Science.gov

Sample records for silvicultural systems

  1. Choosing a silvicultural system

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Gary G. Naughton

    1989-01-01

    Landowners frequently have definite objectives and preferences that should influence the selection of a silvicultural system. Timber production is not the primary reason many landowners practice forestry, and silvicultural practices must be flexible enough to provide other "products" such as wildlife, esthetics, and recreation.

  2. Selecting a silvicultural system

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Sometimes a name creates a problem. The name of a silvicultural system usually refers to the way a stand is cut to get regeneration-"single tree selection"-for example. Trouble is, the name suggests that the regeneration cut will be the first treatment applied to the stand. Not so. We are now mostly making "intermediate" cuts in our Lake States...

  3. Silvicultural systems for managing ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Andrew Youngblood

    2005-01-01

    Silviculturists have primarily relied on classical even-aged silvicultural systems (the planned series of treatments for tending, harvesting, and re-establishing a stand) for ponderosa pine, with uneven-aged systems used to a lesser degree. Current management practices involve greater innovation because of conflicting management objectives. Silvicultural systems used...

  4. Silvicultural systems for southern bottomland hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    Silvicultural systems integrate both regeneration and intermediate operations in an orderly process for managing forest stands. The clearcutting method of regeneration favors the development of species that are moderately intolerant to intolerant of shade. In fact, clearcutting is the most proven and widely used method of successfully regenerating bottomland oak...

  5. Effects of different silvicultural systems on initial soft mast production

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; David G. Peitz; Philip A. Tappe

    1999-01-01

    Recent policy changes by federal land management agencies such as the United States [Department of Agriculture] Forest Service have led to increased use of silvicultural systems other than clearcutting. Because soft mast is an integral part of wildlife habitat and the effects of these alternative silviculture systems on soft mast production are unknown, we evaluated...

  6. Silvicultural systems and red-cockaded woodpecker management: another perspective

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Hedrick; Robert G. Hooper; Dennis L. Krusac; Joseph M. Dabney

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 Rudolph and Conner maintained that a modified even-aged silvicultural system using irregular shelterwood as the method of regenerating new stands provides greater benefits for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) than uneven-aged systems. Their argument was confined to loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. ecbinata) pine forest types and emphasized...

  7. Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of the United States

    Treesearch

    Russell M. Burns

    1983-01-01

    The current trend toward the establishment and care of forests for a wide combination of uses requires flexibility in forest culture and a knowledge of the silvicultural choices available to the resource manager. This publication summarizes the silvicultural systems that appear biologically feasible, on the basis of present knowledge, for each of 48 major forest types...

  8. Hydrologic response of northern wetlands to silvicultural water management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trettin, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of water management systems are used to ameliorate saturated soil conditions which limit silvicultural operations and site productivity in northern wetlands. The pattern ditch system is an intensive drainage network designed to regulate water table depth in peat soils. The prescription drainage system is a low-intensity drainage system that is used to develop apparent drainage patterns in mineral and histic-mineral soils. These water management systems may either increase or decrease peak flow, base flow, and the duration of peak flow events, depending on drainage system design, climate, season, site characteristics, and land use. The most common hydrologic response to drainage is an increase in peak flow and base flow, and an increase in annual runoff. The effect of wetland drainage on watershed hydrology depends on the proportion of the watershed drained. Drainage may also affect water quality, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition and structure.

  9. A transportation-scheduling system for managing silvicultural projects

    Treesearch

    Jorge F. Valenzuela; H. Hakan Balci; Timothy McDonald

    2005-01-01

    A silvicultural project encompasses tasks such as sitelevel planning, regeneration, harvestin, and stand-tending treatments. an essential problem in managing silvicultural projects is to efficiently schedule the operations while considering project task due dates and costs of moving scarce resources to specific job locations. Transportation costs represent a...

  10. Use of expert systems for integrated silvicultural planning

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1997-01-01

    The use of silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands presents opportunities for increasing the growth and yield of quality sawtimber and enhancing the suitability of the site for use by numerous species of wildlife. Planners, loggers, and managers must consider multiple aspects of the ecosystem when making silvicultural decisions. In this paper we demonstrate an...

  11. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  12. Free selection: a silvicultural option

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain; Jonathan Sandquist

    2007-01-01

    Forest management objectives continue to evolve as the desires and needs of society change. The practice of silviculture has risen to the challenge by supplying silvicultural methods and systems to produce desired stand and forest structures and compositions to meet these changing objectives. For the most part, the practice of silviculture offers a robust set of...

  13. Regenerating oak-dominated forests using irregular, gap-based silvicultural systems

    Treesearch

    John M. Lhotka; Michael R. Saunders; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the Eastern United States, practitioners have primarily focused on using uniformly applied even-aged approaches to regenerate oak species. Irregular, gap-based silvicultural systems offer an alternative that retains continuous canopy cover, creates heterogeneous forest structure, and provides multiple income flows over a rotation. Although commonly used in...

  14. Genetic evaluation of alternative silvicultural systems in coastal montane forests: western hemlock and amabilis fir.

    PubMed

    El-Kassaby, Y A; Dunsworth, B G; Krakowski, J

    2003-08-01

    Genetic diversity and mating system were quantified for shelterwood, patch cut and green tree-retention silvicultural systems, and compared to adjacent old-growth. This is a component of a larger study conducted in montane old-growth forests of coastal British Columbia to evaluate the feasibility and ecological consequences of alternative silvicultural systems. The experiment includes replicated treatments representing a range of overstory removal adjacent to old-growth and clearcut areas. Based on 22 electrophoretically assayed loci, the effects of silvicultural systems on genetic parameters of amabilis fir (Abies amabilis and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assessed by comparing an average number of alleles per locus, the percent polymorphic loci, and observed and expected heterozygosity between parental populations and naturally regenerated progeny as well as among treatments. Genetic variation in natural regeneration was greater than in parental populations, especially for low-frequency alleles. Silvicultural treatments caused no significant differences in amabilis fir genetic-diversity parameters, while the shelterwood system resulted in lower observed and expected heterozygosity in western hemlock. Nei's genetic distance revealed that all parental populations were extremely similar. The two species had contrasting mating system dynamics with amabilis fir producing higher levels of correlated paternity and inbreeding with wider variation among individual tree outcrossing-rate estimates. Western hemlock had significant levels of correlated paternity only for the green tree and shelterwood treatments demonstrating family structuring inversely related to stand density. Inbreeding in western hemlock was significant but lower than that observed for amabilis fir with a J-shaped distribution for individual tree multilocus outcrossing-rate estimates. The pollination and dispersal mechanisms of the two species represent the most-likely factors causing these

  15. Proportional basal area method for implementing selection silviculture systems in longleaf pine forests

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Edward F. Loewenstein; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2014-01-01

    Proportional basal area (Pro-B) was developed as an accurate, easy-to-use method for making uneven-aged silviculture a practical management option. Following less than 3 h of training, forest staff from a range of professional backgrounds used Pro-B in an operational-scale field study to apply single-tree selection and group selection systems in longleaf pine (Pinus...

  16. Development of silvicultural systems for maintaining old-growth conditions in the temperate rainforest of southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Michael H. McClellan

    2004-01-01

    In the old-growth temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska, concerns over clearcutting effects on habitat, visual quality, slope stability, and biodiversity have created a demand for the use of other silvicultural systems. The forest vegetation and animal taxa of southeast Alaska appear to be well adapted to frequent, widespread, small-scale disturbance, suggesting...

  17. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  18. Forest health through silviculture: Proceedings of the 1995 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    Lane G. Eskew

    1995-01-01

    Includes 32 papers documenting presentations at the 1995 Forest Service National Silviculture Workshop. The workshop's purpose was to review, discuss, and share silvicultural research information and management experience critical to forest health on National Forest System lands and other Federal and private forest lands. Papers focus on the role of natural...

  19. BMPs for silvicultural chemicals

    Treesearch

    J. L. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Silvicultural chemicals include fertilizers and pesticides applied for forest management. All states East of the Rockies have at least some form of voluntary silvicultural chemical BMPs (SCBMPs) and it is widely accepted that these BMPs effect some protection of water quality. All SCBWs recommend a minimum width zone (streamside management zone or SMZ) on each side of...

  20. Economics of hardwood silviculture using skyline and conventional logging

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Gary W. Miller; Chris B. LeDoux

    1995-01-01

    Managing Appalachian hardwood forests to satisfy the growing and diverse demands on this resource will require alternatives to traditional silvicultural methods and harvesting systems. Determining the relative economic efficiency of these alternative methods and systems with respect to harvest cash flows is essential. The effects of silvicultural methods and roundwood...

  1. Development of the selection system in northern hardwood forests of the Lake States: an 80-year silviculture research legacy

    Treesearch

    Christel Kern; Gus Erdmann; Laura Kenefic; Brian Palik; Terry. Strong

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In 1926, the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest. In response to social...

  2. Overview of silviculture

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, C.D.

    1986-04-01

    During the past thirty years, the major trends in silviculture were: no timber famine developed, although timber was scarce in some species and qualities. Along with paper and lumber production, annual wood removals increased in practically every region for both softweeds and hardwoods. Growing stock was up in every region except the Pacific coast, where the high volume of old growth was replaced with young stands. Mechanized silvicultural operations that minimized manpower were products of the cheap-machine era. Most apparent forestry successes were with even-age, single-species stands. Timber for wood products was the primary incentive for silvicultural manipulations. Intensive silvicultural operations occurred on a small proportion of commercial forest land. During the next 30 years, the following questions are likely to be important: should investments be made to increase growth in the most desirable stands or to upgrade less-than-desirable stands. Should dense, small-diameter stands be harvested or be left to grow slowly. Should cull trees in high graded stands be removed to release potentially vigorous regeneration. Should intensive site preparation, regeneration, and timber-stand improvement efforts be made to regenerate harvested conifer stands in the East with another rotation of conifers, or should stands be allowed to grow naturally to predominant hardwoods. Should stand structures be manipulated to promote alternate uses, such as hunting and camping. 21 references.

  3. Proceedings: National silvicultural workshop

    Treesearch

    Stanley J. Barras

    2001-01-01

    Silviculture, as an integrative discipline, must combine management skills with scientific and technical knowledge in the management of forests and woodlands. While traditionally, silviculturists worked in fine resolution landscapes, today's practitioner must look at encompassing both larger geographic areas (adjacent stands, watersheds, regions, subregions) and...

  4. Upland hardwood silviculture DVD

    Treesearch

    Claire Payne; Donna Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The Upland Hardwood Ecology and Management unit of the Southern Research Station offers a week-long course that provides practicing foresters with information about current silvicultural practices and emerging issues based on scientific research and applied techniques that affect managing upland hardwoods. This DVD captures the course that took place in July 2007....

  5. Silvicultural options for neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; John R. Probst; Martin G. Raphael

    1993-01-01

    We review: factors that affect forest bird populations; basic concepts of silvicultural systems; potential impacts of these systems on neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs); and conclude with management recommendations for integrating NTMB conservation with forest management. We approach this topic from a regional-landscape scale to a forest stand-habitat scale, rather...

  6. Commoditization and the Origins of American Silviculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a suite of goods and services, including wood products as well as an array of ecosystem services and other non-timber goods and services. Despite an increasing emphasis on managing forests as holistic systems providing a portfolio of goods and services, silvicultural research has focused on maximizing production of…

  7. Commoditization and the Origins of American Silviculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems provide a suite of goods and services, including wood products as well as an array of ecosystem services and other non-timber goods and services. Despite an increasing emphasis on managing forests as holistic systems providing a portfolio of goods and services, silvicultural research has focused on maximizing production of…

  8. Silvicultural treatments in immature stands

    Treesearch

    Richard C. Schlesinger

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments for immature central hardwood stands include precommercial and commercial thinnings, lateral branch pruning, fertilization, cull tree deadening, and vine removal. The specifics of these treatments are discussed elsewhere in these Notes. This Note discusses some basic concepts in the selection and application of silvicultural treatments for...

  9. Silvicultural treatments in sapling stands

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson

    1989-01-01

    Sapling stands are those in which codominant trees average less than 5 inches d.b.h. Silvicultural treatments in sapling stands can be summed up in two words: CROP TREES. Any silvicultural treatment must help crop trees if the investment in sapling stands is going to pay off. Just cutting "bad" or "undesirable" trees does not insure that crop trees...

  10. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    DOE PAGES

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; ...

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments:more » monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.« less

  11. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  12. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    PubMed

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Fonseca, Eduardo S; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  13. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  14. Wetland Silvicultural Systems

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1981-01-01

    Many forests of the lowlands and swamps of the Midsouth are occasionally to frequently inundated. Such forests are common along the Mississippi, White, Red, Mobile, Tombigbee, and Alabama Rivers, and in coastal swamps such as the Atchafalaya Basin.

  15. Proceedings of the national silviculture workshop. Economics of silvicultural investments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Eighteen papers arising from the conference are presented: legal requirements for economic analysis (Row, C.); The role of economics in national forest planning (Palmer, C; Row, C; Randal, R.M.); The framework for examining silvicultural options in forest planning (Ortman, T.); Integrating forest planning with regional planning and management (Merzenich, J.P.); Genetic gains realizable in rust resistance programs - what are we buying. (Manning, G.; Howe, G.); How should we consider other resources in silvicultural planning (McDivitt, J.; Hansen, C.); Interrelationships among biological, financial and silvicultural decisions in forestry (Fey, W.R.; Robinson, V.L.); Searching the response surface of stand simulators under different objectives and constraints. DFSIM (Douglas fir simulator) as a case study (Sleavin, K.E.; Johnson, K.N.); What good are efficient timber prescriptions. (Fight, R.D.); Handheld programmable computers (Stanger, L.O.); Economic efficiency in the forest service planning process: a critique of the definition of economic efficiency (Medema, L.); An evaluation of federal silvicultural investments made through the 1979 forestry incentives program (Risbrudt, C.D.); Analysing bids for silvicultural contracts promotes efficient allocation of funds (Guldin, R.W.); Some economic aspects of R-8 planning (Greenhalgh, R.); A practical application of economic analysis to vegetation management treatments (Skinner, M.); Stratifying sites by productivity and treatment constrains for reforestation (Fiske, J.); Causes of variation in the direct cost of silvicultural treatments on national forest land (Mills, T.J.); and Problem solving and decision analysis in silviculture (Beuter, J.H.).

  16. The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute: partnerships that demonstrate the role of silviculture in forest management

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Andrew Youngblood

    1997-01-01

    The research program of the Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute (BMNRI) aims to understand the ecological effects of current management practices. In forest systems, this amounts to silvicultural research. We describe how the BMNRl fosters partnerships to carry out and showcase silvicultural research leading to information that allows assessment of economic/...

  17. Silviculture for the 21st century--objective and subjective standards to guide successful practice

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Russell T. Graham

    2007-01-01

    Silviculture is increasingly being applied in ways that go beyond traditional timber management objectives. Across the National Forest System, on other public lands, and increasingly on private lands as well, foresters are working with professional colleagues and landowners to develop innovative silvicultural prescriptions designed to meet diverse resource management...

  18. Silviculture in the new age of conservation

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Crow

    2004-01-01

    In his seminal book "The Practice of Silviculture," Smith (1962) compared the role of silviculture in forestry to agronomy in agriculture. Both are applied sciences dealing with managing ecosystems for human benefit. Silviculture is, as Bob Seymour notes in this volume, "where forestry meets the land." What is the relevance of traditional...

  19. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  20. Use of microcomputers for planning and managing silviculture habitat relationships.

    Treesearch

    B.G. Marcot; R.S. McNay; R.E. Page

    1988-01-01

    Microcomputers aid in monitoring, modeling, and decision support for integrating objectives of silviculture and wildlife habitat management. Spreadsheets, data bases, statistics, and graphics programs are described for use in monitoring. Stand growth models, modeling languages, area and geobased information systems, and optimization models are discussed for use in...

  1. Learning, connecting, reconnecting: Summary of the 2007 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2008-01-01

    The National Silviculture Workshop's genesis in 1973 was the result of forward thinking individuals within the Timber Management staff of National Forest Systems. Several national issues of the 1970s including, but not limited to: 1) the passing of the National Forest Management Act, 2) the mandate that all timber removal, reforestation, and timber stand...

  2. Effects of silvicultural treatments in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sallie J. Hejl; Richard L. Hutto; Charles R. Preston; Deborah M. Finch

    1995-01-01

    Neotropical migrants have been affected by the loss and fragmentation of forests in the eastern United States (Askins et al. 1990). Changes in western forests and the effects of these changes on birds may be different from those in the East. While timber harvesting is widespread in the western United States, the purpose of silvicultural systems on public land is to...

  3. Silvicultural alternatives in a longleaf pine/wiregrass woodland in southwest Georgia: understory hardwood response to harvest-created gaps

    Treesearch

    Steven B. Jack; Robert J. Mitchell; Stephen D. Pecot

    2006-01-01

    Management of longleaf pine woodlands and savannas in areas that have multiple objectives including conservation of biodiversity is increasingly common on public and private lands, and various silvicultural approaches have been proposed to meet the diverse objectives. While considerable work has investigated how alternative silvicultural systems influence longleaf pine...

  4. Simulating Silvicultural Treatments Using FIA Data

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Carl E. Fiedler

    2005-01-01

    Potential uses of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIADB) extend far beyond descriptions and summaries of current forest resources. Silvicultural treatments, although typically conducted at the stand level, may be simulated using the FIADB for predicting future forest conditions and resources at broader scales. In this study, silvicultural prescription...

  5. Stand development and silviculture in bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. Steven Meadows

    1993-01-01

    Silviculture for the production of high-quality timber in southern bottomland hardwood forests involves the application of environmentally sound practices in order to enhance the growth and quality of both individual trees and stands. To accomplish this purpose, silvicultural practices are typically used to regulate stand density, species composition, and stem quality...

  6. Proceedings of the 15th biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-eight papers and seventeen posters address a range of issues affecting southern forests. Papers are grouped in 12 sessions that include pine silviculture session I, hardwood silviculture - intermediate treatment and stand development, longleaf pine; quantitative silviculture and economics, pine silviculture session II, hardwood regeneration, carbon and bioenergy...

  7. Silvicultural systems for bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests normally regenerate with species found in the overstory. These species reflect the timing, duration, depth of water, and nature of the sediment in past flooding. The longer water stands during the growing season and the deeper the sediment, the fewer the species that are able to survive. Flooding patterns often change over the life of a...

  8. [Silviculture of poplar plantation in China: a review].

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng-Zuo

    2008-10-01

    There are more than 7.0 million hm2 of poplar plantation in China, ranking top one in the world. To meet the needs of a growing world for social-economic development, environmental improvement, and sustainable development through poplar plantation establishment is a main research interest in the globe. This paper introduced the regionalizing cultivation, key planting clones, and productivities of poplar plantations in China, and summarized the recent 10 years research progress in China in the site quality evaluation, seedling propagation techniques, management patterns, mixed plantation establishment, agroforestry management system, water and nutrient management techniques, site productivity maintenance, and ecological functions of poplar plantation. The potential productivity, general allocation, oriented silviculture, and environmental function study of poplar plantation were also discussed and prospected. The contents of this paper would provide some references for the silviculture and sustainable management of poplar plantation in China.

  9. Opportunities for silvicultural treatment in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.

  10. Communicating the role of silviculture and Forest Service silviculture research in the interior West

    Treesearch

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Victor J. Applegate; Philip S. Aune; Clinton E. Carlson; Kathleen Geier-Hayes; Russell T. Graham; Glenn L. Jacobsen; Theresa B. Jain; David C. Powell; Wayne D. Shepperd; John P. Sloan; Andrew Youngblood

    1997-01-01

    Silviculturists create desired forest conditions across the landscape and over time. Our job is to synthesize knowledge from many disciplines to develop prescriptions that produce desired forest conditions. In turn, forest conditions result in products and values for society. Silviculture and silviculture research help provide the scientific basis for land management...

  11. Silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel; P.H. Cochran

    1981-01-01

    The silviculture of mixed conifer forests in eastern Oregon and Washington is described. Topics discussed include ecological setting, damaging agents, silviculture, and management. The relevant literature is presented, along with unpublished research, experience, and observations. Research needs are also proposed.

  12. Communicating the story of silviculture on the Allegheny National Forest

    Treesearch

    Lois M. DeMarco; Susan L. Stout

    1997-01-01

    To communicate the story of silviculture on the Allegheny National Forest, we need to distinguish silviculture-the art and science of manipulating forest vegetation to achieve management objectives-from forest management. During the field trip for the National Silviculture Workshop we visited five sites that demonstrate how inventory and monitoring, resource management...

  13. Silviculture of Southern Bottomland Hardwoods: 25 Years of Change

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes changes that have occurred in the silviculture of southern bottomland hardwood forests over the past 25 years, particularly in terms of modifications to existing silvicultural practices, abandonment of unsuitable practices, and development of new practices. Changes in the focus and objectives of hardwood silviculture and the emergence of new...

  14. Review of A critique of silviculture: managing for complexity

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    Klaus Puettmann, K. David Coates, and Christian Messier have written a timely book. One of a few books specifically about American silviculture outside of the standard textbooks by Daniel et al. (1979), Smith et al. (1997), and Nyland (2002), and going beyond the regional focus of many of the other silviculture books, Critique of Silviculture: Managing for Complexity...

  15. A research agenda for silviculture in the Great Lakes Region

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise Levy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Lakes Silviculture Summit took place in April 2003 at Michigan Technological University. The primary audience of the summit included institutional representatives who define needs and set policy regarding silvicultural approaches and practice, as well as researchers working in silviculture or related disciplines.

  16. Getting to the future through silviculture - Workshop proceedings

    Treesearch

    Dennis Murphy

    1992-01-01

    Includes 19 papers documenting presentations at the 1991 Forest Service National Silviculture Workshop. Discussions focus on the role of silviculture in New Perspectives (ecosystem management), new approaches to the practice of silviculture, and examples of successful integration of practices into multi resource management.

  17. Communicating the role of silviculture in managing the national forests: Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1997-01-01

    Contains 32 articles on communicating the values and benefits of silviculture in managing the national forests. Specific topics addressed are how communications affect: policymakers, inventory and monitoring, resource management, research, education and demonstration, and partnerships.

  18. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1989-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments can be used to minimize gypsy moth impacts on hardwood stands. There are two major strategies of these treatments: (1) to decrease susceptibility to defoliation by gypsy moth and (2) to strengthen the stand against mortality and encourage growth after defoliation.

  19. Using silviculture to minimize gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    Several studies are underway to test and evaluate the use of silvicultural treatments to minimize gypsy moth impacts. Treatment objectives are to change stand susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation or stand vulnerability to damage after defoliation. Decision charts have been developed to help forest and land managers to select the appropriate treatment for their...

  20. The Use of COCOON in Teaching Silviculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacik, Harald; Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Spork, Josef; Kortschak, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    At the Institute of Silviculture at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, students learn to cross-link ecological, socio-economic and technical knowledge of maintaining, regenerating, tending and utilizing forests in a sustainable way. They learn complex concepts and processes most successfully when they are…

  1. Uneven-aged silviculture of longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    The use of uneven-aged silviculture has increased markedly in the past 20 years. This is especially true in the southern United States, where the use of clearcutting and planting is often viewed as a practice whose emphasis on fiber production results in unacceptable consequences for other values, such as those that benefit from maintenance of continuous forest cover...

  2. The Use of COCOON in Teaching Silviculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacik, Harald; Wolfslehner, Bernhard; Spork, Josef; Kortschak, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    At the Institute of Silviculture at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, students learn to cross-link ecological, socio-economic and technical knowledge of maintaining, regenerating, tending and utilizing forests in a sustainable way. They learn complex concepts and processes most successfully when they are…

  3. Proceedings of the Great Lakes silviculture summit

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise (ed.) Levy

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Great Lakes Silviculture Summit was to identify a research agenda that captures the priority information needs of diverse organizations in the region. These needs and the resultant research agenda are presented in the series of papers in these proceedings.

  4. Emerging issues with silviculture practices in wetlands

    Treesearch

    Mike. Wylle

    2016-01-01

    Silviculture activities in wetlands involving discharges of dredge and/or fill material have been exempt from Clean Water Act (CWA) permits after the 1975 amendments to the CWA which were phased in by July 1977.

  5. Integrating silviculture, forest management, and forest policy

    Treesearch

    Chadwick D. Oliver

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made in developing and implementing individual silvicultural operations such as regeneration, thinning, and harvesting by various means. Similarly, foresters have made progress at managing flows of timber and other commodity values. Present concern that forests provide an even greater variety of commodity and non-commodity values can be...

  6. Intensive group selection silviculture in central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Leon S. Minckler

    1989-01-01

    In 1947 conferences of Forest Service research people from Federal, Regional, and Research Center units met in Southern Illinois to set up in 1948 a whole rotation study on the Kaskaskia Experimental Forest involving 38 commercial compartments. The chief objectives were to evaluate the success, ability for sustained silviculture, and the costs and returns for a full...

  7. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  8. Efficient silvicultural practices for eastern hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; John E. Baumgras

    1994-01-01

    Eastern hardwood forests are now managed to meet a wide range of objectives, resulting in the need for silvicultural alternatives that provide timber, wildlife, aesthetics, recreation, and other benefits. However, forest management practices must continue to be efficient in terms of profiting from current harvests, protecting the environment, and sustaining production...

  9. Challenges facing gap-based silviculture and possible solutions for mesic northern forests in North America

    Treesearch

    Christel C. Kern; Julia I. Burton; Patricia Raymond; Anthony W. D' Amato; William S. Keeton; Alex Royo; Michael B. Walters; Christopher R. Webster; John L. Willis

    2016-01-01

    Gap-based silvicultural systems were developed under the assumption that richness, and diversity of tree species and other biota positively respond to variation in size of harvest-created canopy gaps. However, varying gap size alone often does not meet diversity objectives and broader goals to address contemporary forest conditions. Recent research highlights the need...

  10. The development of uneven-aged southern pine silviculture before the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA)

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2017-01-01

    Although the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) played a well-publicized role in the development of uneven-aged southern pine silviculture, work on a selection method in Arkansas (USA) did not originate there. In 1925, Leslie Pomeroy and Eugene Connor acquired the Ozark Badger Lumber Company and initiated an expert-driven selection management system compatible with...

  11. Sixty Years of Silviculture in a Northern Conifer Forest in Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Nicole Rogers; Laura Kenefic; Mindy Crandall; Robert Seymour; Paul Sendak

    2017-01-01

    In 1950, the US Forest Service initiated a cutting practice level (CPL) study on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine on the basis of findings of a national appraisal of forestland management. Silvicultural treatments, including the selection system with 5- and 15-year cutting cycles, fixed diameter-limit cutting, and variants of commercial clearcutting, were...

  12. An overview of oak silviculture in the United States: the past, present, and future

    Treesearch

    R. Rogers; P.S. Johnson; D.L. Loftis

    1993-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus) are important components of forest systems throughout the United States. This overview describes past, present, and future silvicultural practices within the oak-hickory ecosystem of the United States. Past land-use activitiesfavored oak development, butwildfire and livestock grazing controls have caused severe oak regeneration...

  13. What does modern technology portend for uneven-aged southern pine silviculture?

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin; Ernest Lovett

    2004-01-01

    Recent changes in forest technology and market influences may impede the practice of uneven-aged (LEA) silviculture. For example, the use of tree-length systems with mechanized harvesters can unacceptably reduce the density of advanced regeneration, making it difficult to maintain the desired size class distribution. Changes to tree utilization standards, limited...

  14. History of silviculture on public lands

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2014-01-01

    There are many instances in scholarly activity where the writing of a colleague is made more vivid when one knows him or her personally—and Eric Zenner’s essay is certainly no exception! I can see Eric at a podium of a forestry school in the United States or Europe, emphatically proclaiming that “Silviculture is the pen with which our profession writes, but too often...

  15. Summary of the 2009 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    The theme of the 2009 National Silviculture Workshop held in Boise Idaho in June 2009 was, “Integrated management of carbon sequestration and biomass utilization opportunities in a changing climate.” The session had a series of outstanding presentations and field tours focused on the theme of the meeting nationally, and with specific reference to the forests of the...

  16. Reference Stands for Silvicultural Research: A Maine Perspective

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Alan S. White; Andrew R. Cutko; Shawn Fraver

    2005-01-01

    Silvicultural experiments should have untreated stand replicates in which development can be tracked over time. Unfortunately, field studies are seldom ideal. This article is one of six in this issue addressing experimental controls. Our focus is the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in Maine, where a 55-year-old experiment in northern conifer silviculture has an...

