etching is used to form a sacrificial porous Si layer underneath the Si wires. Second, the porous Si layer is separated from the Si wafer by electropolishing, enabling the separation and transfer of the Si wires. The method is further expanded to develop a current-induced metal-assisted chemical etching technique for the facile and rapid synthesis of Si nanowires with axially modulated porosity.

  15. Silicon technologies for arrays of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Francesco; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency in the red/near-infrared spectrum (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we discuss the limitations of such Red-Enhanced (RE) technology from the point of view of the fabrication of small arrays of SPAD and we propose modifications to the structure aimed at overcoming these issues. We also report the first preliminary experimental results attained on devices fabricated adopting the improved structure. PMID:27761058

  16. Design, theoretical analysis, and experimental verification of a CMOS current integrator with 1.2 × 2.05 µm2 microelectrode array for high-sensitivity bacterial counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamo, Kohei; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and experimental verification of an amperometric CMOS-based sensor with a current integrator and a 1.2 × 2.05 µm2 bacterial-sized microelectrode array for high-sensitivity bacterial counting. For high-sensitivity bacterial counting with a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), noise must be reduced because bacterial-sized microelectrodes can handle only a low current of the order of 100 pA. Thus, we implement a current integrator that is highly effective for noise reduction. Furthermore, for the first time, we use the current integrator in conjunction with the bacterial-sized microelectrode array. On the basis of the results of the proposed current integration, we successfully reduce noise and achieve a high SNR of 30.4 dB. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed CMOS-based sensor, we perform two-dimensional counting of microbeads, which are almost of the same size as bacteria. The measurement results demonstrate successful high-sensitivity two-dimensional (2D) counting of microbeads with a high SNR of 27 dB.

  17. Enhanced sub-micron colloidal particle separation with interdigitated microelectrode arrays using mixed AC/DC dielectrophoretic scheme.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Vikhram V; Shannon, Mark A; Bashir, Rashid

    2015-04-01

    Dielectrophoretic separation of particles finds a variety of applications in the capture of species such as cells, viruses, proteins, DNA from biological systems, as well as other organic and inorganic contaminants from water. The ability to capture particles is constrained by poor volumetric scaling of separation force with respect to particle diameter, as well as the weak penetration of electric fields in the media. In order to improve the separation of sub-micron colloids, we present a scheme based on multiple interdigitated electrode arrays under mixed AC/DC bias. The use of high frequency longitudinal AC bias breaks the shielding effects through electroosmotic micromixing to enhance electric fields through the electrolyte, while a transverse DC bias between the electrode arrays enables penetration of the separation force to capture particles from the bulk of the microchannel. We determine the favorable biasing conditions for field enhancement with the help of analytical models, and experimentally demonstrate the improved capture from sub-micron colloidal suspensions with the mixed AC/DC electrostatic excitation scheme over conventional AC-DEP methods.

  18. Inverted Silicon Nanopencil Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Contact Structures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Lin, Hao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Xiu, Fei; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-27

    Although three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells have attracted extensive research attention due to their superior broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting properties, majority of them are still suffered from complicated fabrication processes as well as disappointed photovoltaic performances. Here, we employed our newly-developed, low-cost and simple wet anisotropic etching to fabricate hierarchical silicon nanostructured arrays with different solar cell contact design, followed by systematic investigations of their photovoltaic characteristics. Specifically, nano-arrays with the tapered tips (e.g. inverted nanopencils) are found to enable the more conformal top electrode deposition directly onto the nanostructures for better series and shunt conductance, but its insufficient film coverage at the basal plane would still restrict the charge carrier collection. In contrast, the low-platform contact design facilitates a substantial photovoltaic device performance enhancement of ~24%, as compared to the one of conventional top electrode design, due to the shortened current path and improved lateral conductance for the minimized carrier recombination and series resistance. This enhanced contact structure can not only maintain excellent photon-trapping behaviors of nanostructures, but also help to eliminate adverse impacts of these tapered nano-morphological features on the contact resistance, providing further insight into design consideration in optimizing the contact geometry for high-performance nanostructured photovoltaic devices.

  19. Inverted Silicon Nanopencil Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Contact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Lin, Hao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Guofa; Yip, Senpo; Xiu, Fei; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-09-01

    Although three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells have attracted extensive research attention due to their superior broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting properties, majority of them are still suffered from complicated fabrication processes as well as disappointed photovoltaic performances. Here, we employed our newly-developed, low-cost and simple wet anisotropic etching to fabricate hierarchical silicon nanostructured arrays with different solar cell contact design, followed by systematic investigations of their photovoltaic characteristics. Specifically, nano-arrays with the tapered tips (e.g. inverted nanopencils) are found to enable the more conformal top electrode deposition directly onto the nanostructures for better series and shunt conductance, but its insufficient film coverage at the basal plane would still restrict the charge carrier collection. In contrast, the low-platform contact design facilitates a substantial photovoltaic device performance enhancement of ~24%, as compared to the one of conventional top electrode design, due to the shortened current path and improved lateral conductance for the minimized carrier recombination and series resistance. This enhanced contact structure can not only maintain excellent photon-trapping behaviors of nanostructures, but also help to eliminate adverse impacts of these tapered nano-morphological features on the contact resistance, providing further insight into design consideration in optimizing the contact geometry for high-performance nanostructured photovoltaic devices.

  20. Inverted Silicon Nanopencil Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Contact Structures

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Lin, Hao; Fang, Ming; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Xiu, Fei; Ho, Johnny C.

    2016-01-01

    Although three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells have attracted extensive research attention due to their superior broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting properties, majority of them are still suffered from complicated fabrication processes as well as disappointed photovoltaic performances. Here, we employed our newly-developed, low-cost and simple wet anisotropic etching to fabricate hierarchical silicon nanostructured arrays with different solar cell contact design, followed by systematic investigations of their photovoltaic characteristics. Specifically, nano-arrays with the tapered tips (e.g. inverted nanopencils) are found to enable the more conformal top electrode deposition directly onto the nanostructures for better series and shunt conductance, but its insufficient film coverage at the basal plane would still restrict the charge carrier collection. In contrast, the low-platform contact design facilitates a substantial photovoltaic device performance enhancement of ~24%, as compared to the one of conventional top electrode design, due to the shortened current path and improved lateral conductance for the minimized carrier recombination and series resistance. This enhanced contact structure can not only maintain excellent photon-trapping behaviors of nanostructures, but also help to eliminate adverse impacts of these tapered nano-morphological features on the contact resistance, providing further insight into design consideration in optimizing the contact geometry for high-performance nanostructured photovoltaic devices. PMID:27671709

  1. Non-invasive long-term and real-time analysis of endocrine cells on micro-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Raoux, Matthieu; Bornat, Yannick; Quotb, Adam; Catargi, Bogdan; Renaud, Sylvie; Lang, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive high-throughput and long-term monitoring of endocrine cells is important for drug research, phenotyping, tissue engineering and pre-transplantation quality control. Here we report a novel approach to obtain simultaneous long-term electrical recordings of different islet cell types using multi-electrode arrays. We implemented wavelet transforms to resolve the low signal/noise ratio inherent to these measurements and extracted on-line a signature specific of cell activity. The architecture employed allows multiplexing a large number of electrodes for high-throughput screening. This method should be of considerable advantage in endocrine research and may be extended to other excitable cells previously not accessible to the technique. PMID:22199167

  2. Nanofabrication of arrays of silicon field emitters with vertical silicon nanowire current limiters and self-aligned gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrera, S. A.; Akinwande, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    We developed a fabrication process for embedding a dense array (108 cm-2) of high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires (200 nm diameter and 10 μm tall) in a dielectric matrix and then structured/exposed the tips of the nanowires to form self-aligned gate field emitter arrays using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Using this structure, we demonstrated a high current density (100 A cm-2), uniform, and long lifetime (>100 h) silicon field emitter array architecture in which the current emitted by each tip is regulated by the silicon nanowire current limiter connected in series with the tip. Using the current voltage characteristics and with the aid of numerical device models, we estimated the tip radius of our field emission arrays to be ≈4.8 nm, as consistent with the tip radius measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  3. Selective Recognition of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Dopamine on a Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Chitosan Hybrid Film-Modified Microelectrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-defined oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at −80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 × 10−6 M to 2 × 10−4 M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 × 10−5 M to 3 × 10−4 M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 × 10−4 M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 × 10−5 M to 3 × 10−4 M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments. PMID:25580900

  4. Recording from defined populations of retinal ganglion cells using a high-density CMOS-integrated microelectrode array with real-time switchable electrode selection

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Michele; Farrow, Karl; Jones, Ian L.; Jäckel, David; Müller, Jan; Frey, Urs; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Hantz, Péter; Roska, Botond; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand how retinal circuits encode visual scenes, the neural activity of defined populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has to be investigated. Here we report on a method for stimulating, detecting, and subsequently targeting defined populations of RGCs. The possibility to select a distinct population of RGCs for extracellular recording enables the design of experiments that can increase our understanding of how these neurons extract precise spatio-temporal features from the visual scene, and how the brain interprets retinal signals. We used light stimulation to elicit a response from physiologically distinct types of RGCs and then utilized the dynamic-configurability capabilities of a microelectronics-based high-density microelectrode array (MEA) to record their synchronous action potentials. The layout characteristics of the MEA made it possible to stimulate and record from multiple, highly overlapping RGCs simultaneously without light-induced artifacts. The high-density of electrodes and the high signal-to-noise ratio of the MEA circuitry allowed for recording of the activity of each RGC on 14 ± 7 electrodes. The spatial features of the electrical activity of each RGC greatly facilitated spike sorting. We were thus able to localize, identify and record from defined RGCs within a region of mouse retina. In addition, we stimulated and recorded from genetically modified RGCs to demonstrate the applicability of optogenetic methods, which introduces an additional feature to target a defined cell type. The developed methodologies can likewise be applied to other neuronal preparations including brain slices or cultured neurons. PMID:22939921

  5. Selective recognition of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine on a multi-walled carbon nanotube-chitosan hybrid film-modified microelectrode array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Li; Luo, Jinping; Song, Yilin; Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Song; Cai, Xinxia

    2015-01-08

    It is difficult to determine dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) accurately because of the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) in vitro, which has a high concentration and can be oxidized at a potential close to DA and 5-HT at a conventional electrode, combined with the overlapping voltammetric signal of DA and 5-HT at a bare electrode. Herein, chitosan (CS) was used as a stabilizing matrix by electrochemical reaction, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified onto the microelectrode array (MEA). The CS-MWCNT hybrid film-modified MEA was quite effective at simultaneously recognizing these species in a mixture and resolved the overlapping anodic peaks of AA, DA and 5-HT into three well-defined oxidation peaks in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at -80 mV, 105 mV and 300 mV (versus Ag|AgCl), respectively. The linear responses were obtained in the range of 5 × 10(-6) M to 2 × 10(-4) M for DA (r = 0.996) and in the range of 1 × 10(-5) M to 3 × 10(-4) M for 5-HT (r = 0.999) using the DPV under the presence of a single substance. While DA coexisted with 5-HT in the interference of 3 × 10(-4) M AA, the linear responses were obtained in the range of 1 × 10(-5) M to 3 × 10(-4) M for selective molecular recognition of DA (r = 0.997) and 5-HT (r = 0.997) using the DPV. Therefore, this proposed MEA was successfully used for selective molecular recognition and determination of DA and 5-HT using the DPV, which has a potential application for real-time determination in vitro experiments.

  6. Application of micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) as an emerging technology for developmental neurotoxicity: evaluation of domoic acid-induced effects in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Hogberg, Helena T; Sobanski, Tomasz; Novellino, Antonio; Whelan, Maurice; Weiss, Dieter G; Bal-Price, Anna K

    2011-01-01

    Due to lack of knowledge only a few industrial chemicals have been identified as developmental neurotoxicants. Current developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) guidelines (OECD and EPA) are based entirely on in vivo studies that are both time consuming and costly. Consequently, there is a high demand to develop alternative in vitro methods for initial screening to prioritize chemicals for further DNT testing. One of the most promising tools for neurotoxicity assessment is the measurement of neuronal electrical activity using micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) that provides a functional and neuronal specific endpoint that until now has been used mainly to detect acute neurotoxicity. Here, electrical activity measurements were evaluated to be a suitable endpoint for the detection of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Initially, primary cortical neurons grown on MEA chips were characterized for different cell markers over time, using immunocytochemistry. Our results show that primary cortical neurons could be a promising in vitro model for DNT testing since some of the most critical neurodevelopment processes such as progenitor cell commitment, proliferation and differentiation of astrocytes and maturation of neurons are present. To evaluate if electrical activity could be a suitable endpoint to detect chemicals with DNT effects, our model was exposed to domoic acid (DomA), a potential developmental neurotoxicant for up to 4 weeks. Long-term exposure to a low concentration (50nM) of DomA increased the basal spontaneous electrical activity as measured by spike and burst rates. Moreover, the effect induced by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline was significantly lower in the DomA treated cultures than in the untreated ones. The MEA measurements indicate that chronic exposure to DomA changed the spontaneous electrical activity leading to the possible neuronal mal functioning. The obtained results suggest that the MEAs could be a useful tool to identify compounds with

  7. Interdigitated array microelectrode based impedance biosensor coupled with magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Madhukar; Li, Yanbin

    2007-05-15

    An impedance biosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM) coupled with magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates (MNAC) was developed and evaluated for rapid and specific detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef samples. MNAC were prepared by immobilizing biotin-labeled polyclonal goat anti-E. coli antibodies onto streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles, which were used to separate and concentrate E. coli O157:H7 from ground beef samples. Magnitude of impedance and phase angle were measured in a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz in the presence of 0.1M mannitol solution. The lowest detection limits of this biosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in pure culture and ground beef samples were 7.4 x 10(4) and 8.0 x 10(5)CFU ml(-1), respectively. The regression equation for the normalized impedance change (NIC) versus E. coli O157:H7 concentration (N) in ground beef samples was NIC=15.55 N-71.04 with R(2)=0.95. Sensitivity of the impedance biosensor was improved by 35% by concentrating bacterial cells attached to MNAC in the active layer of IDAM above the surface of electrodes with the help of a magnetic field. Based on equivalent circuit analysis, it was observed that bulk resistance and double layer capacitance were responsible for the impedance change caused by the presence of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of IDAM. Surface immobilization techniques, redox probes, or sample incubation were not used in this impedance biosensor. The total detection time from sampling to measurement was 35 min.

