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Sample records for simple event weighting

  1. Simple visual cues of event boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    A stream of sensory information is organized into discrete temporal units through event segmentation. On the basis of several studies measuring participants' explicit decisions about event boundaries, some theorists suggest that this segmentation is induced by increased unpredictability. Since this approach cannot describe the segmentation of unfamiliar events, we assumed that event segmentation might be perceptually driven. We hypothesized that when a new event-relevant object is represented, it triggers event segmentation. In addition to explicit decisions, we measured memory performance, since it has previously been found to be a strong indicator of event segmentation. We presented simple videos to the participants in which geometric objects were flashing consecutively while an unpredictable change occurred. In the New Object condition flashing objects were replaced, while in the Same Object condition one non-kind-relevant feature of the objects was changed. In Experiment 1 the participants' task was to press a button when they detected a meaningful change in the stimuli. In line with the predictability-based theories, we found that both changes triggered the detection of an event boundary. To contrast our hypothesis with the predictions of earlier theories, in Experiments 2 and 3 memory accuracy was measured using the stimuli of Experiment 1. We only found a significant change in memory accuracy in the New Object condition, which suggests that the appearance of an event-relevant object can induce segmentation on its own, and indicates that the explicit-decisions methodology might lead to the improper conclusion that event segmentation is solely based on predictability.

  2. Simple visual cues of event boundaries.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    A stream of sensory information is organized into discrete temporal units through event segmentation. On the basis of several studies measuring participants' explicit decisions about event boundaries, some theorists suggest that this segmentation is induced by increased unpredictability. Since this approach cannot describe the segmentation of unfamiliar events, we assumed that event segmentation might be perceptually driven. We hypothesized that when a new event-relevant object is represented, it triggers event segmentation. In addition to explicit decisions, we measured memory performance, since it has previously been found to be a strong indicator of event segmentation. We presented simple videos to the participants in which geometric objects were flashing consecutively while an unpredictable change occurred. In the New Object condition flashing objects were replaced, while in the Same Object condition one non-kind-relevant feature of the objects was changed. In Experiment 1 the participants' task was to press a button when they detected a meaningful change in the stimuli. In line with the predictability-based theories, we found that both changes triggered the detection of an event boundary. To contrast our hypothesis with the predictions of earlier theories, in Experiments 2 and 3 memory accuracy was measured using the stimuli of Experiment 1. We only found a significant change in memory accuracy in the New Object condition, which suggests that the appearance of an event-relevant object can induce segmentation on its own, and indicates that the explicit-decisions methodology might lead to the improper conclusion that event segmentation is solely based on predictability. PMID:25867112

  3. Simple noise reduction for diffusion weighted images.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuto; Kanazawa, Yuki; Usuda, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Junji; Harada, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Our purpose in this study was to reduce the noise in order to improve the SNR of Dw images with high b-value by using two correction schemes. This study was performed with use of phantoms made from water and sucrose at different concentrations, which were 10, 30, and 50 weight percent (wt%). In noise reduction for Dw imaging of the phantoms, we compared two correction schemes that are based on the Rician distribution and the Gaussian distribution. The highest error values for each concentration with use of the Rician distribution scheme were 7.3 % for 10 wt%, 2.4 % for 30 wt%, and 0.1 % for 50 wt%. The highest error values for each concentration with use of the Gaussian distribution scheme were 20.3 % for 10 wt%, 11.6 % for 30 wt%, and 3.4 % for 50 wt%. In Dw imaging, the noise reduction makes it possible to apply the correction scheme of Rician distribution. PMID:26984734

  4. A Simple Model Predicting Individual Weight Change in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Martin, Corby K.; Heymsfield, Steven; Redman, Leanne M.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Levine, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive weight in adults is a national concern with over 2/3 of the US population deemed overweight. Because being overweight has been correlated to numerous diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes, there is a need to understand mechanisms and predict outcomes of weight change and weight maintenance. A simple mathematical model that accurately predicts individual weight change offers opportunities to understand how individuals lose and gain weight and can be used to foster patient adherence to diets in clinical settings. For this purpose, we developed a one dimensional differential equation model of weight change based on the energy balance equation is paired to an algebraic relationship between fat free mass and fat mass derived from a large nationally representative sample of recently released data collected by the Centers for Disease Control. We validate the model's ability to predict individual participants’ weight change by comparing model estimates of final weight data from two recent underfeeding studies and one overfeeding study. Mean absolute error and standard deviation between model predictions and observed measurements of final weights are less than 1.8 ± 1.3 kg for the underfeeding studies and 2.5 ± 1.6 kg for the overfeeding study. Comparison of the model predictions to other one dimensional models of weight change shows improvement in mean absolute error, standard deviation of mean absolute error, and group mean predictions. The maximum absolute individual error decreased by approximately 60% substantiating reliability in individual weight change predictions. The model provides a viable method for estimating individual weight change as a result of changes in intake and determining individual dietary adherence during weight change studies. PMID:24707319