  17. Impact of silvicultural treatment on chestnut seedling growth and survival

    Treesearch

    C.C. Pinchot; S.E. Schlarbaum; S.L. Clark; C.J. Schweitzer; A.M. Saxton; F. V. Hebard

    2014-01-01

    Putatively blight-resistant advanced backcross chestnut seedlings will soon be available for outplanting on a regional scale. Few studies have examined the importance of silvicultural treatment or seedling quality to chestnut reintroduction in the U.S. This paper examines results from a silvicultural study of high-quality chestnut seedlings on the Cumberland Plateau of...

  18. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  19. Prescribing silvicultural treatments in hardwood stands of the Alleghenies. (Revised)

    Treesearch

    David A. Marquis; Richard L. Ernst; Susan L. Stout

    1992-01-01

    This publication brings together the results of 20 years of research and experience in the silviculture of hardwood forests in the Allegheny region. It provides a summary of silvicultural knowledge, and guidelines, decision tables, and step-by-step instructions for determining silviculutural prescriptions in individual stands.

  20. Silviculture of southwestern ponderosa pine: The status of our knowledge

    Treesearch

    Gilbert H. Schubert

    1974-01-01

    Describes the status of our knowledge of ponderosa pine silviculture in the southwestern States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Economic value, impact on other uses, and the timber resource are discussed first, followed by ecological background, site quality, growth and yield, and silviculture and management. Relevant literature is discussed along with...

  1. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    Ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it....

  2. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Treesearch

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  3. Predicting altered connectivity of patchy forests under group selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    Seth W. Bigelow; Sean A. Parks

    2010-01-01

    Group selection silviculture creates canopy openings that can alter connectivity in patchy forests, thereby affecting wildlife movement and fire behavior. We examined effects of group selection silviculture on percolation (presence of continuously forested routes across a landscape) in Sierra Nevada East-side pine forest in northern California, USA. Four ~ 250 ha...

  4. Silviculture: lessons from our past, thoughts about the future

    Treesearch

    Robert S. Seymour

    2004-01-01

    Silviculture has always been a keystone of American forestry, but to many, it seems, this discipline has lost its relevance during the past decade or so. In some regions, silviculture has become unfairly equated with production forestry, leaving a perceived void that forest ecologists or other specialists have attempted to fill, I would argue, somewhat unsuccessfully....

  5. The great lakes silviculture summit: an introduction and organizing framework

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Louise Levy; Thomas Crow

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, institutional commitment to silviculture as a research discipline has decreased in the Great Lakes region and elsewhere. Ironically, at the same time, the various demands placed on silviculture by users of research have increased greatly and continue to do so today. There remains the need to produce more and better quality wood and fiber, a need...

  6. Silviculture: From the Cradle of Forestry to Ecosystem Management

    Treesearch

    Louise H. Foley

    1994-01-01

    The National Silviculture Workshop, hosted by the National Forests in North Carolina, the Southern Region (Region 8), and the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, was held November 1993 at the Kanuga Conference Center, Hendersonville , NC. The purpose of this workshop was to review , discuss, and share silvicultural research inform ation and management experience...

  7. Silvicultural options for early-successional stands in Maine: 6-year results of the Silvicultural Intensity and Species Composition Experiment

    Treesearch

    Andrew S. Nelson; Robert G. Wagner; Mike R. Saunders

    2014-01-01

    The Silvicultural Intensity and Species Composition (SIComp) experiment was installed in 2003 on a recently clearcut mixedwood site within the Penobscot Experimental Forest in east-central Maine. This study was initiated because the response of early-successional stands to various intensities of silviculture was poorly understood in the region. The goal of SIComp is to...

  8. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silviculture for All Resources; Sacramento, CA; May 11-14, 1987

    Treesearch

    Melanie Malespin Woolever; Mike Smith; Elizabeth McGraw; Mike Lanasa; Arthur C. Zack; Chris Reichert; Robert MacWhorter; Michael R. Lennartz; Richard A. Lancia; Marc G. Rounsaville; James R. Sedell; Fred H. Everest; David R. Gibbons; Stephen R. Shifley; Melinda Moeur; David A. Marquis; Richard O. Fitzgerald; Nelson Loftus; Thomas C. Turpin; William R. Terrill; Glenn L. Crouch; Wayne D. Shepperd; Edith W. Petrick; John J. Petrick; Roger W. Dennington; Allan W. Ashton; Hubertus J. Mittmann; Gary Thompson; Ken Sonksen; David A. Stark; Michael A. Ware; Allan J. West; Patrick D. Jackson; Richard L. Bassett; Jimmie D. Chew; William B. White; Bruce W. Morse; Mike Znerold; Russell T. Graham; Peyton W. Owston; Richard G. Miller; John R. Nesbitt; Gaston Porterie; Ernest Del Rio

    1987-01-01

    The 1987 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Sacramento, California, and the Eldorado National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss, review, and share information and experiences regarding how silviculture can serve as the tool to help accomplish the objectives of many resources.

  9. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Economics Of Silvicultural Investments; Eugene, OR; May 16-20, 1983

    Treesearch

    Clark Row; Charles Palmer; Robert M. Randall; Tom Ortman; James P. Merzenich; Gary Manning; George Howe; Jim McDivitt; Chris Hansen; Willard R. Fey; Vernon L. Robinson; K. E. Sleavin; K. N. Johnson; Roger D. Fight; L. O. (Pete) Stanger; Lee Medema; Christopher D. Risbrudt; Richard W. Guldin; Richard Greenhalgh; Mike Skinner; John Fiske; Thomas J. Mills; John H. Beuter

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, and the Willamette National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the requirements by laws, regulations, and Forest Service policy of the need for and uses of economic analyses in silvicultural program planning and development.

  10. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silvicultural Examination, Prescription, and Related Activities; Missoula, Montana; September 26-28, 1978

    Treesearch

    Norman E. Gould; Don Potter; Ray Johnston; Jim Loton; Donald Pierce; Ronald C. Hamilton; George E. Gruell; Victor DeKalb; Dav Wright; Bill Beaufait; Dan Schroeder; Bob Blomquist; John C. Tappeiner; Carl Puuri; Dav Terry; R. E. Stewart; Walter H. Knapp

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 Silviculture Workshop was held in Missoula, Montana, September 26-28, 1978. The objective of the meeting was to discuss Silvicultural prescriptions, standards of certification for silviculturists, certification of planting and thinning projects, and other related items of interest. These proceedings includes the presentations that were available for...

  11. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Successes In Silviculture; Rapid City, South Dakota; May 13-16, 1985

    Treesearch

    Gary L. McCoy; Larry Gross; Henry Lachowski; Jim Chew; John W. Joy; Jerry Henderson; Mike Murphy; Nelson S. Loftus; Glenn Jacobsen; Richard L. Kracht; Lloyd A. Musser; Brian H. Avery; David F. Thomas; Max Williamson; Mike Znerold; Roger Belanger; John Nesbitt; Tom Beckman; James B. Baker; John B. Amundson; Gary O. Fiddler; Robert J. Laacke; Mike Rauscher; Hrishi Saha; Pierre Robert; David Winn; Darwin L. Richards; Marianne Burke; Bobby Kitchens; John Murphy; Hyun-Chung Kang

    1985-01-01

    The 1985 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Rapid City, South Dakota, and the Black Hills National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss, review, and share information and experiences regarding successful silvicultural treatment that may have application in other Regions.

  12. Multiaged silviculture of ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) is highly suitable for management using multiaged systems. This suitability is primarily the result of a frequent, low severity disturbance regime, but also because it naturally occurs at low densities and has a long history of management to promote multiple age classes. Several different stocking...

  13. Proceedings of the 16th biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    John R. Butnor

    2012-01-01

    A range of issues affecting southern forests are addressed, including pine and hardwood silviculture, soil and water, physiology and genetics, carbon and bioenergy, fire and fuels, forest health, restoration, growth and yield, and forest economics.

  14. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  15. Fire performance in traditional silvicultural and fire and fire surrogate treatments in Sierran mixed-conifer forests: a brief summary

    Treesearch

    Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2007-01-01

    Mixed conifer forests cover 7.9 million acres of California’s total land base. Forest structure in these forests has been influenced by harvest practices and silvicultural systems implemented since the beginning of the California Gold Rush in 1849. Today, the role of fire in coniferous forests, both in shaping past stand structure and its ability to shape future...

  16. Maturity selection versus improvement selection: lessons from a mid-20th century controversy in the silviculture of ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara; Andy Youngblood; Kristen M. Waring

    2010-01-01

    Two rival silvicultural systems for promoting multiaged ponderosa pine stands emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. Maturity selection was developed to move the vast ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) acreage in eastern Oregon and Washington into regulation to limit bark beetle losses. In the Southwest, improvement selection was designed to improve...

  17. Silviculture affects composition, growth, and yield in mixed northern conifers: 40-year results from the Penobscot Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Sendak; John C. Brissette; Robert M. Frank

    2003-01-01

    This long-term experiment in Maine, U.S.A., was designed to provide information on the best silvicultural practices for managing stands of mixed northern conifers in northeastern U.S.A. We evaluated growth and yield and changes in species composition, quality, and structure during the first 40 years of the experiment. Replicated treatments include the selection system...

  18. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example.

    Treesearch

    J.F. Franklin; T.A. Spies; R.V. Pelt; A.B. Carey; D.A. Thornburgh; D.R. Berg; D.B. Lindenmayer; M.E. Harmon; W.S. Keeton; D.C. Shaw; K. Bible; J. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes and the biological legacies, such as live trees, snags, and logs, that they leave behind. Most conceptual forest...

  19. Silvicultural systems - uneven-aged management

    Treesearch

    Morris R. Wing

    1977-01-01

    Uneven-aged Management, to me, indicates some form of partial cutting, perhaps selective cutting or diameter limit control in the harvesting cut, which, in most cases, removes the larger diameter, more mature trees and leaves a residual stand composed of healthy, fast-growing, well-spaced second growth timber, with a good number of trees in the 6"-12"...

  20. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian...

  1. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian...

  2. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian...

  3. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. (a) What is the purpose of this section? This section establishes a permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian...

  4. Silvicultural use of herbicides in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    H. Gratkowski

    1975-01-01

    After a brief description of silvicultural problems, the author tells how to prescribe herbicidal sprays for aerial, application in Pacific Northwest forests. The publication offers a detailed discussion of the five basic considerations: (1) selection of the best herbicide or herbicides, (2) amount of herbicide to be applied per acre, (3) carriers, (4) volume of spray...

  5. Silvicultural guide for paper birch in the northeast (revised)

    Treesearch

    L. O. Safford

    1983-01-01

    This revised guide provides practical information on silvicultural treatments to grow paper birch as a timber crop. It covers treatments for existing stands, the regeneration of new stands, and subsequent culture to maturity. The stocking chart has been revised to reflect results of current growth studies.

  6. Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Waldrop; [Editor

    1998-01-01

    The Ninth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference was held February 25-27, 1997 on the campus of Clemson University in Clemson, SC. This conference was the latest in a series of meetings designed to provide a forum for the exchange of research information among silviculturists and researchers in related areas, research coordination, review of research in...

  7. Costs of landscape silviculture for fire and habitat management.

    Treesearch

    S. Hummel; D.E. Calkin

    2005-01-01

    In forest reserves of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, management objectives include protecting late-semi habitat structure by reducing the threat of large-scale disturbances like wildfire. We simulated how altering within- and among-stand structure with silvicultural treatments of differing intensity affected late-seral forest (LSF) structure and fire threat (FT) reduction...

  8. A new book: the ecology and silviculture of oaks

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson; Stephen R. Shifley; Robert Rogers

    2003-01-01

    A new book, The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks, is now available (Johnson and others 2002). The book focuses on the oaks of the United States and was written for forest and wildlife managers, ecologists, silviculturists, environmentalists, students of those fields, and others interested in sustaining oak forests for their many tangible and intangible values. Although...

  9. Silviculture and Swiss needle cast: research and recommendations.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; A. Kanaskie; K. Kavanagh; G. Johnson; R. Johnson; D. Maguire

    2000-01-01

    For the past ten years, Douglas-fir on the Oregon and Washington coast has shown a progressive decrease in height and diameter increment as a result of Swiss needle cast, which is caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. In this contribution, we discuss the effects of silvicultural operations on Swiss needle cast and recommend specific actions to...

  10. Adjusting slash pine growth and yield for silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Logan; Barry D. Shiver

    2006-01-01

    With intensive silvicultural treatments such as fertilization and competition control now commonplace in today's slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantations, a method to adjust current growth and yield models is required to accurately account for yield increases due to these practices. Some commonly used ad-hoc methods, such as raising site...

  11. Communicating silviculture: values and benefits for the new millennium

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers; Philip S. Aune

    1997-01-01

    Forests have been tied to social progress since the dawn of agriculture 10 thousand years ago. Silviculture, groomed the oldest application of ecological principles, contains all the skills needed to produce forests with the myriad conditions valued by modern society. Historically, we have been success-makers. Yet, our profession faces a crisis. Often we are seen as...

  12. Silviculture for multiple objectives in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    R.O. Curtis; D.S. DeBell; C.A. Harrington; D.P. Lavender; J.B. St. Clair; J.C. Tappeiner; J.D. Walstad

    1998-01-01

    Silvicultural knowledge and practice have been evolving in the Pacific Northwest for nearly a century. Most research and management activities to date have focused on two major topics: (1) methods to regenerate older, naturally established forests after fire or timber harvest; and (2) growth and management of young stands. Today forest managers can reliably regenerate...

  13. Proceedings of the 12th biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; [Editor

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-two papers and thirty-six poster summaries address a range of issues affecting southern forests. Papers are grouped in 15 sessions that include wildlife ecology; fire ecology; natural pine management; forest health; growth and yield; upland hardwoods - natural regeneration; hardwood intermediate treatments; longleaf pine; pine plantation silviculture; site...

  14. Proceedings of the 13th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    Kristina F. Connor; [Editor

    2006-01-01

    A range of issues affecting southern forests are addressed in 109 papers and 39 poster summaries. Papers are grouped in 14 sessions that include wildlife ecology; pine silviculture; longleaf pine; nutritional amendments; vegetation management; site preparation; hardwoods: artificial regeneration; hardwoods: midstory competition control; growth and yield; water quality...

  15. Silvicultural approaches to animal damage management in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Hugh C. Black

    1992-01-01

    This book examines the potential of Silvicultural approaches for managing animal damage in forests at two levels: management of free-to-grow stands and sitespecific practices that foster prompt and successful regeneration. Introductory chapters provide a historical perspective of animal damage management in the Pacific Northwest, describe the elements of an integrated...

  16. Permanent-plot procedures for silvicultural and yield research.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews purposes and procedures for establishing and maintaining permanent plots for silvicultural and yield research, sampling and plot design, common errors, and procedures for measuring and recording data. It is a revision and update of a 1983 publication. Although some details are specific to coastal Pacific Northwest conditions, most of the material is...

  17. Effect of Silviculture on the Yield and Quality of Veneers

    Treesearch

    Leslie H. Groom; Ray Newbold; Jim Guldin

    2002-01-01

    The structural and aesthetic value of wood is typically sacrificed in an attempt to meet demand. This paper addresses the financial and quality aspects of silvicultural choices as it relates to wood veneers. Five trees each were harvested from an uneven-aged stand and from the following even- aged stands: intensive plantation, conventional plantation, and natural...

  18. Proceedings of the Seventh Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    John Brissette

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings is the culmination of efforts that produced the Seventh Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. This was the latest in a series of regional conferences that began in 1980. Like the previous conferences, this meeting was designed to provide a forum for (1) the exchange of research information among silviculturists and researchers in related...

  19. Proceedings of the 18th biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    Callie Schweitzer; W.K. Clatterbuck; Christopher Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    At the 18th Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference held in Knoxville, TN, a range of topics germane to the ecology and management of southern forests was addressed in 101 oral and 61 poster presentations. Papers are grouped into 14 topic sections and include soil and site relationships, forest threats, conservation, nutrition, fire, biometrics, biomass,...

  20. Evolution of silvicultural thinning: from rejection to transcendence

    Treesearch

    Boris Zeide

    2006-01-01

    Our views on a main tool of forestry, silvicultural thinning, have changed greatly since the beginning of forestry over 200 years ago. At first, thinning was rejected as something unnatural and destructive. It was believed that the densest stands were the most productive and any thinning only detracted from maximum growth produced by nature. This philosophy was still...

  1. Silvicultural treatments and logging costs for minimizing gypsy moth impacts

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is a serious threat to eastern hardwood forests. Felling and skidding costs for harvesting timber in silvicultural thinnings designed to reduce the impacts of the moth were evaluated. Cost of felling the nonmerchantable component of the thinnings to achieve treatment objectives are reported, along with a discussion of the economic feasibility of...

  2. Integration of vole management in boreal silvicultural practices.

    PubMed

    Huitu, Otso; Rousi, Matti; Henttonen, Heikki

    2013-03-01

    Voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes are widespread and among the most abundant of small mammal species in the boreal zone of the Northern Hemisphere. They are keystone herbivore species in northern ecosystems, and they have profound impacts on both higher and lower trophic levels. Voles are also major silvicultural pests, damaging millions of tree seedlings in years of peak abundance. Prevention of vole damage to silviculture has proven to be very difficult owing to the ubiquity of both suitable vole habitat and potential damage sites across landscapes. The degree of damage inflicted by voles on seedling stands is largely, but not solely, determined by prevailing vole densities, which often fluctuate in 3-4 year population cycles. Silvicultural practices related to site habitat manipulation and/or choice and rearing of seedling material may also greatly influence the severity of vole damage to seedlings. The manipulation of these practices is currently at the forefront of methods potentially applicable to control vole damage in boreal forests. This paper reviews current evidence for the efficacy and present recommendations for further development and application of these methods to mitigate vole damage to seedling stands in boreal silviculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  4. Silviculture: what is it like, and where have we journeyed?

    Treesearch

    Ralph D. Nyland

    1997-01-01

    The philosophy of ecosystem management calls for a new way of doing business. It represents an evolution of thinking and acting that began during the era of dominant use, and continued through the time of multiple use. As such, ecosystem management represents a maturing of thought about silviculture and other aspects of natural resources management and use. It stresses...

  5. Combining Silviculture and Landscape Architecture to Enhance the Roadside View

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; R. Burton Litton Jr.

    1998-01-01

    On a high-quality site in the mixed conifer forest of northern California, understory and overstory vegetation along a 3-mile paved county road were manipulated to enhance the view for the traveler. Traditional silvicultural cutting methods and landscape architectural techniques were blended to give contrast and variability to the vegetation along both sides of the...

  6. An overview of key silvicultural information for ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    John Fiske; John Tappeiner

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a selected list of classical references for the important silvicultural findings for ponderosa pine, and categorizes some of the key current literature, as well as some of the older, lesser known but important literature. The paper also provides some history of scientific developments, and sources of further information.

  7. Resistance and resilience: A conceptual framework for silviculture

    Treesearch

    Robert J. DeRose; James N. Long

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, forest management goals include building or maintaining resistance and/or resilience to disturbances in the face of climate change. Although a multitude of descriptive definitions for resistance and resilience exist, to evaluate whether specific management activities (silviculture) are effective, prescriptive characterizations are necessary. We introduce...

  8. Past, present, and future role of silviculture in forest management

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa Benavidez Jain

    2004-01-01

    In general, silviculture can be defined as the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, competition, health, and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis (Helms 1998). This definition or variations of it have existed since the late 1800s. Gifford (1902), an Assistant...

  9. Large-scale silviculture experiments of western Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Nathan J. Poage; Paul D. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    We review 12 large-scale silviculture experiments (LSSEs) in western Washington and Oregon with which the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service is substantially involved. We compiled and arrayed information about the LSSEs as a series of matrices in a relational database, which is included on the compact disc published with this report and...

  10. Recent advances in the silvicultural use of prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    David H. van Lear

    2000-01-01

    Although the silvicultural use of prescribed fire has been researched for almost 70 years, new advances are still being made. These advances are primarily the result of (1) a better understanding of fire as an ecological process and (2) the use of this knowledge to restore declining ecosystems, save threatened and endangered species, enhance natural beauty, and...

  11. Chapter 8. Management strategies for dwarf mistletoe: Silviculture

    Treesearch

    J. A. Muir; B. W. Geils

    2002-01-01

    Although there are numerous sources for information on the practice of silviculture (Forest Service 2002), special considerations are required for control of dwarf mistletoe (Scharpf and Parmeter 1978). Mistletoe-infested forests, stands, and trees develop and respond to treatment differently than their uninfested counterparts (chapter 5). The spread, intensification,...

  12. Silvicultural management and the manipulation of rare alleles

    Treesearch

    Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Donald H. DeHayes; Samuel E. Nijensohn

    2004-01-01

    Because rare alleles provide a means for adaptation to environmental change they are often considered important to long-term forest health. Through the selective removal of trees (and genes), silvicultural management may alter the genetic structure of forests, with rare alleles perhaps being uniquely vulnerable to manipulation due to their low frequencies or...

  13. Rating spruce-fir silviculture for wildlife and forestry

    Treesearch

    H.S. Crawford; R.M. Frank

    1985-01-01

    Forest managers face a wide array of potential choices when they consider all of the products derived from woodlands. Many of these products compete with one another to some degree. For instance, hardwood regeneration may be removed in thinnings to favor softwood growth. Forest wildlife-is also influenced by silvicultural practice and the manager must decide whether to...

  14. The value of long-term silvicultural research studies

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Carleton B. Edminster

    1997-01-01

    Reductions in research operating budgets and recent trends in research management philosophy have in many instances forced Forest Service scientists to realign their research programs to compete for short-term grants and other sources of funding. This approach may prove detrimental in silviculture, a discipline where long-term research is critical for: (1) research in...

  15. Landscape silviculture for late-successional reserve management

    Treesearch

    S Hummel; R.J. Barbour

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different combinations of multiple, variable-intensity silvicultural treatments on fire and habitat management objectives were evaluated for a ±6,000 ha forest reserve using simulation models and optimization techniques. Our methods help identify areas within the reserve where opportunities exist to minimize conflict between the dual landscape objectives...

  16. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  17. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silvicultural Implications Of Section 4, NFMA 1976; Flagstaff, Arizona; September 26-30, 1977

    Treesearch

    Gary Cargill; Robert Gillespie; Wayne Mann; Bob Blomquist; Don Strode; Edward R. Schneegas; Charles Sundstrom; John F. Corliss; Bill Pint; William D. Zeedyk; Robert D. Pfister; Raymond C. Shearer; Andrew A. Leven; Robert R. Alexander; Roger E. Sandquist; Robert E. Stevens; Clark Row; Jim Sabin; LaMont Engle; Tom Greathouse

    1977-01-01

    The 1977 Silviculture Workshop was held in Flagstaff, Arizona, September 26-30, 1977. The objective of the meeting was to discuss the reforestation and maintenance of appropriate forest cover required by Section 4 of the National Forest Management Act of 1976. These proceedings include the presentations that were available for publication.

  18. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silvicultural Challenges and Opportunities in the 1990's; Petersburg, Alaska; July 10-13, 1989

    Treesearch

    Jerry Sesco; John R. Naumann; Wyman C. Schmidt; Peggy Kain; Dean S. DeBell; Mike Lanasa; David A. Marquis; Robert N. Kitchens; James B. Baker; Paul K. Diggle; Russell T. Graham; Glenn Jacobsen; Walter H. Knapp; George E. Howe; David G. Holland; Christi Gordon; Robert F. Powers; Dave Ellen; John Zasada; Peyton W. Owston; Dennis D. Murphy; William R. Wood; Lee Harry; Dave Cawrse; David L. Loftis; Boyd E. Wickman; David F. Thomas; Wayne D. Shepperd; W. J. Hann; Thomas R. Crow; Richard G. Miller; M. Thompson Conkle; Sharon T. Friedman; Douglas D. Basford; Carol J. Holland

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Petersburg, Alaska, and the Stikine Area of the Tongass National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss, review, and share information about the silvicultural challenges and opportunities facing the Forest Service in the coming decade.

  19. Ground-layer plant community responses to even-age and uneven-age silvicultural treatments in Wisconsin northern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Cristel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Terry F. Strong

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated ground-layer plant diversity and community composition in northern hardwood forests among uncut controls and stands managed with even-age or uneven-age silvicultural systems. Even-age treatments included diameter-limit cuttings (20-cm diameter at 30-cm stem height) in 1952 and shelterwood removals in 1964. Uneven-age treatments included three intensities...

  20. Uneven-aged silviculture and management in the eastern United States: Proceedings of an In-Service Workshop; Morgantown, West Virginia; July 15-17, 1975

    Treesearch

    Warren T. Doolittle; A. P. Mustain; Carter B. Gibbs; David. A. Marquis; Barton M. Blum; Carl H. Tubbs; W. B. Leak; S. F. Gingrich; H. Clay Smith; Paul S. DeBald; LaMont G. Engle; Robert E. Phares

    1975-01-01

    The workshop, summarized in this Proceedings, represented a joint effort by personnel from Research, National Forest System, and State and Private Forestry, to review the state-of-the-art knowledge about the applicability of uneven-aged silviculture and management in the eastern United States. One major objective of this review was to develop a much better mutual...

  1. Potential of Multi-Temporal Uav-Borne LIDAR in Assessing Effectiveness of Silvicultural Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepakomma, U.; Cormier, D.

    2017-08-01

    Silvicultural treatments are practiced to control resource competition and direct forest stand development to meet management objectives. Effective tracking of thinning and partial cutting treatments help in timely mitigation and ensuring future stand productivity. Based on a study conducted in autumn 2015, our findings in a white pine dominant forest stand in Petawawa (Ontario, Canada) showed that almost all individual trees were detectable, structure of individual trees and undergrowth was well pronounced and underlying terrain below dense undisturbed canopy was well captured with UAS based Riegl Vux-1 lidar even at a range of 150 m. Thereafter, the site was re-scanned the following summer with the same system. Besides understanding the difference in distribution patterns due to foliage conditions, co-registering the two datasets, in the current study, we tested the potential of quantifying effectiveness of a partial cutting silvicultural system especially in terms of filling of 3D spaces through vertical or lateral growth and mortality in a very short period of time.

  2. Even-aged silviculture for upland central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Benjamin A. Roach; Samuel F. Gingrich

    1968-01-01

    This is a guide to silviculture only; it must not be confused with a management plan, for which it is no substitute. In this guide we attempt to specify only the method of treatment that should lead to the most efficient production of timber within the relatively small area of timber stand. We do not consider here other land uses nor important questions of timber...

  3. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  4. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  5. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  6. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  7. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits. ...

  8. Silvicultural Practices in Forests of the Southern United States: Insect and Disease Considerations

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker; Theodor D. Leininger; James S. Meadows

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between silvicultural practices, e.g. thinning, and pest organisms (insects and diseases) has been investigated extensively in pine species but to a lesser degree in hardwoods. Of critical interest is the potential negative impact to the residual stand resulting from insect damage and diseases that develop as a consequence of silvicultural practices....

  9. Putting out fire with gasoline: pitfalls in the silvicultural treatment of canopy fuels

    Treesearch

    Christopher R. Keyes; J. Morgan Varner

    2007-01-01

    There is little question that forest stand structure is directly related to fire behavior, and that canopy fuel structure may be altered using silvicultural methods to successfully modify forest fire behavior and reduce susceptibility to crown fire initiation and spread. Silvicultural treatments can remediate hazardous stand structures that have developed as a result...

  10. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  11. Understory light regimes following silvicultural treatments in central hardwood forests in Kentucky, USA

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Grayson; David S. Buckley; Jason G. Henning; Callie J. Schweitzer; Kurt W. Gottschalk; David L. Loftis

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation of the light regime is a primary goal of many silvicultural treatments, but the specific light conditions created remain poorly documented for many forest types and geographic locations. To help quantify effects of silvicultural treatments on light conditions, measurements of basal area, canopy cover, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), measured...

  12. Silviculture of the mahogany forest of Quintana Roo, Mexico: criteria and recommendations

    Treesearch

    P. ​​Negreros-Castillo; L. Camara-Cabrales; MS Devall; Mary Ann Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseno; C.W. Mize; A. Navarro-Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree...