  8. A Label-Free Microelectrode Array Based on One-Step Synthesis of Chitosan–Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Thionine for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huiren; Wang, Yang; Wang, Li; Song, Yilin; Luo, Jinping; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been an extensively used tumor marker responsible for clinical early diagnosis of cervical carcinomas, and pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer. Combined with micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) technology, it is important to develop a novel immune microelectrode array (MEA) not only for rapid analysis of serum samples, but also for cell detection in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we depict a simple approach to modify chitosan–multi-walled carbon nanotubes–thionine (CS–MWCNTs–THI) hybrid film through one-step electrochemical deposition and the CS-MWCNTs-THI hybrid films are successfully employed to immobilize anti-CEA for fabricating simple, label-free, and highly sensitive electro-chemical immune MEAs. The detection principle of immune MEA was based on the fact that the increasing formation of the antigen-antibody immunocomplex resulted in the decreased response currents and the relationship between the current reductions with the corresponding CEA concentrations was directly proportional. Experimental results indicated that the label-free MEA had good selectivity and the limit of detection for CEA is 0.5 pg/mL signal to noise ratio (SNR) = 3. A linear calibration plot for the detection of CEA was obtained in a wide concentration range from 1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL (r = 0.996). This novel MEA has potential applications for detecting CEA for the research on cancer cells and cancer tissue slices as well as for effective early diagnosis. PMID:28335260

  9. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  10. Micropatterning of poly(dimethylsiloxane) using a photoresist lift-off technique for selective electrical insulation of microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Han, Arum

    2009-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning method based on a photoresist lift-off technique to make an electrical insulation layer with selective openings is presented. The method enables creating PDMS patterns with small features and various thicknesses without any limitation in the designs and without the need for complicated processes or expensive equipments. Patterned PDMS layers were created by spin-coating liquid phase PDMS on top of a substrate having sacrificial photoresist patterns, followed by a photoresist lift-off process. The thickness of the patterned PDMS layers could be accurately controlled (6.5–24 µm) by adjusting processing parameters such as PDMS spin-coating speeds, PDMS dilution ratios, and sacrificial photoresist thicknesses. PDMS features as small as 15 µm were successfully patterned and the effects of each processing parameter on the final patterns were investigated. Electrical resistance tests between adjacent electrodes with and without the insulation layer showed that the patterned PDMS layer functions properly as an electrical insulation layer. Biocompatibility of the patterned PDMS layer was confirmed by culturing primary neuron cells on top of the layer for up to two weeks. An extensive neuronal network was successfully formed, showing that this PDMS patterning method can be applied to various biosensing microdevices. The utility of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by successfully creating a patterned electrical insulation layer on flexible substrates containing multi-electrode arrays. PMID:19946385

  11. Effects of an environmentally-relevant mixture of pyrethroid insecticides on spontaneous activity in primary cortical networks on microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Andrew F M; Strickland, Jenna D; Crofton, Kevin M; Gennings, Chris; Shafer, Timothy J

    2017-05-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides exert their insecticidal and toxicological effects primarily by disrupting voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) function, resulting in altered neuronal excitability. Numerous studies of individual pyrethroids have characterized effects on mammalian VGSC function and neuronal excitability, yet studies examining effects of complex pyrethroid mixtures in mammalian neurons, especially in environmentally relevant mixture ratios, are limited. In the present study, concentration-response functions were characterized for five pyrethroids (permethrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, β-cyfluthrin and esfenvalerate) in an in vitro preparation containing cortical neurons and glia. As a metric of neuronal network activity, spontaneous mean network firing rates (MFR) were measured using microelectorde arrays (MEAs). In addition, the effect of a complex and exposure relevant mixture of the five pyrethroids (containing 52% permethrin, 28.8% cypermethrin, 12.9% β-cyfluthrin, 3.4% deltamethrin and 2.7% esfenvalerate) was also measured. Data were modeled to determine whether effects of the pyrethroid mixture were predicted by dose-addition. At concentrations up to 10μM, all compounds except permethrin reduced MFR. Deltamethrin and β-cyfluthrin were the most potent and reduced MFR by as much as 60 and 50%, respectively, while cypermethrin and esfenvalerate were of approximately equal potency and reduced MFR by only ∼20% at the highest concentration. Permethrin caused small (∼24% maximum), concentration-dependent increases in MFR. Effects of the environmentally relevant mixture did not depart from the prediction of dose-addition. These data demonstrate that an environmentally relevant mixture caused dose-additive effects on spontaneous neuronal network activity in vitro, and is consistent with other in vitro and in vivo assessments of pyrethroid mixtures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorisse, Therese; Dupré, Ludovic; Gentile, Pascal; Martin, Mickael; Zelsmann, Marc; Buttard, Denis

    2013-06-01

    In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>-oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm-2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors.

  13. Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers.

    PubMed

    Gorisse, Therese; Dupré, Ludovic; Gentile, Pascal; Martin, Mickael; Zelsmann, Marc; Buttard, Denis

    2013-06-17

    In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>-oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm-2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors.

  14. Highly organised and dense vertical silicon nanowire arrays grown in porous alumina template on <100> silicon wafers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard <100>−oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm−2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors. PMID:23773702

  15. Magnetic field perturbation of neural recording and stimulating microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Santiesteban, Francisco M.; Swanson, Scott D.; Noll, Douglas C.; Anderson, David J.

    2007-04-01

    To improve the overall temporal and spatial resolution of brain mapping techniques, in animal models, some attempts have been reported to join electrophysiological methods with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, little attention has been paid to the image artefacts produced by the microelectrodes that compromise the anatomical or functional information of those studies. This work presents a group of simulations and MR images that show the limitations of wire microelectrodes and the potential advantages of silicon technology, in terms of image quality, in MRI environments. Magnetic field perturbations are calculated using a Fourier-based method for platinum (Pt) and tungsten (W) microwires as well as two different silicon technologies. We conclude that image artefacts produced by microelectrodes are highly dependent not only on the magnetic susceptibility of the materials used but also on the size, shape and orientation of the electrodes with respect to the main magnetic field. In addition silicon microelectrodes present better MRI characteristics than metallic microelectrodes. However, metallization layers added to silicon materials can adversely affect the quality of MR images. Therefore only those silicon microelectrodes that minimize the amount of metallic material can be considered MR-compatible and therefore suitable for possible simultaneous fMRI and electrophysiological studies. High resolution gradient echo images acquired at 2 T (TR/TE = 100/15 ms, voxel size = 100 × 100 × 100 µm3) of platinum-iridium (Pt-Ir, 90%-10%) and tungsten microwires show a complete signal loss that covers a volume significantly larger than the actual volume occupied by the microelectrodes: roughly 400 times larger for Pt-Ir and 180 for W, at the tip of the microelectrodes. Similar MR images of a single-shank silicon microelectrode only produce a partial volume effect on the voxels occupied by the probe with less than 50% of signal loss.

  16. Extrinsic charge-extraction device /XCED/ - An extrinsic-silicon focal-plane array architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, D. N.; Chiu, K. Y.; Missman, R. A.; Nuttall, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The XCED (extrinsic charge-extraction device) is a unique focal-plane array structure designed for staring infrared-imaging applications. Extrinsic-silicon detectors, MOS integrating storage capacitors, and unique accumulation mode multiplexing devices are combined in a two-dimensional array within a single monolithic chip. Zinc-doped silicon has been studied and utilized to fabricate detectors sensitive in the 2 to 4 micron spectral band with BLIP operating temperatures above 110 K. The potentially severe problems for staring arrays of element-to-element nonuniformities and detector storage saturation have been solved. Preliminary results and thermal imagery are shown for a 16 x 16 element array.

  17. Dense arrays of uniform submicron pores in silicon and their applications.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, Daniel; Elnathan, Roey; Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Delalat, Bahman; Guinan, Taryn; Kroner, Elmar; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Kraus, Tobias

    2015-01-21

    We report a versatile particle-based route to dense arrays of parallel submicron pores with high aspect ratio in silicon and explore the application of these arrays in sensors, optics, and polymer micropatterning. Polystyrene (PS) spheres are convectively assembled on gold-coated silicon wafers and sputter-etched, resulting in well-defined gold disc arrays with excellent long-range order. The gold discs act as catalysts in metal-assisted chemical etching, yielding uniform pores with straight walls, flat bottoms, and high aspect ratio. The resulting pore arrays can be used as robust antireflective surfaces, in biosensing applications, and as templates for polymer replica molding.

  18. Thermoelectric properties of electrolessly etched silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhu, Jyothi; Tian, Hongxiang; Ma, Jun; Valavala, Krishna; Singh, Piyush; Sinha, Sanjiv

    2013-03-01

    Patterning silicon as nanowires with roughened sidewalls enhances the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT by order of magnitude compared to the bulk at 300 K. The enhancement is mainly achieved by the remarkable reduction in the thermal conductivity below 5 W/mK at 300 K with only a negligible effect on the power factor of these nanowires. While the focus remained on understanding the implications of surface disorder on the thermal conductivity, the phonon transport effects on the Seebeck coefficient of these wires remains largely unexplored. We developed an electroless etching technique to generate nanowire arrays (NWAs) with controlled surface roughness, morphology, porosity and doping. We conduct the simultaneous device-level measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity of the NWAs using frequency domain techniques. We observe that nano-structuring quenches the phonon drag in NWAs thereby reducing the Seebeck coefficient by ~25% compared to the bulk at degenerate doping levels. Further, we observe that the sidewall roughness greater than 3 nm roughness height lowers the thermal conductivity 75% below the Casimir limit with 10% - 15% increase in Seebeck coefficient. The porous NWAs show thermal conductivity close to the amorphous limit of Si with enhancement in the Seebeck coefficient primarily due to the carrier depletion.

  19. Rapid, Multiplexed Phosphoprotein Profiling Using Silicon Photonic Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signaling is commonly mediated through post-translational protein modifications that propagate messages from membrane-bound receptors to ultimately regulate gene expression. Signaling cascades are ubiquitously intertwined, and a full understanding of function can only be gleaned by observing dynamics across multiple key signaling nodes. Importantly, targets within signaling cascades often represent opportunities for therapeutic development or can serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Protein phosphorylation is a particularly important post-translational modification that controls many essential cellular signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, aberrant phosphorylation is found in many human diseases, including cancer, and phosphoprotein-based biomarker signatures hold unrealized promise for disease monitoring. Moreover, phosphoprotein analysis has wide-ranging applications across fundamental chemical biology, as many drug discovery efforts seek to target nodes within kinase signaling pathways. For both fundamental and translational applications, the analysis of phosphoprotein biomarker targets is limited by a reliance on labor-intensive and/or technically challenging methods, particularly when considering the simultaneous monitoring of multiplexed panels of phosphoprotein biomarkers. We have developed a technology based upon arrays of silicon photonic microring resonator sensors that fills this void, facilitating the rapid and automated analysis of multiple phosphoprotein levels from both cell lines and primary human tumor samples requiring only minimal sample preparation. PMID:26539563

  20. Efficient Generation of an Array of Single Silicon-Vacancy Defects in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Fucai; Li, Yan; Li, Ke; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Guanzhong; Gao, Weibo

    2017-06-01

    Color centers in silicon carbide have increasingly attracted attention in recent years owing to their excellent properties such as single-photon emission, good photostability, and long spin-coherence time even at room temperature. As compared to diamond, which is widely used for hosting nitrogen-vacancy centers, silicon carbide has an advantage in terms of large-scale, high-quality, and low-cost growth, as well as an advanced fabrication technique in optoelectronics, leading to prospects for large-scale quantum engineering. In this paper, we report an experimental demonstration of the generation of a single-photon-emitter array through ion implantation. VSi defects are generated in predetermined locations with high generation efficiency (approximately 19 % ±4 % ). The single emitter probability reaches approximately 34 % ±4 % when the ion-implantation dose is properly set. This method serves as a critical step in integrating single VSi defect emitters with photonic structures, which, in turn, can improve the emission and collection efficiency of VSi defects when they are used in a spin photonic quantum network. On the other hand, the defects are shallow, and they are generated about 40 nm below the surface which can serve as a critical resource in quantum-sensing applications.

  1. Microelectrodes for Studying Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Justin M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Microelectrodes have emerged as an important tool used by scientists to study biological changes in the brain and in single cells. This review briefly summarizes the ways in which microelectrodes as chemical sensors have furthered the field of neurobiology by reporting on changes that occur on the sub-second time scale. Microelectrodes have been used in a variety of fields including their use by electrophysiologists to characterize neuronal action potentials and development of neural prosthetics. Here we restrict our review to microelectrodes that have been used as chemical sensors. They have played a major role in many important neurobiological findings. PMID:18675377

  2. Electrostatic Microactuators for Precise Positioning of Neural Microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Jit; Okandan, Murat; Jain, Tilak; Gilletti, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays used for monitoring single and multineuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time likely due to micromotion of neurons away from the microelectrode, gliosis around the recording site and also brain movement due to behavior. We report here novel electrostatic microactuated microelectrodes that will enable precise repositioning of the microelectrodes within the brain tissue. Electrostatic comb-drive microactuators and associated microelectrodes are fabricated using the SUMMiT V™ (Sandia's Ultraplanar Multilevel MEMS Technology) process, a five-layer polysilicon micromachining technology of the Sandia National labs, NM. The microfabricated microactuators enable precise bidirectional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with accuracy in the order of 1 μm. The microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multiunit activity. The microactuators are capable of driving the microelectrodes in the brain tissue with forces in the order of several micro-Newtons. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats in acute experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the insulation, packaging and interconnect issues will be necessary before this technology can be validated in long-term experiments. PMID:16235660

  3. Electrostatic microactuators for precise positioning of neural microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Jit; Okandan, Murat; Jain, Tilak; Gilletti, Aaron

    2005-10-01

    Microelectrode arrays used for monitoring single and multineuronal action potentials often fail to record from the same population of neurons over a period of time likely due to micromotion of neurons away from the microelectrode, gliosis around the recording site and also brain movement due to behavior. We report here novel electrostatic microactuated microelectrodes that will enable precise repositioning of the microelectrodes within the brain tissue. Electrostatic comb-drive microactuators and associated microelectrodes are fabricated using the SUMMiT V (Sandia's Ultraplanar Multilevel MEMS Technology) process, a five-layer polysilicon micromachining technology of the Sandia National labs, NM. The microfabricated microactuators enable precise bidirectional positioning of the microelectrodes in the brain with accuracy in the order of 1 microm. The microactuators allow for a linear translation of the microelectrodes of up to 5 mm in either direction making it suitable for positioning microelectrodes in deep structures of a rodent brain. The overall translation was reduced to approximately 2 mm after insulation of the microelectrodes with epoxy for monitoring multiunit activity. The microactuators are capable of driving the microelectrodes in the brain tissue with forces in the order of several micro-Newtons. Single unit recordings were obtained from the somatosensory cortex of adult rats in acute experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this technology. Further optimization of the insulation, packaging and interconnect issues will be necessary before this technology can be validated in long-term experiments.

  4. Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempka, Scott F.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Moffitt, Michael A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Kipke, Daryl R.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2011-08-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques have now made it possible to produce microelectrode arrays for recording the electrical activity of a large number of neurons in the intact brain for both clinical and basic science applications. However, the long-term recording performance desired for these applications is hindered by a number of factors that lead to device failure or a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The goal of this study was to identify factors that can affect recording quality using theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings of single-unit activity. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were simulated with a detailed multi-compartment cable model of a pyramidal neuron coupled to a finite-element volume conductor head model containing an implanted recording microelectrode. Recording noise sources were also incorporated into the overall modeling infrastructure. The analyses of this study would be very difficult to perform experimentally; however, our model-based approach enabled a systematic investigation of the effects of a large number of variables on recording quality. Our results demonstrate that recording amplitude and noise are relatively independent of microelectrode size, but instead are primarily affected by the selected recording bandwidth, impedance of the electrode-tissue interface and the density and firing rates of neurons surrounding the recording electrode. This study provides the theoretical groundwork that allows for the design of the microelectrode and recording electronics such that the SNR is maximized. Such advances could help enable the long-term functionality required for chronic neural recording applications.

  5. Theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings

    PubMed Central

    Lempka, Scott F; Johnson, Matthew D; Moffitt, Michael A; Otto, Kevin J; Kipke, Daryl R; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2011-01-01

    Advanced fabrication techniques have now made it possible to produce microelectrode arrays for recording the electrical activity of a large number of neurons in the intact brain for both clinical and basic science applications. However, the long-term recording performance desired for these applications is hindered by a number of factors that lead to device failure or a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The goal of this study was to identify factors that can affect recording quality using theoretical analysis of intracortical microelectrode recordings of single-unit activity. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were simulated with a detailed multi-compartment cable model of a pyramidal neuron coupled to a finite element volume conductor head model containing an implanted recording microelectrode. Recording noise sources were also incorporated into the overall modeling infrastructure. The analyses of this study would be very difficult to perform experimentally; however, our model-based approach enabled a systematic investigation of the effects of a large number of variables on recording quality. Our results demonstrate that recording amplitude and noise are relatively independent of microelectrode size, but instead are primarily affected by the selected recording bandwidth, impedance of the electrode-tissue interface, and the density and firing rates of neurons surrounding the recording electrode. This study provides the theoretical groundwork that allows for the design of the microelectrode and recording electronics such that the SNR is maximized. Such advances could help enable the long-term functionality required for chronic neural recording applications. PMID:21775783

  6. Synthesize of barium ferrite nanowire array by self-fabricated porous silicon template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui; Han, Mangui; Deng, Jiangxia; Zheng, Liang; Wu, Jun; Deng, Longjiang; Qin, Huibin

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we synthesize barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) nanowire array in porous silicon template. The porous silicon templates are prepared via gold-assisted chemical etching method. The gold (Au) nanoparticles with mean diameter of 30 nm and distance of 100 nm were ordered on the surface of Si substrate through the Polystyrene (510000)-block-poly (2-vinylpyridine) (31000) (PS510000-b-P2VP31000) diblock copolymer. Porous silicon templates with mean diameter of 500 nm and distance between the pores of 500 nm were fabricated by two etching steps. BaFe12O19 nanowires with mean diameter of 200 nm were synthesized into a porous silicon template by a sol-gel method. Magnetic hysteresis loops show an isotropic feature of the BaFe12O19 nanowires array. The coercivity (Hc) and squareness ratio (Mr/Ms) of nanowire arrays are 2560 Oe and 0.6, respectively.

  7. Plasma jet array treatment to improve the hydrophobicity of contaminated HTV silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruobing; Han, Qianting; Xia, Yan; Li, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet array specially designed for HTV silicone rubber treatment is reported in this paper. Stable plasma containing highly energetic active particles was uniformly generated in the plasma jet array. The discharge pattern was affected by the applied voltage. The divergence phenomenon was observed at low gas flow rate and abated when the flow rate increased. Temperature of the plasma plume is close to room temperature which makes it feasible for temperature-sensitive material treatment. Hydrophobicity of contaminated HTV silicone rubber was significantly improved after quick exposure of the plasma jet array, and the effective treatment area reached 120 mm × 50 mm (length × width). Reactive particles in the plasma accelerate accumulation of the hydrophobic molecules, namely low molecular weight silicone chains, on the contaminated surface, which result in a hydrophobicity improvement of the HTV silicone rubber.