  5. Simple models for RPC weighting fields and potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnizer, Bernhard; Heubrandtner, Thomas; Schweitzer, Gunther

    2004-12-01

    Using conformal maps, formulae are derived and public ( http://www.itp.tu-graz.ac.at/schnizer/Theory_of_Chambers/) Mathematica programs are developed giving the weighting potentials and fields in simple models approximating the electrode configurations in Gas Microstrip or Resistive Plate Chambers. These models are a plane condensor with a strip under tension attached to one electrode and a plane condensor, one of whose electrodes is divided by a gap.

  6. Creating Input Sets For Inductive Learning From Simple Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, Brian; Lin, Charlotte; Bezdek, James

    1988-03-01

    Autonomous machines such as a planetary explorer must learn from the real universe, which can be seen as a single event of infinite complexity or as an infinite set of trivial events. Current inductive learning systems generalize from a finite set of events provided by a human teacher or a software environment. Even a constrained universe is difficult to represent as a finite set of events comprising various types of useful information. Cues used by humans to perform this representation task include temporal or spatial relationships among environmental data. We discuss a method for identifying meaningful complex events in the universe of an autonomous learning robot. When no temporal concept is known to link two descriptors, temporal proximity of events is used to pair simple descriptor events into complex events for inductive learning. When a temporal concept is known to link two descriptors, that concept is used to guide the pairing of descriptor events. We discuss the efficiency improvements which arise from using temporal concepts in this manner. The method is embedded in GPAL 1.3, a general purpose autonomous learner that uses a knowledge-based learning and control strategy which models the scientific method.

  7. Analyses of Tsunami Events using Simple Propagation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilvery, Ashwith Kumar; Tan, Arjun; Aggarwal, Mohan

    2012-03-01

    Tsunamis exhibit the characteristics of ``canal waves'' or ``gravity waves'' which belong to the class of ``long ocean waves on shallow water.'' The memorable tsunami events including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2011 Pacific Ocean tsunami off the coast of Japan are analyzed by constructing simple tsunami propagation models including the following: (1) One-dimensional propagation model; (2) Two-dimensional propagation model on flat surface; (3) Two-dimensional propagation model on spherical surface; and (4) A finite line-source model on two-dimensional surface. It is shown that Model 1 explains the basic features of the tsunami including the propagation speed, depth of the ocean, dispersion-less propagation and bending of tsunamis around obstacles. Models 2 and 3 explain the observed amplitude variations for long-distance tsunami propagation across the Pacific Ocean, including the effect of the equatorial ocean current on the arrival times. Model 3 further explains the enhancement effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth past the equatorial distance. Finally, Model 4 explains the devastating effect of superposition of tsunamis from two subduction event, which struck the Phuket region during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.

  8. A Simple Computer Interface To Time Relatively Slow Physical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocaya, R. O.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simple computer interface that can be used to make reliable time measurements, such as when timing the swings of a pendulum. Presents a sample experiment involving a form of pendulum known as the compound pendulum. (Author/YDS)

  9. Amount of weight loss or gain influences the severity of respiratory events in sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Sahlman, J; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Seppä, J; Töyräs, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2015-10-01

    Severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated based on respiratory events per hour [i.e., apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)]. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of weight change on the severity of respiratory events. Respiratory event severity, including duration and morphology, was estimated by determining parameters quantifying obstruction and desaturation event lengths and areas, respectively. Respiratory events of 54 OSA patients treated with dietary intervention were evaluated at baseline and after 5-year follow-up in subgroups with different levels of weight change. AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and obstruction event severities decreased during weight loss. In lower level weight loss, the decrease was milder in obstruction severity than in AHI and ODI, indicating that the decrease in the number of events is more focused on less severe events. In weight gain groups, parameters incorporating obstruction event severity, AHI and ODI increased, although increase was greater in parameters incorporating obstruction event severity. The number and severity of respiratory events were modulated differently by the level of weight change. AHI misses this change in the severity of respiratory events. Therefore, parameters incorporating information on the respiratory event severities may bring additional information on the health effects obtained with dietary treatment of OSA.