  13. Silviculture guide for the mahogany forests of Quintana Roo, Mexico – Criteria and recommendations

    Treesearch

    P. Negreros-Castillo; L. Cámara-Cabrales; Margaret Devall; M.A. Fajvan; M.A. Mendoza Briseño; C.W. Mize

    2014-01-01

    Silviculture is the art, science and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, health, quality and growth of forests to accomplish a set of management objectives. This publication offers an approach to silviculture of the forests of Quintana Roo in which mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King), the commercially most important tree species in Latin America,...

  14. The effect of silvicultural thinning on tree grade distributions of five hardwood species in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Aaron T. Graves; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that silvicultural thinning can increase tree growth and wood volume utilization in hardwoodstands, but the effects on tree quality and value are less clear. This study measured the effect of silvicultural thinning on tree grades over a period of 12 to 15 years for 803 black cherries (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 424 northern red oaks (Quercus rubra...

  15. The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks, Second Edition: A new book

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson; Stephen R. Shifley; Robert. Rogers

    2011-01-01

    The second edition of The Ecology and Silviculture of Oaks was recently published (Johnson and others 2009). The approach of the book is fundamentally silvicultural, but the content is based on the premise that eff ective and environmentally sound management and protection of oak forests and associated landscapes must be grounded in ecological...

  16. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry---proceedings of the 2013 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Marilyn A. Buford

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry presents the Proceedings of the 2013 National Silviculture Workshop (NSW), which was held as one of the concurrent sessions of the 2013 national convention of the Society of American Foresters (SAF) and sponsored by the D-2 Silviculture Working Group. This marks the first time the NSW has been held in conjunction with the...

  17. 40 CFR 49.134 - Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for forestry and silvicultural... Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.134 Rule for forestry... permitting program for forestry and silvicultural burning within the Indian reservation to control emissions...

  18. Variable-retention harvesting as a silvicultural option for lodgepole pine

    Treesearch

    Christopher R. Keyes; Thomas E. Perry; Elaine K. Sutherland; David K. Wright; Joel M. Egan

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle-induced mortality in forested landscapes of structurally uniform, even-aged lodgepole pine stands has inspired a growing interest in the potential of silvicultural treatments to enhance resilience by increasing spatial and vertical complexity. Silvicultural treatments can simulate mixed-severity disturbances that create multiaged lodgepole pine stands,...

  19. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Hardwood Management; Roanoke, Virginia; June 1-5, 1981

    Treesearch

    Robert Gillespie; Dan Cramsey; Dick Miller; Dennis Hamel; Carl Puuri; F. Bryan Clark; John Erickson; Nelson Loftus; Lloyd Casey; H. Clay Smith; Bob Marquis; Martin Dale; Charles E. McGee; Robert D. Williams; Gayne G. Erdmann; R. M. Godman; Stephen G. Boyce; Paul A. Schrauder; DonaId E. Beck; David A. Marquis; James L. McConnell; Paul S. Debald; David R. Houston; Walter Knapp; Tom Turpin; Warren Bacon; Arnold Schulz

    1981-01-01

    This year's National Silviculture Workshop was held in Roanoke, Virginia and the Monongahela National Forest. The purpose of the meetings were to discuss current silvicultural issues affecting all Regions and to review in detail the state-of-the-art application of hardwood management in the United States. These proceedings include the presentations of individuals...

  20. Using silviculture to increase forest health: a national forest/research/state and private demonstration area

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; W. Russ. MacFarlane

    1994-01-01

    A cooperative area was established on the Glenwood Ranger District, Jefferson National Forest, to demonstrate the effectiveness of silvicultural treatments in minimizing gypsy effects to the public and forest resource professionals and provide additional research data on the effectiveness of the treatments versus direct insect treatments. The silvicultural treatments...

  1. Silviculture of ponderosa pine in the Black Hills: The status of our knowledge

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Boldt; James L. Van Deusen

    1974-01-01

    This Paper, intended as a guide for professional foresters, describes major silvicultural conditions likely to be encountered in the Black Hills, reasonable treatment options, and probable results and implications of these treatments. It also describes silvical characteristics and behavior of Black Hills ponderosa pine, and a variety of proven silvicultural tools....

  2. Uneven-Aged Silviculture for the Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine Forest Cover Types

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Michael D. Cain; James M. Guldin; Paul A. Murphy; Michael G. Shelton

    1996-01-01

    The results of a half-century of experience and research with uneven-aged silviculture within the loblolly-shortleaf pine type of the Southern United States are summarized, and silvicultural guidelines for developing and managing uneven-aged stands are provided in this publication.

  3. Two-aged silvicultural treatments in lodgepole pine stands can be economically viable

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey; Steven J. Martin; Dean A. Blomquist

    2006-01-01

    Economically viable silvicultural options are critical for management activities that provide wood products, reduce forest fuels, improve forest health, and enhance wildlife habitat. The Tenderfoot Research Project was developed in the late 1990s to evaluate and quantify ecological and biological effects of two-aged silvicultural treatments including prescribed fire in...

  4. Age structure of a southern pine stand following 72 years of uneven-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Work on uneven-aged silviculture in southern pine stands on the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) began in the 1930s, when a number of 16.2-ha compartments were placed into a series of demonstration projects and studies (Reynolds 1980). Two of these compartments, the Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties, have been maintained continuously in this silvicultural regime...

  5. Using Live-Crown Ratio to Control Wood Quality: An Example of Quantitative Silviculture

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Dean

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative silviculture is the application of biological relationships in meeting specific, quantitative management objectives. It is a two-sided approach requiring the identification and application of biological relationships. An example of quantitative silviculture is presented that uses a relationship between average-live crown ratio and relative stand density...

  6. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: silvicultural treatments.

    Treesearch

    Fred H. Everest; R. Dennis. Harr

    1982-01-01

    Distribution of anadromous salmonids and coniferous forest coincides along much of the Pacific slope; consequently, the habitat of anadromous' fish is subject to a wide variety of silvicultural treatments required to establish and nurture young forests. Silvicultural treatments discussed in this report include cutting prescriptions, broadcast burning, mechanical...

  7. Habitat use by bats in two Indiana forests prior to silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration

    Treesearch

    Jeremy J. Sheets; Joseph E. Duchamp; Megan K. Caylor; Laura D' Acunto; John O. Whitaker; Virgil Jr. Brack; Dale W. Sparks

    2013-01-01

    As part of a study examining the effects of silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration on habitat use by bats, we surveyed forest stands prior to the implementation of treatments in two state forests in Indiana. Interior forest sites corresponding to areas designated for silvicultural treatments were surveyed for 2 nights each during the summers of 2007 and 2008....

  8. The future of silviculture research-thoughts from the Yale forestry forum

    Treesearch

    Sharon T. Friedman; James M. Guldin

    2001-01-01

    The 1999 Yale Forestry Forum, sponsored by Yale University and the USDA Forest Service, brought together a number of experts in an academic setting to discuss the future of silviculture research in the next century. Four participants in the plenary session outlined three areas that will characterize the future of silviculture research-sustainability, flexibility, and...

  9. Silviculture of southwestern mixed conifers and aspen: the status of our knowledge

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones

    1974-01-01

    Describes the status of our knowledge about mixed conifer silviculture in the interior Southwest. Ecological background is reviewed first, followed by description of silvicultural methods. Relevant literature is discussed, along with observations, experience, and results of unpublished research. Contains unpublished input by subject-matter specialists and southwestern...

  10. Using silviculture to improve health in northeastern conifer and eastern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    The traditional role of silviculture was to manipulate forest vegetation to provide wood and related forest products for humanity's benefit over a long period. Silviculturists soon noticed that such manipulation influenced other components of the ecosystem. In particular, insects and diseases responded dramatically to silvicultural practices-both positively and...

  11. Best Management Practices for Silvicultural Chemicals and the Science Behind Them

    Treesearch

    Jerry L. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Silvicultural chemicals include fertilizers and pesticides applied for forest management. All states east of the Rockies have at least some form of silvicultural chemical best management practices (SCBMPs) and it is widely accepted that SCBMPs effect someprotection of water quality. All SCBMPs recommend handling and application precautions and a minimum width...

  12. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  13. Do silvicultural practices to restore oaks affect salamanders in the short term?

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Sarah R. Fritts; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Christopher S. Deperno; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2015-01-01

    Salamanders are an important ecological component of eastern hardwood forests and may be affected by natural or silvicultural disturbances that alter habitat structure and associated microclimate. From May to August in 2008 (pre- treatment) and 2011 (post-treatment), we evaluated the response of salamanders to three silvicultural practices designed to promote oak...

  14. More wood of better quality through intensive silviculture with rapid-growth improved Brazilian eucalyptus

    SciTech Connect

    Campinhos, E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The early forests planted using Brazilian Eucalyptus seeds produced great variability in the volume of wood. In the specific case of E. saligna, the species was unable to adapt itself to the local ecological system. It was obvious that a new silviculture technique should be developed and also that new species and provenances, capable of adapting to the region, should be identified. The objective was to improve wood volume yields as well as to produce better pulp quality. The research and development work has been more successful than anticipated, mainly because a new technique of rooting cuttings which allows propagation of vigorous parent trees, including hybrids, was developed. The production of improved seeds has also been developed. A good genetic base has been established to guarantee continuous improvement for production of seedlings to be used in routine plantings. The first results have already shown good gains in volume, wood density, cellulose content, and resistance to disease.

  15. Computer models for economic and silvicultural decisions

    Treesearch

    Rosalie J. Ingram

    1989-01-01

    Computer systems can help simplify decisionmaking to manage forest ecosystems. We now have computer models to help make forest management decisions by predicting changes associated with a particular management action. Models also help you evaluate alternatives. To be effective, the computer models must be reliable and appropriate for your situation.

  16. Hydrological impact of two intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture in the jarrah forest in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinal, J.; Stoneman, G. L.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe hydrological impact of two different intensities of timber harvest and associated silviculture, one standard and the other more intensive, was investigated using a paired-catchment study in jarrah forest in south-western Australia. This study was undertaken during a period when average annual rainfall was below the long-term average and deep groundwater levels were declining. Following treatment, recharge increased and slowed the decline in deep groundwater levels in proportion to the magnitude of the initial reduction in vegetation density. However, neither treatment was sufficiently intense to reverse the continued decline in groundwater levels over the course of the study. Annual stream salinity did not increase in response to either treatment because saline deep groundwater did not rise following the treatments. Annual streamflow did not increase in either catchment for three reasons. Firstly, there was little additional net precipitation to the intermittent shallow perched groundwater system in the streamzone because the area remained untreated. Secondly, there was minimal additional throughflow to the perched groundwater system in the streamzone from upslope areas because the increased net precipitation in hillslope areas following treatment was used in replenishing the progressively increasing soil moisture deficit. Thirdly, because groundwater levels did not rise and hence there was little prospect for an increased discharge of saline groundwater or of an expanded deep groundwater discharge zone. This study has demonstrated that the measures that were implemented to timber harvest and silvicultural methods to reduce the magnitude of the groundwater response and hence the risk of a transient increase in stream salinity are effective. If annual rainfall remains relatively low and deep groundwater levels remain at current levels or decline further, then the risk of an increase in stream salinity from either the standard or the more intensive harvest

  17. Woodland salamander responses to a shelterwood harvest-prescribed burn silvicultural treatment within Appalachian mixed-oak forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Mahoney, Kathleen R.; Russell, Kevin R.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Riddle, Jason D.; Schuler, Thomas M.; Adams, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Forest management practices that mimic natural canopy disturbances, including prescribed fire and timber harvests, may reduce competition and facilitate establishment of favorable vegetative species within various ecosystems. Fire suppression in the central Appalachian region for almost a century has contributed to a transition from oak-dominated to more mesophytic, fire-intolerant forest communities. Prescribed fire coupled with timber removal is currently implemented to aid in oak regeneration and establishment but responses of woodland salamanders to this complex silvicultural system is poorly documented. The purpose of our research was to determine how woodland salamanders respond to shelterwood harvests following successive burns in a central Appalachian mixed-oak forest. Woodland salamanders were surveyed using coverboard arrays in May, July, and August–September 2011 and 2012. Surveys were conducted within fenced shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires, shelterwood harvest, and fencing to prevent white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus] herbivory), shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires and shelterwood harvest), and control plots. Relative abundance was modeled in relation to habitat variables measured within treatments for mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus), slimy salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus), and eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Mountain dusky salamander relative abundance was positively associated with canopy cover and there were significantly more individuals within controls than either shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments. Conversely, habitat variables associated with slimy salamanders and eastern red-backed salamanders did not differ among treatments. Salamander age-class structure within controls did not differ from shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments for any species. Overall, the woodland salamander assemblage remained relatively intact throughout the shelterwoodburn

  18. Role of uneven-aged silviculture in the context of ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    Guldin, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The role of uneven-aged silviculture in an ecosystem management context is established using three elements. A review of succession and disturbance theory establishes an ecological basis for the method. The economic and social basis for the method is derived from comparisons of yields and economics, and discussion of social aspects. The adaptive management context is developed by reviewing four classic case studies, drawing on past successes and failures of the method. Overall, the case is made that widespread application of uneven-aged silviculture under ecosystem management carries both potential and risk, and that the trade-offs expand rather than limit future silvicultural options.

  19. Application Forms for Forestry and Silvicultural Burning Tribal Permits Under the FARR

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Application form for forestry and silvicultural burning on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation under EPA's Federal Air Rules for Reservations.

  20. Procedures for establishing and maintaining permanent plots for silvicultural and yield research.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews procedures for establishing and maintaining permanent plots for silvicultural and yield research; discusses purposes, sampling, and plot design; points out common errors; and makes recommendations for research plot designs and procedures for measuring and recording data.

  1. Physiology and silviculture of black walnut for combined timber and nut production

    Treesearch

    J. W. Van Sambeek; George Rink

    1981-01-01

    Research literature was reviewed for evidence supporting the management of black walnut plantations for combined timber and nut production. The silviculture of the species is discussed in relation to dual cropping. Stimulation and phenology of flowering and fruiting are reviewed.

  2. Effects of silvicultural management intensity on fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic matter in 27 forest sites of the Biodiversity Exploratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, Beate; Bischoff, Sebastian; Levia, Delphis; Schwarz, Martin; Escher, Peter; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Thieme, Lisa; Kerber, Katja; Kaupenjohann, Martin; Siemens, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In forested ecosystems, throughfall and stemflow function as key components in the cycling of water and associated biogeochemistry. Analysing annual flux data collected from 27 intensively monitored forest sites of the Biodiversity Exploratories, we found throughfall fluxes of DOC (dissolved organic carbon) linearly related (R2 = 0.40, p < 0.001) to the silvicultural management intensity indicator (SMI) developed by Schall and Ammer (2013). The SMI combines tree species, stand age and aboveground living and dead woody biomass, thereby allowing the quantifying of silvicultural management intensities of stands differing in species composition, age, silvicultural system as they convert from one stand type into another. Throughfall fluxes of particulate organic C and N (POC and PN) and dissolved N were, however independent from those forest structural metrics as well as annual C and N stemflow fluxes, which varied greatly among management intensity classes. In this context, we suggest that canopy structure metrics are more important drivers of water and matter stemflow dynamics, than structural metrics on the level of forest stands. On the other hand, leaching losses of DOC and POC from the litter layer of forests increased significantly with increasing forest management intensity. The observed relationships revealed by intensive flux monitoring are important because they allow us to link organic matter fluxes to forest metrics of larger forested areas (e.g. derived from LiDAR imagery), and hence to model and up-scale water-bound OC dynamics to the landscape level.

  3. Beyond 2001: a silvicultural odyssey to sustaining terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? Proceedings of the 2001 national silviculture workshop, May 6-10, Hood River, Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Sharon Parker; Susan Stevens. Hummel

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Hood River, Oregon, and hosted by the Mt. Hood National Forest, the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The Washington Office Vegetation Management and Protection Research and Forest and Grassland staffs are ongoing sponsors of the biennial workshop, which began in 1973 in...

  4. A critical analysis of species selection and high vs. low-input silviculture on establishment success and early productivity of model short-rotation wood-energy cropping systems

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, M.; Kelley, A. M.; Ward, E. J.; ...

    2017-02-03

    Most research on bioenergy short rotation woody crops (SRWC) has been dedicated to the genera Populus and Salix. These species generally require relatively high-input culture, including intensive weed competition control, which increases costs and environmental externalities. Widespread native early successional species, characterized by high productivity and good coppicing ability, may be better adapted to local environmental stresses and therefore could offer alternative low-input bioenergy production systems. In order to test this concept, we established a three-year experiment comparing a widely-used hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii, clone ‘NM6’) to two native species, American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) and tuliptreemore » (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) grown under contrasting weed and pest control at a coastal plain site in eastern North Carolina, USA. Mean cumulative aboveground wood production was significantly greater in sycamore, with yields of 46.6 Mg ha-11 under high-inputs and 32.7 Mg ha-1 under low-input culture, which rivaled the high-input NM6 yield of 32.9 Mg ha-1. NM6 under low-input management provided noncompetitive yield of 6.2 Mg ha-1. We also found that sycamore showed superiority in survival, biomass increment, weed resistance, treatment convergence, and within-stand uniformity. All are important characteristics for a bioenergy feedstock crop species, leading to reliable establishment and efficient biomass production. Poor performance in all traits was found for tuliptree, with a maximum yield of 1.2 Mg ha-1, suggesting this native species is a poor choice for SRWC. We then conclude that careful species selection beyond the conventionally used genera may enhance reliability and decrease negative environmental impacts of the bioenergy biomass production sector.« less

  5. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part II. The Pacific Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Tappeiner J.C. II; Knapp, W.H.; Wierman, C.A.; Atkinson, W.A.; Oliver, C.D.; King, J.E.; Zasada, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in forest practices during the past few decades have been made in the midst of public debate over the role of forestry. It is time to assess the state of the art of silviculture and to project its evolution for the next 30 years - to reinforce the use of sound practices now employed and to shed outdated concepts and practices. To a large extent, silviculture is driven by social, economic, and management considerations external to the forests. Recognition of this fact is a significant change since the 1950s. Silviculture is not only affected by species characteristics interacting with environmental variables but increasingly by markets, public attitudes, available capital, and skilled labor. Other factors include new technology in logging, forest products, and silviculture itself, but the status of silviculture need not be diminished. Foresters who can successfully produce stands of desired species composition, structure, and growth rates can positively affect markets, public attitudes, profitability, and wildlife populations. This profile of the Pacific Coast is based on discussions with private and public foresters, private landowners, and environmentalists. Although not all points could be substantiated by data, assertions key to the discussion are intended to be fair, logical, and provocative. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Influence of alternative silvicultural treatments on spatial variability in light in central hardwood stands on the Cumberland Plateau

    Treesearch

    Stephen F. Grayson; David S. Buckley; Jason G. Henning; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Effective oak silvicultural treatments allow light to reach the forest floor with sufficient intensity and duration to enable establishment, growth, and development of preferred species. Although it is intuitive that increases in light will accompany various levels of canopy removal, specific amounts and the distribution of light resulting from different silvicultural...

  7. Use of large-scale silvicultural studies to evaluate management options in Pacific Northwest forests of the United States.

    Treesearch

    Stephen E. Reutebuch; Constance A. Harrington; David D. Marshall; Leslie C. Brodie

    2004-01-01

    A suite of large-scale silvicultural experiments has been established to develop and assess operational silviculture options for the Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco vat. menziesii) forests. This paper summarizes three such studies that focus on three major stages in the life of managed stands...

  8. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  9. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  10. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  11. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural...

  12. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry —Proceedings of the 2015 National Silviculture Workshop

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Marilyn A. Buford

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry presents the Proceedings of the 2015 National Silviculture Workshop (NSW), which was held as one of the concurrent sessions of the 2015 National Society of American Foresters (SAF) Convention in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Sponsors for the session included the D-2 Silviculture Working Group and two US Department of Agriculture...

  13. Large-scale, long-term silvicultural experiments in the United States: historical overview and contemporary examples.

    Treesearch

    R. S. Seymour; J. Guldin; D. Marshall; B. Palik

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of large-scale, long-term silviculture experiments in the United States. Large-scale in a silvicultural context means that experimental treatment units encompass entire stands (5 to 30 ha); long-term means that results are intended to be monitored over many cutting cycles or an entire rotation, typically for many decades. Such studies...

  14. Nonnative invasive plants in the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine, USA: influence of site, silviculture, and land use history

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Olson; Laura S. Kenefic; Alison C. Dibble; John C. Brissette

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of nonnative invasive plants on approximately 175 ha comprising a long-term, 60-year-old U.S. Forest Service silvicultural experiment and old-field stands in the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in central Maine. Stands in the silvicultural experiment were never cleared for agriculture, but have been repeatedly partially cut. Our...

  15. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    PubMed

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System.

  16. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  17. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  18. Hydrological silviculture effects in a natural Quercus ilex forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Sanchis, María; del Campo, Antonio; Bautista, Inma; Lidón, Antonio; García, Alberto; Llull, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean forests play a key role in the hydrological cycle regulation. On the one hand, its presence decreases the soil water evaporation, increasing the water availability. However, on the other hand, the forest density reduces the precipitation that reaches the soil, where an excessive forest density could induce water scarcity problems, at the forest itself as well as at the whole catchment. Hence, there should be an equilibrium that protects the soil from excessive evaporation at the same time that reduces the forest water interception. This equilibrium can be reached by means of the Adaptative Forest Management (AFM). AFM aims to adapt the forest to water availability by means of an artificial regulation of the forest structure and density. Hence, areas under water scarcity situations, such as the Mediterranean region, might require this AFM to optimize the hydrological cycle under normal and future global change conditions. The present study enhances the relevance of the hydrological silviculture in Mediterranean regions. A natural Mediterranean oak forest, whose density appears to be decreasing the hydrological contribution to the catchment, was selected. The forest is located in a typical Mediterranean area, at the headwaters of Rambla Espadilla catchment, within the public forest La Hunde, Valencia (NE Spain). Two contiguous plots, control and treatment, of 1800 m2 area respectively were selected. The orientation (NO), slope (30 %) and forest density (861 tree per ha) were the same for both plots. Treatment plot was thinned following the forest nursery requirements, reducing the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Control plot was not thinned. Then, the thinning effects into the hydrological cycle were characterized by means of comparing throughfall, stemflow, soil moisture and transpiration, of control and treatment plots.

  19. The Forest Ecosystem Study: background, rationale, implementation, baseline conditions, and silvicultural assessment.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; David R. Thysell; Angus W. Brodie

    1999-01-01

    The Forest Ecosystem Study (FES) came about as an early response to the need for innovative silvicultural methods designed to stimulate development of late-successional attributes in managed forests—a need ensuing from the exceptional and longstanding controversies over old-growth forests and endangered species concerns in the Pacific Northwest. In 1991, scientists...

  20. Genetic and silvicultural research promoting common walnut (Juglans regia) for timber production in the United Kingdom

    Treesearch

    Gabriel E. Hemery

    2004-01-01

    A combination of genetic and silvicultural research is required to improve the viability of common walnut for timber production in the UK. A summary of a research programme, initiated in 1996, is provided. Establishment of walnut plantations using tree shelters indicated positive benefits using 0.75 m shelters but larger shelters (1.20 m) caused early flushing and...

  1. Silvicultural methods of Lymantria dispar L. management: effects on Agrilus bilineatus (Weber) populations

    Treesearch

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Andrew Liebhold; Kurt. Gottschalk

    1997-01-01

    The abundance of twolined chestnut borer, Agrilus bilineatus (Weber), adults were sampled using sticky panels over a 6-year period in a mixed hardwood forest in West Virginia. Sixteen stands (average size 10.5 ha) were used in the study; eight of these were silviculturally thinned in 1989, the remainder were uncut. During 1990 and 1991, populations...

  2. Braconid wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) diversity in forest plots under different silvicultural methods

    Treesearch

    C.N. Lewis; J.B. Whitfield

    1999-01-01

    Braconid wasps were used as an indicator group to test the hypothesis that the degree of disturbance in silvicultural treatments will change the total abundance and composition of species. Wasps were collected with Malaise traps on undisturbed (control), moderately disturbed (pine single-tree selection) and highly disturbed (pine-hardwood seed-tree) research plots of...

  3. More than just timber: silvicultural options and ecosystem services from managed southern pine stands

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Jamie L. Schuler; Matthew H Pelkki; D. Andrew Scott; James M. Guldin

    2015-01-01

    The dramatic decline of timber harvests on public lands in the western United States (U.S.) has helped intensify silviculture in the southern U.S. Today, intensive southern pine management usually involves establishment of plantations using site preparation, genetically improved seedlings, chemical fertilization and competition control, early stand density regulation,...

  4. Harvesting productivity and disturbance estimates of three silvicultural prescriptions in eastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Jason D. Thompson; Bob Rummer; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2009-01-01

    A large scale silvicultural assessment designed to examine the effectiveness of four treatments in reducing the impacts of gypsy moth infestation and oak decline was implemented on the Daniel Boone National Forest in eastern Kentucky. The study was funded through the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003. The goal of the treatments was to improve the health and vigor...

  5. Observations about the effectiveness of utilizing single tree selection silviculture in redwood forestlands

    Treesearch

    Bob Berlage

    2012-01-01

    Harvesting in predominantly redwood forests has been ongoing in the Santa Cruz Mountain region for over 150 years. Under California Forest Practice rules specific to the Southern Subdistrict of the Coast District, clearcutting has been outlawed since 1970. Since that time, single tree selection has been the only silvicultural practice allowed in the Southern...

  6. Influence of light and moisture on longleaf pine seedling growth in selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    David S. Dyson; Edward F. Loewenstein; Steven B. Jack; Dale G. Brockway

    2012-01-01

    Selection silviculture has become increasingly common for longleaf pine management, yet questions remain regarding residual canopy effects on seedling survival and growth. To determine what levels of residual overstory promote adequate seedling recruitment, 600 containerized longleaf pine seedlings were planted on two sites during the 2007-2008 dormant season. To...

  7. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Treesearch

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  8. Helicopter logging productivity on harvesting operations in southeast Alaska, using ecologically based silvicultural prescriptions.

    Treesearch

    L. Christian; A. Brackley

    2007-01-01

    This study examines production rates and costs for felling and helicopter yarding on eight units harvested in accordance with ecologically based silvicultural prescriptions. The units represent five levels of basal area retention. The levels of retention had irregular spatial arrangements caused by gaps and clumps that ranged from 0 percent retention (clearcut) to 75...

  9. Silviculture-ecology of forest-zone hardwoods in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; John C. Tappeiner

    1996-01-01

    Although the principal hardwood species in the forest zone of the Sierra Nevada (California black oak, tanoak, Pacific madrone, and canyon live oak) are key components of many ecosystems, they have received comparatively little study. Currently they are underutilized and unmanaged. This paper brings together what is known on the silviculture-ecology of these species...

  10. Site-specific forest management: matching genotypes and silviculture to optimize carbon sequestration

    Treesearch

    Michael Tyree; John Seiler; Chris Maier

    2013-01-01

    The use of improved genotypes as well an increased understanding of the role of intensive silviculture have made southeastern pine forests some of the most productive forests in the world. The objectives of this research were to determine how two superior loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genotypes, representing two distinct ideotypes, respond to...

  11. Silvicultural cutting opportunities in oak-hickory forests of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    S. L. Arner; D.A. Gansner; M.E. Dale; H.C. Smith

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of cutting opportunities of oak-hickory forests of West Virginia reveals a storehouse of economic opportunity. The potential cut from silviculturally sound thinning, regeneration, and harvest opportunities totals 100 million cords, or 60 times the current annual harvest of growing stock volume from the state.

  12. Silvicultural Alternatives in Bottomland Hardwoods and Their Impact on Stand Quality

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Robert L. Johnson

    1984-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods occur on some 35 million acres of forest land in swamps, creek margins, river bottoms, and brown loam bluffs from Virginia to Texas. These hardwood types are very important because the wood has great value and is in demand by forest industries. This article discusses silvicultural alternatives such as site-species relationships, how hardwood timber...

  13. Long-term data from silvicultural studies: interpreting and assessing old records for economic insights

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Sendak; Robert M. Frank; William B. Leak

    2006-01-01

    Long-term silvicultural studies on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine and Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire offer opportunities for the patient financial analyst. The economist working with carefully collected growth and yield data can increase the value of these studies to other researchers and ultimately to forest managers. Issues related to data...