  8. Feasibility Study of Extended-Gate-Type Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors for Neural Recording.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongki; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Nam, Yoonkey

    2017-03-28

    In this research, a high performance silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (transconductance as high as 34 µS and sensitivity as 84 nS/mV) is extensively studied and directly compared with planar passive microelectrode arrays for neural recording application. Electrical and electrochemical characteristics are carefully characterized in a very well-controlled manner. We especially focused on the signal amplification capability and intrinsic noise of the transistors. A neural recording system using both silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based active-type microelectrode array and platinum black microelectrode-based passive-type microelectrode array are implemented and compared. An artificial neural spike signal is supplied as input to both arrays through a buffer solution and recorded simultaneously. Recorded signal intensity by the silicon nanowire transistor was precisely determined by an electrical characteristic of the transistor, transconductance. Signal-to-noise ratio was found to be strongly dependent upon the intrinsic 1/f noise of the silicon nanowire transistor. We found how signal strength is determined and how intrinsic noise of the transistor determines signal-to-noise ratio of the recorded neural signals. This study provides in-depth understanding of the overall neural recording mechanism using silicon nanowire transistors and solid design guideline for further improvement and development.

  9. Feasibility Study of Extended-Gate-Type Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors for Neural Recording

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongki; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Nam, Yoonkey

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a high performance silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (transconductance as high as 34 µS and sensitivity as 84 nS/mV) is extensively studied and directly compared with planar passive microelectrode arrays for neural recording application. Electrical and electrochemical characteristics are carefully characterized in a very well-controlled manner. We especially focused on the signal amplification capability and intrinsic noise of the transistors. A neural recording system using both silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based active-type microelectrode array and platinum black microelectrode-based passive-type microelectrode array are implemented and compared. An artificial neural spike signal is supplied as input to both arrays through a buffer solution and recorded simultaneously. Recorded signal intensity by the silicon nanowire transistor was precisely determined by an electrical characteristic of the transistor, transconductance. Signal-to-noise ratio was found to be strongly dependent upon the intrinsic 1/f noise of the silicon nanowire transistor. We found how signal strength is determined and how intrinsic noise of the transistor determines signal-to-noise ratio of the recorded neural signals. This study provides in-depth understanding of the overall neural recording mechanism using silicon nanowire transistors and solid design guideline for further improvement and development. PMID:28350370

  10. Guided mode caused by silicon nanopillar array for light emission enhancement in color-converting LED.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pei; Li, Mingyu; He, Jinna; Wang, Junqiao; Fan, Chunzhen; Zeng, Fanguang

    2015-08-10

    Plasmonic metallic nanostructures have been demonstrated an effective way to enhance the light emission efficiency in LEDs. Here, we propose a design of white LEDs that combining dielectric silicon nanopillar array in the color-converting layer. By investigating theoretically the guided mode caused by the nanopillar array-waveguide system, we demonstrate that the silicon nanopillar arrays enable larger near-field enhancement and more efficient photons emission property than the plasmonic counterparts. These performances make the silicon nanopillar arrays have potential application in light converter for efficient white LEDs. We also show that the guided mode can be controlled by changing the period of nanopillar grating and the thickness of polymer layer. More significant performance can be achieved by further optimizing the shape and size of the silicon nanoparticles. Compared with the square nanoparticle arrays, the hexagonal nanopillar arrays are demonstrated to have larger field enhancement and emission enhancement. Our research is expected to give insights into the design and optimization of the solid-state lighting systems by using silicon nanostructures, and the all-dielectric metamaterials for gaining or lasing devices.

  11. Single neuronal recordings using surface micromachined polysilicon microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Muthuswamy, Jit; Okandan, Murat; Jackson, Nathan

    2005-03-15

    Bulk micromachining techniques of silicon have been used successfully in the past several years to microfabricate microelectrodes for monitoring single neurons in acute and chronic experiments. In this study we report for the first time a novel surface micromachining technique to microfabricate a very thin polysilicon microelectrode that can be used for monitoring single-unit activity in the central nervous system. The microelectrodes are 3 mm long and 50 microm x 3.75 microm in cross-section. Excellent signal to noise ratios in the order of 25-35 dB were obtained while recording neuronal action potentials. The microelectrodes successfully penetrated the brains after a microincision of the dura mater. Chronic implantation of the microprobe for up to 33 days produced only minor gliosis. Since the polysilicon shank acts as a conductor, additional processing steps involved in laying conductor lines on silicon substrates are avoided. Further, surface micromachining allows for fabricating extremely thin microelectrodes which could result in decreased inflammatory responses. We conclude that the polysilicon microelectrode reported here could be a complementary approach to bulk-micromachined silicon microelectrodes for chronic monitoring of single neurons in the central nervous system.

  12. An array of layers in silicon sulfides: Chainlike and monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Lanza, T.; Ayuela, A.; Aguilera-Granja, F.

    2016-12-01

    While much is known about isoelectronic materials related to carbon nanostructures, such as boron-nitride layers and nanotubes, rather less is known about equivalent silicon-based materials. Following the recent discovery of phosphorene, here we discuss isoelectronic silicon-monosulfide monolayers. We describe a set of anisotropic structures that clearly have a high stability with respect to previously reported silicon-monosulfide monolayers. The source of the layer anisotropy is related to the presence of Si-S double chains linked by some Si-Si covalent bonds together with a remarkable spd hybridization on Si. The increased stability is related to silicon forming four bonds, including an additional double-bond-like Si-Si bond. The involvement of d orbitals brings more variety to silicon-sulfide-based nanostructures that are isoelectronic to phosphorene, which could be relevant for future applications, adding extra degrees of freedom.

  13. Optical absorption enhancement with low structural-parameter sensitivity in three-dimensional silicon nanocavity array for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Ruinan; Hu, Ya; Peng, Kui-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Effective light trapping is essential for improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film silicon solar cells. Here, we numerically study the optical characteristics of periodic three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanocavity arrays. We found that the 3D silicon nanocavity array shows low sensitivity to geometric structural parameters for photon capture and achieves an outstanding efficiency superior to those of previously reported silicon nanostructures such as a nanowire and a nanohole with the same thickness. This excellence is attributed to a better antireflection capability and more resonant modes. The 3D silicon nanocavity array provides a new light-trapping strategy for thin-film photovoltaic devices.

  14. Radiative behaviors of crystalline silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xing; Zhao, C. Y.; Bao, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The optical absorption of four square arrays of crystalline silicon nanostructures, i.e., circular nanowire array, circular nanohole arrays, square nanowire arrays, and square nanohole arrays, are numerically investigated. The method of rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is employed to calculate the absorptivity for the arrays with lattice constant from 100 nm to 1500 nm. The results indicated that the lattice constant is the foremost structural parameter to determine the ultimate efficiency, and the peaks of ultimate efficiencies for the four different nanostructures always appear around the lattice constant of 600 nm. It demonstrates that square nanowire arrays and circular nanohole arrays have great potentials for photovoltaic applications with high ultimate efficiencies and low filling ratios. Moreover, high ultimate efficiencies of all structures can be maintained over a large range of incident angles.

  15. A novel MEMS field emission accelerometer based on silicon nanotips array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Wen, Zhi-yu; Wen, Zhong-quan; Liu, Hai-tao

    2011-08-01

    A novel MEMS field emission accelerometer based on silicon nanotips array with about 10000 silicon tips in total is proposed. It consists of a proof mass, four L-shaped springs, silicon nanotips array, anode and feedback electrodes. The sensor is fabricated on one N-type (1 0 0) single crystal silicon wafer and one #7740 glass wafer using bulk silicon micromachining technology. The silicon tip arrays are form by wet etching with HNA (HNO3, HF and CH3COOH) with I2 as additive. After oxidation sharpening, the curvature radius of the tips is smaller than 50nm, and the tip arrays are metalized by sputtering TiW/Au film. ICP process is utilized to release the sensor chip. In order to improve the linearity of the sensor, a feedback control circuit is used to rebalance the proof mass. The accelerometer is tested on a dividing head and test results show that the sensitivity is about 420mV/g and nonlinearity is about 0.7% over a range of -1g~1g.

  16. Morphology and wettability control of silicon cone arrays using colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Junhu; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Xun; Zhu, Difu; Wang, Tieqiang; Tian, Tian; Yang, Bai

    2009-07-07

    In this paper we present a simple method to fabricate ordered silicon cone arrays with controllable morphologies on a silicon substrate using reactive ion etching with two-dimensional silica colloidal crystals as masks. The etching process and the morphologies of the obtained structure are quantified. Unlike works reported previously, we show that the surface roughness of the obtained silicon cone arrays can be adjusted by controlling the etching duration, which is proved to be of importance in tailoring the behavior of water droplets when being used as antireflection coatings with superhydrophobicity. Moreover, this strategy is compatible with the methods we have established on controlling the arrangement of colloidal spheres, and thus silicon cone arrays with tunable periodicities, different lattice structures, and various patterns can be prepared. The obtained silicon cone arrays with strips can be used as hydrophobic substrates with anisotropic dewetting just like the leaves of rice. It is found that by adjusting the strip width with and without silicon cones, the water droplets can transform from isotropic dewetting to anisotropic dewetting.

  17. Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Brian; Yang, Shikuan

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be < 3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring. PMID:23703091

  18. Micro-Textured Black Silicon Wick for Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Manohara, Harish; Homyk, Andrew; Prina, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Planar, semiconductor heat arrays have been previously proposed and developed; however, this design makes use of a novel, microscale black silicon wick structure that provides increased capillary pumping pressure of the internal working fluid, resulting in increased effective thermal conductivity of the device, and also enables operation of the device in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In a heat pipe, the efficiency of thermal transfer from the case to the working fluid is directly proportional to the surface area of the wick in contact with the fluid. Also, the primary failure mechanism for heat pipes operating within the temperature range of interest is inadequate capillary pressure for the return of fluid from the condenser to the wick. This is also what makes the operation of heat pipes orientation-sensitive. Thus, the two primary requirements for a good wick design are a large surface area and high capillary pressure. Surface area can be maximized through nanomachined surface roughening. Capillary pressure is largely driven by the working fluid and wick structure. The proposed nanostructure wick has characteristic dimensions on the order of tens of microns, which promotes menisci of very small radii. This results in the possibility of enormous pumping potential due to the inverse proportionality with radius. Wetting, which also enhances capillary pumping, can be maximized through growth of an oxide layer or material deposition (e.g. TiO2) to create a superhydrophilic surface.

  19. Lithography-free fabrication of silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated a novel, simple, and low-cost method to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays and silicon nanohole (SiNH) arrays based on thin silver (Ag) film dewetting process combined with metal-assisted chemical etching. Ag mesh with holes and semispherical Ag nanoparticles can be prepared by simple thermal annealing of Ag thin film on a silicon substrate. Both the diameter and the distribution of mesh holes as well as the nanoparticles can be manipulated by the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The silicon underneath Ag coverage was etched off with the catalysis of metal in an aqueous solution containing HF and an oxidant, which form silicon nanostructures (either SiNW or SiNH arrays). The morphologies of the corresponding etched SiNW and SiNH arrays matched well with that of Ag holes and nanoparticles. This novel method allows lithography-free fabrication of the SiNW and SiNH arrays with control of the size and distribution. PMID:23557325

  20. Lithography-free fabrication of silicon nanowire and nanohole arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Zhang, Fute; Con, Celal; Cui, Bo; Sun, Baoquan

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrated a novel, simple, and low-cost method to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays and silicon nanohole (SiNH) arrays based on thin silver (Ag) film dewetting process combined with metal-assisted chemical etching. Ag mesh with holes and semispherical Ag nanoparticles can be prepared by simple thermal annealing of Ag thin film on a silicon substrate. Both the diameter and the distribution of mesh holes as well as the nanoparticles can be manipulated by the film thickness and the annealing temperature. The silicon underneath Ag coverage was etched off with the catalysis of metal in an aqueous solution containing HF and an oxidant, which form silicon nanostructures (either SiNW or SiNH arrays). The morphologies of the corresponding etched SiNW and SiNH arrays matched well with that of Ag holes and nanoparticles. This novel method allows lithography-free fabrication of the SiNW and SiNH arrays with control of the size and distribution.

  1. Black silicon with controllable macropore array for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Xianyu; Tong, Xili; Sik Kim, Dong; Zhang, Lianbing; Knez, Mato; Müller, Frank; He, Sailing; Schmidt, Volker

    2012-09-01

    Macroporous silicon with multiscale texture for reflection suppression and light trapping was achieved through a controllable electrochemical etching process. It was coated with TiO2 by atomic layer deposition, and used as the photoanode in photocatalytic water splitting. A conformal pn-junction was also built-in in order to split water without external bias. A 45% enhancement in photocurrent density was observed after black silicon etching. In comparison with nano-structured silicon, the etching process here has neither metal contamination nor requirement of vacuum facilities.

  2. Ultralow thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Xue; Liu, Meng; Cheng, Guoan; Zheng, Ruiting; Xu, Ju; Wei, Lei

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the thermal conductivities of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and their arrays based on molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that diminishing diameter, roughing surface and doping impurity of SiNWs can reduce their thermal conductivities by two or three orders of magnitude compared with that of bulk silicon crystals due to the strong phonon boundary and phonon impurity scattering. The simulated thermal conductivities of SiNW arrays demonstrate that arraying nanowires can further lower the thermal conductivity owing to the laterally-coupled effect, and the thermal conductivity of arrays decreases notably with the increased nanowire volume fraction, resulting in an ultralow thermal conductivity for the doped SiNW arrays with rough surfaces, which provides theoretical guidance of thermal management for semiconductor nanowire based microelectronic and thermoelectric devices.

  3. CMOS compatible fabrication of micro, nano convex silicon lens arrays by conformal chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Haijie; Choi, Duk-Yong; Gai, Xin; Luther-Davies, Barry; Zhang, Baoping

    2017-02-20

    We present a novel CMOS-compatible fabrication technique for convex micro-nano lens arrays (MNLAs) with high packing density on the wafer scale. By means of conformal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) following patterning of silicon pillars via electron beam lithography (EBL) and plasma etching, large areas of a close packed silicon lens array with the diameter from a few micrometers down to a few hundred nanometers was fabricated. The resulting structure shows excellent surface roughness and high uniformity. The optical focusing properties of the lenses at infrared wavelengths were verified by experimental measurements and numerical simulation. This approach provides a feasible solution for fabricating silicon MNLAs compatible for next generation large scale, miniaturized optical imaging detectors and related optical devices.

  4. A floating 3D silicon microprobe array for neural drug delivery compatible with electrical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spieth, S.; Brett, O.; Seidl, K.; Aarts, A. A. A.; Erismis, M. A.; Herwik, S.; Trenkle, F.; Tätzner, S.; Auber, J.; Daub, M.; Neves, H. P.; Puers, R.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.; Zengerle, R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, assembly and characterization of a three-dimensional silicon-based floating microprobe array for localized drug delivery to be applied in neuroscience research. The microprobe array is composed of a silicon platform into which up to four silicon probe combs with needle-like probe shafts can be inserted. Two dedicated positions in the array allow the integration of combs for drug delivery. The implemented comb variants feature 8 mm long probe shafts with two individually addressable microchannels incorporated in a single shaft or distributed to two shafts. Liquid supply to the array is realized by a highly flexible 250 µm thick multi-lumen microfluidic cable made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The specific design concept of the slim-base platform enables floating implantation of the array in the small space between brain and skull. In turn, the flexible cable mechanically decouples the array from any microfluidic interface rigidly fixed to the skull. After assembly of the array, full functionality is demonstrated and characterized at infusion rates from 1 to 5 µL min-1. Further, the effect of a parylene-C coating on the water vapour and osmotic liquid water transport through the PDMS cable walls is experimentally evaluated by determining the respective transmission rates including the water vapour permeability of the used PDMS type.