  10. Simple nanoparticle-based luminometric method for molecular weight determination of polymeric compounds.

    PubMed

    Pihlasalo, Sari; Virtamo, Maria; Legrand, Nicolas; Hänninen, Pekka; Härmä, Harri

    2014-01-21

    A nanoparticle-based method utilizing time-resolved luminescence resonance energy transfer (TR-LRET) was developed for molecular weight determination. This mix-and-measure nanoparticle method is based on the competitive adsorption between the analyte and the acceptor-labeled protein to donor Eu(III) nanoparticles. The size-dependent adsorption of molecules enables the molecular weight determination of differently sized polymeric compounds down to a concentration level of micrograms per liter. The molecular weight determination from 1 to 10 kDa for polyamino acids and from 0.3 to 70 kDa for polyethylene imines is demonstrated. The simple and cost-effective nanoparticle method as microtiter plate assay format shows great potential for the detection of the changes in molecular weight or for quantification of differently sized molecules in biochemical laboratories and in industrial polymeric processes.

  11. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1) a high fiber diet and 2) the American Heart Association (AHA) diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885 PMID:20042092

  12. A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field

    PubMed Central

    Herler, Jürgen; Dirnwöber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the impacts of global and local threats on coral reefs requires monitoring reef health and measuring coral growth and calcification rates at different time scales. This has traditionally been mostly performed in short-term experimental studies in which coral fragments were grown in the laboratory or in the field but measured ex situ. Practical techniques in which growth and measurements are performed over the long term in situ are rare. Apart from photographic approaches, weight increment measurements have also been applied. Past buoyant weight measurements under water involved a complicated and little-used apparatus. We introduce a new method that combines previous field and laboratory techniques to measure the buoyant weight of entire, transplanted corals under water. This method uses an electronic balance fitted into an acrylic glass underwater housing and placed atop of an acrylic glass cube. Within this cube, corals transplanted onto artificial bases can be attached to the balance and weighed at predetermined intervals while they continue growth in the field. We also provide a set of simple equations for the volume and weight determinations required to calculate net growth rates. The new technique is highly accurate: low error of weight determinations due to variation of coral density (< 0.08%) and low standard error (< 0.01%) for repeated measurements of the same corals. We outline a transplantation technique for properly preparing corals for such long-term in situ experiments and measurements. PMID:22049248

  13. Interpreting lateral dynamic weight shifts using a simple inverted pendulum model.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Michael W; Bretl, Timothy; Schmiedeler, James P

    2014-01-01

    Seventy-five young, healthy adults completed a lateral weight-shifting activity in which each shifted his/her center of pressure (CoP) to visually displayed target locations with the aid of visual CoP feedback. Each subject's CoP data were modeled using a single-link inverted pendulum system with a spring-damper at the joint. This extends the simple inverted pendulum model of static balance in the sagittal plane to lateral weight-shifting balance. The model controlled pendulum angle using PD control and a ramp setpoint trajectory, and weight-shifting was characterized by both shift speed and a non-minimum phase (NMP) behavior metric. This NMP behavior metric examines the force magnitude at shift initiation and provides weight-shifting balance performance information that parallels the examination of peak ground reaction forces in gait analysis. Control parameters were optimized on a subject-by-subject basis to match balance metrics for modeled results to metric values calculated from experimental data. Overall, the model matches experimental data well (average percent error of 0.35% for shifting speed and 0.05% for NMP behavior). These results suggest that the single-link inverted pendulum model can be used effectively to capture lateral weight-shifting balance, as it has been shown to model static balance.

  14. A Simple Bayesian Climate Index Weighting Method for Seasonal Ensemble Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A.; Habib, M. A.; Schwartz, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate information — in the form of a measure of climate state or a climate forecast — can be an important predictor of future hydrologic conditions. For instance, streamflow variability for many locations around the globe is related to large-scale atmospheric oscillations, like the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Pacific/Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Furthermore, climate forecast models are growing more skillful in their predictions of future climate variables on seasonal time scales. Finding effective ways to translate this climate information into improved hydrometeorological predictions is an area of ongoing research. In ensemble streamflow forecasting, where historical weather inputs or streamflow observations are used to generate the ensemble, climate index weighting is one way to represent the influence of current climate information. Using a climate index, each forecast variable member of the ensemble is selectively weighted to reflect climate conditions at the time of the forecast. A simple Bayesian climate index weighting of ensemble forecasts is presented. The original hydrologic ensemble members define a sample of the prior distribution; the relationship between the climate index and the ensemble member forecast variable is used to estimate a likelihood function. Given an observation of the climate index at the time of the forecast, the estimated likelihood function is then used to assign weights to each ensemble member. The weighted ensemble forecast is then used to estimate the posterior distribution of the forecast variable conditioned on the climate index. The proposed approach has several advantages over traditional climate index weighting methods. The weights assigned to the ensemble members accomplish the updating of the (prior) ensemble forecast distribution based on Bayes' Theorem, so the method is theoretically sound. The method also automatically adapts to the strength of the relationship between the climate index and the