  14. Effects of silviculture practice and veneer layup on some mechanical properties of loblolly pine plywood

    Treesearch

    Todd E. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; George A. Grozdits; Elvin T. Choong

    1997-01-01

    Loblolly pine three-ply plywood was manufactured from veneer obtained from silviculturally different stands. Panels from each site were assembled with four different veneer grade arrangements and tested in wet and dry conditions. Stiffness properties in both the wet and dry conditions and strength properties in the dry condition were all significantly affected by...

  15. Effects of silvicultural practice and moisture content level on lobolly pine veneer mechanical properties

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H. Groom

    1998-01-01

    Loblolly pine veneer specimens were obtained from five silviculturally different stands. Clear specimens were cut parallel to the grain from full size veneer sheets and tests were done at either air-dry or ovendry conditions to determine differences in bending modulus of rupture (MORb), bending modulus of elasticity (MOEb...

  16. Silvicultural tools applicable in forests burned by a mixed severity fire regime

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    The silvicultural tools applicable for use in forests burned by mixed severity fire regimes are as highly variable as the structures and compositions the fires have historically created. Singly or in combination chunking, chipping, slashing, and piling can alter the character of surface fuels (e.g., small trees, shrubs, branches, and stems). These treatments can be...

  17. Genetics/Silviculture Workshop Proceedings; Wenatchee, WA; August 27-31, 1990

    Treesearch

    Richard G. Miller; Dennis D. Murphy

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the 1990 Genetics/Silviculture Workshop was to review and discuss the virtues, concerns, and opportunities for applying the five regeneration harvest methods and their variations in forest management. The first two papers discuss population dynamics and the importance of understanding genetic variation. These are followed by the moderator'...

  18. Keynote address: the role of silviculture in restoring fire-adapted ecosystems

    Treesearch

    James K. Agee

    2007-01-01

    Across the drier forests of the western United States, historical fire was a natural silvicultural process--thinning stands from below, cleaning surface fuels, and maintaining fire-resilient conditions. The 20th century fire exclusion policy, although initiated with the best of intentions, has been a disaster in dry forests, converting them to high-severity fire...

  19. Silvicultural research and the evolution of forest practices in the Douglas-fir region.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Richard E. Miller; Michael Newton; J. Bradley St. Clair; William I. Stein

    2007-01-01

    Silvicultural practices in the Douglas-fir region evolved through a combination of formal research, observation, and practical experience of forest managers and silviculturists, and changing economic and social factors. This process began more than a century ago and still continues. It has had a great influence on the economic well-being of the region and on the...

  20. Response of outplanted northern red oak seedlings under two silvicultural prescriptions in north Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile Gardiner; Stephanie Love; Tom Green

    2005-01-01

    The decision to artificially regenerate oak must be predicated on some basis. After completing an assessment of the potential to regenerate oak naturally, we decided our stands might benefit from supplemental oak plantings. The primary objective of this study was to couple outplanting of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) with applied silviculture...

  1. Wildland fire effects in silviculturally treated vs. untreated stands of New Mexico and Arizona

    Treesearch

    Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren

    2006-01-01

    Stand-replacement fires, particularly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, have replaced highfrequency, low-intensity historical fire regimes. We examined whether forest stands treated recently using silvicultural practices would be (1) less susceptible to stand-replacing crownfires, and (2) more ecologically and functionally resilient...

  2. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  3. Sampling and measurement protocols for long-term silvicultural studies on the Penobscot Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Justin D. Waskiewicz; Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers; Joshua J. Puhlick; John C. Brissette; Richard J. Dionne

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station has been conducting research on the silviculture of northern conifers on the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in Maine since 1950. Formal study plans provide guidance and specifications for the experimental treatments, but documentation is also needed to ensure consistency in data collection and sampling protocols....

  4. The role of silvicultural thinning in eastern forests threatened by hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan

    2008-01-01

    In order to increase hemlock survivability in stands threatened by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), a new study is developing silvicultural thinning guidelines to reduce stand densities, reallocate resources, and increase hemlock vigor across a range of stand types and structures before HWA invasion. The 7 study areas are all geographically similar in that they regularly...

  5. Plant morphological characteristics as a tool in monitoring response to silvicultural activities

    Treesearch

    David S. Buckley; John C. Zasada; John C., II Tappeiner; Douglas M. Stone

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring environmental change through documentation of species composition becomes problematic when compositional changes take several years to occur or simply do not occur following silvicultural treatment. Morphological characteristics (e.g., leaf area, node density, bud number) change in many plant species in response to factors such as light availability, soil...

  6. Silviculture and multi-resource management case studies for southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the Western United States. The woodlands are heterogeneous, consisting of numerous combinations of tree, shrub, and herbaceous species and stand densities that are representative of the wide range of sites and habitat types they occupy. Silvicultural methods can be employed on better sites to meet...

  7. Forest fuel treatments in western North America: merging silvicultural and fire management.

    Treesearch

    Morris C. Johnson; David L. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    For many years silviculture and fire management have mostly been separate forestry disciplines with disparate objectives and activities. However, in order to accomplish complex and multiple management objectives related to forest structure, fuels, and fxe disturbance, these two disciplines must be effectively integrated in science and practice. We have linked...

  8. Hardwood silviculture and skyline yarding on steep slopes: economic and environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1995-01-01

    Ameliorating the visual and environmental impact associated with harvesting hardwoods on steep slopes will require the efficient use of skyline yarding along with silvicultural alternatives to clearcutting. In evaluating the effects of these alternatives on harvesting revenue, results of field studies and computer simulations were used to estimate costs and revenue for...

  9. Preliminary silvicultural recommendations and an updated annotated bibliography for birdseye sugar maple

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2008-01-01

    The birdseye grain abnormality in sugar maple can greatly enhance its commercial appeal. However, birdseye has been opportunistically exploited, without exploring management strategies that can improve its potential. Even though the initiation and development processes of birdseye maple are still largely unknown, useful silvicultural advice can still be provided for...

  10. Using silviculture to sustain upland oak forests under stress on the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Jeff W. Stringer; Stacy L. Clark; David L. Loftis

    2011-01-01

    We used a large-scale silvicultural assessment designed to examine the efficacy of five stand-level prescriptions in reducing the potential impacts of gypsy moth infestations and oak decline on upland hardwood forests in Kentucky's Daniel Boone National Forest. Prescriptions involved a mix of intermediate stand treatments aimed at increasing residual tree vigor...

  11. An overview of silvicultural influences on loblolly pine veneer-basedpanel properties

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) harvested from five silviculturally different stands was used to manufacture 13-ply laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and 3-ply plywood. LVL panels were assembled as either all A-grade or all C-grade veneer. Plywood panels were produced according to four different veneer grade layups (AAA, ACA, ACC, and...

  12. Integrated restoration of forested ecosystems to achieve multiresource benefits: proceedings of the 2007 national silviculture workshop.

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Deal

    2008-01-01

    A primary mission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is multiple resource management, and one of the emerging themes is forest restoration. The National Silviculture Workshop, a biennial event co-sponsored by the Forest Service, was held May 7-10, 2007, in Ketchikan, Alaska, with the theme of "Integrated Restoration of Forested Ecosystems to...

  13. Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-6, 1986

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Phillips; [Compiler

    1987-01-01

    Three abstracts and 93 papers are presented in 13 categories: Pine Regeneration, Prescribed Fire, Hardwood Regeneration, Pine-Hardwood Regeneration, Seedling Production, Soil-Site-Stand Relationships, Silviculture-Economic Relationships, Interactions and Influences, Site Preparation, Management of Established Stands, Growth and Yield, Pest Management, and Vegetative...

  14. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  15. Subdivide or silviculture: choices facing family forest owners in the redwood region

    Treesearch

    William Stewart; Shasta Ferranto; Gary Nakamura; Christy Getz; Lynn Huntsinger; Maggi. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Families or family businesses own nearly all of the private redwood forestland in California. Family forest owners have practiced both subdivision and silviculture for decades but the dominant theme for most family owners is environmental stewardship. Parcel size is more important than expressed values as a predictor of resource management activities. All landowners...

  16. Silviculture and the assessment of climate change genetic risk for southern Appalachian forest tree species

    Treesearch

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara S. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Changing climate conditions and increasing insect and pathogen infestations will increase the likelihood that forest trees could experience population-level extirpation or species-level extinction during the next century. Gene conservation and silvicultural efforts to preserve forest tree genetic diversity present a particular challenge in species-rich regions such as...

  17. Hickory regeneration under five silvicultural prescriptions in an oak-hickory forest in northern Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Hickory (Carya spp.) regeneration in oak-hickory forests of the southern Cumberland Plateau has not been widely studied. I assessed hickory regeneration under five silviculture prescriptions, including clear-cut harvests, three levels of shelterwood harvests, and no harvest. Each stand-level treatment was replicated three times and treatments were...

  18. State survey of silviculture nonpoint source programs: a comparison of the 2000 northeastern and national results

    Treesearch

    Pamela J. Edwards; Gordon W. Stuart

    2002-01-01

    The National Association of State Foresters conducts surveys of silviculture nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control programs to measure progress and identify needs. The 2000 survey results are summarized here for the nation and for the 20-state northeastern region. Current emphasis of NPS pollution programs is on education, training, and monitoring. Educational...

  19. Restoring old-growth southern pine ecosystems: strategic lessons from long-term silvicultural research

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; James M. Guldin

    2008-01-01

    The successful restoration of old-growth-like loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine-dominated forests requires the integration of ecological information with long-term silvicultural research from places such as the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF). Conventional management practices such as timber harvesting or competition control have supplied...

  20. Reference conditions for silvicultural field studies in Maine: limitations and opportunities

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Alan S. White; Shawn Fraver

    2004-01-01

    There are many types of controls or reference conditions for silvicultural experiments. The most basic are pretreatment records of composition and structure, but such data provide little information about response to treatment compared to natural developmental and disturbance patterns. Ideally, experiments should have untreated stand replicates in which development can...

  1. Effects Of Silvicultural Practice And Veneer Lay Upon Some Mechanical Properties Of Loblolly Pine Plywood

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; George A. Grozdits; Elvin T. Choong

    1997-01-01

    Loblolly pine three-ply plywood was manufactured from veneer obtained from silviculturally different stands. Panels from each site were assembled with four different veneer grade arrangements and tested in wet and dry conditions. Stiffness properties in both the wet and dry conditions and strength properties in the dry condition were all significantly affected by...

  2. Rx for Abies: silvicultural options for diseased firs in Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    G.M. Filip; C.L. Schmitt

    1990-01-01

    The true firs are important species in Oregon and Washington forests, but root diseases, stem decays, and dwarf mistletoes cause more mortality, growth loss, and cull in these species than in any other. This paper consolidates research, observations, and management techniques for diseases of true firs, especially the effects of silvicultural activities on root diseases...

  3. Cerulean Warbler response to silvicultural manipulations on managed forestland in Desha Co., Arkansas, third year results

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Mike Staten; Rodney Wishard; Carl G., III Smith

    2010-01-01

    Cerulean Warbler is a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory bird in need of management attention for which only rudiments of a silvicultural prescription exist. Since 1992, we have monitored breeding populations of this and other canopy-dwelling warbler species on a 54-ha site in Desha County, AR, owned and managed by Anderson-Tully Co. for production of high quality...

  4. Effect of silvicultural practice and wood type on loblolly pine particleboard and medium density fiberboard properties

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H.. Groom

    1999-01-01

    he objective of this study was to determine the effect of five different silvicultural strategies and wood type on mechanical and physical properties of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) particleboard and fiberboard. The furnish was prepared in an unconventional manner from innerwood and outerwood veneer for each stand. Modulus of rupture (MOR)...

  5. A critique of silvicultural approaches to managing defoliating insects in North America

    Treesearch

    R.M. ​Muzika; A.M. Liebhold

    2000-01-01

    A variety of silvicultural techniques have been suggested for managing forest defoliating insects. The objectives focus on minimizing defoliation or minimizing damage from defoliation. The theoretical foundations of many approaches have been built upon observation and correlation, and very little reliable empirical evidence exists to support the objectives of...

  6. Recent workforce trends and their effects on the silviculture program in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    John Betts

    2008-01-01

    British Columbia's entrepreneurial silviculture sector provides a reliable just-in-time service delivery of forestry activities from planting trees to fighting wildfires. Transient, and seeming to rely often on improvisation, contractors actually run logistically sophisticated businesses that are able to match varying field conditions to the biological and...

  7. Nonnative plant response to silvicultural treatments: A model based on disturbance, propagule pressure, and competitive abilities

    Treesearch

    Steve Sutherland; Cara R. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by nonnative plants can result in substantial adverse effects on the functions of native forest ecosystems, including nutrient cycling and fire regimes. Thus, forest managers need to be aware of the potential impacts of management activities, including silvicultural treatments, on nonnative vegetation. To aid in that effort, we created a conceptual model of...

  8. The statistical reason why some researchers say some silvicultural treatments "wash-out" over time

    Treesearch

    David B. South; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2006-01-01

    The initial effects of a silvicultural treatment on height or volume growth sometimes decline over time, and the early gains eventually disappear with very long rotations. However, in some reports initial gains are maintained until harvest but due to statistical analyses, a researcher might conclude the treatment effect has "washed-out" by ages 10 to 18 years...

  9. Effects of five silvicultural treatments on Loblolly pine in the Georgia Piedmont at age 20

    Treesearch

    M. Boyd Edwards; Barry D. Shiver; Stephen R. Logan

    2003-01-01

    Age 20data from a designed experimental study installed on 24 plots at one location in the LowerPiediizont in Jones County, Georgia, were used to evaluate the effect of six silviculrural treatments on survival, growth, and yield of cutover site-prepared loblolly pine plantations in the Georgia Piedmont. The following silvicultural treatments were included in the study...

  10. Effects of silviculture on neotropical migratory birds in central and southeastern oak pine forests

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson; Frank R. Thompson; Richard N. Conner; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1993-01-01

    Avian communities that are associated with forest habitat attributes are affected by silvicultural and other stand influences. Some species have specific habitat requirements, whereas others occupy a broad range of vegetative conditions. In general, bird species richness and density are positively related to stand foliage volume and diversity. Bird density and...

  11. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  12. Breeding bird responses to three silvicultural treatments in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, C.L.; McComb, W.C.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Silvicultural alternatives to clear-cutting have been suggested to promote development, retention, or creation of late-successional features such as large trees, multilayered canopies, snags, and logs. We assessed bird response to three silvicultural alternatives to clear-cutting that retained structural features found in old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests and that imitated natural disturbance regimes more closely than did traditional clear-cutting: (1) small-patch group selection treatment representing a low-intensity disturbance; (2) two-story treatment, representing a moderate to high-intensity disturbance; and (3) modified clear-cut treatment, representing a high-intensity disturbance. We counted diurnal breeding birds 1 yr prior to and 2 yr after harvest to estimate effects of the silvicultural treatments on bird communities compared with uncut controls. The small-patch group selection treatment was most similar in species composition to control stands. The two-story treatment was more similar to the modified clear-cut treatment. Ten bird species remained abundant following the small-patch group selection treatment. They declined in abundance in modified clearcuts and two-story stands. These species included four neotropical migratory species and five species with restricted geographic ranges and habitat associations. Nine species increased in response to moderate and/or high-intensity disturbances. This group included a larger proportion of species that were habitat generalists. Silvicultural treatments imitating low-intensity disturbances were most effective in retaining bird communities associated with mature forest; high-intensity disturbances such as the two-story and modified clear-cut treatments greatly altered bird community composition. Bird responses to the silvicultural treatments that we studied indicate that a variety of stand types is needed to meet needs of all species.

  13. Physiological characteristics of tropical rain forest tree species: A basis for the development of silvicultural technology

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Satohiko

    2008-01-01

    The physiological characteristics of the dominant tree species in the tropical rain forest mainly belonging to dipterocarps as well as the environmental conditions especially for the light in the forest were studied to establish the silvicultural system for the forest regeneration in the tropical South Asia. The flowering patterns of the dipterocarp trees are usually irregular and unpredictable, which make difficult to collect sufficient seeds for raising the seedlings. The field survey revealed the diverged features of the so-called gregarious or simultaneous flowering of various species of this group. Appropriate conditions and methods for the storage of the seeds were established according to the detailed analyses of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seeds such as the low temperature tolerance and the moisture contents. The intensity and spectra of the light in the forest primarily determine the growth and the morphological development of the seedlings under the canopy. Based on the measurements of the diffused light at the sites in the tropical forest in the varying sunlight, the parameters such as “the steady state of the diffuse light” and “the turning point” were defined, which were useful to evaluate the light conditions in the forest. To improve the survival of the transplanted seedlings, a planting method of “the bare-root seedlings”, the seedlings easy to be handled by removal of all leaves, soil and pots, was developed. Its marked efficiency was proved with various dipterocarps and other tropical trees by the field trial in the practical scale. Tolerance of the various species to the extreme environmental conditions such as fires, acid soils and drought were examined by the experiments and the field survey, which revealed marked adaptability of Shorea roxburghii as a potential species for regeneration of the tropical forests. PMID:18941286

  14. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Density of Stocking Control; Eugene, Oregon; October 13-15, 1976

    Treesearch

    Jack H. Usher; Daniel B. Jones; A. R. Stage; Benjamin A. Roach; Gilbert B. Schubert; Darrell W. Crawford; Gilbert H. Schubert; Walter Fox; Edward A. Smith; Richard E. Lowrey Sofes; Richard F. Watt

    1976-01-01

    The 1976 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on October 13-15, 1976. The objectives were to discuss second growth management of individual stands, with particular emphasis on the control of stand density.

  15. Uneven-aged silviculture for loblolly and shortleaf pine forest cover types. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.B.; Cain, M.D.; Guldin, J.M.; Murphy, P.A.; Shelton, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    A half-century of experience and research with uneven-aged silviculture in loblolly-shortleaf pine stands in the South are summarized in this publication, and silvicultural guidelines for developing and managing uneven-aged stands are provided. This publication should be useful to silviculturists, foresters, and other resource professionals in developing and managing uneven-aged pine stands. It can also serve as a teaching aid in forestry workshops, short courses, and university curricula.

  16. Bird response to silviculture induced change in forest structure within bottomland hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Somershoe, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments prescribed to encourage development of desired stand structure (i.e., wildlife-forestry) should result in increased abundance of many bird species of management concern, especially species using dense understory habitat. Desired forest conditions within bottomland vary among sites, but average 60-70% overstory canopy that is heterogeneously distributed with >5 dominant trees/ha retained, and a basal area of 14-16 m2/ha. Desired mid-story and understory cover are between 25-40%. Cavity trees (small and large) as well as dead and/or stressed trees should be retained, ultimately providing >14 m3/ha coarse woody debris, and shade-intolerant tree regeneration should be present on 30-40% of the area. We assessed avian response to prescribed wildlife-forestry silviculture treatments via distance-adjusted point counts and constant effort mist-netting within forest stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Louisiana. More species and individuals were detected within stands 1-13 years post-treatment than within untreated stands. Most species, especially species benefiting from disturbance, increased in density after treatment. A few species decreased in density, yet remained fairly relatively abundant post-treatment. Captures from netting suggested three generalized responses to wildlife-forestry silviculture: (1) species with rapid, short-duration positive response, (2) species with slower but more prolonged positive response, and (3) species which initially declined but had long-term positive population response. We recommend increased use of prescribed wildlife-forestry silvicultural prescriptions to enhance bottomland forest habitat for priority bird species.

  17. Field experience silvicultural cleaning project in young spruce and fir stands in central Nova Scotia

    Treesearch

    Theodore C. Tryon; Thomas W. Hartranft

    1977-01-01

    Silvicultural cleaning production varied from .15 to .34 acres per man day using light weight chain saws in young Spruce and Fir stands in Central Nova Scotia. Direct labor and saw costs, in cleaning young softwood stands in Nova Scotia, can be expected to range generally from $55.00 to $90.00 per acre, depending on crew experience, stand density, and equipment used....

  18. Long-term effect of silvicultural thinnings on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Treesearch

    Martin Jurgensen; Rachel Tarpey; Jim Pickens; Randy Kolka; Brian. Palik

    2012-01-01

    The effects of long-term silvicultural thinning on soil C and N content are not well known. We evaluated the impact of periodic thinnings on soil C and N pools in a 134-yr-old red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) forest in Minnesota, and a 104 yr-old northern hardwood forest in Wisconsin. The red pine stands had five thinning regimes (13.8, 18.4, 22.7, 27....

  19. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands one year after selective silvicultural treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Landi, Silvia; Bianchetto, Elisa; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wild fires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this silvicultural treatment was to re-establish the pine as a first cover and pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil and flora biodiversity and under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera) and flora. The microbial (bacteria and fungi) diversity was assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (microbiota) approaches whereas QBS (Soil Biological Quality) index and diversity indexes were determined for mesofauna and other organisms, respectively, including flora. The overall results highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning, and revealed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. Even though silvicultural treatments provided no significant differences at floristic level, microbial and mesofaunal parameters revealed to be differently affected by treatments. In particular, little but significant

  20. The Use of Silviculture and Prescribed Fire to Manage Stand Structure and Fuel Profiles in a Multi-aged Lodgepole Pine Forest

    Treesearch

    Colin C. Hardy; Helen Y. Smith; Ward McCaughey

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents several components of a multi-disciplinary project designed to evaluate the ecological and biological effects of two innovative silvicultural treatments coupled with prescribed fire in an attempt to both manage fuel profiles and create two-aged stand structures in lodgepole pine. Two shelterwood silvicultural treatments were designed to replicate as...

  1. Uneven-aged silviculture can enhance within stand heterogeneity and beetle diversity.

    PubMed

    Joelsson, Klara; Hjältén, Joakim; Work, Timothy

    2017-09-26

    Uneven-aged silviculture may better maintain species assemblages associated with old-growth forests than clear felling in part due to habitat heterogeneity created by maintaining standing retention strips adjacent to harvest trails. Retention strips and harvest trails created at the time of tree removal will likely have different microclimate and may harbor different assemblages. In some cases, the resultant stand heterogeneity associated with uneven-aged silviculture may be similar to natural small-scale disturbances. For beetles, increased light and temperature as well as potential access to young vegetation and deadwood substrates present in harvset trails may harbor beetle assemblages similar to those found in natural gaps. We sampled saproxylic beetles using flight intercept traps placed in harvest corridors and retention strips in 9 replicated uneven-aged spruce stands in central Sweden. We compared abundance, species richness and composition between harvest corridors and retention strips using generalized linear models, rarefaction, permutational multivariate analysis of variance and indicator species analysis. Canopy openness doubled, mean temperature and variability in daily temperature increased and humidity decreased on harvest trails. Beetle richness and abundance were greater in harvests trails than in retention strips and the beetle species composition differed significantly between habitats. Twenty-five species were associated with harvest trails, including three old-growth specialists such as Agathidium discoideum (Erichson), currently red-listed. We observed only one species, Xylechinus pilosus (Ratzeburg) that strongly favored retention strips. Harvest trails foster both open habitat species and old-growth species while retention strips harbored forest interior specialists. The combination of closed canopy, stratified forest in the retention strips and gap-like conditions on the harvest trails thus increases overall species richness and maintains

  2. Carbon Sequestration and intensive silviculture: The southern U.S. Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, S.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon sequestration by managed forests in the U.S. accounts for nearly 300 MMTC per year, which is eighteen times more than the C sequestered by croplands and 36 times more than that sequestered by rangelands. The Western forests used to produce majority of the forest biomass (as timber and fiber) in the U.S. However, changing social values and attitudes are shifting harvesting pressure from the western forests to the southeastern forests. As a result of these and other factors, the South's forest biomass production more than doubled between 1953 and 1997. Its share of U.S. production rose from 41 to 58 percent and its share of the world's production from 6.3 to 15.8 percent. This represents a significant gain in the carbon sequestration potential of managed forests in the South. It is estimated that the managed forests of the South sequester nearly 100 MMTC per year or accounts for third of the carbon storage capacity of the continental U.S. forests. The remarkable gain in carbon sequestration potential of the southern forests, despite a shrinking forestland base, was made possible by intensive silviculture. How did intensive silviculture help sequester more carbon? This paper examines the ecological and physiological basis for the observed increases in productivity and carbon sequestration potential of intensively managed forests of the South. It also explores ways by which carbon sequestration can be further enhanced in intensive forestry.

  3. Innovative silvicultural treatments to enhance soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Salerni, Elena; Mori, Paolo; Bruschini, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. This was a preparatory step to the reintroduction of broadleaf trees, such as oaks and beech trees, and thus the reestablishment of mixed forest. A series of thinning activities were planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. Many stands, however, remain unthinned, which over time, has weakened the trees in the plantations. Alternative forms of regeneration have been and are being tested to improve the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species. Thinning, however, remains the most common and one of the most successful regeneration methods used in pine forests. The project's main objective is to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance the level of biodiversity in the soil of black pine stands. In particular, the project aims to evaluate the effects of selective thinning on soil biodiversity on young black pine stands. These effects will be compared to traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) and to areas of forest where silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting) are not carried out.

  4. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  5. Proceedings of the Sixth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    Sandra S. Coleman; Daniel G. Neary; [Compilers and editors

    1991-01-01

    Three general session papers outline the challenges and opportunities ahead for southern silvlculture.An additional 95 papers scale 17 different areas: regeneration; nurseries; site preparation and vegetation management: Intermediate cuttings; growth and yield; pest management; atmospheric influences; systems; soil-site relations; ecophystology; stand dynamics: water...

  6. Structure and regrowth of longleaf pine forests following uneven-aged silviculture and hurricane disturbance at the Escambia Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Kimberly Bohn; Christel Chancy; Dale Brockway

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, considerable attention has been placed on restoring and managing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems across the southeastern United States. Although, historically, these forests have been successfully regenerated following even-aged shelterwood reproduction methods, uneven-aged silviculture has received increasing...

  7. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  8. Influence of residual basal area on longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) first year germination and establishment under selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Even-aged silvicultural methods have been successfully used to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests for wood production; however, successful use of uneven-aged methods to manage this ecosystem is less well documented. In this study, the effects of varying levels of residual basal area (RBA) (9.2, 13.8, and 18.4 m2...

  9. Long-term research on classical silvicultural approaches in the Acadian Forest: Penobscot Experimental Forest Part I

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; Michael R. Saunders; Laura S. Kenefic; Paul E. Sendak

    2006-01-01

    The most comprehensive study of stand dynamics in the Acadian Forest Region is an experiment by the USDA Forest Service at the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) in Maine. It was established from 1952-1957 to study changes in structure, composition, and productivity from an array of silvicultural treatments. Ingrowth, accretion, and mortality of individual trees (!Y0....

  10. The effects of silvicultural thinning and Lymantria dispar L. defoliation on wood volume growth of Quercus spp.

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Fajvan; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-defoliation radial growth rates were used to examine the effects of silvicultural thinning and two consecutive years of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation on Quercus spp. wood volume production. In the first phase of the study, tree rings from 65 dissected stems, were used to develop polynomial models to...

  11. Centerpiece of research on the Penobscot Experimental Forest: the US Forest Service long-term silvicultural study

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; Laura S. Kenefic

    2014-01-01

    Established between 1952 and 1957, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service experiment comparing several silvicultural treatments is not only the centerpiece of research on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine, it is also one of the longest-running, replicated studies of how management techniques influence forest dynamics in North America. Ten...

  12. Silvicultural options for young-growth Douglas-fir forests: the Capitol Forest study—establishment and first results.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall; Dean S. DeBell

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the origin, design, establishment and measurement procedures and first results of a large long-term cooperative study comparing a number of widely different silvicultural regimes applied to young-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands managed for multiple objectives. Regimes consist of (1) conventional clearcutting...

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  14. Understory Vegetation 3 Years after Implementing Uneven-Aged Silviculture in a Shortleaf Pine-Oak Stand

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Shelton; Paul A. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    The effects of retaining overstory hardwoods on understory vegetation were determined after implementing uneven-aged silviculture usingsingle-tree selection in a shortleaf pine-oak stand (Pinus echinata Mill. and Quercus spp.) in the Ouachita Mountains. Treatments were the following hardwood basal areas (square feet per acre) and...

  15. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Treesearch

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  16. Silviculture and stand dynamics of hemlock-dominated stands in southern New England: some lessons from early research

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Kelty

    2000-01-01

    In the early part of this century, considerable interest existed in the silviculture of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in the southern New England region, where it occurs in mixture with oak (Quercus spp.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.), birches (Betula spp.), and maples (Acer...