  5. Sub-100-nm ordered silicon hole arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sub-100-nm silicon nanohole arrays were fabricated by a combination of the site-selective electroless deposition of noble metals through anodic porous alumina and the subsequent metal-assisted chemical etching. Under optimum conditions, the formation of deep straight holes with an ordered periodicity (e.g., 100 nm interval, 40 nm diameter, and high aspect ratio of 50) was successfully achieved. By using the present method, the fabrication of silicon nanohole arrays with 60-nm periodicity was also achieved. PMID:24090268

  6. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 3: Silicon sheet: Wafers and ribbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briglio, A.; Dumas, K.; Leipold, M.; Morrison, A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of the Silicon Sheet Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project was the development of one or more low cost technologies for producing silicon sheet suitable for processing into cost-competitive solar cells. Silicon sheet refers to high purity crystalline silicon of size and thickness for fabrication into solar cells. Areas covered in the project were ingot growth and casting, wafering, ribbon growth, and other sheet technologies. The task made and fostered significant improvements in silicon sheet including processing of both ingot and ribbon technologies. An additional important outcome was the vastly improved understanding of the characteristics associated with high quality sheet, and the control of the parameters required for higher efficiency solar cells. Although significant sheet cost reductions were made, the technology advancements required to meet the task cost goals were not achieved.

  7. Laser desorption ionization and peptide sequencing on laser induced silicon microcolumn arrays

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos [Reston, VA; Chen, Yong [San Diego, CA

    2011-12-27

    The present invention provides a method of producing a laser-patterned silicon surface, especially silicon wafers for use in laser desorption ionization (LDI-MS) (including MALDI-MS and SELDI-MS), devices containing the same, and methods of testing samples employing the same. The surface is prepared by subjecting a silicon substrate to multiple laser shots from a high-power picosecond or femtosecond laser while in a processing environment, e.g., underwater, and generates a remarkable homogenous microcolumn array capable of providing an improved substrate for LDI-MS.

  8. A sensitive impedance biosensor based on immunomagnetic separation and urease catalysis for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes using an immobilization-free interdigitated array microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Lin, Jianhan; Gan, Chengqi; Wang, Yuhe; Wang, Dan; Xiong, Yonghua; Lai, Weihua; Li, Yuntao; Wang, Maohua

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we described a novel impedance biosensor combining immunomagnetic separation with urease catalysis for sensitive detection of foodborne bacteria using Listeria monocytogenes as model and an immobilization-free microelectrode as detector. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were immobilized on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with the diameter of 180 nm by biotin-streptavidin system for specifically and efficiently separating Listeria cells from sample background. The polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) and the urease were modified onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the diameter of 20 nm and the modified AuNPs were used to react with Listera to form the MNP-MAb-Listeria-PAb-AuNP-urease sandwich complexes. The urease in the complexes could catalyze the hydrolysis of the urea into ammonium carbonate and this led to an increase in the ionic strength of the media, which could be detected by the microelectrode. The magnetic separation efficiencies for L. monocytogenes at the concentrations ranging from 3.0×10(1) to 3.0×10(4) CFU/mL were over 95% for the pure cultures and over 85% for the spiked lettuce samples. The lower detection limit of this biosensor for L. monocytogenes was found to be 300 CFU/mL in both the pure cultures and the spiked lettuce samples. The microelectrode was demonstrated to be reusable for over 50 times with thorough cleaning by deionized water. This biosensor showed its potential to provide a simple, low-cost and sensitive method for rapid screening of foodborne pathogens and could be extended for detection of other biological or chemical targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanofabrication of Arrays of Silicon Field Emitters with Vertical Silicon Nanowire Current Limiters and Self-Aligned Gates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-19

    limiters, MEMS, NEMS, field emission, cold cathodes (Some figures may appear in colour only in the online journal) 1. Introduction Dense arrays of silicon... Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal...challenges that have prevented their adoption as cold cathodes in systems applications. The four major challenges are (1) the large capacitance between

  10. Direct fabrication of cone array microstructure on monocrystalline silicon surface by femtosecond laser texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanji; Zhou, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    Improving the utilization ratio of sunlight is a key factor for the development of solar cell. In this paper, a quasi uniform cone-array-like microstructure was directly fabricated on monocrystal silicon surface in atmosphere by using an alternative femtosecond laser texturing technique. The fabricated cone array like microstructure has a spike depth of up to 8 μm and is able to substantially reduce light reflection due to the effective optical coupling between the incident light with the cone array like microstructure. Compare to planar silicon wafer, the relative reflectance of the cone array structure has been decreased to less than 9% in the measured wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm. This may be a promising method for the optimal fabrication of surface-microstructure photovoltaic material, such as solar cell, infrared sensor, etc.

  11. Free space optical communication link using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Many components for free space optical communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Non-mechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. In this paper a small-scale silicon photonic optical phased array is demonstrated for both the transmitter and receiver functions in a free space optical link. The device using an array of thermo-optically controlled waveguide phase shifters and demonstrates one-dimensional steering with a single control electrode. Transmission of a digitized video data stream over the link is shown.

  12. Highly efficient ultrathin-film amorphous silicon solar cells on top of imprinted periodic nanodot arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wensheng Gu, Min; Tao, Zhikuo; Ong, Thiam Min Brian

    2015-03-02

    The addressing of the light absorption and conversion efficiency is critical to the ultrathin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. We systematically investigate ultrathin a-Si:H solar cells with a 100 nm absorber on top of imprinted hexagonal nanodot arrays. Experimental evidences are demonstrated for not only notable silver nanodot arrays but also lower-cost ITO and Al:ZnO nanodot arrays. The measured external quantum efficiency is explained by the simulation results. The J{sub sc} values are 12.1, 13.0, and 14.3 mA/cm{sup 2} and efficiencies are 6.6%, 7.5%, and 8.3% for ITO, Al:ZnO, and silver nanodot arrays, respectively. Simulated optical absorption distribution shows high light trapping within amorphous silicon layer.

  13. Automatic Release of Silicon Nanowire Arrays with a High Integrity for Flexible Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Luo; Li, Shuxin; He, Weiwei; Teng, Dayong; Wang, Ke; Ye, Changhui

    2014-02-01

    Automatic release and vertical transferring of silicon/silicon oxide nanowire arrays with a high integrity are demonstrated by an Ag-assisted ammonia etching method. By adding a water steaming step between Ag-assisted HF/H2O2 and ammonia etching to form a SiOx protective layer sheathing Si nanowires, we can tune the composition of the nanowires from SiOx (0 <= x <= 2) to Si nanowires. Ag plays a key role to the neat and uniform release of Si/SiOx nanowire arrays from Si wafer in the ammonia etching process. The vertical Si nanowire array device, with both sides having high-quality Ohmic contact, can be transferred to arbitrary substrates, especially on a flexible substrate. The method developed here offers a facile method to realize flexible Si nanowire array functional devices.

  14. Optical absorption of several nanostructures arrays for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaopeng; Qiao, Huiling; Huangfu, Huichao; Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Jingwei; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    To improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of solar cells, it's important to enhance the light absorption. Within the visible solar spectrum based on optimization simulations by COMSOL Multiphysics, the optical absorption of silicon cylindrical nanowires, nanocones and inverted nanocones was calculated respectively. The results reveal that the average absorption for the nanocones between 400 and 800 nm is 70.2%, which is better than cylindrical nanowires (55.3%), inverted nanocones (42.3%) and bulk silicon (42.2%). In addition, more than 95% of light from 630 to 800 nm is reflected for inverted nanocones, which can be used to enhance infrared reflection in photovoltaic devices.

  15. Nanophotonic production, modulation and switching of ions by silicon microcolumn arrays

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Walker, Bennett N.

    2013-09-10

    The production and use of silicon microcolumn arrays that harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions are described. The systems of the present invention seem to behave like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of laser light polarization and the angle of incidence. By providing photonic ion sources, this enables enhanced control of ion production on a micro/nano scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

  16. Nanophotonic production, modulation and switching of ions by silicon microcolumn arrays

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos [Reston, VA; Walker, Bennett N [Washington, DC

    2012-02-07

    The production and use of silicon microcolumn arrays that harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions are described. The systems of the present invention seem to behave like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of laser light polarization and the angle of incidence. By providing photonic ion sources, this enables enhanced control of ion production on a micro/nano scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

  17. Nanophotonic production, modulation and switching of ions by silicon microcolumn arrays

    DOEpatents

    Vertes, Akos; Walker, Bennett N

    2015-04-07

    The production and use of silicon microcolumn arrays that harvest light from a laser pulse to produce ions are described. The systems of the present invention seem to behave like a quasi-periodic antenna array with ion yields that show profound dependence on the plane of laser light polarization and the angle of incidence. By providing photonic ion sources, this enables enhanced control of ion production on a micro/nano scale and direct integration with miniaturized analytical devices.

  18. Influence of silicon nanocrystal size and density on the performance of non-volatile memory arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, R. A.; Gasquet, H. P.; Steimle, R. F.; Rinkenberger, G.; Straub, S.; Muralidhar, R.; Anderson, S. G. H.; Yater, J. A.; Ledezma, J. C.; Hamilton, J.; Acred, B.; Swift, C. T.; Hradsky, B.; Peschke, J.; Sadd, M.; Prinz, E. J.; Chang, K. M.; White, B. E.

    2005-11-01

    Silicon nanocrystal memories offer opportunities for voltage scaling and process simplification for embedded non-volatile memories. While electrically isolated nanocrystals mitigate charge loss through oxide defects, the impact of nanocrystal size and density characteristics as well as statistical fluctuations on memory arrays is not well understood. This paper shows that the memory window and high temperature data retention are roughly insensitive over a broad range of nanocrystal characteristics. Further, data from mega-bit arrays shows that nanocrystal coalescence effects are small.

  19. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Morrison, A.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of potential changes and alternative technologies which could impact the photovoltaic manufacturing process is presented. Topics discussed include: a multiple wire saw, ribbon growth techniques, silicon casting, and a computer model for a large-scale solar power plant. Emphasis is placed on reducing the energy demands of the manufacturing process.

  20. Improvement of carrier diffusion length in silicon nanowire arrays using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Akira; Ohta, Yoshimi; Niwa, Yusuke; Hirota, Masaki

    2013-08-23

    To achieve a high-efficiency silicon nanowire (SiNW) solar cell, surface passivation technique is very important because a SiNW array has a large surface area. We successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) high-quality aluminum oxide (Al2O3) film for passivation on the whole surface of the SiNW arrays. The minority carrier lifetime of the Al2O3-depositedSiNW arrays with bulk silicon substrate was improved to 27 μs at the optimum annealing condition. To remove the effect of bulk silicon, the effective diffusion length of minority carriers in the SiNW array was estimated by simple equations and a device simulator. As a result, it was revealed that the effective diffusion length in the SiNW arrays increased from 3.25 to 13.5 μm by depositing Al2O3 and post-annealing at 400°C. This improvement of the diffusion length is very important for application to solar cells, and Al2O3 deposited by ALD is a promising passivation material for a structure with high aspect ratio such as SiNW arrays.

  1. Low acoustic attenuation silicone rubber lens for medical ultrasonic array probe.

    PubMed

    Itsumi, Kazuhiro; Hosono, Yasuharu; Yamamoto, Noriko; Yamashita, Yohachi John

    2009-04-01

    Effects of heavy density (rho = 9.2 x 10(3) kg/m(3)) Yb(2)O(3) fine dopant (16 nm in diameter) on the acoustic properties of a high-temperature-vulcanization (HTV) silicone rubber have been investigated, to develop a new acoustic lens material with a low acoustic attenuation (alpha) for the medical array probe application. The HTV silicone rubber has advantages in that it shows a lower alpha than that of a room-temperature-vulcanization (RTV) silicone rubber and it can be mixed by applying shear stress, using roll-milling equipment. Roll-milling time dependence of the HTV silicone rubber indicates that the alpha is closely affected by the dispersion of nanopowders in the rubber matrix. The 8 vol% Yb(2)O(3)-doped HTV silicone rubber mixed for 30 min showed the lowest alpha of 0.73 dB/mm MHz with an acoustic impedance [AI = sound speed (c) x density (rho)] of 1.43 x 10(6) kg/m(2)s at 37 degrees C. Moreover, simulation results reveal that a 5 MHz linear probe using the HTV silicone rubber doped with Yb(2)O(3) powder showed relative sensitivity around 2.6 to 3.0 dB higher than a probe using RTV silicone rubber doped with Yb(2)O(3) powder or SiO2-doped conventional silicone rubber for the ultrasonic medical application.

  2. The automated array assembly task of the low-cost silicon solar array project, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, M. G.; Pryor, R. A.; Sparks, T. G.; Legge, R.; Saltzman, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Several specific processing steps as part of a total process sequence for manufacturing silicon solar cells were studied. Ion implantation was identified as the preferred process step for impurity doping. Unanalyzed beam ion implantation was shown to have major cost advantages over analyzed beam implantation. Further, high quality cells were fabricated using a high current unanalyzed beam. Mechanically masked plasma patterning of silicon nitride was shown to be capable of forming fine lines on silicon surfaces with spacings between mask and substrate as great as 250 micrometers. Extensive work was performed on advances in plated metallization. The need for the thick electroless palladium layer was eliminated. Further, copper was successfully utilized as a conductor layer utilizing nickel as a barrier to copper diffusion into the silicon. Plasma etching of silicon for texturing and saw damage removal was shown technically feasible but not cost effective compared to wet chemical etching techniques.

  3. Converting films for X-ray detectors, applied to amorphous silicon arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.; Zentai, G.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results from the on-going efforts to characterize semiconductor thin films for direct X-ray conversion. The authors deposit these thin films onto an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) readout array with the overall goal of developing a large area X-ray detector for protein crystallography, and for other X-ray imaging fields.

  4. Converting films for x-ray detectors, applied to amorphous silicon arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.; Zentai, G.

    1997-12-05

    This paper presents results from our on-going efforts to characterize semiconductor thin films for direct x-ray conversion. We deposit these thin films onto an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) readout array with the overall goal of developing a large area x-ray detector for protein crystallography, and for other x-ray imaging fields.

  5. Photon lifetime correlated increase of Raman scattering and third-harmonic generation in silicon nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotnov, S. V.; Kholodov, M. M.; Georgobiani, V. A.; Presnov, D. E.; Golovan, L. A.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Light propagation in silicon nanowire layers is studied via Raman scattering, third-harmonic generation and cross-correlation function measurements. The studied silicon nanowire arrays are characterized by a wire diameter of 50-100 nm and a layer thickness ranging from 0.2-16 μm. These structures are mesoscopic for light in the visible and near infrared ranges. The Raman signal increases monotonically with layer thickness increases at a 1.064 μm pump wavelength. The Stokes component for silicon nanowire arrays with a thickness larger than 2 μm exceeds that for crystalline silicon by more than an order. At the mentioned thicknesses, an increase is also registered for the third-harmonic signal, one that is up to fourfold greater than that for crystalline silicon for a 1.25 μm pump wavelength. Measurements of cross-correlation functions for the scattered photons evidence the significant photon lifetime increase in the silicon nanowire layers at their thickness increase. This fact can be connected with multiple scattering inside the studied mesoscopic structures and the increase of the interaction length for the Raman and third-harmonic generation processes.

  6. Ultradense and planarized antireflective vertical silicon nanowire array using a bottom-up technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The production and characterization of ultradense, planarized, and organized silicon nanowire arrays with good crystalline and optical properties are reported. First, alumina templates are used to grow silicon nanowires whose height, diameter, and density are easily controlled by adjusting the structural parameters of the template. Then, post-processing using standard microelectronic techniques enables the production of high-density silicon nanowire matrices featuring a remarkably flat overall surface. Different geometries are then possible for various applications. Structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction reveals the good crystallinity of the nanowires and their long-range periodicity resulting from their high-density organization. Transmission electron microscopy also shows that the nanowires can grow on nonpreferential substrate, enabling the use of this technique with universal substrates. The good geometry control of the array also results in a strong optical absorption which is interesting for their use in nanowire-based optical sensors or similar devices. PMID:23497295

  7. Efficiency improvement of silicon solar cells enabled by ZnO nanowhisker array coating

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An efficient antireflection coating is critical for the improvement of silicon solar cell performance via increased light coupling. Here, we have grown well-aligned ZnO nanowhisker (NW) arrays on Czochralski silicon solar cells by a seeding-growth two-step process. It is found that the ZnO NWs have a great effect on the macroscopic antireflection effect and, therefore, improves the solar cell performance. The ZnO NW array-coated solar cells display a broadband reflection suppression from 500 to 1,100 nm, and the minimum reflectance smaller than 3% can easily be achieved. By optimizing the time of ZnO NW growth, it has been confirmed that an increase of 3% relatively in the solar cell efficiency can be obtained. These results are quite interesting for the application of ZnO nanostructure in the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. PMID:22704578

  8. Beam test performance of a pixelated silicon array for the charge identification of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, S.; Kim, M. Y.; Marrocchesi, P. S.