  15. Effects of handedness on olfactory event-related potentials in a simple olfactory task.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Marie; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-investigate the influence of handedness on simple olfactory tasks to further clarify the role of handedness in chemical senses. Similar to language and other sensory systems, effects of handedness should be expected. Young, healthy subjects participated in this study, including 24 left-handers and 24 right-handers, with no indication of any major nasal or health problems. The two groups did not differ in terms of sex and age (14 women and 10 men in each group). They had a mean age of 24.0 years. Olfactory event-related potentials were recorded after left or right olfactory stimulation with the rose-like odor phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) or the smell of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulfide, H2S). Results suggested that handedness has no major influence on amplitude or latency of olfactory event-related potentials when it comes to simple olfactory tasks.

  16. Semiparametric regression for the weighted composite endpoint of recurrent and terminal events.

    PubMed

    Mao, Lu; Lin, D Y

    2016-04-01

    Recurrent event data are commonly encountered in clinical and epidemiological studies. A major complication arises when recurrent events are terminated by death. To assess the overall effects of covariates on the two types of events, we define a weighted composite endpoint as the cumulative number of recurrent and terminal events properly weighted by the relative severity of each event. We propose a semiparametric proportional rates model which specifies that the (possibly time-varying) covariates have multiplicative effects on the rate function of the weighted composite endpoint while leaving the form of the rate function and the dependence among recurrent and terminal events completely unspecified. We construct appropriate estimators for the regression parameters and the cumulative frequency function. We show that the estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal with variances that can be consistently estimated. We also develop graphical and numerical procedures for checking the adequacy of the model. We then demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed methods in simulation studies. Finally, we provide an application to a major cardiovascular clinical trial. PMID:26668069

  17. Use of a simple anthropometric measurement to predict birth weight. WHO Collaborative Study of Birth Weight Surrogates.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Low-birth-weight babies are most at risk of infant mortality. Unfortunately, in many developing countries it is not possible to weigh babies accurately because of the lack of robust scales. This article describes the results of a WHO Collaborative Study to investigate whether birth weight can be predicted accurately using chest circumference and/or arm circumference. The implications of the results for paediatric practice in developing countries are discussed. PMID:8490977

  18. Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2010-01-29

    As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

  19. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  20. Assessment and validation of a simple automated method for the detection of gait events and intervals.

    PubMed

    Ghoussayni, Salim; Stevens, Christopher; Durham, Sally; Ewins, David

    2004-12-01

    A simple and rapid automatic method for detection of gait events at the foot could speed up and possibly increase the repeatability of gait analysis and evaluations of treatments for pathological gaits. The aim of this study was to compare and validate a kinematic-based algorithm used in the detection of four gait events, heel contact, heel rise, toe contact and toe off. Force platform data is often used to obtain start and end of contact phases, but not usually heel rise and toe contact events. For this purpose synchronised kinematic, kinetic and video data were captured from 12 healthy adult subjects walking both barefoot and shod at slow and normal self-selected speeds. The data were used to determine the gait events using three methods: force, visual inspection and algorithm methods. Ninety percent of all timings given by the algorithm were within one frame (16.7 ms) when compared to visual inspection. There were no statistically significant differences between the visual and algorithm timings. For both heel and toe contact the differences between the three methods were within 1.5 frames, whereas for heel rise and toe off the differences between the force on one side and the visual and algorithm on the other were higher and more varied (up to 175 ms). In addition, the algorithm method provided the duration of three intervals, heel contact to toe contact, toe contact to heel rise and heel rise to toe off, which are not readily available from force platform data. The ability to automatically and reliably detect the timings of these four gait events and three intervals using kinematic data alone is an asset to clinical gait analysis.

  1. Mathematical anxiety effects on simple arithmetic processing efficiency: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pellicioni, M; Núñez-Peña, M I; Colomé, A

    2013-12-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials to investigate the difficulties that high math anxious individuals face when processing dramatically incorrect solutions to simple arithmetical problems. To this end, thirteen high math-anxious (HMA) and thirteen low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with simple addition problems in a verification task. The proposed solution could be correct, incorrect but very close to the correct one (small-split), or dramatically incorrect (large-split). The two groups did not differ in mathematical ability or trait anxiety. We reproduced previous results for flawed scores suggesting HMA difficulties in processing large-split solutions. Moreover, large-split solutions elicited a late positive component (P600/P3b) which was more enhanced and delayed in the HMA group. Our study proposes that the pattern of flawed scores found by previous studies (and that we replicate) has to do with HMA individuals'difficulties in inhibiting an extended processing of irrelevant information (large-split solutions).