  17. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: The Shelterwood Regeneration Method; Charleston, South Carolina September 17-21, 1979

    Treesearch

    Dan Cramsey; Carl Puuri; Dick Miller; Billy E. Page; David Smith; David Marquis; Jack Usher; Bob Naumann; William Beaufait; Robert Loomis; Edward Smith; David Loftis; Gordon Langdon; Thomas Croker; William Boyer; Jim Edgren; Douglas Roy; John Hughes; Charles Boldt; Glenn Jacobson; Dick Godman; Carl Tubbs; Ivan Sander; Bob Blomquist

    1979-01-01

    Historic Charleston, South Carolina was the site of the 1979 Silviculture Workshop. The objective of the meeting was to discuss state of the art application of the shelterwood regeneration method to forests of the United States. These proceedings include the presentations of the individuals on the program.

  18. The silvicultural implications of age patterns in two southern pine stands after 72 years of uneven-aged management

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; James M. Guldin

    2015-01-01

    A randomized sample of 250 loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata Mill.) pine ring counts was collected from the Good and Poor Farm Forestry compartments on the Crossett Experimental Forest. These mature, pine-dominated stands have been managed using uneven-aged silviculture since 1937. Our sample shows that both...

  19. Regeneration microsites and resource levels resulting from a range of silvicultural treatments in tennessee oak-hickory forests

    Treesearch

    Brian A. Barwatt; David S. Buckley; Wayne K. Clatterbuck1

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration microsites were investigated by measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil moisture, nutrients, and understory vegetation in (1) uncut controls and plots with partial cutting to either 50, 25, or 12.5 percent of original basal area, (2) commercial clearcuts, and (3) silvicultural clearcuts. Treatments and controls were replicated in...

  20. Two-age silviculture on the Monongahela National Forest - managers and scientists assess 17 years of communication

    Treesearch

    Gary Miller; James E. Johnson; John E. Baumgras; R. Gary Bustamente

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the development of two-age silviculture on the Monongahela National Forest and provides an assessment of the practice as it is applied today. Silviculturists at each ranger district provided a chronology of the communication process between managers and scientists that led to current stand treatment prescriptions. In addition, data were collected...

  1. Silviculture's impact on the historical shortleaf component of pine forests in the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    Silvicultural practices and human-induced alterations to natural disturbance regimes have contributed to a dramatic decline in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) across most of the Upper West Gulf Coastal Plain (UWGCP). The increased preference for faster-growing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in natural-origin stands, coupled with the spread of loblolly plantations and less...

  2. Mid-rotation silviculture timing influences nitrogen mineralization of loblolly pine plantations in the mid-south USA

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Blazier; D. Andrew Scott; Ryan Coleman

    2015-01-01

    Intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations often develop nutrient deficiencies near mid-rotation. Common silvicultural treatments for improving stand nutrition at this stage include thinning, fertilization, and vegetation control. It is important to better understand the influence of timing fertilization and vegetation control...

  3. Plantation productivity in the Douglas-fir region under intensive silvicultural practices: results from research and operations.

    Treesearch

    Cheryl Talbert; David. Marshall

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews major plantation silvicultural practices used in the westside Douglas-fir region of Oregon and Washington: origin, growth and yield impacts, and the region's global competitive status for productivity, tree-growing costs, and returns. Two main messages emerge: (1) there has been great progress in the region to increase wood yield and shorten...

  4. Effects of silvicultural practices on soil carbon and nitrogen in a nitrogen saturated central Appalachian (USA) hardwood forest ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Frank S. Gilliam; David A. Dick; Michelle L. Kerr; Mary Beth Adams

    2004-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments represent disturbances to forest ecosystems often resulting in transient increases in net nitrification and leaching of nitrate and base cations from the soil. Response of soil carbon (C) is more complex, decreasing from enhanced soil respiration and increasing from enhanced postharvest inputs of detritus. Because nitrogen (N) saturation can...

  5. American Chestnut Growth and Survival Five Years after Planting in Two Silvicultural Treatments in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Henry Mcnab; David Loftis; Stanley Zarnoch

    2012-01-01

    The ability to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata) through the planting of blight-resistant (Cryphonectria parasitica) trees is currently being tested. Forest-based research on the species’ silvicultural requirements and chestnut blight development are lacking. Pure American chestnut seedlings were planted in a two-age...

  6. Silvicultural decisionmaking in an uncertain climate future: a workshop-based exploration of considerations, strategies, and approaches

    Treesearch

    Maria K. Janowiak; Christopher W. Swanston; Linda M. Nagel; Christopher R. Webster; Brian J. Palik; Mark J. Twery; John B. Bradford; Linda R. Parker; Andrea T. Hille; Sheela M. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Land managers across the country face the immense challenge of developing and applying appropriate management strategies as forests respond to climate change. We hosted a workshop to explore silvicultural strategies for addressing the uncertainties surrounding climate change and forest response in the northeastern and north-central United States. Outcomes of this...

  7. Two-age silviculture: an innovative tool for enhancing species diversity and vertical structure in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Petra B. Wood; Jeffrey V. Nichols; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    1995-01-01

    Silvicultural practices that promote a two-age stand structure provide an opportunity to maintain diversity of woody species and vertical structure for extended periods of time in Appalachian hardwoods. Data from four two-age stands initiated by deferment cutting in West Virginia are summarized for the first 10 to 15 years after treatment. Results indicated that 15...

  8. Physiological responses of eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) to biological control and silvicultural release: implications for hemlock restoration

    Treesearch

    Chelcy F. Miniat; David Zeitlow; Steven T. Brantley; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Rusty Rhea; Robert Jetton; Paul.  Arnold

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) from riparian zones in the southern Appalachian Mountains due to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelgis tsugae, HWA) infestation has resulted in changes to watershed structure and function. Several restoration strategies have been proposed, including silvicultural treatments that increase incident light in forest...

  9. Herpetofaunal response to oak-regenerating silvicultural practices in the mid-Cumberland plateau of southern Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Andrew W. Cantrell; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer; Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2012-01-01

    Silviculture treatments can alter landscapes, which in return can affect wildlife communities. This research examined how microhabitat differed short-term (1-2 years after disturbance) between two different oak-regenerating shelterwood treatments, a midstory-reduction (oak-shelterwood) and a first-harvested basal area removal (shelterwood), in comparison to undisturbed...

  10. Growth of loblolly pine stands after the first five years of uneven-aged silviculture using single-tree selection

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy; Michael G. Shelton

    1994-01-01

    The effects of three levels of residual basal area (40, 60, and 80 ft2/ac), maximum dbh (12, 16, 20 in.) and site index (90 ft) on the growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands after 5 yr of uneven-aged silviculture were determined from plots located in the south Arkansas and north...

  11. Nitrogen dynamics across silvicultural canopy gaps in young forests of western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiel, A.L.; Perakis, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Silvicultural canopy gaps are emerging as an alternative management tool to accelerate development of complex forest structure in young, even-aged forests of the Pacific Northwest. The effect of gap creation on available nitrogen (N) is of concern to managers because N is often a limiting nutrient in Pacific Northwest forests. We investigated patterns of N availability in the forest floor and upper mineral soil (0-10 cm) across 6-8-year-old silvicultural canopy gaps in three 50-70-year-old Douglas-fir forests spanning a wide range of soil N capital in the Coast Range and Cascade Mountains of western Oregon. We used extractable ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- ion exchange resin (IER) concentrations to quantify N availability along north-south transects run through the centers of 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. In addition, we measured several factors known to influence N availability, including litterfall, moisture, temperature, and decomposition rates. In general, gap-forest differences in N availability were more pronounced in the mineral soil than in the forest floor. Mineral soil extractable NH4+ and NO3- pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- IER concentrations were all significantly elevated in gaps relative to adjacent forest, and in several cases exhibited significantly greater spatial variability in gaps than forest. Nitrogen availability along the edges of gaps more often resembled levels in the adjacent forest than in gap centers. For the majority of response variables, there were no significant differences between northern and southern transect positions, nor between 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. Forest floor and mineral soil gravimetric percent moisture and temperature showed few differences along transects, while litterfall carbon (C) inputs and litterfall C:N ratios in gaps were significantly lower than in the adjacent forest. Reciprocal transfer incubations of

  12. Uneven-aged silviculture and management in the western United States: Proceedings of an In-service Workshop; Redding, California; October 19-21, 1976

    Treesearch

    Carl M. Berntsen; A. P. Mustian; Carter B. Gibbs; David A. Marquis; Donald T. Gordon; Jerry F. Franklin; Marvin W. Foiles; Robert O. Curtis; Dale O. Hall; Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster; Robert E. Phares

    1977-01-01

    The 1976 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on October 13-15, 1976. The objectives were to discuss second growth management of individual stands, with particular emphasis on the control of stand density.

  13. A decade of recreation ratings for six silviculture treatments in Western Oregon.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Bo; Thompson, Jonathan R; Brunson, Mark; Johnson, Rebecca

    2005-05-01

    Managed forests are increasingly being used for recreation. As a result, foresters may be expected to tailor silvicultural treatments to accommodate specific recreation preferences. To better understand changes in hiking and camping quality in the years following a harvest, six sites on the Oregon State University's research forest were evaluated annually for 11 years. Multiple comparison and regression analyses were used to describe the data. Results show that recreation ratings generally improved over time; recreation ratings were related to but different from scenic ratings; and there were differences among recreation activities. Although several studies have previously examined recreation quality after harvest, we know of no other study that has tracked the ratings of individual harvest units through the early stages of stand regeneration.

  14. Forest structure of oak plantations after silvicultural treatment to enhance habitat for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of <1 0.25 – 2 ha; and 3) tree removal on intersecting corridors diagonal to planted rows. These 3 treatments, and an untreated control, were applied to oak plantations (20 - 30 years post-planting) on three National Wildlife Refuges (Cache River, AR; Grand Cote, LA; and Yazoo, MS) during summer 2010. We sampled habitat using fixed-radius plots in 2009 (pre-treatment) and in 2012 (post-treatment) at random locations. Retained basal area was least in diagonal corridor treatments but had greater variance in patch-cut treatments. All treatments increased canopy openness and the volume of coarse woody debris. Occurrence of birds using early successional habitats was greater on sites treated with patch cuts and diagonal intersections. Canopy openings on row-thinned stands are being filled by lateral crown growth of retained trees whereas patch cut and diagonal intersection gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.

  15. Medium-long term soil resilience against different disturbances: wildfires, silvicultural treatments and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Soils of semiarid Mediterranean forest ecosystems are very fragile and sensitive to changes due to different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The increasing vulnerability of semiarid lands within this world framework has generated growing awareness in the field of research, with highly intensified study into soils properties. One of the main problems of Mediterranean forests is wildfire disturbance. Fire should be considered more an ecological factor but, in contrast to the role of fire, it is now a closely related factor to human action. On the other hand, to improve the recovery of forest communities after fire, silvicultural treatments are needed and, for that matter, another disturbance is added to the ecosystem. By last, climate change is also affecting the fire regime increasing fire frequency and burned area, enhancing the destructiveness to Mediterranean ecosystems. After all of these three disturbances, changes in vegetation dynamics and soil properties are expected to occur due to the plant-soil feedback. Soil plays an essential role in the forest ecosystem's fertility and stability and specifically soil microorganisms, which accomplish reactions to release soil nutrients for vegetation development, for that is essential to enlarge knowledge about soil properties resilience in semiarid forest ecosystems. Physico-chemical and microbiological soil properties, and enzyme activities have been studied in two Aleppo pine forest stands that have suffered three disturbances: 1) a wildfire event, 2) silvicultural treatments (thinning) and 3) an artificial drought (simulating climate change) and results showed that soil recovered after 15 years. Final results showed that soils have been recovered from the three disturbances at the medium-long term.

  16. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  17. Nesting success of birds in different silvicultural treatments in southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, D.R.; Martin, T.E.; Melchiors, M.A.; Thill, R.E.; Wigley, T.B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nesting success and levels of nest predation and cowbird parasitism among five different silvicultural treatments: regenerating (3-6 years old), mid-rotation (12-15 years old), and thinned (17-23 years old) pine plantations, single-tree selection, and late-rotation pine-hardwood stands in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas from 1993 to 1995. We monitored 1674 nests. Differences in daily mortality and daily predation rate among two or more treatments were found for 4 and 3 of 12 species, respectively. These differences were lost following Bonferroni adjustments, but thinned stands had higher levels of predation than single-tree selection stands when predation levels were averaged across species. Daily predation rates were positively correlated with the relative abundance of birds, suggesting that nest predators respond to prey availability (i.e., nests) in a density-dependent manner. The relative abundance of cowbirds differed among treatments, with the highest densities in regenerating, thinned, and single-tree selection stands. Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) experienced higher levels of parasitism in thinned than regenerating plantations, whereas White-eyed Vireos (Vireo griseus) experienced higher parasitism in regenerating plantations than in mid-rotation or thinned plantations. Several shrub-nesting and 1 ground-nesting species had lower nesting success in thinned and regenerating plantations than has been reported in previously published studies. Thus, some seral stages of even-aged management may provide low-quality nesting habitat for several early-successional bird species. In contrast, many species nesting in mid-rotation and single-tree selection stands had nesting success similar to or greater than that found in previous studies, suggesting that some silvicultural treatments, when embedded in a largely forested landscape, may provide suitable habitat for forest land birds without affecting their

  18. Silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Fiedler

    2000-01-01

    Sustainable, ecologically-based management of pine/ fir forests requires silviculturists to integrate several treatments that emulate historic disturbance processes. Restoration prescriptions typically include cleaning or heavy understory thinning, improvement cutting to reduce the proportion of firs, and modified selection cutting to reduce overall stand density,...

  19. Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations in the Paraiba do Sul basin, Brazil, and its potential implication on the basin ecohydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriello, Felix; Andres Rodriguez, Daniel; Marques Neves, Otto; Vicens, Raul

    2014-05-01

    Silviculture of eucaliptus plantations is an important driver of the Mata Atlântica biome conversion into another land use in the Paraíba do Sul basin, in the southeastern of Brazil. This region is located in one of the most developed areas in Brazil, between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the most important cities in Brazil, linked by Presidente Dutra highway. Between both cities there are another cities that produce a variety of goods - from meat to planes, cars and mobile phones. This area is, at the same time, one the most important hot spot for the Mata Atlântica biome. Here we have a large Mata Atlântica fragment protected by law and others fragments being conversed to pasture, agriculture, silviculture and urban areas. Paraiba do Sul river drains the region and runs into Rio de Janeiro State. The basin is highly anthropized, with multiple approaches of its waters resources. Its waters also serve Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Because land use and land cover changes impact the water yield in a basin, the study of its dynamic its of great importance for water resources management. We study the land use and land cover change in the region between 1986 and 2010, focusing in the development of silviculture of eucaliptus plantations. We used the HAND (Height Above Nearest Drainage) approach that uses the height above the nearest water body, acquired from SRTM Data and transformed into a Terrain Numeric Mode, to classify the landscape into three different ecohydrological environments: floodplain, mountain top and hillslope. This classes were intersected with 1986 and 2010 land use and cover change classification obtained from Landsat imagery. Results show that silviculture has increased in the region from 1986 to 2010. In both years, silviculture areas are mainly located at the hillslope (47%), while floodplain and mountain top share 28 % and 23 % respectively. Available census data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, IBGE, for 1995 and

  20. Silviculture for a declining species, Cerulean Warbler: 10-year results of a pilot study in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Mike Staten; Ray Souter; Carl G. Smith III; Gene Holland

    2016-01-01

    We report on the current status of a long-term study of Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) response to silviculture on a 58-ha tract in Desha County, Arkansas. The work involved a 10 year premanipulation monitoring of the birds on the tract, followed by implementation of a split plot comparison of alternative treatments, each applied to a randomly selected half of...

  1. Tropical forest recovery from logging: a 24 year silvicultural experiment from Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Mortier, Frédéric; Fayolle, Adeline; Baya, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Bénédet, Fabrice; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Large areas of African moist forests are being logged in the context of supposedly sustainable management plans. It remains however controversial whether harvesting a few trees per hectare can be maintained in the long term while preserving other forest services as well. We used a unique 24 year silvicultural experiment, encompassing 10 4 ha plots established in the Central African Republic, to assess the effect of disturbance linked to logging (two to nine trees ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) and thinning (11-41 trees ha⁻¹ greater than or equal to 50 cm DBH) on the structure and dynamics of the forest. Before silvicultural treatments, above-ground biomass (AGB) and timber stock (i.e. the volume of commercial trees greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) in the plots amounted 374.5 ± 58.2 Mg ha⁻¹ and 79.7 ± 45.9 m³ ha⁻¹, respectively. We found that (i) natural control forest was increasing in AGB (2.58 ± 1.73 Mg dry mass ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) and decreasing in timber stock (-0.33 ± 1.57 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹); (ii) the AGB recovered very quickly after logging and thinning, at a rate proportional to the disturbance intensity (mean recovery after 24 years: 144%). Compared with controls, the gain almost doubled in the logged plots (4.82 ± 1.22 Mg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) and tripled in the logged + thinned plots (8.03 ± 1.41 Mg ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹); (iii) the timber stock recovered slowly (mean recovery after 24 years: 41%), at a rate of 0.75 ± 0.51 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ in the logged plots, and 0.81 ± 0.74 m³ ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ in the logged + thinned plots. Although thinning significantly increased the gain in biomass, it had no effect on the gain in timber stock. However, thinning did foster the growth and survival of small- and medium-sized timber trees and should have a positive effect over the next felling cycle.

  2. Tropical forest recovery from logging: a 24 year silvicultural experiment from Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Mortier, Frédéric; Fayolle, Adeline; Baya, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Dakis; Bénédet, Fabrice; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Large areas of African moist forests are being logged in the context of supposedly sustainable management plans. It remains however controversial whether harvesting a few trees per hectare can be maintained in the long term while preserving other forest services as well. We used a unique 24 year silvicultural experiment, encompassing 10 4 ha plots established in the Central African Republic, to assess the effect of disturbance linked to logging (two to nine trees ha−1 greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) and thinning (11–41 trees ha−1 greater than or equal to 50 cm DBH) on the structure and dynamics of the forest. Before silvicultural treatments, above-ground biomass (AGB) and timber stock (i.e. the volume of commercial trees greater than or equal to 80 cm DBH) in the plots amounted 374.5 ± 58.2 Mg ha−1 and 79.7 ± 45.9 m3 ha−1, respectively. We found that (i) natural control forest was increasing in AGB (2.58 ± 1.73 Mg dry mass ha−1 yr−1) and decreasing in timber stock (−0.33 ± 1.57 m3 ha−1 yr−1); (ii) the AGB recovered very quickly after logging and thinning, at a rate proportional to the disturbance intensity (mean recovery after 24 years: 144%). Compared with controls, the gain almost doubled in the logged plots (4.82 ± 1.22 Mg ha−1 yr−1) and tripled in the logged + thinned plots (8.03 ± 1.41 Mg ha−1 yr−1); (iii) the timber stock recovered slowly (mean recovery after 24 years: 41%), at a rate of 0.75 ± 0.51 m3 ha−1 yr−1 in the logged plots, and 0.81 ± 0.74 m3 ha−1 yr−1 in the logged + thinned plots. Although thinning significantly increased the gain in biomass, it had no effect on the gain in timber stock. However, thinning did foster the growth and survival of small- and medium-sized timber trees and should have a positive effect over the next felling cycle. PMID:23878332

  3. Tree value system: users guide.

    Treesearch

    J.K. Ayer Sachet; D.G. Briggs; R.D. Fight

    1989-01-01

    This paper instructs resource analysts on use of the Tree Value System (TREEVAL). TREEVAL is a microcomputer system of programs for calculating tree or stand values and volumes based on predicted product recovery. Designed for analyzing silvicultural decisions, the system can also be used for appraisals and for evaluating log bucking. The system calculates results...

  4. Effect of Clear-Cut Silviculture on Dissolved Ion Export and Water Yield in the Piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, J. D.; Post, H. E.; Doss, R.

    1984-07-01

    A paired watershed experiment in Putnam County, Georgia, was carried out from 1973 to 1980 to determine the effects of a typical southern clear-cut operation on water quality, timing, and yield. This report shows that increases in monthly exports of dissolved N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, TKN, and total electrolytes were short-lived and less than 0.5 kg ha-1 month-1 and may therefore be considered minor for practical purposes. Stream water concentrations were mostly diluted by clear-cutting, but a monthly water yield increase of 1 to 2 cm flushed an extra 0.15 kg ha-1 month-1 of nitrate-nitrogen from the basin during a 2-year period following harvest. Twenty surrounding forested basins (7 to 165 ha in area) were sampled monthly for 1 year, showing that the experimental pair was representative of the general levels of dissolved ions in forested Piedmont streams. Results suggest that clear-cut silviculture in this region will neither reduce soil fertility by flushing ions into streams nor eutrophy stream water.

  5. Effects of silviculture practices on trace gas fluxes from soils in a slash pine plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, M.S.; Steudler, P.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Gholz, H.L Univ of Florida, Gainesville )

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of silviculture practices on trace gas fluxes from soils in slash pine plantations. We measured seasonal fluxes of CO[sub 2], N[sub 2]O and CH[sub 4] from urea fertilized and unfertilized soils of a mature Florida slash pine plantation before and after clearcutting. Before clearcutting, urea fertilization significantly increased the emissions of N 20 and lowered the uptake of atmospheric CH[sub 4]. Daily average N[sub 2]O emissions from the fertilized soils (12 to 75 ug N[sub 2]O-N/m[sup 2]-hr) were 8 to 684 times higher than N[sub 2]O emissions from the unfertilized soils. Daily average CH[sub 4] uptake by the fertilized soils (0.001 to 0.007 mg CH[sub 4]-C/m[sup 2]-hr) were 5 to 14 times lower than the CH[sub 4] uptake by the unfertilized soils. After clearcutting, soils in both the cut fertilized and cut unfertilized plots were sources of CH[sub 4]. These emissions coincided with increased soil moisture compared to a control plantation. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cut fertilized plots (up to 7 ug N[sub 2]O-N/m[sup 2]-hr) were much less than N[sub 2]O emissions from these plots before clearcutting. After clearcutting CO[sub 2] emissions from the cut unfertilized soils were approximately 1.5 times lower than CO[sub 2] emissions from an uncut control.

  6. Forest structure affects trophic linkages: How silvicultural disturbance impacts bats and their insect prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, L.E.; Lacki, M.J.; Britzke, E.R.; Buehler, D.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Larkin, J.L.; Rodewald, A.D.; Wigley, T.B.; Wood, P.B.; Rieske, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate insectivores such as bats are a pervasive top-down force on prey populations in forest ecosystems. Conservation focusing on forest-dwelling bats requires understanding of community-level interactions between these predators and their insect prey. Our study assessed bat activity and insect occurrence (abundance and diversity) across a gradient of forest disturbance and structure (silvicultural treatments) in the Central Appalachian region of North America. We conducted acoustic surveys of bat echolocation concurrent with insect surveys using blacklight and malaise traps over 2 years. Predator activity, prey occurrence and prey biomass varied seasonally and across the region. The number of bat echolocation pulses was positively related with forest disturbance, whereas prey demonstrated varied trends. Lepidopteran abundance was negatively related with disturbance, while dipteran abundance and diversity was positively related with disturbance. Coleoptera were unaffected. Neither bat nor insect response variables differed between plot interiors and edges. Correlations between bat activity and vegetative structure reflected differences in foraging behavior among ensembles. Activity of myotine bats was correlated with variables describing sub-canopy vegetation, whereas activity of lasiurine bats was more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetation. Lepidopteran abundance was correlated with variables describing canopy and sub-canopy vegetation, whereas coleopteran and dipteran occurrence were more closely correlated with canopy-level vegetative structure. Our study demonstrates regional variation in bat activity and prey occurrence across a forested disturbance gradient. Land management and conservation efforts should consider the importance of vegetation structure and plant species richness to sustain forest-dwelling bats and their insect prey.

  7. Are post-fire silvicultural treatments a useful tool to fight the climate change threat in terms of plant diversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Esteban Lucasr Borja, Manuel; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Adaptative forest management demands a huge scientific knowledge about post-fire vegetation dynamics, taking into account the current context of global change. We hypothesized that management practices should be carry out taking into account the climate change effect, to obtain better results in the biodiversity maintenance across time. All of this with respect to diversity and species composition of the post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests understory. The study was carried out in two post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests in the Southeastern of the Iberian Peninsula, under contrasting climatic conditions: Yeste (Albacete) shows a dry climate and Calasparra (Murcia) shows a semiarid climate. Thinning as post-fire silvicultural treatment was carried out five years after the wildfire event, in the year 1999. An experiment of artificial drought was designed to evacuate 15% of the natural rainfall in both sites, Yeste and Calasparra, to simulate climate change. Taking into account all the variables (site, silvicultural treatment and artificial drought), alpha diversity indices including species richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and plant cover, were analyzed as a measure of vegetation abundance. The results showed that plant species were affected by thinning, whereas induced drought affected total cover and species, with lower values at Yeste. Significant site variation was also observed in soil properties, species richness and total plant cover, conversely to the plant species diversity indices. We conclude that the plant community shows different responses to a simulated environment of climate change depending on the experimental site.

  8. The effects of forestry on Hg bioaccumulation in nemoral/boreal waters and recommendations for good silvicultural practice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Kevin; Allan, Craig; Bringmark, Lage; Garcia, Edenise; Hellsten, Sofie; Högbom, Lars; Johansson, Kjell; Lomander, Anja; Meili, Markus; Munthe, John; Nilsson, Mats; Porvari, Petri; Skyllberg, Ulf; Sorensen, Rasmus; Zetterberg, Therese; Akerblom, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels are alarmingly high in fish from lakes across Fennoscandia and northern North America. The few published studies on the ways in which silviculture practices influence this problem indicate that forest operations increase Hg in downstream aquatic ecosystems. From these studies, we estimate that between one-tenth and one-quarter of the Hg in the fish of high-latitude, managed forest landscapes can be attributed to harvesting. Forestry, however, did not create the elevated Hg levels in the soils, and waterborne Hg/MeHg concentrations downstream from harvested areas are similar to those from wetlands. Given the current understanding of the way in which silviculture impacts Hg cycling, most of the recommendations for good forest practice in Sweden appear to be appropriate for high-latitude regions, e.g., leaving riparian buffer zones, as well as reducing disturbance at stream crossings and in moist areas. The recommendation to restore wetlands and reduce drainage, however, will likely increase Hg/MeHg loadings to aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Integrated management of carbon sequestration and biomass utilization opportunities in a changing climate: Proceedings of the 2009 National Silviculture Workshop; 2009 June 15-18; Boise, ID.

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; Jonathan Sandquist

    2010-01-01

    Forests are important for carbon sequestration and how they are manipulated either through natural or human induced disturbances can have an effect on CO2 emissions and carbon sequestration. The 2009 National Silviculture Workshop presented scientific information and management strategies to meet a variety of objectives while simultaneously addressing carbon...

  10. Understory vegetation 3 years after implementing uneven-aged silviculture in a shortleaf pine-oak stand. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Murphy, P.A.

    1997-09-01

    The effects of retaining overstory hardwoods on understory vegetation were determined after implementing uneven-aged silviculture using single-tree selection in a shortleaf pin-oak stand (Pinus echinata Mill. and Quercus spp.) in the Ouachita Mountains. Treatments were the following hardwood basal areas (square feet per acre) and spatial arrangement: 0, 15-grouped, 15 scattered, 30-scattered, and untreated control.

  11. Eastern hemlock response to even- and uneven-age management in the Acadian forest: results from the Penobscot Experimental Forest long-term silviculture study

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; Laura S. Kenefic

    2000-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is an important tree species in the mixed-species conifer forests of northern New England and adjacent Canada. Hemlock is very tolerant of understory conditions; consequently, it responds differently to various silvicultural treatments. In a long-term study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest in east-...

  12. Using forest knowledge: how silviculture can benefit from ecological knowledge systems about beargrass harvesting sites

    Treesearch

    S. Hummel; Frank Lake; A. Watts

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining the health, diversity, and productivity of national forests and grasslands is the mission of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Yet managing these lands is challenging because people hold different expectations for them. Public uses can include: • Recreation (scenery, trails, bicycle and snowmobile routes)...

  13. Cardiovascular and muscular strain during a tree planting season among British Columbia silviculture workers.

    PubMed

    Trites, D G; Robinson, D G; Banister, E W

    1993-08-01

    seasonal working routine, and may compromise worker well-being in the silviculture industry.