    2012-07-01

    A large area silicon array for the next generation of space-based experiments has been designed to determine, via multiple dE/dx measurements, the electric charge of cosmic radiation. The instrument can achieve an excellent charge discrimination, thus allowing to assess the elemental composition of charged cosmic rays at relativistic energies. Pairs of silicon sensors segmented into pixels were tested with a beam of fully ionized nuclei from boron to nickel (Z=28) with a kinetic energy of ∼1 GeV/amu, at the Fragment Separator (FRS) of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. The response of the sensors to different nuclear species was accurately characterized. The results of the beam test clearly show that a double-layered silicon array can achieve single-element separation with a resolution close to 0.2 electron charge units, in the whole interval of atomic number Z under test.

  9. Phonon processes in vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays produced by low-cost all-solution galvanic displacement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debika; Trudeau, Charles; Gerlein, Luis Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2016-03-01

    The nanoscale engineering of silicon can significantly change its bulk optoelectronic properties to make it more favorable for device integration. Phonon process engineering is one way to enhance inter-band transitions in silicon's indirect band structure alignment. This paper demonstrates phonon localization at the tip of silicon nanowires fabricated by galvanic displacement using wet electroless chemical etching of a bulk silicon wafer. High-resolution Raman micro-spectroscopy reveals that such arrayed structures of silicon nanowires display phonon localization behaviors, which could help their integration into the future generations of nano-engineered silicon nanowire-based devices such as photodetectors and solar cells.

  10. A micromachined silicon parallel acoustic delay line (PADL) array for real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young Y.; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Wang, Lihong V.; Zou, Jun

    2015-03-01

    To achieve real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT), massive transducer arrays and data acquisition (DAQ) electronics are needed to receive the PA signals simultaneously, which results in complex and high-cost ultrasound receiver systems. To address this issue, we have developed a new PA data acquisition approach using acoustic time delay. Optical fibers were used as parallel acoustic delay lines (PADLs) to create different time delays in multiple channels of PA signals. This makes the PA signals reach a single-element transducer at different times. As a result, they can be properly received by single-channel DAQ electronics. However, due to their small diameter and fragility, using optical fiber as acoustic delay lines poses a number of challenges in the design, construction and packaging of the PADLs, thereby limiting their performances and use in real imaging applications. In this paper, we report the development of new silicon PADLs, which are directly made from silicon wafers using advanced micromachining technologies. The silicon PADLs have very low acoustic attenuation and distortion. A linear array of 16 silicon PADLs were assembled into a handheld package with one common input port and one common output port. To demonstrate its real-time PAT capability, the silicon PADL array (with its output port interfaced with a single-element transducer) was used to receive 16 channels of PA signals simultaneously from a tissue-mimicking optical phantom sample. The reconstructed PA image matches well with the imaging target. Therefore, the silicon PADL array can provide a 16× reduction in the ultrasound DAQ channels for real-time PAT.

  11. Improved Thermal Behavior of Multiple Linked Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Integrated into Planar Thermoelectric Microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, Diana; Tarancón, Albert; Calaza, Carlos; Salleras, Marc; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; Paulo, Alvaro San; Fonseca, Luis

    2013-07-01

    Low-dimensional structures have been shown to be promising candidates for enhancing the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors, paving the way for integration of thermoelectric generators into silicon microtechnology. With this aim, dense arrays of well-oriented and size-controlled silicon nanowires (Si NWs) obtained by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism have been implemented into microfabricated structures to develop planar unileg thermoelectric microgenerators ( μTEGs). Different low-thermal-mass suspended structures have been designed and microfabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates to operate as microthermoelements using p-type Si NW arrays as the thermoelectric material. To obtain nanowire arrays with effective lengths larger than normally attained by the VLS technique, structures composed of multiple ordered arrays consecutively bridged by transversal microspacers have been fabricated. The successive linkage of multiple Si NW arrays enabled the development of larger temperature differences while preserving good electrical contact. This gives rise to small internal thermoelement resistances, enhancing the performance of the devices as energy harvesters.

  12. On-chip silicon optical phased array for two-dimensional beam steering.

    PubMed

    Kwong, David; Hosseini, Amir; Covey, John; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2014-02-15

    A 16-element optical phased array integrated on chip is presented for achieving two-dimensional (2D) optical beam steering. The device is fabricated on the silicon-on-insulator platform with a 250 nm silicon device layer. Steering is achieved via a combination of wavelength tuning and thermo-optic phase shifting with a switching power of P(π)=20  mW per channel. Using a silicon waveguide grating with a polycrystalline silicon overlay enables narrow far field beam widths while mitigating the precise etching needed for conventional shallow etch gratings. Using this system, 2D steering across a 20°×15° field of view is achieved with a sidelobe level better than 10 dB and with beam widths of 1.2°×0.5°.

  13. Omnidirectional Printing of Flexible, Stretchable, and Spanning Silver Microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Bok Y.; Duoss, Eric B.; Motala, Michael J.; Guo, Xiaoying; Park, Sang-Il; Xiong, Yujie; Yoon, Jongseung; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2009-03-01

    Flexible, stretchable, and spanning microelectrodes that carry signals from one circuit element to another are needed for many emerging forms of electronic and optoelectronic devices. We have patterned silver microelectrodes by omnidirectional printing of concentrated nanoparticle inks in both uniform and high-aspect ratio motifs with minimum widths of approximately 2 micrometers onto semiconductor, plastic, and glass substrates. The patterned microelectrodes can withstand repeated bending and stretching to large levels of strain with minimal degradation of their electrical properties. With this approach, wire bonding to fragile three-dimensional devices and spanning interconnects for solar cell and light-emitting diode arrays are demonstrated.

  14. Solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon nanowire array and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Ryousuke; Kato, Shinya; Yamazaki, Tatsuya; Kurokawa, Yasuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke; Konagai, Makoto

    2014-02-01

    An amorphous silicon nanowire (a-SiNW) array perpendicular to a glass substrate can be successfully obtained through the metal-assisted chemical etching of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. The solid-phase crystallization of a-SiNWs was carried out by thermal annealing in a forming gas in the temperature range from 600 to 900 °C. The effects of hydrogen in the film and the film morphology on the crystallization of a-SiNWs were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A higher hydrogen concentration of a-SiNWs reduced the crystallization temperature, as in a-Si thin films. It was also revealed that the large surface area of the a-SiNW array affected the crystallization process. We also studied the optical property of the fabricated SiNW array and demonstrated its high potential as an active layer in solar cells.

  15. Silicon material task. Part 3: Low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roques, R. A.; Coldwell, D. M.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a process for carbon reduction of low impurity silica in a plasma heat source was investigated to produce low-cost solar-grade silicon. Theoretical aspects of the reaction chemistry were studied with the aid of a computer program using iterative free energy minimization. These calculations indicate a threshold temperature exists at 2400 K below which no silicon is formed. The computer simulation technique of molecular dynamics was used to study the quenching of product species.

  16. Hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of silicon/Ag aligned nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Prokes, S M; Glembocki, Orest J; Livenere, J E; Tumkur, T U; Kitur, J K; Zhu, G; Wells, B; Podolskiy, V A; Noginov, M A

    2013-06-17

    The hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of silicon nanowire/Ag arrays have been investigated. The aligned nanowire arrays were formed and coated by atomic layer deposition of Ag, which itself is a metamaterial due to its unique mosaic film structure. The theoretical and numerical studies suggest that the fabricated arrays have hyperbolic dispersion in the visible and IR ranges of the spectrum. The theoretical predictions have been indirectly confirmed by polarized reflection spectra, showing reduction of the reflection in p polarization in comparison to that in s polarization. Studies of dye emission on top of Si/Ag nanowire arrays show strong emission quenching and shortening of dye emission kinetics. This behavior is also consistent with the predictions for hyperbolic media. The measured SERS signals were enhanced by almost an order of magnitude for closely packed and aligned nanowires, compared to random nanowire composites. These results agree with electric field simulations of these array structures.

  17. Crosstalk analysis of silicon-on-insulator nanowire-arrayed waveguide grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai-Li; An, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Jia-Shun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Liang-Liang; Li, Jian-Guang; Wu, Yuan-Da; Yin, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Xiong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    The factors influencing the crosstalk of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) are analyzed using the transfer function method. The analysis shows that wider and thicker arrayed waveguides, outsider fracture of arrayed waveguide, and larger channel space, could mitigate the deterioration of crosstalk. The SOI nanowire AWGs with different arrayed waveguide widths are fabricated by using deep ultraviolet lithography (DUV) and inductively coupled plasma etching (ICP) technology. The measurement results show that the crosstalk performance is improved by about 7 dB through adopting 800 nm arrayed waveguide width. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA016902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274047, 61435013, 61307034, and 61405188), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0402504).

  18. Infrared focal plane array incorporating silicon IC process compatible bolometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Akio; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Tsukamoto, Nanao

    1996-11-01

    A 128 x 128 element bolometer infrared image sensor using thin film titanium is proposed. The device is a monolithically integrated structure with a titanium bolometer detector located over a CMOS circuit that reads out the bolometer`s signals. By employing a metallic material like titanium and refining the CMOS readout circuit, it is possible to minimize 1/f noise. It is demonstrated that the use of low 1/f noise materials will help increase bias current and improve the S/N ratio. Since the fabrication process is silicon-process compatible, costs can be kept low.

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from silicon nanowire array photocathode.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ilwhan; Kye, Joohong; Hwang, Seongpil

    2012-01-11

    Herein we report that silicon nanowires (SiNWs) fabricated via metal-catalyzed electroless etching yielded a photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation performance superior to that of a planar Si, which is attributed to a lower kinetic overpotential due to a higher surface roughness, favorable shift in the flat-band potential, and light-trapping effects of the SiNW surface. The SiNW photocathode yielded a photovoltage of 0.42 V, one of the highest values ever reported for hydrogen generation on p-type Si/electrolyte interfaces.

  20. Comparative study of absorption in tilted silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kayes, Md Imrul; Leu, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowire arrays have been shown to demonstrate light trapping properties and promising potential for next-generation photovoltaics. In this paper, we show that the absorption enhancement in vertical nanowire arrays on a perfectly electric conductor can be further improved through tilting. Vertical nanowire arrays have a 66.2% improvement in ultimate efficiency over an ideal double-pass thin film of the equivalent amount of material. Tilted nanowire arrays, with the same amount of material, exhibit improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays across a broad range of tilt angles (from 38° to 72°). The optimum tilt of 53° has an improvement of 8.6% over that of vertical nanowire arrays and 80.4% over that of the ideal double-pass thin film. Tilted nanowire arrays exhibit improved absorption over the solar spectrum compared with vertical nanowires since the tilt allows for the excitation of additional modes besides the HE 1m modes that are excited at normal incidence. We also observed that tilted nanowire arrays have improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays for a large range of incidence angles (under about 60°).

  1. Characterization of electronic structures from CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array based on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yong; Song, Xiao Yan; Song, Yue Li; Ji, Peng Fei; Zhou, Feng Qun; Tian, Ming Li; Huang, Hong Chun; Li, Xin Jian

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array has been fabricated through a CBD method. • The electronic properties have been investigated by the I–V and C–V techniques. • The onset voltages, characteristic frequency and built-in potential are investigated. • The electronic structures can be tuned through the annealing treatments. - Abstract: The electronic properties of heterostructures are very important to its applications in the field of optoelectronic devices. Understanding and control of electronic properties are very necessary. CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array have been fabricated through growing CdS nanocrystals on the silicon nanoporous pillar array using a chemical bath deposition method. The electronic properties of CdS nanoheterostructure array have been investigated by the current–voltage, complex impedance spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage techniques. The onset voltages, characteristic frequency and built-in potential are gradually increased with increasing the annealing temperature. It is indicated that the electronic structures of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array can be tuned through the annealing treatments.

  2. Optical phased array using single crystalline silicon high-contrast-gratings for beamsteering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Chan, Trevor; Megens, Mischa; Sun, Tianbo; Yang, Weijian; Rao, Yi; Horsley, David A.; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wu, Ming C.

    2013-03-01

    We present a single crystalline silicon optical phased array using high-contrast-gratings (HCG) for fast two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering at 0.5 MHz. Since there are various applications for beamforming and beamsteering such as 3D imaging, optical communications, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR), it is great interest to develop ultrafast optical phased arrays. However, the beamsteering speed of optical phased arrays using liquid crystal and electro-wetting are typically limited to tens of milliseconds. Optical phased arrays using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies can operate in the submegahertz range, but generally require metal coatings. The metal coating unfortunately cause bending of mirrors due to thermally induced stress. The novel MEMS-based optical phased array presented here consists of electrostatically driven 8 × 8 HCG pixels fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The HCG mirror is designed to have 99.9% reflectivity at 1550 nm wavelength without any reflective coating. The size of the HCG mirror is 20 × 20 μm2 and the mass is only 140 pg, much lighter than traditional MEMS mirrors. Our 8 × 8 optical phased array has a total field of view of +/-10° × 10° and a beam width of 2°. The maximum phase shift regarding the actuation gap defined by a 2 μm buried oxide layer of a SOI wafer is 1.7π at 20 V.

  3. Determination of parameters for successful spray coating of silicon microneedle arrays.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Marie G; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Oliveira, Jorge C; Moore, Anne C; Crean, Abina M

    2011-08-30

    Coated microneedle patches have demonstrated potential for effective, minimally invasive, drug and vaccine delivery. To facilitate cost-effective, industrial-scale production of coated microneedle patches, a continuous coating method which utilises conventional pharmaceutical processes is an attractive prospect. Here, the potential of spray-coating silicon microneedle patches using a conventional film-coating process was evaluated and the key process parameters which impact on coating coalescence and weight were identified by employing a fractional factorial design to coat flat silicon patches. Processing parameters analysed included concentration of coating material, liquid input rate, duration of spraying, atomisation air pressure, gun-to-surface distance and air cap setting. Two film-coating materials were investigated; hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). HPMC readily formed a film-coat on silicon when suitable spray coating parameter settings were determined. CMC films required the inclusion of a surfactant (1%, w/w Tween 80) to facilitate coalescence of the sprayed droplets on the silicon surface. Spray coating parameters identified by experimental design, successfully coated 280μm silicon microneedle arrays, producing an intact film-coat, which follows the contours of the microneedle array without occlusion of the microneedle shape. This study demonstrates a novel method of coating microneedle arrays with biocompatible polymers using a conventional film-coating process. It is the first study to indicate the thickness and roughness of coatings applied to microneedle arrays. The study also highlights the importance of identifying suitable processing parameters when film coating substrates of micron dimensions. The ability of a fractional factorial design to identify these critical parameters is also demonstrated. The polymer coatings applied in this study can potentially be drug loaded for intradermal drug and vaccine delivery.

  4. Dense nanoimprinted silicon nanowire arrays with passivated axial p-i-n junctions for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Pei; Siontas, Stylianos; Zaslavsky, A.; Pacifici, D.; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Krylyuk, S.; Davydov, A. V.

    2015-03-28

    We report on the fabrication and photovoltaic characteristics of vertical arrays of silicon axial p-i-n junction nanowire (NW) solar cells grown by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) epitaxy. NW surface passivation with silicon dioxide shell is shown to enhance carrier recombination time, open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), and fill factor (FF). The photovoltaic performance of passivated individual NW and NW arrays was compared under 532 nm laser illumination with power density of ∼10 W/cm{sup 2}. Higher values of V{sub OC} and FF in the NW arrays are explained by enhanced light trapping. In order to verify the effect of NW density on light absorption and hence on the photovoltaic performance of NW arrays, dense Si NW arrays were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography to periodically arrange the gold seed particles prior to epitaxial growth. Compared to sparse NW arrays fabricated using VLS growth from randomly distributed gold seeds, the nanoimprinted NW array solar cells show a greatly increased peak external quantum efficiency of ∼8% and internal quantum efficiency of ∼90% in the visible spectral range. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations of Si NW periodic arrays with varying pitch (P) confirm the importance of high NW density. Specifically, due to diffractive scattering and light trapping, absorption efficiency close to 100% in the 400–650 nm spectral range is calculated for a Si NW array with P = 250 nm, significantly outperforming a blanket Si film of the same thickness.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor based on silicon photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaoyun; Sun, Xiuhui; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Du, Chunlei

    2010-11-01

    The detection limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor is constrained in part by the SPR biochip and in part by the resolution of the optical intensity of detecting instruments. In this paper, silicon photodiode is proposed as the optical intensity detecting element instead of the traditionally used charge coupled device (CCD), combining with high resolution analog/digital converter, this method can efficiently reduce the cost and increase the sensitivity of the SPRI system while keeping its virtue of multiple channels real time detecting. Based on this method, An SPRI experimental system with two channels is designed and the optical intensity of each channel is detected by a photodiode. By carrying out testing experiments using sucrose solution with different concentrations (corresponding to different refractive index), the system sensitivity of 10-6 refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained.