  2. A simple Bayesian approach to quantifying confidence level of adverse event incidence proportion in small samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    In both clinical development and post-marketing of a new therapy or a new treatment, incidence of an adverse event (AE) is always a concern. When sample sizes are small, large sample-based inferential approaches on an AE incidence proportion in a certain time period no longer apply. In this brief discussion, we introduce a simple Bayesian framework to quantify, in small sample studies and the rare AE case, (1) the confidence level that the incidence proportion of a particular AE p is over or below a threshold, (2) the lower or upper bounds on p with a certain level of confidence, and (3) the minimum required number of patients with an AE before we can be certain that p surpasses a specific threshold, or the maximum allowable number of patients with an AE after which we can no longer be certain that p is below a certain threshold, given a certain confidence level. The method is easy to understand and implement; the interpretation of the results is intuitive. This article also demonstrates the usefulness of simple Bayesian concepts when it comes to answering practical questions. PMID:26098967

  3. A Simple, Inexpensive Molecular Weight Measurement for Water-Soluble Polymers Using Microemulsions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Lon J.; Moore, D. Roger

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving use of a microemulsion and its characteristic thermal phase change to determine molecular weights of polyoxyethylene samples. The experiment provides students with background information on polymers and organized media and with experience in evaluating polymer molecular weight by using a unique property of a…

  4. Simple traits among diaspore weight/number, plant height and ability of vegetative propagation.

    PubMed

    Šerá, Božena

    2008-12-01

    Several expected correlations among followed internal plant traits were confirmed using the dataset of 492 herbaceous species from the temporal zone of Central Europe. Average diaspore weight (seed mass), reproductive capacity of population (number of produced diaspores), species height, and ability of lateral spread were the plant traits considered. The evident correlations were confirmed among all investigated traits: (i) The reproductive capacity of population negatively correlated with diaspore weight, plant height, and vegetative propagation. The diaspore weight and their number are closely correlated and co-adapted. (ii) Bigger plant species produce bigger diaspores. These trends are obvious at the inter- and intra-family levels. (iii) Larger plant species showed higher ability to vegetative propagation.

  5. Keeping Things Simple: Why the Human Development Index Should Not Diverge from Its Equal Weights Assumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Lee M.; Garrod, Guy D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a range of statistical criteria rooted in Information Theory we show that there is little justification for relaxing the equal weights assumption underlying the United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) even if the true HDI diverges significantly from this assumption. Put differently, the additional model complexity that unequal weights…

  6. High-molecular-weight adiponectin does not predict cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Aso, Yoshimasa; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Inukai, Toshihiko; Brix, Johanna; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2009-04-01

    Low circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HMW adiponectin and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. The investigation took place in a specialized outpatient clinic for metabolic diseases and included 147 patients with T2DM following a cross-sectional and a prospective study protocol. Ninety patients had macrovascular disease at baseline defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, previous stroke, or peripheral artery disease. HMW adiponectin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and routine clinical parameters were determined in all patients at baseline. The occurrence of new cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and all-cause mortality) during the follow-up period was evaluated. No significant correlations between traditional cardiovascular risk markers and HMW adiponectin could be detected. HMW adiponectin did not differ between subjects with and without macrovascular disease at baseline (3.5 [interquartile range [IQR]: 2.2-5.7] mg/L vs 4.0 [IQR: 2.5-7.1] mg/L). During a follow-up of 19.3 (IQR: 16-25) months, 61 endpoints (41 myocardial infarctions, 10 strokes, and 10 deaths) were observed. A 1-standard-deviation increment of log-transformed HMW adiponectin was not significantly associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events (Adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-1.54; P = 0.835). In conclusion, HMW adiponectin was not related to present macrovascular disease and is not associated with future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with T2DM. It is unlikely that HMW adiponectin has significant vasoprotective effects in these patients.

  7. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-30

    To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a

  8. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (“face patches”) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a

  9. Simple Learned Weighted Sums of Inferior Temporal Neuronal Firing Rates Accurately Predict Human Core Object Recognition Performance.