  14. An agent architecture for an integrated forest ecosystem management decision support system

    Treesearch

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Mayukh Dass; Astrid Glende; Frederick Maier; Hajime Uchiyama; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; H. Michael Rauscher

    2003-01-01

    A wide variety of software tools are available to support decision in the management of forest ecosystems. These tools include databases, growth and yield models, wildlife models, silvicultural expert systems, financial models, geographical informations systems, and visualization tools. Typically, each of these tools has its own complex interface and data format. To...

  15. Residual tree damage during selection cuts using two skidding systems in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Ficklin; John P. Dwyer; Bruce E. Cutter; Tom Draper

    1997-01-01

    Today, there is an interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like selection and two-aged management, because the public finds these systems more acceptable than clearcutting. However, repeated entries into forest stands to remove timber increase the risk of residual stand damage. Harvest techniques are desirable that (1) reduce the risk of stand damage and (2...

  16. Effects of alternative silviculture on stump sprouting in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Chad Atwood; Thomas Fox; David L. Loftis

    2009-01-01

    Stump sprouts are an important form of regeneration for a number of species in the southernAppalachians, especially the oaks (Quercus spp.). Alternative regeneration systems to clearcutting suchas shelterwood and leave-tree systems are being implemented...

  17. A silviculture application of the glyphosate-based herbicide VisionMAX to wetlands has limited direct effects on amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Edge, Christopher B; Thompson, Dean G; Hao, Chunyan; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2012-10-01

    Herbicides are commonly used in agriculture and silviculture to reduce interspecific competition among plants and thereby enhance crop growth, quality, and volume. Internationally, glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used herbicides in both of these sectors. Laboratory and mesocosm studies have demonstrated that some formulations are toxic to amphibian larvae below concentrations that approximate predicted maximal or "worst-case" exposure scenarios. However, field studies have not found evidence of toxicity at these concentrations. The authors conducted a replicated field experiment involving 10 naturalized wetlands split in half with an impermeable plastic barrier to assess the direct toxicity of a glyphosate formulation commonly used in silviculture (VisionMAX™). The herbicide formulation was applied directly to the surface of one side of each wetland at one of two target aqueous exposure rates (high = 2,880, low = 550 µg acid equivalents [a.e.]/L), and the other side was left as an untreated control. The survival and growth of green frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) were assessed for two years following herbicide treatment. The herbicide did not have a negative impact on survival or growth of L. clamitans larvae at either treatment level. In fact, mean larval abundance was typically greater in the treated sides than in control sides within the year of herbicide application. These results indicate that typical silviculture use of VisionMAX poses negligible risk to larval amphibians, likely because the combined effects of sorption and degradation in natural wetlands limit the exposure magnitude and duration. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Perspectives on the ecology and silviculture of oak-dominated forests in the central and eastern States. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    The rational management and resolution of conflict over the management and use of oak forests will require an understanding of oak ecology. Knowledge should include an awareness of past human influence on the nature, occurrence, and extent of oak forests, and how that contrasts with their present-day influence. A comprehensive understanding of oak ecology will be needed to provide the foundation for a mix of effective management practices that are ecologically sustainable and compatible with current social and economic values. The objective of the paper is to discuss silvicultural options and opportunities for attaining those objectives from an ecological perspective.

  19. Effects of basal area on survival and growth of longleaf pine when practicing selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    Ferhat Kara; Edward F. Loewenstein; Dale G. Brockway

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Uneven-aged (UEA) management systems can achieve multiple-use objectives, however, use of UEA techniques to manage longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are still open to question, because of the species’ intolerance of competition. It was our aim to examine the influence of different levels (9.2, 13.8 and...

  20. Intelligent Model Management in a Forest Ecosystem Management Decision Support System

    Treesearch

    Donald Nute; Walter D. Potter; Frederick Maier; Jin Wang; Mark Twery; H. Michael Rauscher; Peter Knopp; Scott Thomasma; Mayukh Dass; Hajime Uchiyama

    2002-01-01

    Decision making for forest ecosystem management can include the use of a wide variety of modeling tools. These tools include vegetation growth models, wildlife models, silvicultural models, GIS, and visualization tools. NED-2 is a robust, intelligent, goal-driven decision support system that integrates tools in each of these categories. NED-2 uses a blackboard...

  1. Water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity in a natural Mediterranean oak forest: impacts of hydrology-oriented silviculture on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Cerdà, Artemi; Cullotta, Sebastiano; del Campo, Antonio; González-Sanchis, María; Iovino, Massimo; Maetzke, Federico

    2016-04-01

    microcontroller platform, Arduino. The very limited cost of the system could represent a step towards a cheaper and more widespread application of accurate and automated infiltration rate measurement. However, automatic data collection increases measurement speed, permits measurement at short time intervals, improves measurement precision, allows for more efficient data handling and analysis, and reduces the amount of effort involved and the potential for errors that may occur when manual procedures are applied (Di Prima et al., 2016). The main objective of this study was to determine soil hydraulic properties by using the combination of the automated infiltrometer and the BEST algorithm in a natural Mediterranean oak forest. The forest is located in a typical Mediterranean area, within the public forest La Hunde, Valencia (NE Spain). Two contiguous plots established in previous studies conducted by González-Sanchis et al. (2015) were selected, one of them was thinned reducing the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Control plot was not thinned. These authors studied the water cycle during the period 2012-2013. In particular, they characterized and compared the plots in term of throughfall, stemflow, soil moisture and transpiration, concluding that the AFM results in an increasing water availability, and at the same time in a substantial maintenance of overland and surface flow, precluding therefore enhancement of erosion rate. In this paper, the focus was put on the impacts of thinning on soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention, determined by simplified and low-cost methods in connection with a hydrology-oriented silviculture. Acknowledgements This study is a part of research projects: "Indagini sperimentali per la simulazione dei processi di formazione del deflusso superficiale nei suoli boscati, Progetto FIRB 2012 - MIMOSE", and "CGL2011-28776-C02-02, HYDROSIL" References Alagna, V., Bagarello, V., Di

  2. The effects of prescribed fire and silvicultural thinning on the aboveground carbon stocks and net primary production of overstory trees in an oak-hickory ecosystem in southern Ohio

    Treesearch

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Ryan W. McEwan; Daniel A. Yaussy; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    More than 70 years of fire suppression has influenced forest dynamics and led to the accumulation of fuels in many forests of the United States. To address these changes, forest managers increasingly seek to restore historical ecosystem structure and function through the reintroduction of fire and disturbance processes that mimic fire such as silvicultural thinning. In...

  3. The long-term effects of silvicultural thinning and partial cutting on soil compaction in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and northern hardwood stands in the northern Great Lakes Region of the United States

    Treesearch

    Rachel A. Tarpey; Martin F. Jurgensen; Brian J. Palik; Randy K. Kolka

    2008-01-01

    Periodic silvicultural thinnings (23.0, 27.6, 32.1 m2 ha-1 residual basal area) in a red pine stand growing on a sandy soil in north-central Minnesota over a 57-yr period increased soil compaction as the intensity of the thinning treatment increased. Of the three different methods used to measure soil compaction (bulk...

  4. Influence of selection systems and shelterwood methods on understory plant communities of longleaf pine forests in flatwoods and uplands

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2015-01-01

    Although longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests have mostly been managed with even-aged methods, interest has been rising in uneven-aged systems, as a means of achieving a broader range of stewardship objectives. Selection silviculture has been practiced on a limited scale in longleaf pine, but difficulty of using traditional approaches and...

  5. Nitrogen distribution within the soil-plant-microbial system in response to pre-thinning fertilization treatments in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Blazier; D. Andrew Scott

    2006-01-01

    Improvements in nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency and plantation growth require refined silvicultural systems that consider soil type, stand development, ecology, and their interactions. On four unthinned, mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations in Louisiana located on a gradient of soil drainage classes, soil, plant, and microbial N dynamics were measured in response to...

  6. Silvicultural systems and cutting methods for ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range of the central Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Alexander

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to help forest managers and silviculturists develop even- and/or uneven-aged cutting practices needed to convert old-growth and mixed ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range into managed stands for a variety of resource needs. Guidelines consider stand conditions, and insect and disease susceptibility. Cutting practices are designed to...

  7. Historical silvicultural treatments

    Treesearch

    G. E. Gruell; W. C. Schmidt; S. F. Arno; W. J. Reich; James Menakis

    1999-01-01

    The Lick Creek timber sale of 1906 attracted much attention because it was the first large National Forest timber sale (2,135 acres) in the ponderosa pine cover type in the USDA Forest Service Northern Region. A total of 37,600,000 board feet (bd ft) was cut (White 1924).

  8. Silviculture Regulatory Consistency Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2013-05-16

    05/16/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3573) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. The silvicultural options study

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Dean S. DeBell; Jeffrey D. DeBell

    2004-01-01

    The Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR) administers some 2.1 million acres of state forest land, much of it in the highly productive west-side Douglas-fir region. The primary objective—defined by law—is to generate income in perpetuity for trust beneficiaries consisting of educational and other state and county institutions. The DNR also must retain broad...

  10. The silviculture of silvopasture

    Treesearch

    Rebecca J. Barlow; Seth Hunt; John S. Kush

    2016-01-01

    Silvopasture is an agroforestry practice where livestock, forage, and timber are managed on the same parcel of land. The most common form of agroforestry in the Southeastern US is silvopasture. According to the most recent USDA Census of Agriculture, six of the top ten states in the Nation that report that they practice alley cropping or silvopasture are southern....

  11. Silvicultural aspects intermediate cuttings

    Treesearch

    Kenneth L. Carvell

    1971-01-01

    Correct timing of the first thinning in mixed oak stands depends largely on the composition and condition of the stands and on available markets for small wood products. Delaying first thinnings in high-quality seedling-origin stands until a long, straight, clear bole has developed is of primary importance in assuring high quality of the final crop trees. However, many...

  12. Towards the development of multifunctional molecular indicators combining soil biogeochemical and microbiological variables to predict the ecological integrity of silvicultural practices.

    PubMed

    Peck, Vincent; Quiza, Liliana; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Khdhiri, Mondher; Durand, Audrey-Anne; Paquette, Alain; Thiffault, Nelson; Messier, Christian; Beaulieu, Nadyre; Guertin, Claude; Constant, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    The impact of mechanical site preparation (MSP) on soil biogeochemical structure in young larch plantations was investigated. Soil samples were collected in replicated plots comprising simple trenching, double trenching, mounding and inverting site preparation. Unlogged natural mixed forest areas were used as a reference. Analysis of soil nutrients, abundance of bacteria and gas exchanges unveiled no significant difference among the plots. However, inverting site preparation resulted in higher variations of gas exchanges when compared with trenching, mounding and unlogged natural forest. A combination of the biological and physicochemical variables was used to define a multifunctional classification of the soil samples into four distinct groups categorized as a function of their deviation from baseline ecological conditions. According to this classification model, simple trenching was the approach that represented the lowest ecological risk potential at the microsite level. No relationship was observed between MSP method and soil bacterial community structure as assessed by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene; however, indicator genotypes were identified for each multifunctional soil class. This is the first identification of multifunctional molecular indicators for baseline and disturbed ecological conditions in soil, demonstrating the potential of applied microbial ecology to guide silvicultural practices and ecological risk assessment.

  13. Simulation of dynamics of southern pine beetle hazard rating with respect to silvicultural treatment and stand development

    Treesearch

    D. J. Leduc; J. C. G. Goelz

    2010-01-01

    The hazard of southern pine beetle (SPB) infestations is affected by characteristics such as stand density, stand age, site quality, and tree size. COMPUTE P-LOB is a model that simulates the growth and development of loblolly pine plantations in the west gulf coastal plain. P-LOB was rewritten as COMPUTE SPB-Lob to update it for current operating systems and to...

  14. Silvicultural methods for regenerating oaks

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark; Richard F. Watt

    1971-01-01

    Advance reproduction is the key to forming the new oak stand. However, the size or strength of the advance stems is just as important as number. Most oak stands approaching maturity have enough advance reproduction, but many do not. In such cases, harvest cuttings must be delayed and overstory densities regulated to favor the establishment and development of new oaks...

  15. Silviculture to restore oak woodlands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie J. Schweitzer; John M. Kabrick

    2016-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak savannas, woodlands and forests that were dominant vegetation types throughout the region. In the past century, once abundant woodlands have become scarce due to conversion to agriculture, or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. Restoration of oak woodlands is a...

  16. Silvicultural Use of Wastewater Sludge

    Treesearch

    J.B. Hart; P.V. Nguyen; D.H. Urie; Dale G. Brockway

    1988-01-01

    Generation of wastewater sludge in the United States has become a problem of increasing proportion, with annual production at 4 million tons in 1970 (Walsh 1976) and 7 million tons currently(Maness 1987). While population and industrial growth have contributed to this problem, legislation requiring higher standards of treatment for wastewater processed in the 15,378...

  17. Changes in abundance of vascular plants under varying silvicultural systems at the Forest Ecosystem Research and Demonstration Area, Paul Smiths, New York

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery; Elizabeth Olson; Gary L. Wade; Michael. Rechlin

    2013-01-01

    The Forest Ecosystem Research and Demonstration Area (FERDA) was established in 1998 adjacent to the Visitor Interpretive Center (VIC) for the Adirondack Park in Paul Smiths, NY, to provide visitors with first-hand exposure to forest management activities and to provide research opportunities for scientists and students at Paul Smith's College. This research note...

  18. The impact of timber harvest using an individual tree selection silvicultural system on the hydrology and sediment yield in a coastal California watershed

    Treesearch

    Arne Skaugset; Christopher G. Surfleet; Brian Dietterick

    2012-01-01

    There is still widespread concern regarding the environmental impact of timber harvest. This is certainly true for timber harvest activities that occur on the Swanton Pacific Ranch, the school forest for the California Polytechnic State University, located in Santa Cruz County, California. A paired watershed study was carried out to help determine the impact of...

  19. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  20. Stand-damage model: A component of the gypsy moth life system model (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Stand-Damage Model (a component of the Gypsy Moth Life System Model) simulates the growth of a mixed hardwood forest and incorporates the effects of defoliation by gypsy moth or tree harvesting as prescribed by the user. It can be used to assess the damage from expected defoliation, view the differences between various degrees of defoliation, and describe the effects of defoliation on a standard under user-defined silvicultural prescriptions and defoliation scenarios. The user`s guide provides the information necessary to install and use the model software on DOS microcomputers. A reference section provides a more experienced user with a structure map of the system.

  1. National Silviculture Meeting: Forestry to meet special objectives (A look at uneven-aged management); Marquette, Michigan; September 10-14, 1973

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Barton; Louis J. Verme; Robert E. Radtke; Berwyn O. Reed; William T. Plass; Stephen G. Boyce

    1973-01-01

    As a matter of policy and good forest resource management, the Forest Service will manage the timber resources on the National Forests to achieve the various multiple use objectives established for the respective management units. In so doing, we are not to be bound to any particular system of management as the primary system, but we are to prescribe and use the system...

  2. Using a GIS-based spot growth model and visual simulator to evaluate the effects of silvicultural treatments on southern pine beetle-infested stands

    Treesearch

    Chiao-Ying Chou; Roy L. Hedden; Bo Song; Thomas M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Many models are available for simulating the probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) (SPB) infestation and outbreak dynamics. However, only a few models focused on the potential spatial SPB growth. Although the integrated pest management systems are currently adopted, SPB management is still challenging because of...

  3. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Cees van Oosten; Daniel A. Netzer; Mark D. Coleman; C. Jeffrey Portwood

    2002-01-01

    Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood...

  4. The application of nirvana to silvicultural studies

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas Elder; Leslie Groom; John S. Kush; Jennifer Myszewski; Todd Shupe

    2006-01-01

    Previous results from this laboratory have shown that near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, coupled with multivariate analysis, can be a powerful tool for the prediction of wood quality. While wood quality measurements are of utility, their determination can be both time and labor intensive, thus limiting their use where large sample sizes are concerned. This paper will...

  5. Silviculture and Forestry Exploitation in Mongolia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    caterpillar tractors, Soviet type (KT-12, S-80, TDT-60) and with beasts of burden, using the yak - an animal well adapted to the difficult climatic...so that it is most important to outfit the camps ahead of time. Log cabins are built ’in forests, and outside the forests spacious tents of cloth or

  6. Koa (Acacia koa) ecology and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Baker; Paul G. Scowcroft; John J. Ewel

    2009-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) is a tree species endemic to Hawaii that is of immense ecological and economic importance. This species has been mined from local forests for its wood for more than 100 years, and extensive areas of koa-dominated forests have been converted to grazing lands. Today, in recognition of the great importance and value of koa and the...

  7. Silviculture to restore oak savannas and woodlands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2017-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak natural communities that were dominant across the region. In the past century, savannas and woodlands have become scarce because of conversion to agriculture or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. Their restoration is a primary goal for public agencies and...

  8. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanturf, John A.; Van Oosten, Cees; Netzer, Daniel A.

    2002-07-01

    D.I.; Isebrands, J.G.; Eckenwalder, J.E.; Richardson, J., eds. Poplar culture in North America, part A, chapter 5. Ottawa: NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada: 153-206. ABSTRACT. Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood or chip production on rotations of 10 years or less, but interest in sawlog production is increasing. Sid McKnight characterized cottonwood as a prima donna species: under ideal conditions, growth rates are just short of spectacular. Just as this can be applied to all poplars, it is equally true that all poplars are demanding of good sites and careful establishment. Growing poplars in plantations is challenging, and good establishment the first year is critical to long-term success. If a grower lacks the commitment or resources to provide needed treatments at critical times, then species other than poplars should be considered. Our objective in this chapter is to provide growers with current information for establishing and tending poplar plantations, as practiced in North America. Where we have sufficient information, differences between the poplar-growing regions of the United States and Canada will be noted. Mostly information is available on eastern and black cottonwood and their hybrids.

  9. Sustainability, the Greenhouse effect, silviculture, and overpopulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Ever since man became conscious of the finite dimensions of Planet Earth, he has worried about his ability to survive in an ever-more crowded environment. This paper reports that the fundamental question underlying this concern is sustainability: Can we indefinitely supply, maintain, and prolong that which we have This question is, of course, multifaceted. Man's early concerns quickly polarized the scientists and economists of this world into two philosophical camps---the Malthusians and the Cornucopians. Over time, economists learned that Malthus seriously underestimated the capacity of technology to enhance productivity, although Malthusian sympathizers (both scientists and economists) continually raised the specter of imminent doom. Much of what lies ahead will provide a series of daunting challenges for us all, and the engine that drives sustainability has to be technology. The central issue is to ensure that the right kind of technology is available, and that it is used widely to ensure sustainability.

  10. Uneven-aged silviculture, southern style

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; James B. Baker

    1998-01-01

    Data spanning 60 years on uneven-aged loblolly-shortleaf pine stands in Arkansas show that two regulation methods have been successful in regulating stand development. Key attributes of these methods are that regulation is more important than balance, residual basal area drives stand development, and regeneration is the first indicator of sustainability. Marking uneven...

  11. Silvicultural effects on birds in the Rockies

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch; Rick Fletcher

    1994-01-01

    The declining populations of North American landbirds that migrate to the neotropics has attracted widespread attention from resource specialists. Documented declines in populations of eastern neotropical migrants, as well as habitat fragmentation on breeding grounds and habitat loss on wintering grounds have led researchers and resource managers to increase efforts to...

  12. Managing structural and compositional diversity with silviculture.

    Treesearch

    S.S. Hummel

    2003-01-01

    Ecology, economy, and demography interact to affect forest management objectives. In the temperate rainforests of northwestern North America (Franklin and Halpern 1988), the outcome of this interaction for most of the 20th century was a management emphasis on wood production (Curtis et al. 1998, Haynes et al. 2003). Because of production efficiencies, even-aged,...

  13. Ecosystem management, forest health, and silviculture

    Treesearch

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Claudia M. Regan

    1995-01-01

    Forest health issues include the effects of fire suppression and grazing on forest stands, reduction in amount of old-growth forests, stand structural changes associated with even-aged management, .changes in structure of the landscape mosaic, loss of habitat for threatened species, and the introduction of exotic species. The consequences of these impacts can be...

  14. Silvicultural rehabilitation of cutover mixedwood stands

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Mohammad Bataineh; Jeremy S. Wilson; John C. Brissette; Ralph D. Nyland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated rehabilitation of mixedwood stands degraded by exploitative cutting on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Maine. Three precommercial rehabilitation treatments were applied: control (no rehabilitation), moderate rehabilitation (crop tree release [CTR]), and intensive rehabilitation (CTR, timber stand improvement [TSI], and red spruce fill planting)....

  15. A silvicultural guide for developing a sugarbush

    Treesearch

    Kenneth F. Lancaster; Russell S. Walters; Frederick M. Laing; Raymond T. Foulds

    1974-01-01

    A practical guide for the management of a sugarbush. Guidelines are established for the manipulation of stand density and stocking to promote the development of healthy vigorous trees with deep, wide crowns, the necessary attributes for highest possible yield of sugar-rich sap. Specific treatments are prescribed for sapling, poletimber and small sawtimber stands and a...

  16. Influence of alternative silviculture on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldien, David L.; Hayes, John P.

    2006-01-01

    HIGHLIGHT: A variety of harvest methods promote diversity within forests while still generating income. For example, recent studies have shown that when dead wood is left on the forest floor during harvest, biodiversity increases. A new Cooperative Forest Ecosystem Research (CFER) program fact sheet summarizes how small mammals respond to dead wood in forests that are harvested with alternative methods. CFER is developing a series of fact sheets about responses to changes in young western Oregon forests. The fact sheets are designed to help resource managers balance management needs, including timber and wildlife. The USGS provides a primary source of financial support for CFER, a consortium of federal and state partners conducting research in support of the Northwest Forest Plan.

  17. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    An assessment is made of four applications of biomass and solar energy conversion technologies. The first is an energy self-sufficient farm that provides all of its space heating and hot water needs by burning wood obtained by selective timber cutting on the farm acreage. The heating system is a commerical boiler furnace. A Purox gasification system is described which uses wood feedstock with a capacity of 850 dry tons/day. This system requires 2,000 farms, each with 30 acres of wooded land having a sustainable capacity of 5 dry tons/day per acre. The efficiency of silviculture plantations is then addressed in regard to different conversion strategies. Finally, a solar heat and cooling system designed for a one story school building is assessed. Land and materials requirements, climatology, and economic factors are discussed.

  18. Application of free selection in mixed forests of the inland northwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Forest management objectives continue to evolve as the desires and needs of society change. The practice of silviculture has risen to the challenge by supplying silvicultural methods and systems to produce desired stand and forest structures and compositions to meet these changing objectives. For the most part, the practice of silviculture offers a robust set of...

  19. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silvicultural Challenges and Opportunities in the 1990's

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1991-01-01

    Classical concepts of post-disturbance succession through well-defined sera1 stages to a well-defined climax stage(s) are not ausefulconceptual framework for predicting species composition of regeneration resulting from the application of regeneration treatmentsin complex southern hardwood forests. Hardwood regeneration can be better understood, and more useful...

  20. system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcilazo, H.; Valcarce, A.; Vijande, J.

    2017-07-01

    Using local central Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interactions reproducing the low-energy parameters and phase shifts of the nn system, and the latest updates of the nΛ and ΛΛ Nijmegen ESC08c potentials, we study the possible existence of a bound state. Our results indicate that the is unbound, being just above threshold. We discuss the role played by the 1 S 0 nn repulsive term of the Yukawa-type Malfliet-Tjon interaction. Supported by COFAA-IPN (México), Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and EU FEDER (FPA2013-47443, FPA2015-69714-REDT, FPA2016-77177), Junta de Castilla y León (SA041U16) and Generalitat Valenciana PrometeoII/2014/066

  1. The central Appalachian hardwoods experience provides silvicultural tools for Ontario

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; Ken A Elliott; Eric P. Boysen

    1998-01-01

    Cultural practices can be applied in even-age stands to reallocate site resources to selected crop trees. Precommercial thinning in sapling stands can increase diameter growth and improve species composition of trees in the main canopy. Commercial thinning in sawtimber stands also increases diameter growth of crop trees, improves residual stand quality, and removes...

  2. Silvicultural considerations for managing fire-dependent oak woodland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Carter O. Kinkead; Benjamin O. Knapp; Michael Leahy; Matthew G. Olson; Michael C. Stambaugh; Aaron P. Stevenson

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands are characterized by open understories and dense ground flora composed of forbs, grasses, and sedges. They once were common in the western Central Hardwood Forest region and the prairie-forest transition zone where low-intensity fires occurred frequently. In the absence of fire, many of the woodland ecosystems throughout much of this region have succeeded...

  3. Proceedings of the eleventh biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; [Editor

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-four papers and three poster summaries address a range of issues affecting southern forests. Papers are grouped in 19 sessions that include pine nutrition, nurseries/seed and seedlings, ecophysiology, fire, pine thinning and spacing, wood quality/technology, hardwood thinning and spacing, hardwood nutrition, competition, pine natural regeneration...

  4. Silvicultural treatments to improve pondberry stem length growth

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2016-01-01

    Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia (Walter) Blume) is a deciduous woody shrub in the Lauraceae that is endemic to low-lying forests in seven southeastern states. In the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, pondberry occurs in the understory of bottomland hardwood forests. This rare shrub was listed as an endangered species in 1986. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  5. Silviculture for restoration of degraded temperate and boreal forests

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Emile S. Gardiner

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the temperate and boreal zones, human intervention has influenced landscapes and forests for millennia. The degree of human disturbance has only been constrained by the technology and resources available to different cultures and by time since initial habitation. Humans have influenced forests by regulating populations of browsers, clearing for agriculture,...

  6. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Treesearch

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  7. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; William H. Conner; Robert C. Kellison; David Van Lear

    2004-01-01

    Southern hardwood forests stretch from the Virginias to Florida and from the mid-Atlantic to Missouri. They can generally be grouped into upland forests and bottomland forests. The upland hardwood forests of the southern region are usually associated with the mountainous topography of the Appalachians and Ozarks. Bottomland hardwoods are found along the floodplains of...

  8. Proceedings of the 17th biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    A. Gordon Holley; Kristina F. Connor; James D. Haywood

    2015-01-01

    A range of issues affecting southern forests are addressed in 108 papers or extended abstracts. Papers are grouped in 13 sections that cover the topics of hardwood regeneration, best management practices for stream crossings, pine regeneration and genetics, fire effects, eco-physiology, forest nutrition, vegetation management, forest threats, biomass, biometrics,...

  9. Silviculture research: The intersection of science and art across generations

    Treesearch

    Theresa B. Jain

    2013-01-01

    A research silviculturist's work is firmly grounded in the scientific method to acquire knowledge on forest dynamics. They also integrate information from numerous sources to produce new knowledge not readily identified by single studies. Results and interpretation subsequently provide the scientific foundation for developing management decisions and strategies....

  10. Developing new silvicultural regimes: the eyes have it.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2000-01-01

    What are the best alternatives for easing conflict among aesthetics, economic values, and sustained wood production of responsible timber harvesting? How can forest managers craft options across a landscape for a mix of values and forest conditions? In part, with an understanding of the interactions of sustained timber production, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics.

  11. Silvicultural practices and management of habitat for bats

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; William H. Emmingham; S. Andrew Carter; David A. Saugey

    2007-01-01

    The twenty-first century has seen a shift in the philosophy and practice of forestry. Historic assumptions that prevailed as recently as three decades ago have been challenged in light of new-concepts and practices, developed through advances in research and lessons from practical experience. The goals of forcst management today encompass a wider array of resources...

  12. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwood types in the Northeast (revised)

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Dale S. Solomon; Paul S. DeBald

    1987-01-01

    A practical guide to the management of northern hardwoods for timber production in New England and New York. Both even-aged management are considered, and specific treatments are prescribed for a range of stand conditions and management objectives.

  13. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  14. Silvicultural recommendations for the management of ponderosa pine forest

    Treesearch

    Martin Alfonso Mendoza Briseno; Mary Ann Fajvan; Juan Manuel Chacon Sotelo; Alejandro Velazquez Martinez; Antonio Quinonez. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Ponderosa pines are the most important timber producing species in Mexico, and they also represent a major portion of the Usa and Canada timber production. These pines form near pure stands with simple and stable stand structure. They suffer only occasional disturbances, and they sustain a limited capacity to hold biodiversity and other senvironmental services. The...