  6. Phase 2 of the array automated assembly task for the low cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were conducted on several fundamental aspects of electroless nickel/solder metallization for silicon solar cells. A process, which precedes the electroless nickel plating with several steps of palladium plating and heat treatment, was compared directly with single step electroless nickel plating. Work was directed toward answering specific questions concerning the effect of silicon surface oxide on nickel plating, effects of thermal stresses on the metallization, sintering of nickel plated on silicon, and effects of exposure to the plating solution on solar cell characteristics. The process was found to be extremely lengthy and cumbersome, and was also found to produce a product virtually identical to that produced by single step electroless nickel plating, as shown by adhesion tests and electrical characteristics of cells under illumination.

  7. Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array.

    PubMed

    Dumon, P; Bogaerts, W; Van Thourhout, D; Taillaert, D; Baets, R; Wouters, J; Beckx, S; Jaenen, P

    2006-01-23

    We demonstrate a compact, fiber-pigtailed, 4-by-4 wavelength router in Silicon-on-insulator photonic wires, fabricated using CMOS processing methods. The core is an AWG with a 250GHz channel spacing and 1THz free spectral range, on a 425x155 microm(2) footprint. The insertion loss of the AWG was reduced to 3.5dB by applying a two-step processing technique. The crosstalk is -12dB. The device was pigtailed using vertical fiber couplers and an eight-fiber array connector.

  8. Energy requirement for the production of silicon solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindmayer, J.; Wihl, M.; Scheinine, A.; Rosenfield, T.; Wrigley, C. Y.; Morrison, A.; Anderson, J.; Clifford, A.; Lafky, W.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate the feasibility of manufacturing photovoltaic solar array modules by the use of energy obtained from similar or identical photovoltaic sources are presented. The primary objective of this investigation was the characterization of the energy requirements of current and developing technologies which comprise the photovoltaic field. For cross-checking the energies of prevailing technologies data were also used and the wide-range assessment of alternative technologies included different refinement methods, various ways of producing light sheets, semicrystalline cells, etc. Energy data are utilized to model the behavior of a future solar breeder plant under various operational conditions.

  9. Infrared Vidicons Employing Metal-Silicon Schottky Diode Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    platinum on the side of the wafer opposite to the diode array. (The iorward voltage drop calculated for the Pt-Si contact at 1 ixA is 70 mev...desired to calculate the potential at which the SiO surface will float in the geometry used in these retinae. It can be shown that the oxide...sin AW + cos Ax cos AW vc cos AW . A = l’\\ ’"• AW = R. (28) If one combines equations (28) and (24) to calculate the current flowing across the

  10. High-performance uncooled amorphous silicon video graphics array and extended graphics array infrared focal plane arrays with 17-μm pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissot, Jean-Luc; Tinnes, Sébastien; Durand, Alain; Minassian, Christophe; Robert, Patrick; Vilain, Michel; Yon, Jean-Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The high level of accumulated expertise by ULIS and CEA/LETI on uncooled microbolometers made from amorphous silicon with 45, 35, and 25 μm enables ULIS to develop video graphics array (VGA) and extended graphics array (XGA) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) formats with 17-μm pixel pitch to fulfill every application. These detectors keep all the recent innovations developed on the 25-μm pixel-pitch read out integrated circuit (ROIC) (detector configuration by serial link, low power consumption, and wide electrical dynamic range). The specific appeal of these units lies in the high spatial resolution it provides while keeping the small thermal time constant. The reduction of the pixel pitch turns the VGA array into a product well adapted for high-resolution and compact systems and the XGA a product well adapted for high-resolution imaging systems. High electro-optical performances have been demonstrated with noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) < 50 mK. We insist on NETD and wide thermal dynamic range trade-off, and on the high characteristics uniformity achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology as well as the ROIC design. This technology node paves the way to high-end products as well as low-end, compact, smaller formats, such as 320 × 240 and 160 × 120 or smaller.

  11. Nickel/silicon core/shell nanosheet arrays as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.H. Zhang, P.; Wu, J.B.; Lin, Y.; Guo, R.Q.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni nanosheet arrays is the core and Si layer is the shell. • Ni nanosheet arrays act as a three-dimensional current collector to support Si. • Ni nanosheet arrays can improve the conductivity and stability of the electrode. • Ni/Si nanosheet arrays exhibit excellent cyclic and rate performance. - Abstract: Ni/Si core/shell nanosheet arrays are proposed to enhance the electrochemical lithium-storage properties of silicon. The arrays are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The arrays are micro-sized in height, which are constructed by interconnected Ni nanosheet as the core and Si coating layer as the shell. The electrochemical properties as anode materials of lithium ion batteries are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The arrays can achieve high reversible capacity, good cycle stability and high rate capability. It is believed that the enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the electrode structure, because the interconnected Ni nanosheet can act as a three-dimensional current collector, and it has the ability of improving the electrode conductivity, enlarging the electrochemical reaction interface, and suppressing the electrode pulverization.

  12. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Feser, JP; Sadhu, JS; Azeredo, BP; Hsu, KH; Ma, J; Kim, J; Seong, M; Fang, NX; Li, XL; Ferreira, PM; Sinha, S; Cahill, DG

    2012-12-01

    A two-step metal assisted chemical etching technique is used to systematically vary the sidewall roughness of Si nanowires in vertically aligned arrays. The thermal conductivities of nanowire arrays are studied using time domain thermoreflectance and compared to their high-resolution transmission electron microscopy determined roughness. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with small roughness is close to a theoretical prediction based on an upper limit of the mean-free-paths of phonons given by the nanowire diameter. The thermal conductivity of nanowires with large roughness is found to be significantly below this prediction. Raman spectroscopy reveals that nanowires with large roughness also display significant broadening of the one-phonon peak; the broadening correlates well with the reduction in thermal conductivity. The origin of this broadening is not yet understood, as it is inconsistent with phonon confinement models, but could derive from microstructural changes that affect both the optical phonons observed in Raman scattering and the acoustic phonons that are important for heat conduction. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4767456

  13. Integrated hybrid silicon DFB laser-EAM array using quantum well intermixing.

    PubMed

    Jain, Siddharth R; Sysak, Matthew N; Kurczveil, Geza; Bowers, John E

    2011-07-04

    We demonstrate multiple bandgap integration on the hybrid silicon platform using quantum well intermixing. A broadband DFB laser array and a DFB-EAM array are realized on a single chip using four bandgaps defined by ion implantation enhanced disordering. The broadband laser array uses two bandgaps with 17 nm blue shift to compensate for gain roll-off while the integrated DFB-EAMs use the as-grown bandgap for optical gain and a 30 nm blue shifted bandgap for modulation. The multi-channel DFB array includes 13 lasers with >90 nm gain-bandwidth. The transponder includes four DFB-EAMs with 14 dB DC extinction at 4 V bias.

  14. Multiscale Study of Plasmonic Scattering and Light Trapping Effect in Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingyi; Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung

    2017-02-02

    Nanometallic structures that support surface plasmons provide new ways to confine light at deep-subwavelength scales. The effect of light scattering in nanowire array solar cells is studied by a multiscale approach combining classical electromagnetic (EM) and quantum mechanical simulations. A photovoltaic device is constructed by integrating a silicon nanowire array with a plasmonic silver nanosphere. The light scatterings by plasmonic element and nanowire array are obtained via classical EM simulations, while current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of the nanowire cells are evaluated quantum mechanically. We found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of photovoltaic device is substantially improved due to the local field enhancement of the plasmonic effect and light trapping by the nanowire array. In addition, we showed that there exists an optimal nanowire number density in terms of optical confinement and solar cell PCE.

  15. Two-dimensional beam steering using a thermo-optic silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel W.; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    Many components for free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Nonmechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. A phased array that can steer in two dimensions using the thermo-optic effect is demonstrated. No wavelength tuning of the input laser is needed and the design allows a simple control system with only two inputs. A benchtop FSO link with the phased array in both transmit and receive mode is demonstrated.

  16. High density micro-pyramids with silicon nanowire array for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tasmiat; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Fobelets, Kristel

    2014-12-05

    We use a metal assisted chemical etch process to fabricate silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWAs) onto a dense periodic array of pyramids that are formed using an alkaline etch masked with an oxide layer. The hybrid micro-nano structure acts as an anti-reflective coating with experimental reflectivity below 1% over the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. This represents an improvement of up to 11 and 14 times compared to the pyramid array and SiNWAs on bulk, respectively. In addition to the experimental work, we optically simulate the hybrid structure using a commercial finite difference time domain package. The results of the optical simulations support our experimental work, illustrating a reduced reflectivity in the hybrid structure. The nanowire array increases the absorbed carrier density within the pyramid by providing a guided transition of the refractive index along the light path from air into the silicon. Furthermore, electrical simulations which take into account surface and Auger recombination show an efficiency increase for the hybrid structure of 56% over bulk, 11% over pyramid array and 8.5% over SiNWAs.

  17. Nanostructured biomimetic moth-eye arrays in silicon by nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, Stuart A.; Bagnall, Darren M.

    2009-08-01

    The eyes and wings of some species of moth are covered in arrays of subwavelength pillars that have been tuned over millions of years of evolution to reflect as little sunlight as possible. We are investigating ways of exploiting this to reduce reflection from the surfaces of silicon solar cells. Here, we report on the experimental realization of biomimetic antireflective moth-eye arrays in silicon using a technique based on nanoimprint lithography and dry etching. Areas of 1cm x 1cm have been patterned and analysis of reflectance measurements predicts a loss in the performance of a solar cell of only 6.5% compared to an ideal antireflective coating. This compares well with an optimized single layer Si3N4 antireflective coating, for which an 8% loss is predicted.

  18. Ordered silicon microwire arrays grown from substrates patterned using imprint lithography and electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Audesirk, Heather A; Warren, Emily L; Ku, Jessie; Lewis, Nathan S

    2015-01-28

    Silicon microwires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process have attracted a great deal of interest as potential light absorbers for solar energy conversion. However, the research-scale techniques that have been demonstrated to produce ordered arrays of micro and nanowires may not be optimal for use as high-throughput processes needed for large-scale manufacturing. Herein we demonstrate the use of microimprint lithography to fabricate patterned templates for the confinement of an electrodeposited Cu catalyst for the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of Si microwires. A reusable polydimethylsiloxane stamp was used to pattern holes in silica sol-gels on silicon substrates, and the Cu catalyst was electrodeposited into the holes. Ordered arrays of crystalline p-type Si microwires were grown across the sol-gel-patterned substrates with materials quality and performance comparable to microwires fabricated with high-purity metal catalysts and cleanroom processing.

  19. Electrical properties of high density arrays of silicon nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Kangho; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2013-10-01

    Proximity effect corrected e-beam lithography of hydrogen silsesquioxane on silicon on insulator was used to fabricate multi-channel silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW FETs). Arrays of 15-channels with a line width of 18 nm and pitch as small as 50 nm, the smallest reported for electrically functional devices, were fabricated. These high density arrays were back-gated by the substrate and allowed for investigation of the effects of scaling on the electrical performance of this multi-channel SiNW FET. It was revealed that the drain current and the transconductance (gm) are both reduced with decreasing pitch size. The drain induced barrier lowering and the threshold voltage (Vth) are also decreased, whereas the subthreshold swing (S) is increased. The results are in agreement with our simulations of the electric potential profile of the devices. The study contains valuable information on SiNW FET integration and scaling for future devices.

  20. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. L.; Martel, I.; Jiménez, R.; Galán, J.; Salmerón, P.

    2016-09-01

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from 12C up to 84Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  1. Monolithic electrically injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon.

    PubMed

    Frost, Thomas; Jahangir, Shafat; Stark, Ethan; Deshpande, Saniya; Hazari, Arnab; Zhao, Chao; Ooi, Boon S; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2014-08-13

    A silicon-based laser, preferably electrically pumped, has long been a scientific and engineering goal. We demonstrate here, for the first time, an edge-emitting InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire array electrically pumped laser emitting in the green (λ = 533 nm) on (001) silicon substrate. The devices display excellent dc and dynamic characteristics with values of threshold current density, differential gain, T0 and small signal modulation bandwidth equal to 1.76 kA/cm(2), 3 × 10(-17) cm(2), 232 K, and 5.8 GHz respectively under continuous wave operation. Preliminary reliability measurements indicate a lifetime of 7000 h. The emission wavelength can be tuned by varying the alloy composition in the quantum disks. The monolithic nanowire laser on (001)Si can therefore address wide-ranging applications such as solid state lighting, displays, plastic fiber communication, medical diagnostics, and silicon photonics.

  2. Optical absorption enhancement in slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays for solar photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Wen; Li, Zhao-Feng; Liu, Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Fu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    We investigate slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays as light absorbing structures for solar photovoltaics via simulation. With only 1-μm equivalent thickness, a maximum short-circuit current density of 34.9 mA/cm2 is obtained. Moreover, by adding an Ag mirror under the whole structure, a short-circuit current density of 37.9 mA/cm2 is attained. It is understood that the optical absorption enhancement mainly results from three aspects. First, the silicon nanocone holes provide a highly efficient antireflection effect. Second, after breaking the geometric symmetry, the slanted silicon nanocone hole supports more resonant absorption modes than vertical structures. Third, the Fabry-Perot resonance enhances the light absorption after adding an Ag mirror. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274066, 61474115, and 61504138) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032602).

  3. Multi-wire slurry wafering demonstrations. [slicing silicon ingots for solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    Ten slicing demonstrations on a multi-wire slurry saw, made to evaluate the silicon ingot wafering capabilities, reveal that the present sawing capabilities can provide usable wafer area from an ingot 1.05m/kg (e.g. kerf width 0.135 mm and wafer thickness 0.265 mm). Satisfactory surface qualities and excellent yield of silicon wafers were found. One drawback is that the add-on cost of producing water from this saw, as presently used, is considerably higher than other systems being developed for the low-cost silicon solar array project (LSSA), primarily because the saw uses a large quantity of wire. The add-on cost can be significantly reduced by extending the wire life and/or by rescue of properly plated wire to restore the diameter.

  4. A wearable multiplexed silicon nonvolatile memory array using nanocrystal charge confinement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Son, Donghee; Lee, Mincheol; Song, Changyeong; Song, Jun-Kyul; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lee, Dong Jun; Shim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for efficient charge confinement in nanocrystal floating gates to realize high-performance memory devices have been investigated intensively. However, few studies have reported nanoscale experimental validations of charge confinement in closely packed uniform nanocrystals and related device performance characterization. Furthermore, the system-level integration of the resulting devices with wearable silicon electronics has not yet been realized. We introduce a wearable, fully multiplexed silicon nonvolatile memory array with nanocrystal floating gates. The nanocrystal monolayer is assembled over a large area using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. Efficient particle-level charge confinement is verified with the modified atomic force microscopy technique. Uniform nanocrystal charge traps evidently improve the memory window margin and retention performance. Furthermore, the multiplexing of memory devices in conjunction with the amplification of sensor signals based on ultrathin silicon nanomembrane circuits in stretchable layouts enables wearable healthcare applications such as long-term data storage of monitored heart rates.

  5. A wearable multiplexed silicon nonvolatile memory array using nanocrystal charge confinement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaemin; Son, Donghee; Lee, Mincheol; Song, Changyeong; Song, Jun-Kyul; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lee, Dong Jun; Shim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for efficient charge confinement in nanocrystal floating gates to realize high-performance memory devices have been investigated intensively. However, few studies have reported nanoscale experimental validations of charge confinement in closely packed uniform nanocrystals and related device performance characterization. Furthermore, the system-level integration of the resulting devices with wearable silicon electronics has not yet been realized. We introduce a wearable, fully multiplexed silicon nonvolatile memory array with nanocrystal floating gates. The nanocrystal monolayer is assembled over a large area using the Langmuir-Blodgett method. Efficient particle-level charge confinement is verified with the modified atomic force microscopy technique. Uniform nanocrystal charge traps evidently improve the memory window margin and retention performance. Furthermore, the multiplexing of memory devices in conjunction with the amplification of sensor signals based on ultrathin silicon nanomembrane circuits in stretchable layouts enables wearable healthcare applications such as long-term data storage of monitored heart rates. PMID:26763827

  6. Aluminum-jointed silicon dioxide octagon nanohelix array with desired complex refractive index.

    PubMed

    Jen, Yi-Jun; Chen, Chien-Chi; Jheng, Ci-Yao

    2014-06-15

    In this Letter, glancing angle deposition is used to form an aluminum-jointed silicon dioxide octagon nanohelix array as a 3D nanostructured thin film. As a sculptured metal-dielectric composite, the film exhibits a complex refractive index of near unity with a small imaginary part. This structured film is demonstrated as an efficient light absorber to absorb light in a broad band and over a wide range of angles for both polarization states.