    PubMed

    Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J

    2015-09-30

    To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a

  10. Propensity-Weighted Comparison of Long-Term Risk of Urinary Adverse Events in Elderly Women Treated For Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Sean P.; Fan, Yunhua; Jarosek, Stephanie; Chu, Haitao; Downs, Levi; Dusenbery, Kathryn; Geller, Melissa A.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer treatment is associated with a risk of urinary adverse events (UAEs) such as ureteral stricture and vesicovaginal fistula. We sought to measure the long-term UAE risk after surgery and radiation therapy (RT), with confounding controlled through propensity-weighted models. Methods and Materials: From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we identified women ≥66 years old with nonmetastatic cervical cancer treated with simple surgery (SS), radical hysterectomy (RH), external beam RT plus brachytherapy (EBRT+BT), or RT+surgery. We matched them to noncancer controls 1:3. Differences in demographic and cancer characteristics were balanced by propensity weighting. Grade 3 to 4 UAEs were identified by diagnosis codes plus treatment codes. Cumulative incidence was measured using Kaplan-Meier methods. The hazard associated with different cancer treatments was compared using Cox models. Results: UAEs occurred in 272 of 1808 cases (17%) and 222 of 5424 (4%) controls; most (62%) were ureteral strictures. The raw cumulative incidence of UAEs was highest in advanced cancers. UAEs occurred in 31% of patients after EBRT+BT, 25% of patients after RT+surgery, and 15% of patients after RH; however, after propensity weighting, the incidence was similar. In adjusted Cox models (reference = controls), the UAE risk was highest after RT+surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 5.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32-11.07), followed by EBRT+BT (HR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.45-7.65), RH (HR, 3.65; 95% CI, 1.41-9.46) and SS (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32-3.01). The higher risk after RT+surgery versus EBRT+BT was statistically significant, whereas, EBRT+BT and RH were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions: UAEs are common after cervical cancer treatment, particularly in patients with advanced cancers. UAEs are more common after RT, but these women tend to have the advanced cancers. After propensity weighting, the risk after RT was similar

  11. Simulating rare events using a weighted ensemble-based string method.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Joshua L; Grabe, Michael

    2013-01-28

    We introduce an extension to the weighted ensemble (WE) path sampling method to restrict sampling to a one-dimensional path through a high dimensional phase space. Our method, which is based on the finite-temperature string method, permits efficient sampling of both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. Sampling obtained from the WE method guides the adaptive refinement of a Voronoi tessellation of order parameter space, whose generating points, upon convergence, coincide with the principle reaction pathway. We demonstrate the application of this method to several simple, two-dimensional models of driven Brownian motion and to the conformational change of the nitrogen regulatory protein C receiver domain using an elastic network model. The simplicity of the two-dimensional models allows us to directly compare the efficiency of the WE method to conventional brute force simulations and other path sampling algorithms, while the example of protein conformational change demonstrates how the method can be used to efficiently study transitions in the space of many collective variables.

  12. Weighted Feature Significance: A Simple, Interpretable Model of Compound Toxicity Based on the Statistical Enrichment of Structural Features

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruili; Southall, Noel; Xia, Menghang; Cho, Ming-Hsuang; Jadhav, Ajit; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Inglese, James; Tice, Raymond R.; Austin, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Tox21 program, we have developed a simple and chemically intuitive model we call weighted feature significance (WFS) to predict the toxicological activity of compounds, based on the statistical enrichment of structural features in toxic compounds. We trained and tested the model on the following: (1) data from quantitative high–throughput screening cytotoxicity and caspase activation assays conducted at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center, (2) data from Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutagenicity assays conducted by the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and (3) hepatotoxicity data published in the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Enrichments of structural features in toxic compounds are evaluated for their statistical significance and compiled into a simple additive model of toxicity and then used to score new compounds for potential toxicity. The predictive power of the model for cytotoxicity was validated using an independent set of compounds from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency tested also at the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center. We compared the performance of our WFS approach with classical classification methods such as Naive Bayesian clustering and support vector machines. In most test cases, WFS showed similar or slightly better predictive power, especially in the prediction of hepatotoxic compounds, where WFS appeared to have the best performance among the three methods. The new algorithm has the important advantages of simplicity, power, interpretability, and ease of implementation. PMID:19805409

  13. Affective Priming by Simple Geometric Shapes: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that simple geometric shapes may convey emotional meaning using various experimental paradigms. However, whether affective meaning of simple geometric shapes can be automatically activated and influence the evaluations of subsequent stimulus is still unclear. Thus the present study employed an affective priming paradigm to investigate whether and how two geometric shapes (circle vs. downward triangle) impact on the affective processing of subsequently presented faces (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2). At behavioral level, no significant effect of affective congruency was found. However, ERP results in Experiment 1 and 2 showed a typical effect of affective congruency. The LPP elicited by affectively incongruent trials was larger compared to congruent trials. Our results provide support for the notion that downward triangle is perceived as negative and circle as positive and their emotional meaning can be activated automatically and then exert an influence on the electrophysiological processing of subsequent stimuli. The lack of significant congruent effect in behavioral measures and the inversed N400 congruent effect might reveal that the affective meaning of geometric shapes is weak because they are just abstract threatening cues rather than real threat. In addition, because no male participants are included in the present study, our findings are limited to females. PMID:27379001