  15. Silviculture and forest management under a rapidly changing climate

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner

    2007-01-01

    Climate determines where and how forests grow. Particularly in the West, precipitation patterns regulate forest growth rates. Wet years promote "boom" vegetative conditions, while drought years promote "bust." Are managers safe in assuming that tomorrow’s climate will mimic that of the last several decades? For the last ~100 to ~150 years, climate...

  16. Will crown ideotype help determine optimum varietal silviculture?

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Albaugh; Thomas R. Fox; Marco A. Yanez; Rafael A. Rubilar; Barry Goldfarb

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in somatic embryogenesis permit large numbers of clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) to be produced and deployed. Clones may have greater growth (mean annual increment exceeding 30 cubic meters per hectare per year), greater stand uniformity and may be more susceptible to genotype by environment interactions when they are deployed in intensively...

  17. Silvicultural lessons from the December 2000 ice storms

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    In December of 2000, two destructive ice storms covered Arkansas, affecing 40% of the state's forestlands. Damage estimates ran into the hundreds of millions of dollars, with much of the loss occuring in loblolly pine () plantations. A study was initiated in south-central Arkansas to track the recovery of damaged trees on these...

  18. Silviculture in cooperation with hunters: The Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative

    Treesearch

    Scott Reitz; Andrea Hille; Susan Stout

    2004-01-01

    The long history of deer overabundance in Pennsylvania is associated with very high reforestation costs and substantial threats to diversity and sustainability. In response to this legacy, several landowners and agency personnel formed the Kinzua Quality Deer Cooperative (KQDC) in partnership with the Sand County Foundation. This Cooperative focuses on about 74,000...

  19. Proceedings of the Third Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    Eugene Shoulders; [Editor

    1985-01-01

    107 papers are presented in 13 categories: Seedling production, Site preparation, Stand establishment, Stand management, Genetics, Vegetation management, Soil-site relationships, Tree nutrition, Symbiotic relationships, Growth and yield modeling, Pest management strategies, Interactions, and Forest influences.

  20. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Treesearch

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  1. Silviculture and management strategies applicable to southern upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Ray R. Hicks; Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe

    2001-01-01

    The southern upland hardwoods include extensive areas in the southern Appalachians, Cumberland Plateau and Ozark/Ouachita regions. The majority of commercial hardwoods in the south occur in the region often referred to as the "Southern Appalachian Region". For purposes of this discussion, this region includes the hilly or mountainous area west and north of...

  2. The densest loblolly pine stand and its silvicultural implications

    Treesearch

    Boris Zeide; John Stephens

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of stand density index has been based on the assumption that the only cause of mortality in fully stocked stands is diameter growth. For example, when average diameter increases by 1 percent, a fixed proportion (1.6 percent) of trees must die, regardless of age, average tree size, and other factors. This balance between growth and mortality entails the...

  3. Proceedings of the tenth biennial southern silvicultural research conference

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; [Editor

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-two papers and three poster summaries address a range of issues affecting southern forests. Papers are grouped in 15 sessions that included upland hardwoods, intensive management of bottomland hardwoods, intermediate hardwood management, hardwood and bottomland regeneration, ecological relationships, water and soil hydrology, site preparation for...

  4. Silvicultural activities in Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Central Oregon

    Treesearch

    Andrew Youngblood; Kim Johnson; Jim Schlaich; Boyd Wickman

    2004-01-01

    Pringle Falls Experimental Forest has been a center for research in ponderosa pine forests east of the crest of the Cascade Range since 1931. Long-term research facilities, sites, and future research opportunities are currently at risk from stand-replacement wildfire because of changes in stand structure resulting from past fire exclusion. At the same time, many of the...

  5. Cumulative silvicultural impacts on watersheds: a hydrologic and regulatory dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, R.M.; Miller, T.O.

    1981-03-01

    Because of the nature of watersheds, the hydrologic and erosional impacts of logging and related road-building activities may move offsite, affecting areas downslope and downstream from the operation. The degree to which this occurs depends on the interaction of many variables, including soils, bedrock geology, vegetation, the timing, and size of storm events, logging technology, and operator performance. In parts of northwestern California, these variables combine to produce significant water quality degradation, with resulting damage to anadromous fish habitat. Examination of recent aerial photographs, combined with a review of public records, shows that many timber harvest operations were concentrated in a single 83 sq km watershed in the lower Klamath River Basin within the past decade. The resulting soil disturbance in this case seems likely to result in cumulative off-site water quality degradation in the lower portion of the Basin. In California, both state and federal laws require consideration of possible cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. In spite of recent reforms that have given the state a larger role in regulating forest practices on private land, each timber harvest plan is still evaluated in isolation from other plans in the same watershed. A process of collaborative state-private watershed planning with increased input of geologic information offers the best long-term approach to the problem of assessing cumulative effects of multiple timber harvest operations. Such a reform could ultimately emerge from the ongoing water quality planning process under Section 208 of the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act. (Refs. 51).

  6. Proceedings of the Fifth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; [Compiler

    1989-01-01

    Forest Service, forest industry, and university representatives present 4 general session papers giving projections for the 2030 forest and an additional 93 papers dealing with 15 subject areas: atmospheric influences, ecophysiology, seedling production, site preparation, pine regeneration, pine management, hardwood regeneration, hardwood management, vegetation,...

  7. Black ash silviculture projects in New York and Maine

    Treesearch

    Michael R. Bridgen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the success of artificially establishing two black ash stands in northern New York using planted seedlings. Results of thinning projects in northern New York and Maine are also reported.

  8. Proceedings of the Eighth Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference

    Treesearch

    M. Boyd Edwards

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represents the research of 189 investigators studying the patterns and processes of managed southern forests through 104 reported studies. These contributions emanate from scientists located at various universities, forestry industries, and public agencies. Their approaches and findings lead the way to efficient and wise management of our nation’ s...

  9. Silviculture for quality forests: a lumber and veneer perspective

    Treesearch

    Jack Rajala

    2004-01-01

    To the layperson (and sometimes even among professionals) there?s a perception that forests are about big, old trees. A century ago certainly the forests of the Lake States consisted of large acreages of stands of mature trees that were both old and big. And even though there are remnant stands present today, settlement, development, and harvesting have caused numerous...

  10. A procedure for selection on marking in hardwoods

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble; Joseph J. Mendel; Richard A. Kennell

    1974-01-01

    This method of applying individual-tree selection silviculture to hardwood stands combines silvicultural considerations with financial maturity guidelines into a tree-marking system. To develop this system it was necessary to determine rates of return based on 4/4 lumber, for many of the important Appalachian species. Trees were viewed as capital investments that...

  11. Silviculture of varietal loblolly pine plantations: second year impacts of spacing and silvicultural treatments on varieties with differing crown ideotypes

    Treesearch

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; Jose L. Stape; Timothy J. Albaugh

    2012-01-01

    A long-term study has been established to address the following objectives: 1) Evaluate the crown ideotype approach to clonal testing in loblolly pine; 2) Determine impacts of increasing genetic uniformity on growth and uniformity of loblolly pine plantations; 3) Compare growth response, carbon allocation patterns (above and below ground), and ecophysiological...

  12. Longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer; Donald W. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Abstract:This report describes the longleaf pine forest type and the characteristics of both tree and forest that can affect management decisions.Longleaf pine is highly adaptable to a range of management goals and silvicultural systems.Management options and appropriate silvicultural methods for the regeneration and management of this species are...

  13. Optimizing continuous cover forest management. Chapter 6.

    Treesearch

    Kari Hyytiäinen; Robert G. Haight

    2012-01-01

    The practice of silviculture involves the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. Silvicultural practices are often divided into two broadly defined management systems, which in North America are usually...

  14. Use of group-selection and seed-tree cuts by three early-successional migratory species in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Lynn E. Alterman; James C. Bednarz; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    Silviculture in the Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma has shifted in recent years from mostly even-aged management to a mix of even- and uneven-aged regeneration systems, including group-selection. Researchers have described presence/absence of early-successional bird species in forest openings created by even- and uneven-aged silviculture, but few have...

  15. THINEX: an expert system for estimating forest harvesting productivity and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeDoux, Chris B.; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Pabba, R. S.

    1998-10-01

    As the emphasis of forest stand management shifts towards implementing ecosystem management, managers are examining alternative methods to harvesting stands in order to accomplish multiple objectives by using techniques such as shelterwood harvests, thinnings, and group selection methods, thus leaving more residual trees to improve the visual quality of the harvested land. Contemporary harvesting practices require the creative use of existing cable and ground-based technology. Silvicultural operations such as group selection methods, shelterwood harvests, partial cuts and thinnings require substantial planning in order to realize a profitable logging endeavor. THIN-PC is a personal computer based version of the original THIN developed by Chris B. LeDoux and David A. Butler in 1981. THIN and THIN-PC are computer simulation models, which evaluate the single-stage pre-bunch and swing methods of cable yarding. THINEX, the expert system developed as a result of this research, sues the results from THIN-PC and allows planners, managers, loggers to evaluate, plan, and execute profitable harvesting practices and permit effective sensitivity analysis by linking the terrain data with the production system information. Using THINEX, the user will be able to analyze several kinds of scenarios pertaining to a stand of trees and their harvesting resulting in the acquisition of production rate and cost values.

  16. Controlled release for crop and wood protection: Recent progress toward sustainable and safe nanostructured biocidal systems.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Bruno D; Tardy, Blaise L; Magalhães, Washington L E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-09-28

    We review biocide delivery systems (BDS), which are designed to deter or control harmful organisms that damage agricultural crops, forests and forest products. This is a timely topic, given the growing socio-economical concerns that have motivated major developments in sustainable BDS. Associated designs aim at improving or replacing traditional systems, which often consist of biocides with extreme behavior as far as their solubility in water. This includes those that compromise or pollute soil and water (highly soluble or volatile biocides) or those that present low bioavailability (poorly soluble biocides). Major breakthroughs are sought to mitigate or eliminate consequential environmental and health impacts in agriculture and silviculture. Here, we consider the most important BDS vehicles or carriers, their synthesis, the environmental impact of their constituents and interactions with the active components together with the factors that affect their rates of release such as environmental factors and interaction of BDS with the crops or forest products. We put in perspective the state-of-the-art nanostructured carriers for controlled release, which need to address many of the challenges that exist in the application of BDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) fauna of the Bear Creek system of Northwest Alabama and Northeast Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, S.W.; Garner, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Drastic reductions in diversity and abundance of mussel populations are documented in many systems. Bear Creek, located in northwest Alabama and northeast Mississippi, has seen changes to its fauna, possibly the result of impoundment, channelization, wastewater discharge, and sedimentation from such sources such as strip mining, agriculture, and silviculture. The most obvious influences have been impoundment of the lowermost 32 km of Bear Creek by Pickwick Reservoir of Tennessee River, the construction of four dams within the system, construction of a 29-km-long channel designed to limit flooding, and bank destabilization. Mussels are absent from much of the system and faunal composition has apparently been altered where mussels persist, based on comparison to limited previous studies. The most notable changes are the loss of Cumberlandian species diversity and the apparent increase in Ohioan species diversity. We sampled 40 stations in the Bear Creek system and report 32 mussel species live or fresh dead, including 3 Cumberlandian species, and 2 others weathered dead. Fourteen of these species were not reported in two earlier studies. During this study the most depauperate populations were upstream of Bear Creek km 41.0 and in tributaries. No mussels were collected immediately downstream of dams, and diversity gradually increased downstream from the lowermost main channel dam until 28 species occurred together in a free-flowing reach shortly before entering Pickwick Reservoir. One weathered dead zebra mussel, Dreisenna polymorpha, was also collected, representing a new tributary record. The population of Epioblasma brevidens in Bear Creek is the only population of that species known in the lower Tennessee River system, and the population of Lexingtonia dolabelloides, another new tributary record, is one of only two populations of that species known downstream of Paint Rock River.

  18. Changes in streamflow following timber harvest in southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R. Dennis Harr; Richard L. Fredriksen; Jack. Rothacher

    1979-01-01

    Changes in size of annual and seasonal yields and instantaneous peak flows were determined on three small, experimental watersheds following three silvicultural methods of timber harvest. Changes are related to changes in forest hydrologic system.

  19. Developing desired future conditions with the landscape management system: A case study of the Gotchen Late Successional Reserve

    Treesearch

    R. Mendez-Treneman; S. Hummel; G. Porterie; C. D. Oliver

    2001-01-01

    Changing public values have led to federal land management direction like the Northwest Forest Plan with major land allocations for late successional forest habitat. Restoration silviculture is a tool for maintaining optimum habitat despite risk of catastrophic disturbance due to the combined impact of fire, insects and disease. The Gotchen Late Successional Reserve (...

  20. Expert System Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    Expert System Management System (ESMS) Small Business Innovative Research Contract developed a distributed fault-tolerant expert system shell for...multiple expert systems in a multiprocessor environment. The ESMS contained four domain specific expert systems called Manager Expert System , Route...Planner Expert System , Weapon Expert System , and Situation Awareness and Display Expert System . The ESMS expert system shell was written in LISP

  1. Silviculture that sustains: the nexus between silviculture, frequent prescribed fire, and conservation of biodiversity in longleaf pine forests of the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    R.J. Mitchell; J.K. Hiers; J.J. O' Brien; S.B. Jack; R.T. Engstrom

    2006-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest ecosystem of the US southeastern Coastal Plain, among the most biologically diverse ecosystems in North America, originally covered over 24 x 106 ha but now occupy less than 5% of their original extent. The key factor for sustaining their high levels of diversity is the frequent...

  2. Influence of Different Forest System Management Practices on Leaf Litter Decomposition Rates, Nutrient Dynamics and the Activity of Ligninolytic Enzymes: A Case Study from Central European Forests

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (P<0.05). The site with near-to-nature forest management (low forest management intensity) exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, P<0.0001; manganese peroxidase (MnP), P = 0.0260). Our results also indicate that lignin decomposition is the rate limiting step in leaf litter decomposition and that MnP is one of the key oxidative enzymes of litter degradation. We demonstrate here that forest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. PMID:24699676

  3. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    PubMed

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (P<0.05). The site with near-to-nature forest management (low forest management intensity) exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, P<0.0001; manganese peroxidase (MnP), P = 0.0260). Our results also indicate that lignin decomposition is the rate limiting step in leaf litter decomposition and that MnP is one of the key oxidative enzymes of litter degradation. We demonstrate here that forest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  4. Aiding blister rust control by silvicultural measures in the western white pine type

    Treesearch

    Virgil D. Moss; Charles A. Wellner

    1953-01-01

    The forest industry of the Inland Empire depends on the production of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) as a major species. Continued production of this tree is impossible unless white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) is controlled. Existing merchantable timber can and probably will be harvested before serious losses occur, but the young growth...

  5. Silvicultural potential for pre-comercial treatment in northern forest type

    Treesearch

    H. W.,Jr. Hocker

    1977-01-01

    It is proposed that pre-commercial thinning of young northern hardwood, oak, white pine and spruce-fir stands be carried out using appropriate stocking guides to regulate stand density. Thinning should be carried out when stands are-between 1" and 2" dbh. Pruning of eastern white pine is recommended, while pruning of spruce and yellow birch seems feasible,...

  6. Contributions of silvicultural studies at Fort Valley to watershed management of Arizona's ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2008-01-01

    Watershed management and water yield augmentation have been important objectives for chaparral, ponderosa pine, and mixed conifer management in Arizona and New Mexico. The ponderosa pine forests and other vegetation types generally occur in relatively high precipitation zones where the potential for increased water yields is great. The ponderosa pine forests have been...

  7. Suppression of Phytophthora ramorum infestations through silvicultural treatment in California's north coast

    Treesearch

    Yana Valachovic; Chris Lee; Brendan Twieg; David Rizzo; Richard Cobb; Radoslaw Glebocki

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, three forested sites infested with Phytophthora ramorum in Humboldt County, California were subjected to different combinations of treatments designed to reduce inoculum and control spread. One treatment, consisting of removal of all California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.) and tanoak...

  8. Long-term effects of silviculture on soil carbon storage: does vegetation control make a difference?

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers; Matt D. Busse; Karis J. McFarlane; Jianwei Zhang; David H. Young

    2012-01-01

    Forests and the soils beneath them are Earth’s largest terrestrial sinks for atmospheric carbon (C) and healthy forests provide a partial check against atmospheric rises in CO2. Consequently, there is global interest in crediting forest managers who enhance C retention. Interest centres on C acquisition and storage in trees. Less is directed to...

  9. Silvicultural applications: Restoring ecological structure and process in ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Fiedler

    1996-01-01

    A primary goal of restoration treatments in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/fir forests is to create more open stand structures, thereby improving tree vigor and reducing vulnerability to insects, disease, and severe fire. An additional goal in some stands is to manipulate existing species composition and site conditions to favor regeneration of...

  10. Loblolly pine regeneration and competing vegetation 5 years after implementing uneven-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Shelton; Paul A. Murphy

    1994-01-01

    Thc effects of three basal areas (9.2, 133, and 18.4 m2/ha), maximum diameters (30.5. 40.6, and 50.8 cm), and site indices (24.6, 24.7-27.4, and >27.5 m at 50 years) on establishment and development of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) regeneration and competing vegetation were...

  11. Growing Sandalwood in Nepal—Potential silvicultural methods and research priorities

    Treesearch

    Peter E. Neil

    1990-01-01

    Interest in sandalwood has increased recently in Nepal as a result of a royal directive to plant it in the Eastern Development Region. The most suitable seed sources, seed acquisition, nursery techniques, direct sowing and plantation establishment methods are discussed here on the basis of results from elsewhere. Suggestions are made as to what research is most needed...

  12. Managing Sirex noctilio populations in Patagonia (Argentina): silviculture and biological control

    Treesearch

    José Villacide; Deborah Fischbein; Nélida Jofré; Juan. Corley

    2010-01-01

    Sirex noctilio is a primitive wood boring solitary wasp with a univoltine life cycle. Characteristic of this species is the occurrence of severely damaging, pulse-like eruptive population outbreaks. During outbreaks, the damage to pine plantations can be severe; tree mortality may reach levels close to 80 percent. Outbreak behavior is thus important...

  13. Chainsaws, Canebrakes, and Cotton Fields: Sober Thoughts on Silviculture for Songbirds in Bottomland Forests

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; James S. Meadows; Emile S. Gardiner; John A. Stanturf

    2001-01-01

    Forested wetlands of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) are the most productive of birds, including neotropical migratory birds, of all land uses there. Forest land uses are difficult to maintain in economic competition with annual crops. We compare perspectives of a bird biologist, a wildlife manager, a production forester, and an economic pragmatist to the issue:...

  14. Visual quality assessment of alternative silvicultural practices in upland hardwood management

    Treesearch

    Tim McDonald; Bryce Stokes

    1997-01-01

    Visual impacts of forest operations are of increasing concern to forest managers. Tools are available for evaluating, and potentially avoiding, problems in visual quality resulting from poorly designed harvest unit boundaries. One of these visualization tools is applied in comparing various harvest unit shape alternatives in an upland hardwood stand on steeply sloping...

  15. Vegetation Recovery Following High-intensity Wildfire and Silvicultural Treatments in Sand Pine Scrub

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Daniel G. Neary; Lawrence D. Harris; Steven P. Linda

    1994-01-01

    We hypothesized that clear-cutting mimics natural high-intensity disturbance by wildfire followed by salvage logging in sand pine scrub, and tested whether vegetation adapted to recovery from fire would respond similarly to another type of biomass removal. We measured plant community composition and structural characteristics in three replicated disturbance treatments...

  16. The Crossett Experimental Forest--72 years of science delivery in the silviculture of southern pines

    Treesearch

    J. M. Guldin

    2009-01-01

    The network of experimental forests and ranges within the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture has unique attributes for research, demonstration, and technology transfer. Public forest lands experience a slower rate of ownership change than private forest lands, and this provides greater stability for long-term research studies and demonstrations over time....

  17. Managing redwood ecosystems using Sudden Oak Death as a silvicultural tool

    Treesearch

    Frederick D. Euphrat

    2015-01-01

    In response to the wave of sudden oak death (SOD), caused by Phytophthora ramorum, sweeping the redwood forest ecosystems of California's North Coast, the role of foresters and other ecosystem managers is being tested. On Bear Flat Tree Farm, near Healdsburg, California, Forest, Soil & Water, Inc. (FSW) has conducted a multi-year,...

  18. An historical overview of forest service silvicultural activities in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Islands

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Forestry has a long history in the Caribbean lslands, in particular, in Puerto Rico. This experience, implemented in recent years through numerous partnerships, involves research, inventory and monitoring, and resource management, and has been communicated through demonstration and educational activities. Much of this history is documented in the 24 volumes of the...

  19. Communicating the value and benefits of silviculture through partnerships and collaborative stewardship

    Treesearch

    Leslie A. C. Weldon

    1997-01-01

    Opening comments to this session share observations on the current management climate within the USDA Forest Service. Partnerships and collaborative stewardship as agency philosophy are discussed. Silviculturists roles, as scientists and managers are compared, and the need for internal and external cooperation stressed as we strive to meet forest stewardship goals....

  20. Possible legislative constraints to intensive silvicultural practices in northern forest types

    Treesearch

    Brendan J. Whittaker

    1977-01-01

    The question of legal constraints to forest practice is currently active again. Two sources of restriction are the historic concern for timber supply and related amenities, and the mandates of the Federal Water Pollution Law. Legislators by and large, both State and Federal, realize the need of the nation for timber and will give due weight to the data presented to...

  1. Current knowledge on effects of forest silvicultural operations on carbon sequestration in southern forests

    Treesearch

    John D. Cason; Donald L. Grebner; Andrew J. Londo; Stephen C. Grado

    2006-01-01

    Incentive programs to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are increasing in number with the growing threat of global warming. Terrestrial sequestration of CO2 through forestry practices on newly established forests is a potential mitigation tool for developing carbon markets in the United States. The extent of industrial...

  2. Silvics and silviculture of ash in mixed hardwood forests of the southern bottomlands and loessial hills

    Treesearch

    Steve. Meadows

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the silvics of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), pumpkin ash (F. profunda), Carolina ash (F. caroliniana), and white ash (F. americana). Green ash is the primary ash species in southern bottomlands. Pumpkin ash and Carolina ash are relatively minor species with...

  3. Silvicultural approaches to maintain forest health and productivity under current and future climates

    Treesearch

    Paul D. Anderson; Daniel J. Chmura

    2009-01-01

    Climate modeling based on a variety of scenarios for the Pacific Northwest suggests that over the next century temperatures may increase and that the abundance of summer precipitation may decline. Historically, climate changes at the century scale have been accompanied by adjustments in species population sizes and the composition of vegetation communities....

  4. Effects of gypsy moth-oriented silvicultural treatments on vertebrate predator communities

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Greer; Robert C. Whitmore

    1991-01-01

    The impact of forest thinning, as an alternative gypsy moth management technique, on insectivorous birds and small mammals is being investigated in the West Virginia University Forest. The effects of thinning on predation of gypsy moth larvae and pupae by vertebrates are also being examined. Pre-thinning studies were conducted during the spring, summer, and fall of...

  5. Initial cerulean warbler response to experimental silvicultural manipulations, Desha County, Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Mike Staten; Rodney Wishard

    2006-01-01

    Cerulean warbler [Dendroica cerulea (Wilson) Aves, Parulidae] is a neotropical migratory bird that has become a focus of management attention. Since 1992, we have studied breeding birds on a 54-ha site owned by Anderson-Tully Company, in Desha County, AR. In 2002, we conducted an unreplicated experiment there to assess the species’ response to...

  6. Silviculture and nontimber forest products: extending the benefits of forest management

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery; John Zasada

    2001-01-01

    Jackie makes birch bark and sweet grass baskets, stitched with spruce root. Her work is so fine that a New England folklife institute has recognized her as a master basketmaker. Nora and Lawrence earn a very modest income selling mushrooms and other wild foods to upscale restaurants. A good part of their own food and medicine also comes from the woods, wetlands, and...

  7. Defoliation and mortality patterns in forests silviculturally managed for gypsy moth

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Rose-Marie Muzika

    1995-01-01

    Mixed hardwood forests of the Appalachian region support one of the most diverse communities of woody plants in North America, but the composition and relative dominance of the forest changes substantially with slight changes in physiography, soil type, or microclimate. Composition of oak and other species highly preferred by the gypsy moth determines the...

  8. Silviculture research priorities for strategic paper fibers in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Alan A. Lucier

    2004-01-01

    The economic performance of the pulp and paper industry in North America has been weak for more than a decade. Factors affecting performance vary among industry sectors and regions, but generally include slow growth in demand, excess production capacity, and low prices.

  9. Comparison of silvicultural and natural disturbance effects on terrestrial salamanders in northern hardwood forests

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Hocking; Kimberly J. Babbitt; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems timber harvesting has the potential to emulate natural disturbances, thereby maintaining the natural communities adapted to particular disturbances. We compared the effects of even-aged (clearcut and patch cut) and uneven-aged (group cut, single-tree selection) timber management techniques with natural ice-storm damage and unmanipulated reference...

  10. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable climatic and soil resources. During this century, traditional Siberian crops are predicted to gradually shift northwards and new crops, which are currently non-existent but potentially important in a warmer climate, could be introduced in the extreme south. In a future warmer climate, the economic effect of climate change impacts on agriculture was estimated based on a production function approach and the Ricardian model. The production function estimated climate impacts of temperature, precipitation and carbon dioxide levels. The Ricardian model examined climate impacts on the net rent or value of farmland at various regions. The models produced the optimal distribution of agricultural lands between crop, livestock, and forestry sectors to compensate economic losses in forestry in potential landuse areas depending on climatic change.

  11. Evaluation of silvicultural treatments and biomass use for reducing fire hazard in western states

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour; Karen L. Abt; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Frank Burch; Roger D. Fight; Robert J. Hugget; Patrick D. Miles; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2006-01-01

    Several analyses have shown that fire hazard is a concern for substantial areas of forestland, shrubland, grassland, and range in the western United States. In response, broadscale management strategies, such as the National Fire Plan, established actions to reduce the threat of undesirable fire. Available budgets are insufficient to pay for vegetative management on...

  12. Soil disturbance assessment of a cable logging operation performing five silvicultural prescriptions

    Treesearch

    John Klepac; Steve Reutebuch

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating alternative methods for regenerating second-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Pacific Northwest is an area of interest for resource managers. To meet future demands for timber supply as well as provide stands that are visually acceptable by the public and ecologically viable, a thorough understanding of these...

  13. Restoring oak forest, woodlands and savannahs using modern silvicultural analogs to historic cultural fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Callie J. Schweitzer; Michael C. Stambaugh; John M. Kabrick

    2015-01-01

    Variability in historic fire regimes in eastern North America resulted in an array of oak savannahs, woodlands and forests that were dominant vegetation types throughout the region. In the past century, once abundant savannahs and woodlands have become scarce due to conversion to agriculture, or development of forest structure in the absence of fire. In addition, the...

  14. Status of management and silviculture research on sandalwood in Western Australia and Indonesia

    Treesearch

    F. H. McKinnell

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the conservation and management of Santalum spicatum in Western Australia and S. album in East Indonesia is outlined. Natural and artificial regeneration techniques for both species in selected areas are discussed. The present Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research program on S. album in...

  15. Consistent definition and application of Reineke's Stand Density Index in silviculture and stand projection

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2010-01-01

    Reineke’s Stand Density Index (SDI) has been available to silviculturists for over 75 years, but application of this stand metric has been inconsistent. Originally described as a measurement of relative density in single-species, even-aged stands, it has since been generalized for use in uneven-aged stands and mixed-species stands. However, methods used to establish...

  16. Effects of Midrotation Intensive Silviculture on Forest Soils in East Texas: First-Year Results

    Treesearch

    S.A. Wilson; K.W. Farrish; B.P. Oswald; H.M. Williams; J.L. Yeiser

    2002-01-01

    Intensive forest management is becoming increasingly common in east Texas.Included in intensive management are such practices as mid-rotation fertilization, prescribed fire, and herbicide application. There is insufficient information about the effects of these treatments on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties when applied at mid-rotation. The objectives...

  17. Potential risks to freshwater aquatic organisms following a silvicultural application of herbicides in Oregon's Coast Range.

