The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.
...-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188 w/BBU-35B Training Chaff, 3,750 BDU-33D/B w/lugs/ Mk4 spot... (RNLAF) F-16 Formal Training Unit (FTU), 50,000 MJU-7B w/BBU-36B Infrared Decoy Flares, 30,000 RR-188...
Baggett, J. S.; Skahill, B. E.
Evolutionary strategies allow automatic calibration of more complex models than traditional gradient based approaches, but they are more computationally intensive. We present several efficiency enhancements for evolution strategies, many of which are not new, but when combined have been shown to dramatically decrease the number of model runs required for calibration of synthetic problems. To reduce the number of expensive model runs we employ a surrogate objective function for an adaptively determined fraction of the population at each generation (Kern et al., 2006). We demonstrate improvements to the adaptive ranking strategy that increase its efficiency while sacrificing little reliability and further reduce the number of model runs required in densely sampled parts of parameter space. Furthermore, we include a gradient individual in each generation that is usually not selected when the search is in a global phase or when the derivatives are poorly approximated, but when selected near a smooth local minimum can dramatically increase convergence speed (Tahk et al., 2007). Finally, the selection of the gradient individual is used to adapt the size of the population near local minima. We show, by incorporating these enhancements into the Covariance Matrix Adaption Evolution Strategy (CMAES; Hansen, 2006), that their synergetic effect is greater than their individual parts. This hybrid evolutionary strategy exploits smooth structure when it is present but degrades to an ordinary evolutionary strategy, at worst, if smoothness is not present. Calibration of 2D-3D synthetic models with the modified CMAES requires approximately 10%-25% of the model runs of ordinary CMAES. Preliminary demonstration of this hybrid strategy will be shown for watershed model calibration problems. Hansen, N. (2006). The CMA Evolution Strategy: A Comparing Review. In J.A. Lozano, P. Larrañga, I. Inza and E. Bengoetxea (Eds.). Towards a new evolutionary computation. Advances in estimation of
Yang, Tae Young; Jeong, Seongmun
In recent years, RNA-seq has become a very competitive alternative to microarrays. In RNA-seq experiments, the expected read count for a gene is proportional to its expression level multiplied by its transcript length. Even when two genes are expressed at the same level, differences in length will yield differing numbers of total reads. The characteristics of these RNA-seq experiments create a gene-level bias such that the proportion of significantly differentially expressed genes increases with the transcript length, whereas such bias is not present in microarray data. Gene-set analysis seeks to identify the gene sets that are enriched in the list of the identified significant genes. In the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq, the gene-level bias subsequently yields the gene-set-level bias that a gene set with genes of long length will be more likely to show up as enriched than will a gene set with genes of shorter length. Because gene expression is not related to its transcript length, any gene set containing long genes is not of biologically greater interest than gene sets with shorter genes. Accordingly the gene-set-level bias should be removed to accurately calculate the statistical significance of each gene-set enrichment in the RNA-seq. We present a new gene set analysis method of RNA-seq, called FDRseq, which can accurately calculate the statistical significance of a gene-set enrichment score by the grouped false-discovery rate. Numerical examples indicated that FDRseq is appropriate for controlling the transcript length bias in the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq data. To implement FDRseq, we developed the R program, which can be downloaded at no cost from http://home.mju.ac.kr/home/index.action?siteId=tyang.
Dabrowska-Wójciak, Iwona; Piotrowski, Andrzej
Over the last 30 years, three new opioids of the piperidine family have been introduced to anaesthesia clinical practice: sufentanil, alfentanil and remifentanil. Alfentanil is a derivative of fentanyl, with quicker onset than that of fentanyl and with shorter duration and more intense vagomimetic properties than those of fentanyl and sufentanil. It may cause less intense respiratory depression than equianalgesic doses of fentanyl. Clinical trials indicate that alfentanil can be used effectively as an analgesic, as an analgesic supplement to anaesthesia, and as the major component of a general anaesthetic. Its short duration of effect makes it attractive as an analgesic supplement for short ambulatory surgical procedures. Sufentanil is a more potent and more lipophilic analgesic than fentanyl. It would appear to maintain haemodynamic stability during surgery better than other opioids. Epidural sufentanil produces a rapid onset and good quality of analgesia. In addition, low doses administered intravenously via a PCA pump seem to have a potential role for analgesia during labour. Remifentanil is an opioid analgesic that is rapidly metabolized by non-specific blood and tissue esterases. According to its unique pharmacokinetic profile, remifentanil-based anaesthesia combines high-dosage opioid analgesia intraoperatively with a rapid and predictable postoperative awakening, even after long procedures. Its vagomimetic properties are especially pronounced in small children, the elderly and hypovolaemic patients, and in these groups atropine should be always given before remifentanil administration. Remifentanil also minimises the adrenergic response to endotracheal intubation. Three mju agonist-antagonists have been used for pain treatment: nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine. They can be used in ambulatory settings. Nalbuphine can be used parenterally. It reverses morphine-induced respiratory depression while maintaining adequate analgesic effect. Buprenorphine