  14. A simple short range model for the prediction of harmful algal events in the bays of southwestern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raine, Robin; McDermott, Georgina; Silke, Joe; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn; Cusack, Caroline

    2010-11-01

    A simple model is described which predicts harmful algal events in the bays of southwestern Ireland. Fundamental to the model is the physical forcing of circulation in these bays in summer. The predominant hydrographic feature at this time is a wind-driven two-layer oscillatory flow acting in a thermally stratified water column. This mechanism exchanges substantial proportions of the bays' volumes, and harmful algal events arise with the associated transport of harmful populations into them. The model is therefore based on the criterion that wind-driven water exchanges result in exchanges of phytoplankton, which, if the time of year is correct, result in toxic events. Utilising Bantry Bay as an example, hindcasting showed that the model has a high degree of success using a wind index based on the sequence of winds that results in water exchange. The model was implemented by estimating indices from the five-day weather forecast, and trialled in 2005. Results were published on the web in real time, during which a predicted water exchange event in mid-June was accompanied by an influx of Dinophysis acuminata into Bantry Bay with an associated contamination of shellfish with Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning toxins.

  15. CME-related particle acceleration regions during a simple eruptive event near solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Matamoros, Carolina; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Rouillard, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    An intriguing feature of many solar energetic particle (SEP) events is the detection of particles over a very extended range of longitudes in the Heliosphere. This may be due to peculiarities of the magnetic field in the corona, to a broad accelerator, to cross-field transport of the particles, or to a combination of these processes. The eruptive flare of the 26th of April 2008 offered an opportunity to study relevant processes under particularly favorable conditions, since it occurred in a very quiet solar and interplanetary environment. This allowed us to investigate the physical link between a single well-identified Coronal Mass Ejection (CME), electron acceleration as traced by radio emission, and the production of SEPs. We conduct a detailed analysis combining radio observations (Nançay Radioheliograph and Decameter Array, Wind/WAVES spectrograph) with remote-sensing observations of the corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white light as well as in-situ measurements of energetic particles near 1AU (SoHO and STEREO spacecraft). By combining images taken from multiple vantage points we were able to derive the time-dependent evolution of the 3-D pressure front developing around the erupting CME. Magnetic reconnection in the post-CME current sheet accelerated electrons that remained confined in closed magnetic fields in the corona, while the acceleration of escaping particles can be attributed to the pressure front generated ahead of the expanding CME. The CME accelerated electrons remotely from the parent active region, due to the interaction of its laterally expanding flank, traced by an EUV wave, with the ambient corona. SEPs detected at one STEREO spacecraft and SoHO were accelerated later, when the frontal shock of the CME intercepted the spacecraft-connected interplanetary magnetic field line. The injection regions into the Heliosphere inferred from the radio and SEP observations are separated in longitude by about 140°. The observations for this event

  16. Coronal mass ejection-related particle acceleration regions during a simple eruptive event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Matamoros, Carolina; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Rouillard, Alexis P.

    2016-05-01

    An intriguing feature of many solar energetic particle (SEP) events is the detection of particles over a very extended range of longitudes in the heliosphere. This may be due to peculiarities of the magnetic field in the corona, to a broad accelerator, to cross-field transport of the particles, or to a combination of these processes. The eruptive flare on 26 April 2008 provided an opportunity to study relevant processes under particularly favourable conditions since it occurred in a very quiet solar and interplanetary environment. This enabled us to investigate the physical link between a single well-identified coronal mass ejection (CME), electron acceleration as traced by radio emission, and the production of SEPs. We conduct a detailed analysis, which combines radio observations (Nançay Radio Heliograph and Nançay Decametre Array, Wind/Waves spectrograph) with remote-sensing observations of the corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white light, as well as in situ measurements of energetic particles near 1AU (SoHO and STEREO spacecraft). By combining images taken from multiple vantage points, we were able to derive the time-dependent evolution of the 3D pressure front that was developing around the erupting CME. Magnetic reconnection in the post-CME current sheet accelerated electrons, which remained confined in closed magnetic fields in the corona, while the acceleration of escaping particles can be attributed to the pressure front ahead of the expanding CME. The CME accelerated electrons remotely from the parent active region, owing to the interaction of its laterally expanding flank, which was traced by an EUV wave, with the ambient corona. SEPs detected at one STEREO spacecraft and SoHO were accelerated later, when the frontal shock of the CME intercepted the spacecraft-connected interplanetary magnetic field line. The injection regions into the heliosphere inferred from the radio and SEP observations are separated in longitude by about 140°. The