    PubMed

    Louch, Jeff; Tatum, Vickie; Allen, Ginny; Hale, V Cody; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Danehy, Robert J; Ice, George

    2017-03-01

    Glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), imazapyr, sulfometuron methyl (SMM), and metsulfuron methyl (MSM) were measured in streamwater collected during and after a routine application of herbicides to a forestry site in Oregon's Coast Range. Samples were collected at 3 stations: HIGH at the fish-no-fish interface in the middle of the harvest and spray unit, MID at the bottom of the unit, and LOW downstream of the unit. All herbicides were applied by helicopter in a single tank mix. AMPA, imazapyr, SMM, and MSM were not detected (ND) in any sample at 15, 600, 500, and 1000 ng/L, respectively. A pulse of glyphosate peaking at approximately equal to 62 ng/L manifested at HIGH during the application. Glyphosate pulses peaking at 115 ng/L (MID) and 42 ng/L (HIGH) were found during the first 2 postapplication storm events 8 and 10 days after treatment (DAT), respectively: glyphosate was less than 20 ng/L (ND) at all stations during all subsequent storm events. All glyphosate pulses were short-lived (4-12 h). Glyphosate in baseflow was approximately equal to 25 ng/L at all stations 3 DAT and was still approximately equal to 25 ng/L at HIGH, but ND at the other stations, 8 DAT: subsequently, glyphosate was ND in baseflow at all stations. Aquatic organisms were subjected to multiple short-duration, low-concentration glyphosate pulses corresponding to a cumulative time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of 6634 ng/L × h. Comparisons to TWA exposures associated with a range of toxicological endpoints for sensitive aquatic organisms suggests a margin of safety exceeding 100 at the experimental site, with the only potential exception resulting from the ability of fish to detect glyphosate via olfaction. For imazapyr, SMM, and MSM the NDs were at concentrations low enough to rule out effects on all organisms other than aquatic plants, and the low concentration and (assumed) pulsed nature of any exposure should mitigate this potential. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:396-409. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. The context for great lakes silviculture in the 21st century

    Treesearch

    David D. Reed

    2004-01-01

    Great Lakes forests were subject to a severe pulse of disturbance from the mid-19th century through the early 20th century that resulted from extensive harvesting and subsequent fires following European settlement. Today?s forest, in many ways, is exhibiting changes in area and demography that reflect recovery from this pulse of disturbance, as well as response to...

  19. Short-term effects of silviculture on breeding birds in William B. Bankhead National Forest

    Treesearch

    Jill M. Wick; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the changes in the bird community in relation to six disturbance treatments in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL. The study design is randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement of three thinning levels [no thin, 11 m²/ha residual basal area (BA), and 17 m²/ha residual BA] and two burn treatments (burn and no burn),...

  20. The evolution of pine plantation silviculture in the Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; H. Lee Allen

    2004-01-01

    In the 1950s, vast acreages of cutover forest land and degraded agricultural land existed in the South. Less than 2 million acres of southern pine plantations existed at that time. By the end of the 20th century, there were 32 million acres of southern pine plantations in the Southern United States, and this region is now the woodbasket of the world. The success story...

  1. Effects of intensive silvicultural treatments on kraft pulp quality of loblolly and slash pine

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Courchene; Alexander Clark; Monique L. Belli; William Jason Cooper; Barry D. Shiver

    2000-01-01

    Intensive forest-management practices have been shown to greatly increase the growth rates of southern pines. A joint study was undertaken to evaluate the wood and pulp quality from fast-grown 14-year-old loblolly pine from the Piedmont and 17-year-old slash pine from the Coastal Plain. The properties were compared to 24-year-old plantation-grown controls. three sets...

  2. The need for silvicultural practices and collection of butternut germplasm for species conservation

    Treesearch

    M. E. Ostry; B. Ellingson; D. Seekins; W. Ruckheim

    2003-01-01

    Butternut is a short-lived tree and is declining in numbers for a variety of reasons ranging from changing land use to aging forest stands, seed predation and lack of suitable conditions for reproduction. However, the major reason for the dramatic decrease in butternut populations throughout its range in North America is the lethal canker disease caused by the fungus...

  3. Defining the role of silvicultural research in the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    Treesearch

    Chris Nowak; Susan Stout; John Brissette; Laura Kenefic; Gary Miller; Bill Leak; Dan Yaussy; Tom Schuler; Kurt Gottschalk

    1997-01-01

    Research planning in the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has followed a grass roots model for more than two years-ROADMAP, a research and development management plan. The goals for research within ROADMAP include understanding, protecting, managing, and utilizing forest ecosystems. There are nine research themes set to help achieve these goals, each with a set...

  4. The SILVAH saga: 40+ years of collaborative hardwood research and management highlight silviculture

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Stout; Patrick H. Brose

    2014-01-01

    The advent of even-age management in eastern forests in the 1960s improved regeneration of shade-intolerant and shade-intermediate species through much of the region. However, in the Allegheny hardwood stands of northern Pennsylvania, half of the even-aged regeneration harvests failed to create new forests. USDA Forest Service Research and Development (FSR&D)...

  5. Vegetation recovery following high-intensity wildfire and silvicultural treatments in sand pine scrub

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.H.; Neary, D.G.; Harris, L.D.; Linda, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The authors hypothesized that clear-cutting mimics natural high-intensity disturbance by wildfire followed by salvage logging in sand pine scrub, and tested whether vegetation adapted to recovery from fire would respond similarly to another type of biomass removal. The authors measured plant community composition and structural characteristics in three replicated disturbance treatments and in mature sand pine forest (MF). Treatments were: (1) high-intensity burn, salvage logged and naturally regenerated (HIBS); (2) clear-cut, roller-chopped, and broadcast-seeded (RC); and (3) clear-cut and bracke-seeded (BK). All treatments were sampled 5-7 yr postdisturbance. Nonwoody plant species richness and diversity were significantly lower in MF than in disturbance treatments. Ruderal species were more abundant in HIBS and RC, but not to the exclusion of the characteristic suite of native scrub species. Shrub richness and diversity did not differ, but some species responded differently among treatments. Differences may be due to season of disturbance or rhizome depth.

  6. Physiological effects of work stress and pesticide exposure in tree planting by British Columbia silviculture workers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D G; Trites, D G; Banister, E W

    1993-08-01

    Tree planters in British Columbia have reported symptoms that are congruent with musculoskeletal stress and organophosphate or carbamate pesticide intoxication. The purpose of this research was to determine the existence of any physiological or biochemical correlate supporting the existence of these potential hazards in tree planting. Worker's health complaints were assessed from regularly distributed questionnaires. Blood samples were obtained from 14 male and three female Canadian subjects before and after tree planting work on 10 occasions throughout a tree planting season. The strenuous physical challenge of tree planting was confirmed by a significant elevation of serum enzyme activity (ESEA) at the beginning of the season, which did not return to a normal level during the remainder of the season. Significant (p < or = 0.05) inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) postwork was observed in 15.9% of individuals, and a significant group mean prework-postwork difference of AChE or plasma pseudocholinesterase (PChE) was observed on two days of testing, indicating a potential toxicological hazard from pesticide absorption. No correlation was found between the degree of ESEA or cholinesterase inhibition and the number of health complaints.

  7. Distribution of permanent plots to evaluate silvicultural treatments in the Inland Empire

    Treesearch

    John C. Byrne; Albert R. Stage; David L. Renner

    1988-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of a permanent-plot data base for estimating growth and yield, one first needs to know how the plots in the data base are distributed in relation to the population they are presumed to represent. The distribution of permanent plots to study forest growth in the Inland Empire (northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana) is...

  8. Effects of Pine and Hardwood Basal Areas After Uneven-Aged Silvicultural Treatments on Wildlife Habitat

    Treesearch

    Darren A. Miller; Bruce D. Leopold; L. Mike Conner; Michael G. Shelton

    1999-01-01

    Uneven-aged management (UEAM) is becoming increasingly popular in the southeastern United States. However, effects of UEAM on wildlife habitat have not been adequately documented. We examined response of habitat within stands of varying levels of pine and hardwood basal area under an uneven-aged managegement regime in southern Mississippi. Summer and winter trends in...

  9. Stormwise: Integrating arboriculture and silviculture to create storm-resilient roadside forests

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Thomas E. Worthley; Thomas J. Degnan; Joseph P. Barsky

    2017-01-01

    The band of trees within 30 m of roads (i.e., roadside forests) is often left unmanaged during traditional forest management activities because of liability concerns about inadvertently causing a vehicular accident or damaging utility lines during harvests. The trees in these same neglected forests often cause extensive utility outages and road blockages during extreme...

  10. Streamside Management Zones Affect Movement of Silvicultural Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizers to Piedmont Streams

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. Secoges; Wallace M. Aust; John R. Seiler; C. Andrew Dolloff; William A. Lakel

    2013-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMP) recommendations for streamside management zones (SMZs) are based on limited data regarding SMZ width, partial harvests, and nutrient movements after forest fertilization. Agricultural fertilization is commonly linked to increased stream nutrients. However, less is known about effectiveness of SMZ options for controlling nutrient...

  11. Ethanol production from woody biomass: Silvicultural opportunities for suppressed western conifers

    Treesearch

    Andrew Youngblood; Junyong Zhu; C. Tim. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Security and Independence Act (ESIA) requires 16 billion gallons of ethanol to be produced from lignocellulose biomass by 2022 in the United States. Forests can be a key source of renewable lignocellulose for ethanol production if cost and conversion efficiency barriers can be overcome. We explored opportunities for using woody biomass from thinning...

  12. Silviculture-ecology of three native California hardwoods on high sites in north central California

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1978-01-01

    Pacific madrone, tanoak, and California black oak are the most economically promising native California hardwoods. Volume and value data indicate upward trends in growing stock levels and prices received for their products. These trends are likely to continue. They suggest research is particularly needed for: (1) seed fall and regeneration, (2) sprout growth and...

  13. The Scotia Plantation: implications for multiaged and even-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2012-01-01

    The Scotia Plantation was established in 1982 on the large alluvial flat south of Scotia and adjacent to the Eel River. Seedlings, from local "woods run" seed sources, were planted on a 3.1 x 3.1 m (10 x 10 ft) grid. Site quality was very high, with site index averaging greater than 45 m (50 yr base). In 1997, the area was divided into blocks and a...

  14. Stump sprouting of oak species in three silvicultural treatments in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Chad J. Atwood; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting practices in the southern Appalachians have been moving towards partial harvests, which leave some desired species as residuals after an initial harvest. This study investigated differences among two partial harvest treatments and a clearcut on oak stump sprouting in seven southern Appalachian hardwood stands. The sites were in southwest Virginia and east...

  15. Effects of silvicultural management on low gradient stream water quality in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    John Beebe; George Ice; Y. Jun Xu; Abram DaSilva; Richard Stich

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen depletion in rivers and streams is among the top 5 impairment types most frequently cited in state water quality reports in the U.S., especially in the South. Such impairments require the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) or other strategies to ameliorate low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels or high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). TMDLs allocated to...

  16. Bioassessment of silvicultural impacts in streams and wetlands of the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    John J. Hutchens; Darold P. Batzer; Elizabeth Reese

    2003-01-01

    Bioassessment is a useful tool to determine the impact of logging practices on the biological integrity of streams and wetlands. Measuring biota directly has an intuitive appeal for impact assessment, and biota can be superior indicators to physical or chemical characteristics because they can reflect cumulative impacts over time. Logging can affect stream and wetland...

  17. Brood cover and food resources for wild turkeys following silvicultural treatments in mature upland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    M. McCord; C. Harper; Katie Greenberg

    2014-01-01

    Closed-canopy, upland hardwood forests with limited understory development provide suboptimal habitat for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) broods and may lead to low recruitment. Various forest management practices have been used to stimulate understory development within upland hardwoods, but evaluation of such practices on cover and food resources for wild turkey...

  18. Differences in some chemical properties of innerwood and outerwood from five silviculturally different loblolly pine stands

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H. Groom

    1997-01-01

    The influence of five different silviculrural management strategies on the chemical composition (extractives, Klason lignin, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose) of loblolly pine outerwood and innerwood was investigated. Stands that were managed in a plantation setting using growth-accelerating treatments showed higher extractive contents than the other stands. Wood...

  19. Reforestation of degraded hills in Nepal: Review of silvicultural and management issues

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.; Dickmann, D.I. )

    1991-01-01

    Nepal's Middle Hill regions have been excessively deforested. The government has launched a community-based reforestation project with help of international donors. However, results have been far from satisfactory. Plantation targets have not been met and survival rates of the planted trees are poor averaging around 60%. Social factors are given more blame than technical ones for these failures. However, an analysis of the available information indicates, rather, that about two-thirds of the failures were due to technical and administrative reasons. Only about 13% of the failures could be attributed to social causes. Poor quality seeds are used to raise undersized seedlings which are planted improperly during the wrong time of the year. Species selected are not appropriate for the site or the people for whom the plantations are being created; rather they are selected for the ease of planting and to meet administrative targets. The overall trend has been to plant conifers (mainly pinus roxburghii) and to plant on relatively easy sites. The result has been the creation of forest plantations which often do not have any management plant, while the few which often do not have any management plan, while the few which do are without any committed managers. There is a tremendous lack of information regarding user demand, growth, yield, and harvesting and utilization techniques. This paper stresses that research to improve practical methods in plantation establishment and training to produce competent, and dedicated resource managers be immediately initiated.

  20. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-temperate zone.

    PubMed

    Spiecker, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    In Europe temperate forests play a prominent role in timber production, nature protection, water conservation, erosion control and recreation. For centuries temperate forests in Europe have been affected by forest devastation and soil degradation. Applying great efforts to eliminate the severe wood shortage of those days, countermeasures were taken during the last 150 years by regenerating and tending highly productive forests. High growth rates and an increasing growing stock of these forests indicate that formerly stated goals have been successfully achieved. Coniferous species were often favoured because they were easy to establish and manage, and gave reason for high volume growth expectations. Today coniferous forests expand far beyond the limits of their natural ranges. These changes have been accompanied by a loss of biodiversity, a shift to nonsite adapted tree species and reduce the resistance against storms, snow, ice, droughts, insects and fungi. Some of these hazards were further intensified by the increasing average stand age, as well as in some areas by severe air pollution. Climatic fluctuations, especially changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme warm and dry climatic conditions and of heavy storms, had considerable impact on forest ecosystems. The changing demands of today require a widened scope of forest management. Society is asking for sustainable forestry emphasizing biodiversity and naturalistic forest management. It is of great economic and ecological relevance to know on which sites today's forests are most susceptible to climatic and other environmental changes and hazards. In those areas adjustments of management through a conversion the prevailing forests towards more site adapted mixed forests needs to be considered with priority. The high diversity in site conditions, ownership, economic and socio-cultural conditions require strategies adapted to the local and regional needs. Higher resistance of forests will increase economic and social benefits of forests and reduce the risks by maintaining sustainable forestry.

  1. Adapting silviculture to a changing climate in the southern United States

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2014-01-01

    Questions about how forests might respond to climate change are often addressed through planning, prediction, and modeling at the landscape scale. A recent synthesis of climate-change impacts on forest management and policy found that the earth is warmer than it has been in the recent past, and that 11 of the last 12 years rank among the 12 warmest since 1850 (Solomon...

  2. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Treesearch

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1975-01-01

    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  3. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  4. Technology change and the economics of silvicultural investment. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, R.G.

    1993-08-01

    Financial analyses of intensive and low-cost reforestation options are conducted for two predominant timber types in the United States: Loblolly pine stands with hardwood competition in the South, and Douglas-fir and red alder stands in the Pacific Northwest. Results suggest that low-cost regeneration options may satisfy both economic and environmental objectives that are difficult to attain with intensive forest practices.

  5. Fifth-Year Height and Survival of Loblolly Pine Across Tennessee Following Various Silvicultural Treatments

    Treesearch

    Lyle E. Taylor; John C. Rennie

    2002-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was planted at nine experiment stations located across Tennessee in 1993-94 and 1994-95 using a customized fractional factorial design. Two sites, good and poor, were chosen on each experiment station to compare effects of soil productivity on height and survival. At each site, three treatments were evaluated: spacing (8X8, 8X10, and 10X10...

  6. Forest management for mitigation and adaptation: insights from long-term silvicultural experiments

    Treesearch

    Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    Developing management strategies for addressing global climate change has become an increasingly important issue influencing forest management around the globe. Currently, management approaches are being proposed that intend to (1) mitigate climate change by enhancing forest carbon stores and (2) foster adaptation by maintaining compositionally and structurally complex...

  7. Silvicultural approaches for management of eastern white pine to minimize impacts of damaging agents

    Treesearch

    M.E. Ostry; G. Laflamme; S.A. Katovich

    2010-01-01

    Since the arrival to North America of Cronartium ribicola, management of eastern white pine has been driven by the need to avoid the actual or, in many areas, the perceived damage caused by white pine blister rust. Although white pine has lost much of its former dominance, it remains a valuable species for biotic diversity, aesthetics, wildlife...

  8. Silvicultural technology and applications for forest plantation establishment west of the Cascade crest.

    Treesearch

    Timothy B. Harrington; Jeff. Madsen

    2005-01-01

    Research and operational trials have identified methods of forest plantation establishment that promote high rates of survival and early growth of tree seedlings in the Pacific Northwest. Primary reasons for this success are the intensive control of competing vegetation provided by herbicide treatments and the planting of high quality seedlings. This paper discusses...

  9. Impacts of logging and prescribed burning in longleaf pine forests managed under uneven-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Ferhat Kara; Edward Francis Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem has historically been very important in the southeastern United States due to its extensive area and high biodiversity. Successful regeneration of longleaf pine forests requires an adequate number of well distributed seedlings. Thus, mortality of longleaf pine seedlings during logging operations...

  10. Seeing the bigger picture: landscape silviculture may offer compatible solutions to conflicting objectives.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Some federal forest managers working in late-successional reserves find themselves in a potential no-win situation. The Northwest Forest Plan requires that the reserves be protected from large-scale natural and human disturbances while simultaneously maintaining older forest habitat. This is a challenge for managers working in drier reserves, where forest types are...

  11. Restoring fire-adapted ecosystems: proceedings of the 2005 national silviculture workshop

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    2007-01-01

    Many federal forests are at risk to catastrophic wild fire owing to past management practices and policies. Mangers of these forests face the immense challenge of making their forests resilient to wild fire, and the problem is complicated by the specter of climate change that may affect wild fire frequency and intensity. Some of the Nation’s leading...

  12. Silvicultural and logistical considerations associated with the pending reintroduction of American chestnut

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Traditional breeding for blight resistance has led to the potential to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to Eastern United States forests using a blight resistant hybrid chestnut tree. With prospects of pending wide-scale reintroduction, restoration strategies based on ecological and biological characteristics of the...

  13. Demonstrating appropriate silviculture for sustainable forestry in central Siberia: a Russian - American partnership

    Treesearch

    J. C. Brissette; S. T. Eubanks; A. J. R. Gillespie; R. J. Lasko; A. V. Rykoff

    1997-01-01

    A joint Northeastern Forest Experiment Station - Eastern Region team is working with Russian counterparts on a Forests for the Future Initiative in the Krasnoyarsk region of central Siberia. Russian team members include scientists from the Sukachev Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, managers from a number of units of the Federal Forest Service of Russia, and...

  14. A Psychological Model Of Scenic Beauty By Silvicultural Treatment Two Growing Seasons After Harvest

    Treesearch

    Ying-Hung Li; Victor A. Rudis; Theresa A. Herrick

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - This study estimated summer scenic beauty and associated psychological attributes of scenes depicting uncut and several cutting regimes within shortleaf pine-hardwood forests on national forests. Images were captured in the summer of 1994 in nine treated and three comparable untreated stands in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas....

  15. A method for assessing the silvicultural effects of releasing young trees from competition.

    Treesearch

    P.W. Owsten; M. Greenup; V.A. Davis

    1986-01-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements of the survival and growth effects of releasing crop trees from competing vegetation are important for evaluating vegetation management treatments in forest plantations. This report details field-tested procedures for use in any type of release treatment—mechanical, manual, biological, or chemical. The basic concept is to delineate...

  16. Suggestions for a Silvicultural Prescription for Cerulean Warblers in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of species with high Partners in Flight concern scores may require active habitat management. Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) occurs at low numbers in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley in the western part of its breeding range. A study of the breeding ecology of the species was initiated in 1992 on three sites there....

  17. Early northern hardwood silvicultural research at the Dukes Experimental Forest, Michigan

    Treesearch

    Laura S. Kenefic; Christel C. Kern

    2015-01-01

    Commercial lumber production in the Lake States, which began in the early 1800s with eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), shifted to hardwoods in the late 1800s (Whitney 1994). Much of the hardwood forest was rapidly cut over; as a consequence, mill capacity exceeded available stumpage by the 1920s (Eyre and Zillgitt 1953). The forest industry...

  18. Silvicultural research needs in the Lake States: the nature conservancy perspective

    Treesearch

    Meredith Cornett

    2004-01-01

    The largest conservation organization in the United States, The Nature Conservancy uses a number of collaborative, entrepreneurial tools to achieve its mission: To protect plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.

  19. A Silvicultural Evaluation of Four Methods of Marking Second-growth Northern Hardwood Stands

    Treesearch

    Rodney D. Jacobs

    1966-01-01

    Second-growth northern hardwood stands occupy an important segment of the commercial forest land of Upper Michigan and northern Wisconsin. The size- and age-class distributions and species composition of these stands vary considerably, but under all conditions most of the trees are highly defective or poorly formed or of an undesirable species. Forest managers...

  20. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  1. Ecological Restoration Through Silviculture--A Savanna Management Demonstration Area, Sinkin Experimental Forest, Missouri

    Treesearch

    Edward F. Loewenstein; Kenneth R. Davidson

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, a project was initiated to demonstrate techniques and evaluate the efficacy of reducing overstory tree density and reintroducing fire in order to develop the tree composition, structure, and herbaceous complex typical of a savanna. On three study areas, two dominated by oak and one by shortleaf pine, the total basal area of all trees = 1.6 inches DBH was...

  2. Silvicultural treatments to regenerate principal species in the flat rock forest community

    Treesearch

    James E. Johnson; Laura S. Gellerstedt; David O. Mitchem

    2006-01-01

    Principal indicator tree species of the Flat Rock Forest Community include Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), and post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.). These species are unusual for forests occurring adjacent to large rivers in the central and southern Appalachian...

  3. Effects of silvicultural treatments on forest birds in the Rocky Mountains: implications and management recommendations

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Hutto; Sallie J. Hejl; Charles R. Preston; Deborah M. Finch

    1993-01-01

    The short-term effects of timber harvesting practices on landbird species vary widely among species. Thus, the maintenance of populations of all species will require a long-term management strategy that involves maintenance of a variety of habitats over a broad landscape.

  4. Genetics and silvicultural treatments influence the growth and shoot winter injury of American chestnut in Vermont

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Saielli; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2014-01-01

    The backcross breeding of American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh.] Borkh.) with Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) may provide an effective method to increase resistance against chestnut blight and help restore American chestnut throughout its historic range. However, the comparative adaptation (e.g., cold hardiness...

  5. Ecology and conservation of a rare, old-growth-associated canopy lichen in a silvicultural landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosso, A.L.; McCune, B.; Rambo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Nephroma occultum Wetm. is a rare, epiphytic lichen associated with old-growth forests of northwestern North America. We describe its distribution, abundance, and habitat within the managed landscape of a southwestern Oregon watershed. Because this species is found mainly in the canopy, we used direct canopy access (tree climbing) in combination with ground (litter) searches for our surveys. We recommend this dual approach when confident determination of presence or absence of a canopy species is needed. Our surveys confirm that N. occultum is a rare old-growth associate within the area of this study, the southernmost extension of its known range. It was both rare across the landscape and uncommon in our primary study site, a 500 yr old stand. It was most often found growing close to the trunk on branches of large Pseudotsuga menziesii, but its distribution was sporadic even within an old-growth stand. The scarcity of very old stands, in combination with the limited ability of this species to disperse within and between stands, has likely contributed to its rarity within the watershed. Management for N. occultum should focus on populations and habitat needs rather than on individuals. Our calculations show that cutting with retention of individual trees surrounded by small buffers could result in the eventual loss of N. occultum from the study area.

  6. Evapotranspiration of a pine-switchgrass intercropping bioenergy system measured by combined surface renewal and energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Noormets, A.; Domec, J. C.; Rosa, R.; Williamson, J.; Boone, J.; Sucre, E.; Trnka, M.; King, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intercropping bioenergy grasses within traditional pine silvicultural systems provides an opportunity for economic diversification and regional bioenergy production in a way that complements existing land use systems. Bioenergy intercropping in pine plantations does not compete with food production for land and it is thought will increase ecosystem resource-use efficiencies. As the frequency and intensity of drought is expected to increase with the changing climate, maximizing water use-efficiency of intercropped bioenergy systems will become increasingly important for long-term economic and environmental sustainability. The presented study is focused on evapotranspiration (ET) of an experimental pine-switchgrass intercropping system in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We measured ET of two pure switchgrass fields, two pure pine stands and two pine-switchgrass intercropping systems using combined surface renewal (SR) and energy balance (EB) method throughout 2015. SR is based on high-frequency measurement of air temperature at or above canopy. As previously demonstrated, temperature time series are associated with identifiable, repeated patterns called "turbulent coherent structures". These coherent structures are considered to be responsible for most of the turbulent transport. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures in temperature time series allows quantification of sensible heat flux density (H) from the investigated area. Information about H can be combined with measurement of net radiation and soil heat flux density to indirectly obtain ET estimates as a residual of the energy balance equation. Despite the recent progress in the SR method, there is no standard methodology and each method available includes assumptions which require more research. To validate our SR estimates of ET, we used an eddy covariance (EC) system placed temporarily next to the each SR station as a comparative measurement of H. The conference contribution will include

  7. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  8. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  9. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System A A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  10. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  11. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  12. MANAGE: a computer program to estimate costs and benefits associated with eastern hardwood management. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    LeDoux, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The integration of harvesting, silviculture, and market and economic concerns is demonstrated with a complete systems simulation model called MANAGE. The application of MANAGE and the type of decision-making output provided is emphasized. A 40-year-old red and white oak stand was selected for demonstration. Results suggest that the use of cable logging technology to manage young hardwood stands on steep terrain will dictate few entries with heavy-volume removals to maximize net values. MANAGE can be used to evaluate other combinations of harvesting, silviculture, and market and economic scenarios.

  13. Lymph system

    MedlinePlus

    Lymphatic system ... Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon BS, Stewart RW. Lymphatic system. In: Ball JW, Dains JE, Flynn JA, Solomon ... 2015:chap 9. Hall JE. The microcirculation and lymphatic system: capillary fluid exchange, interstitial fluid, and lymph flow. ...

  14. Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Digestive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Digestive System A A A ... the body can absorb and use. About the Digestive System Almost all animals have a tube-type digestive ...

  15. Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

  16. Systems Thinking (and Systems Doing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.; Dams, Peter-Cornelius

    1999-01-01

    Introduces human performance technology (HPT) by answering the following questions related to: what systems does; practical issues and questions to which systems thinking is relevant; research questions and answers with respect to systems thinking; how HPT practitioners can do systems thinking; systems thinking tools; what is and is not known…

  17. Innovations in afforestation of agricultural bottomlands to restore native forests in the eastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Emile S. Gardiner; John M. Kabrick; John A. Stanturf; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trees in agricultural bottomlands is challenging because of intense competition, flooding and herbivory. A summary is presented of new practices and management systems for regenerating trees in former agricultural fields in the eastern USA. Innovations have come from improvements in planting stock and new silvicultural systems that restore ecological...

  18. Innovations in afforestation of agricultural bottomlands to restore native forests in the United States

    Treesearch

    D.C. Dey; E.S. Gardiner; J.M. Kabrick; J.A. Stanturf; D.F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Establishing trees in agricultural bottomlands is challenging because of intense competition, flooding and herbivory. A summary is presented of new practices and management systems for regenerating trees in former agricultural fields in the eastern USA. Innovations have come from improvements in planting stock and new silvicultural systems that restore ecological...

  19. Site disturbance and soil impacts resulting from mechanized thinning of upland hardwood stands in Southeastern Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Jason Thompson; Emily. Carter

    2015-01-01

    A large scale silvicultural trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of five treatments in reducing the potential future impacts of gypsy moth infestation and oak decline on upland hardwood forests in the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. Three of the five prescriptions were implemented with a mechanical harvesting system. The system...

  20. Logging impact in uneven-aged stands of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer

    1999-01-01

    Today, there is keen interest in using alternative silvicultural systems like individual-tree selection, group openings and shelterwood because the general public feels these systems are more acceptable than clearcutting. Consequently, due to repeated entries into forest stands and the fact that residual crop trees have to be carried for a long period of time between...