  7. Silicon microhole arrays architecture for stable and efficient photoelectrochemical cells using ionic liquids electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaojuan; Chen, Ling; Li, Junnan; Zhao, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Silicon microhole arrays (SiMHs) structure is constructed and fabricated by a low-cost maskless anodic etching process, which is applied as the photoanode for the silicon photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. The depths of silicon microhole arrays can be independently controlled by the etching time. The light-scattering properties are also investigated. Additionally, surface morphology analysis show that large hole diameters of SiMHs is very favourable for the full-filling of ionic liquids electrolyte. Therefore, better electrochemical contact as well as high ionic conductivity of the ionic liquids electrolyte renders the PEC SiMHs solar cells to exhibit more excellent performance. After optimization, the maximum PCE could be achieved at 4.04% for the SiMHs cell. The performance of the SiMHs cell is highly comparable to that of silicon nanowires cell. More importantly, the liquid-state electrolyte is confined in the unique microhole structure, which can obviously prevent the leakage of the ionic liquids electrolyte, resulting in much better long-term stability than the reference devices. These preliminary results validate the concept of interpenetrating networks with semiconductor structure/ILs junction to develop stable and efficient PEC cells.

  8. Development of silicon-germanium visible-near infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, John W.; Rouse, Caitlin; Efstathiadis, Harry; Haldar, Pradeep; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Puri, Yash R.; Sood, Ashok K.

    2016-05-01

    Photodetectors based on germanium which do not require cooling and can provide good near-infrared (NIR) detection performance offer a low-cost alternative to conventional infrared sensors based on material systems such as InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe. As a result of the significant difference in thermal expansion coefficients between germanium and silicon, tensile strain incorporated into Ge epitaxial layers deposited on Si utilizing specialized growth processes can extend the operational range of detection to 1600 nm and longer wavelengths. We have fabricated Ge based PIN photodetectors on 300 mm diameter Si wafers to take advantage of high throughput, large-area complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This device fabrication process involves low temperature epitaxial deposition of Ge to form a thin p+ (boron) Ge seed/buffer layer, and subsequent higher temperature deposition of a thicker Ge intrinsic layer. This is followed by selective ion implantation of phosphorus of various concentrations to form n+ Ge regions, deposition of a passivating oxide cap, and then top copper contacts to complete the PIN detector devices. Various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) have been employed to characterize the material and structural properties of the epitaxially grown layers and fabricated detector devices, and these results are presented. The I-V response of the photodetector devices with and without illumination was also measured, for which the Ge based photodetectors consistently exhibited low dark currents of around ~1 nA at -1 V bias.

  9. Low Angle Silicon Sheet Growth. Large Area Silicon Sheet Task Low Cost Solar Array Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of a low angle silicon ribbon growth process are described. Twenty-six experimental runs were performed. Ribbons were grown at pull rates from 5 to 68 cm/min. Ribbon lengths up to 74 cm were grown while widths varied from 5 to 25 mm. Thicknesses varied from 0.6 to 2.5 mm, with typical values of about 1 mm.

  10. Versatile Particle-Based Route to Engineer Vertically Aligned Silicon Nanowire Arrays and Nanoscale Pores.

    PubMed

    Elnathan, Roey; Isa, Lucio; Brodoceanu, Daniel; Nelson, Adrienne; Harding, Frances J; Delalat, Bahman; Kraus, Tobias; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-10-28

    Control over particle self-assembly is a prerequisite for the colloidal templating of lithographical etching masks to define nanostructures. This work integrates and combines for the first time bottom-up and top-down approaches, namely, particle self-assembly at liquid-liquid interfaces and metal-assisted chemical etching, to generate vertically aligned silicon nanowire (VA-SiNW) arrays and, alternatively, arrays of nanoscale pores in a silicon wafer. Of particular importance, and in contrast to current techniques, including conventional colloidal lithography, this approach provides excellent control over the nanowire or pore etching site locations and decouples nanowire or pore diameter and spacing. The spacing between pores or nanowires is tuned by adjusting the specific area of the particles at the liquid-liquid interface before deposition. Hence, the process enables fast and low-cost fabrication of ordered nanostructures in silicon and can be easily scaled up. We demonstrate that the fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can be used as in vitro transfection platforms for transfecting human primary cells.

  11. A novel silicon array designed for intraoperative charged particle imaging.

    PubMed

    Tornai, Martin P; Patt, Bradley E; Iwanczyk, Jan S; Tull, Carolyn R; MacDonald, Lawrence R; Hoffman, Edward J

    2002-11-01

    A novel Si-PIN imaging array is under investigation for a charged particle (beta, positron, or alpha) sensitive intraoperative camera to be used for (residual) tumor identification during surgery. This class of collimator-less nuclear imaging device has a higher signal response for direct interactions than its scintillator-optical detector-based counterparts. Monte Carlo simulations with 635 keV betas were performed, yielding maximum and projected ranges of 1.64 and 0.55 mm in Si. Up to 90% of these betas were completely absorbed in the first 0.30 mm. Based on these results, 300 microm thick prototype Si detector arrays were designed in a 16 x 16 crossed-grid arrangement with 0.8 mm wide orthogonal strips on 1.0 mm pitch. A NIM- and CAMAC-based high-density data acquisition and processing system was used to collect the list mode data. The system was calibrated by comparisons of measured spectra to energy deposition simulations or by direct measurement of various >100 keV conversion electron or beta emitters. Mean electronic noise per strip was <3.6 keV FWHM at room temperature. When detecting positrons, which have an accompanying 511 keV annihilation background, the flood irradiated beta/gamma ratio was approximately 40, indicating that beta images could be made without the use of background rejection techniques. The intrinsic spatial resolution corresponds to the 1 x 1 mm2 pixel size, and measurements of beta emitting point and line sources yielded FWHM resolutions of 1.5 (lateral) and 2.5 mm (diagonal), respectively, with the larger widths due to particle range blurting effects. Deconvolution of the finite source size yielded intrinsic resolutions that corresponded to the image pixel size. Transmission images of circle and line phantoms with various hole sizes and pitch were resolved with either pure beta or positron irradiation without a background correction. This novel semiconductor imaging device facilitates high charged particle and low gamma sensitivity

  12. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching in aerated HF solution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Peng, Kui-Qing; Hu, Ya; Wu, Xiao-Ling; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-03-05

    Macroscopic galvanic cell-driven metal catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) of silicon in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution is devised to fabricate silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with dissolved oxygen acting as the one and only oxidizing agent. The key aspect of this strategy is the use of a graphite or other noble metal electrode that is electrically coupled with silicon substrate. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Low Earth orbit durability evaluation of protected silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Mccollum, Timothy A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for efficient, cost effective sources of electrical power in space has led to the development of photovoltaic power systems which make use of novel refractive solar concentrators. These concentrators have been conceived in both point-focus and linear-focus designs. Current concentrator lenses are fabricated from flexible silicones with Fresnel facets along their inside surface. To insure the efficient operation of these power systems, the concentrator lenses must be durable and the silicone material must remain specularly transmitting over a reasonable lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) and other space environments. Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in LEO these lenses have been coated with a multi-layer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this research was to evaluate the LEO durability of the multilayer coated silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays with respect to optical properties and microstructure. Flat metal oxide coated silicone samples were exposed to ground-laboratory and in-space atomic oxyqen for durability evaluation.

  14. Bilayer-metal assisted chemical etching of silicon microwire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R. W.; Yuan, G. D.; Wang, K. C.; Wei, T. B.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, G. H.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon microwires with lateral dimension from 5 μm to 20 μm and depth as long as 20 μm are prepared by bilayer metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE). A bilayer metal configuration (Metal 1 / Metal 2) was applied to assist etching of Si where metal 1 acts as direct catalyst and metal 2 provides mechanical support. Different metal types were investigated to figure out the influence of metal catalyst on morphology of etched silicon. We find that silicon microwires with vertical side wall are produced when we use Ag/Au bilayer, while cone-like and porous microwires formed when Pt/Au is applied. The different micro-/nano-structures in as-etched silicon are demonstrated to be due to the discrepancy of work function of metal catalyst relative to Si. Further, we constructed a silicon microwire arrays solar cells in a radial p-n junction configurations in a screen printed aluminum paste p-doping process.

  15. Technology for fabrication of sub-20 nm silicon planar nanowires array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Tatarintsev, Andrey A.; Rogozhin, Alexander E.; Rudenko, Konstantin V.

    2016-12-01

    The results presented on Silicon one-dimensional structures fabrication which are promising for application in nanoelectronics, sensors, THz-applications. We employ two-stage technology of precise anizotropic plasma etching of silicon over e-beam resist and isotropic removal of thermally oxidised defected surface layer of silicon by wet etch. As first the process for nano-fins fabrication on SOI substrate was developed. HSQ resist was used as a negative-tone electron beam resist with good etch-resistance, high resolution and high mechanical stability. The etching was performed by RIE in mix of SF6 + C4F8. plasma. By changing the ratio SF6:C4F8, the sidewall profile angle can be controlled thoroughly. Next step to minimize lateral size of structures and reduce impact of surface defects on electron mobility in core of nanowires was the application of surface thermal oxidation to defected layer. It was used for selective removal of damaged silicon layer and polymer residues. Oxidation was performed with controlled flow of dry oxygen and water vapour. Oxidation rate was precisely controlled by ex-situ spectral ellipsometry on unpatterned chips As a result the arrays of planar sub-20 nm Silicon nanowires with length in the range 200 nm - 500 um were made.

  16. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  17. Active phase correction of high resolution silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Gehl, M.; Trotter, D.; Starbuck, A.; ...

    2017-03-10

    Arrayed waveguide gratings provide flexible spectral filtering functionality for integrated photonic applications. Achieving narrow channel spacing requires long optical path lengths which can greatly increase the footprint of devices. High index contrast waveguides, such as those fabricated in silicon-on-insulator wafers, allow tight waveguide bends which can be used to create much more compact designs. Both the long optical path lengths and the high index contrast contribute to significant optical phase error as light propagates through the device. Thus, silicon photonic arrayed waveguide gratings require active or passive phase correction following fabrication. We present the design and fabrication of compact siliconmore » photonic arrayed waveguide gratings with channel spacings of 50, 10 and 1 GHz. The largest device, with 11 channels of 1 GHz spacing, has a footprint of only 1.1 cm2. Using integrated thermo-optic phase shifters, the phase error is actively corrected. We present two methods of phase error correction and demonstrate state-of-the-art cross-talk performance for high index contrast arrayed waveguide gratings. As a demonstration of possible applications, we perform RF channelization with 1 GHz resolution. In addition, we generate unique spectral filters by applying non-zero phase offsets calculated by the Gerchberg Saxton algorithm.« less

  18. A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance in small field dosimetry: DUO.

    PubMed

    Shukaili, Khalsa Al; Petasecca, Marco; Newall, Matthew; Espinoza, Anthony; Perevertaylo, Vladimir L; Corde, Stéphanie; Lerch, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, there are many different applications that use small fields in radiotherapy treatments. The dosimetry of small radiation fields is not trivial due to the problems associated with lateral disequilibrium and source occlusion and requires reliable quality assurance (QA). Ideally such a QA tool should provide high spatial resolution, minimal beam perturbation and real time fast measurements. Many different types of silicon diode arrays are used for QA in radiotherapy; however, their application in small filed dosimetry is limited, in part, due to a lack of spatial resolution. The Center of Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP) has developed a new generation of a monolithic silicon diode array detector that will be useful for small field dosimetry in SRS/SRT. The objective of this study is to characterize a monolithic silicon diode array designed for dosimetry QA in SRS/SRT named DUO that is arranged as two orthogonal 1D arrays with 0.2 mm pitch. DUO is two orthogonal 1D silicon detector arrays in a monolithic crystal. Each orthogonal array contains 253 small pixels with size 0.04 × 0.8 mm(2) and three central pixels are with a size of 0.18 × 0.18 mm(2) each. The detector pitch is 0.2 mm and total active area is 52 × 52 mm(2) . The response of the DUO silicon detector was characterized in terms of dose per pulse, percentage depth dose, and spatial resolution in a radiation field incorporating high gradients. Beam profile of small fields and output factors measured on a Varian 2100EX LINAC in a 6 MV radiation fields of square dimensions and sized from 0.5 × 0.5 cm(2) to 5 × 5 cm(2) . The DUO response was compared under the same conditions with EBT3 films and an ionization chamber. The DUO detector shows a dose per pulse dependence of 5% for a range of dose rates from 2.7 × 10(-4) to 1.2 × 10(-4) Gy/pulse and 23% when the rate is further reduced to 2.8 × 10(-5) Gy/pulse. The percentage depth dose measured to 25 cm depth in solid water phantom beyond the

  19. Development of Diamond and Silicon MEMS Sensor Arrays with Integrated Readout for Vapor Detection

    PubMed Central

    Possas-Abreu, Maira; Ghassemi, Farbod; Rousseau, Lionel; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Descours, Emilie; Lissorgues, Gaelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of an autonomous instrument based on an array of eight resonant microcantilevers for vapor detection. The fabricated sensors are label-free devices, allowing chemical and biological functionalization. In this work, sensors based on an array of silicon and synthetic diamond microcantilevers are sensitized with polymeric films for the detection of analytes. The main advantage of the proposed system is that sensors can be easily changed for another application or for cleaning since the developed gas cell presents removable electrical connections. We report the successful application of our electronic nose approach to detect 12 volatile organic compounds. Moreover, the response pattern of the cantilever arrays is interpreted via principal component analysis (PCA) techniques in order to identify samples. PMID:28538653

  20. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  1. Broadband light absorption of silicon nanowires embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Lei; Ji, Chun-Lei; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays with broadband light absorption is proposed in this paper. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were utilized to obtain absorptivity and band diagrams for both SiNWs and SiNWs embedded in Ag nano-hole arrays. A direct relationship between waveguide modes and extraordinary absorptivity is established qualitatively, which helps to optimal design the structure parameters to achieve broadband absorptivity. After introducing Ag nano-hole arrays at the rear side of SiNWs, the band modes are extended into leaky regions and light energy can be fully absorbed, resulting in high absorptivity at long wavelength. Severe reflection is also suppressed by light trapping capability of SiNWs at short wavelength. Over 70% average absorptivity from 400 nm to 1100 nm is realized finally. This kinds of design give promising route for high efficiency solar cells and optical absorbers.

  2. Heterogeneously integrated III-V/silicon dual-mode distributed feedback laser array for terahertz generation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haifeng; Keyvaninia, Shahram; Vanwolleghem, Mathias; Ducournau, Guillaume; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Morthier, Geert; Lampin, Jean-Francois; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate an integrated distributed feedback (DFB) laser array as a dual-wavelength source for narrowband terahertz (THz) generation. The laser array is composed of four heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon DFB lasers with different lengths enabling dual-mode lasing tolerant to process variations, bias fluctuations, and ambient temperature variations. By optical heterodyning the two modes emitted by the dual-wavelength DFB laser in the laser array using a THz photomixer composed of an uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a narrow and stable carrier signal with a frequency of 0.357 THz is generated. The central operating frequency and the emitted terahertz wave linewidth are analyzed, along with their dependency on the bias current applied to the laser diode and ambient temperature.

  3. Application of a silicon photodiode array for solar edge tracking in the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. S.; Mayo, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) elevation sunsensor is described. This system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned, monolithic charge coupled device. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the HALOE science instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration, and then maintain the science IFOV four arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 0.7 micrometer operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability. The HALOE instrument is a gas correlation radiometer that is now being developed by NASA Langley Research Center for the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite.

  4. Stress Analysis and Design of Silicon Solar Cell Arrays and Related Material Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M.; Rowe, W. M.; Yasui, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented for the design of solar cell arrays to eliminate mechanical failures that might arise in components of the arrays in a thermal environment. A prerequisite to the approach is the characterization of material properties at different temperatures. Significant data is obtained for the thermal behavior of the silicon solar cell material and adhesives. Upon determining the mechanical and thermal material properties of the components of the solar cell array, utilizing a finite element idealization for predicting the stress fields in the components, and employing the von Mises failure criterion, potential failure areas in various design configurations in a given thermal environment are identified. Guide lines and means to optimize a given design are illustrated by two examples.

  5. Diffuse Brain Injury Elevates Tonic Glutamate Levels and Potassium-Evoked Glutamate Release in Discrete Brain Regions at Two Days Post-Injury: An Enzyme-Based Microelectrode Array Study

    PubMed Central

    Hinzman, Jason M.; Currier Thomas, Theresa; Burmeister, Jason J.; Quintero, Jorge E.; Huettl, Peter; Pomerleau, Francois; Gerhardt, Greg A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from a wide range of post-traumatic deficits, including impairments in behavioral, cognitive, and motor function. Regulation of glutamate signaling is vital for proper neuronal excitation in the central nervous system. Without proper regulation, increases in extracellular glutamate can contribute to the pathophysiology and neurological dysfunction seen in TBI. In the present studies, enzyme-based microelectrode arrays (MEAs) that selectively measure extracellular glutamate at 2 Hz enabled the examination of tonic glutamate levels and potassium chloride (KCl)-evoked glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and striatum of adult male rats 2 days after mild or moderate midline fluid percussion brain injury. Moderate brain injury significantly increased tonic extracellular glutamate levels by 256% in the dentate gyrus and 178% in the dorsal striatum. In the dorsal striatum, mild brain injury significantly increased tonic glutamate levels by 200%. Tonic glutamate levels were significantly correlated with injury severity in the dentate gyrus and striatum. The amplitudes of KCl-evoked glutamate release were increased significantly only in the striatum after moderate injury, with a 249% increase seen in the dorsal striatum. Thus, with the MEAs, we measured discrete regional changes in both tonic and KCl-evoked glutamate signaling, which were dependent on injury severity. Future studies may reveal the specific mechanisms responsible for glutamate dysregulation in the post-traumatic period, and may provide novel therapeutic means to improve outcomes after TBI. PMID:20233041

  6. The Automated Array Assembly Task of the Low-cost Silicon Solar Array Project, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, M. G.; Grenon, L.; Pastirik, E. M.; Pryor, R. A.; Sparks, T. G.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced process sequence for manufacturing high efficiency solar cells and modules in a cost-effective manner is discussed. Emphasis is on process simplicity and minimizing consumed materials. The process sequence incorporates texture etching, plasma processes for damage removal and patterning, ion implantation, low pressure silicon nitride deposition, and plated metal. A reliable module design is presented. Specific process step developments are given. A detailed cost analysis was performed to indicate future areas of fruitful cost reduction effort. Recommendations for advanced investigations are included.

  7. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Guanghong; Diao, Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3×ω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ~2 µm in SF6 gas and to ~5 µm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (~10×) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  8. Fabrication of disposable topographic silicon oxide from sawtoothed patterns: control of arrays of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heesook; Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-05-18

    Disposable topographic silicon oxide patterns were fabricated from polymeric replicas of sawtoothed glass surfaces, spin-coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films, and thermal annealing at certain temperature and followed by oxygen plasma treatment of the thin PDMS layer. A simple imprinting process was used to fabricate the replicated PDMS and PS patterns from sawtoothed glass surfaces. Next, thin layers of PDMS films having different thicknesses were spin-coated onto the sawtoothed PS surfaces and annealed at 60 degrees C to be drawn the PDMS into the valley of the sawtoothed PS surfaces, followed by oxygen plasma treatment to fabricate topographic silicon oxide patterns. By control of the thickness of PDMS layers, silicon oxide patterns having various line widths were fabricated. The silicon oxide topographic patterns were used to direct the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films via solvent annealing process. A highly ordered PS-b-P2VP micellar structure was used to let gold precursor complex with P2VP chains, and followed by oxygen plasma treatment. When the PS-b-P2VP thin films containing gold salts were exposed to oxygen plasma environments, gold salts were reduced to pure gold nanoparticles without changing high degree of lateral order, while polymers were completely degraded. As the width of trough and crest in topographic patterns increases, the number of gold arrays and size of gold nanoparticles are tuned. In the final step, the silicon oxide topographic patterns were selectively removed by wet etching process without changing the arrays of gold nanoparticles.

  9. Analysis of costs of gallium arsenide and silicon solar arrays for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed to compare the costs of silicon and gallium arsenide arrays for Earth orbital missions. The missions included electric power in low Earth orbit (LEO), electric power in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), and power for electric propulsion of a LEO to GEO orbit transfer mission. Inputs to the analysis for all missions included launch and purchase costs of the array. For the orbit transfer mission, the launch and purchase costs of the electric propulsion system were added. Radiation flux as a function of altitude and rediation tolerance as a function of cell type were used to determine power degradation for each mission. Curves were generated that show the sensitivity of launch-array cost and total mission cost to a variety of input parameters for each mission. These parameters included mission duration, cover glass thickness, array specific cost, array specific mass, and solar cell efficiency. Solar concentration was considered and the sensitivities of cost to concentration ratio, concentrator costs, and concentrator mass were also evaluated. Results indicate that solar cell development should give a high priority to reducing array costs and that the development of low cost, lightweight, solar concentrators should be pursued.

  10. Ordered arrays of nanoporous silicon nanopillars and silicon nanopillars with nanoporous shells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of nanoporous Si nanopillars with and without nanoporous base and ordered arrays of Si nanopillars with nanoporous shells are presented. The fabrication route is using a combination of substrate conformal imprint lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. The metal-assisted chemical etching is performed in solutions with different [HF]/[H2O2 + HF] ratios. Both pore formation and polishing (marked by the vertical etching of the nanopillars) are observed in highly doped and lightly doped Si during metal-assisted chemical etching. Pore formation is more active in the highly doped Si, while the transition from polishing to pore formation is more obvious in the lightly doped Si. The etching rate is clearly higher in the highly doped Si. Oxidation occurs on the sidewalls of the pillars by etching in solutions with small [HF]/[H2O2 + HF] ratios, leading to thinning, bending, and bonding of pillars. PMID:23336430

  11. Ordered arrays of nanoporous silicon nanopillars and silicon nanopillars with nanoporous shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Ji, Ran; Du, Song; Albrecht, Arne; Schaaf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of nanoporous Si nanopillars with and without nanoporous base and ordered arrays of Si nanopillars with nanoporous shells are presented. The fabrication route is using a combination of substrate conformal imprint lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. The metal-assisted chemical etching is performed in solutions with different [HF]/[H2O2 + HF] ratios. Both pore formation and polishing (marked by the vertical etching of the nanopillars) are observed in highly doped and lightly doped Si during metal-assisted chemical etching. Pore formation is more active in the highly doped Si, while the transition from polishing to pore formation is more obvious in the lightly doped Si. The etching rate is clearly higher in the highly doped Si. Oxidation occurs on the sidewalls of the pillars by etching in solutions with small [HF]/[H2O2 + HF] ratios, leading to thinning, bending, and bonding of pillars.

  12. Fabrication of a carbon nanotube protruding electrode array for a retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Dai, Hongjie; Fishman, Harvey A.; Harris, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Implantable retinal prosthetic devices consisting of microelectrode arrays are being built in attempts to restore vision. Current retinal prostheses use metal planar electrodes. We are developing a novel electro-neural interface using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as flexible, protruding microelectrodes. We have synthesized vertically self-assembled, multi-walled CNT bundles by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Using conventional silicon-based micro-fabrication processes, these CNT bundles were integrated onto pre-patterned circuits. CNT protruding electrodes have significant potentials in providing safer stimulation for retinal prostheses. They could also act as recording units to sense electrical and chemical activities in neural systems for fundamental neuroscience research.

  13. Fabrication of through-silicon via arrays by photo-assisted electrochemical etching and supercritical electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Yang, Hsi-Min; Wu, Cheng-Xiang; Sanchez, Jorge; Shyu, Jenq-Huey

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to fabricate high aspect ratio through silicon via (TSV) by photo-assisted electrochemical etching (PAECE) and supercritical CO2 copper electroplating. A blind-holed silicon array was first fabricated by PAECE. By studying the etching parameters, including hydrofluoric acid concentration, etchant temperature, stirring speed, tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) content, and Ohmic contact thickness, an array of pores with a 1∶45 aspect ratio (height=250 μm and diameter=5.5 μm) was obtained successfully. Moreover, TBAP and Kodak Photo-Flo (PF) solution were added into the etchant to acquire smooth sidewalls for the first time. TBAP was added for the first time to serve as an antistatic agent in deionized water-based etchant to prevent side-branch etching, and PF was used to degasify hydrogen bubbles in the etchant. The effect of gold thickness over Ohmic contact was investigated. Randomized etching was observed with an Au thickness of 200 Å, but it can be improved by increasing the etching voltage. The silicon mold of through-holes was filled with metal using supercritical CO2 copper electroplating, which features high diffusivity, permeability, and density. The TSV structure (aspect ratio=1∶35) was obtained at a supercritical pressure of 2000 psi, temperature of 50°C, and current density of 30 mA/cm2 in 2.5 h.

  14. Dynamically reconfigurable silicon array of spiking neurons with conductance-based synapses.

    PubMed

    Vogelstein, R Jacob; Mallik, Udayan; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A mixed-signal very large scale integration (VLSI) chip for large scale emulation of spiking neural networks is presented. The chip contains 2400 silicon neurons with fully programmable and reconfigurable synaptic connectivity. Each neuron implements a discrete-time model of a single-compartment cell. The model allows for analog membrane dynamics and an arbitrary number of synaptic connections, each with tunable conductance and reversal potential. The array of silicon neurons functions as an address-event (AE) transceiver, with incoming and outgoing spikes communicated over an asynchronous event-driven digital bus. Address encoding and conflict resolution of spiking events are implemented via a randomized arbitration scheme that ensures balanced servicing of event requests across the array. Routing of events is implemented externally using dynamically programmable random-access memory that stores a postsynaptic address, the conductance, and the reversal potential of each synaptic connection. Here, we describe the silicon neuron circuits, present experimental data characterizing the 3 mm x 3 mm chip fabricated in 0.5-microm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and demonstrate its utility by configuring the hardware to emulate a model of attractor dynamics and waves of neural activity during sleep in rat hippocampus.

  15. 15% Power Conversion Efficiency from a Gated Nanotube/Silicon Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petterson, Maureen K.; Lemaitre, Maxime G.; Shen, Yu; Wadhwa, Pooja; Hou, Jie; Vasilyeva, Svetlana V.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Rinzler, Andrew G.

    2015-03-01

    Despite their enhanced light trapping ability the performance of silicon nanowire array solar cells have, been stagnant with power conversion efficiencies barely breaking 10%. The problem is understood to be the consequence of a high photo-carrier recombination at the large surface area of the Si nanowire sidewalls. Here, by exploiting 1) electronic gating via an ionic liquid electrolyte to induce inversion in the n-type Si nanowires and 2) using a layer of single wall carbon nanotubes engineered to contact each nanowire tip and extract the minority carriers, we demonstrate silicon nanowire array solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 15%. Our results allow for discrimination between the two principle means of avoiding front surface recombination: surface passivation and the use of local fields. A deleterious electrochemical reaction of the silicon due to the electrolyte gating is shown to be caused by oxygen/water entrained in the ionic liquid electrolyte. While encapsulation can avoid the issue a non-encapsulation based solution is also described. We gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under ECCS-1232018.

  16. Handheld mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp silicon nano-blade arrays for rapid intracellular protein extraction.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung-Sik; Yoon, Sang Youl; Song, Min-Kyung; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Yang, Sung

    2010-06-07

    This paper presents a handheld mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nano-blade arrays fabricated by simple and cost effective crystalline wet etching of (110) silicon. The ultra-sharp nano-blade array is simply formed by the undercutting of (110) silicon during the crystalline wet etching process. Cells can be easily disrupted by the silicon nano-blade array without the help of additional reagents or electrical sources. Based on the bench-top test of the proposed device, a handheld mechanical cell lysis chip with the nano-blade arrays is designed and fabricated for direct connection to a commercial syringe. The direct connection to a syringe provides rapid cell lysis, easy handling, and minimization of the lysate dead volume. The protein concentration in the cell lysate obtained by the proposed lysis chip is quantitatively comparable to the one prepared by a conventional chemical lysis method.

  17. Conjugated polymer-silicon nanowire array hybrid Schottky diode for solar cell application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fute; Song, Tao; Sun, Baoquan

    2012-05-17

    The hybrid Schottky diode based on silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been fabricated for high performance solar cells. The length of SiNWs on a silicon substrate, which is prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching, can be tuned by adjusting the length of the etching time. In addition, the average distances between the adjacent silicon nanowires can be controlled by changing the immersing time in a saturated PCl(5) solution. The hybrid devices are made from the SiNWs with different wire lengths and various distances between adjacent wires by spin-casting PEDOT:PSS on the silicon substrates. It is found that the length and density play leading roles in the electric output characteristics. The device made from SiNWs with optimum morphology can achieve a power conversion efficiency of 7.3%, which is much improved in comparison with that of the planar one. The measurement of the transient photovoltage decay and the analysis of the current versus voltage curve indicate that the charge recombination process is a dominant factor on the device performance.

  18. Conjugated polymer-silicon nanowire array hybrid Schottky diode for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fute; Song, Tao; Sun, Baoquan

    2012-05-01

    The hybrid Schottky diode based on silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been fabricated for high performance solar cells. The length of SiNWs on a silicon substrate, which is prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching, can be tuned by adjusting the length of the etching time. In addition, the average distances between the adjacent silicon nanowires can be controlled by changing the immersing time in a saturated PCl5 solution. The hybrid devices are made from the SiNWs with different wire lengths and various distances between adjacent wires by spin-casting PEDOT:PSS on the silicon substrates. It is found that the length and density play leading roles in the electric output characteristics. The device made from SiNWs with optimum morphology can achieve a power conversion efficiency of 7.3%, which is much improved in comparison with that of the planar one. The measurement of the transient photovoltage decay and the analysis of the current versus voltage curve indicate that the charge recombination process is a dominant factor on the device performance.

  19. A monolithic electrically-injected nanowire array edge-emitting laser on (001) silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, E.; Frost, T.; Jahangir, S.; Hazari, A.; Deshpande, S.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2015-03-01

    A silicon-based laser remains an important goal in science and technology. Unfortunately silicon is ill-suited as a light-emitter, prompting the need for alternative high quality light sources integrated with silicon. One such alternative, presented here, is a monolithic III-N edge-emitting laser comprised of a planarized nanowire array. Nanowire heterostructures with InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire active regions were grown on (001)silicon and planarized with parylene, forming a composite slab heterostructure supporting a guided mode propagating transverse to the growth direction. From this composite slab, ridge-geometry lasers were fabricated. Lasers with emission at 533 nm (green) and 610 nm (red) are presented here. The lasers are characterized by Jth = 1.76 kA/cm2 (green) and 2.94kA/cm2 (red) under continuous wave current injection. The green lasers have device lifetime of ~7000 hrs. Small-signal modulation measurements have also been performed. The -3dB modulation bandwidth of the green laser is 5.7 GHz.

  20. Disordered wall arrays by photo-assisted electrochemical etching in n-type silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaohu, Lei; Zhigang, Zhao; Jinchuan, Guo; Ji, Li; Hanben, Niu

    2016-10-01

    The fabrication of ordered, high aspect-ratio microstructures in silicon by use of photo-assisted electrochemical etching is an important technology, where voltage and current density are significant factors. In this paper, disordered walls appear in 5-inch n-type silicon wafers when a large current density is used. Based on the theory of space charge region, these disordered walls are caused by the contradiction between the protection from dissolution by a high applied voltage and the dissolution by a high current density. To verify this point, wall arrays were fabricated at different applied voltages and current densities. Moreover, the critical voltage was kept constant and different current densities were applied to obtain conditions for avoiding disordered walls and achieving uniform wall arrays. Finally, a wall array with a period of 5.6 μm and a depth of 55 μm was achieved at an applied voltage of 3 V and a monotonically increasing current density ranging from 22.9 to 24.5 mA/cm2. Project supported by the National Special Foundation of China for Major Science Instrument (No. 61227802), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61405120), the National Program on Key Basic Research Project (No. 2012CB825802), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M552224).

  1. Fabrication of Nanosilicon Ink and Two-Dimensional Array of Nanocrystalline Silicon Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Hiroki; Usami, Koichi; Uchida, Ken; Oda, Shunri

    2010-12-01

    An assembly of nanoparticles using a colloidal solution is promising for the fabrication of future highly integrated electron and photoelectronic devices because of low manufacturing cost, flexible substrates, and alternative methods that can overcome the limitation of top-down technology. We have successfully prepared two-dimensional arrays of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) quantum dots with a uniform size of 10 nm. However, the area of two-dimensional arrays has been limited because of the problems of dissolution in water and agglomeration of nc-Si due to a high surface reactivity. The key issue is the surface modification of nc-Si particles. In this study, we have demonstrated the evaluation of surface modification states of nc-Si QDs by zeta potential and particle size distribution measurements. As a result of the optimization of the surface modification process, we have successfully obtained a well-dispersed nc-Si QD solution, namely, nanosilicon ink. Furthermore, we have successfully fabricated a two-dimensional array of nc-Si QDs using the Langmuir-Blodgett film method in the entire 1 ×1 cm2 silicon substrate.