  17. Boolean Delay Equations: A Simple Way of Looking at Interactions and Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghil, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Boolean Delay Equations (BDEs) are semi-discrete dynamical models with Boolean-valued variables that evolve in continuous time. Systems of BDEs can be classified into conservative or dissipative, in a manner that parallels the classification of ordinary or partial differential equations. Solutions to certain conservative BDEs exhibit growth of complexity in time; such BDEs can be seen therefore as metaphors for biological evolution or human history. Dissipative BDEs are structurally stable and exhibit multiple equilibria and limit cycles, as well as more complex, fractal solution sets, such as Devil's staircases and ``fractal sunbursts.'' BDE systems have been used as highly idealized models of climate change on several time scales, as well as in earthquake modeling and prediction, and in genetics. BDEs with an infinite number of variables on a regular spatial grid have been called "partial BDEs" and we discuss connections with other types of discrete dynamical systems, including cellular automata and Boolean networks. We present recent BDE work on damage propagation in networks, with an emphasis on production-chain models. This formalism turns out to be well adapted to investigating propagation of an initial damage due to a climatic or other natural disaster. It thus serves to study economic impacts of extreme events, as well as extreme disruption of a network of interactions.

  18. Improved event positioning in a gamma ray detector using an iterative position-weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Yi; Goertzen, Andrew L

    2013-07-21

    An iterative position-weighted centre-of-gravity algorithm was developed and tested for positioning events in a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based scintillation detector for positron emission tomography. The algorithm used a Gaussian-based weighting function centred at the current estimate of the event location. The algorithm was applied to the signals from a 4 × 4 array of SiPM detectors that used individual channel readout and a LYSO:Ce scintillator array. Three scintillator array configurations were tested: single layer with 3.17 mm crystal pitch, matched to the SiPM size; single layer with 1.5 mm crystal pitch; and dual layer with 1.67 mm crystal pitch and a ½ crystal offset in the X and Y directions between the two layers. The flood histograms generated by this algorithm were shown to be superior to those generated by the standard centre of gravity. The width of the Gaussian weighting function of the algorithm was optimized for different scintillator array setups. The optimal width of the Gaussian curve was found to depend on the amount of light spread. The algorithm required less than 20 iterations to calculate the position of an event. The rapid convergence of this algorithm will readily allow for implementation on a front-end detector processing field programmable gate array for use in improved real-time event positioning and identification.

  19. Integrated seismic risk analysis using simple weighting method: the case of residential Eskişehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, E.; Tun, M.; Guney, Y.; Mutlu, S.

    2015-06-01

    A large part of the residential areas in Turkey are at risk from earthquakes. The main factors that threaten residential areas during an earthquake are poor quality building stock and soil problems. Liquefaction, loss of bearing capacity, amplification, slope failure, and landslide hazards must be taken into account for residential areas that are close to fault zones and covered with younger sediments. Analyzing these hazards separately and then combining the analyses would ensure a more realistic risk evaluation according to population density than analyzing several risks based on a single parameter. In this study, an integrated seismic risk analysis of central Eskişehir was performed based on two earthquake related parameters, liquefaction and amplification. The analysis used a simple weighting method. Other earthquake-related problems such as loss of bearing capacity, landslides, and slope failures are not significant for Eskişehir because of the geological and the topographical conditions of the region. According to the integrated seismic risk analysis of the Eskişehir residential area, the populated area is found to be generally at medium to high risk during a potential earthquake.

  20. Integrated seismic risk analysis using simple weighting method: the case of residential Eskişehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, E.; Tun, M.; Guney, Y.

    2014-11-01

    A large part of the residential areas in Turkey are at risk for earthquakes. The main factors that threaten residential areas during an earthquake are poor quality building stock and soil problems. Liquefaction, loss of bearing capacity, amplification, slope failure, and landslide risks must be taken into account for residential areas that are close to the fault zones and covered with younger sediments. If these risks were separately analyzed and these analyses were combined, this would be more realistic than analyzing several hazard maps based a single parameter. In this study, an integrated seismic hazard map of central Eskişehir was created based on two earthquake related parameters, liquefaction, and amplification, by using a simple weighting method. Other earthquake-related problems such as loss of bearing capacity, landslides, and slope failures are not significant for Eskişehir because of the geologic and the topographic conditions of the region. According to the integrated seismic hazard map of the Eskişehir residential area, the area is found to be generally at medium-high risk during a potential earthquake.

  1. Maternal Stressful Life Events Prior to Conception and the Impact on Infant Birth Weight in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Erika R.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Litzelman, Kristin; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Mandell, Kara; Wakeel, Fathima

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine if and to what extent a woman’s exposure to stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) were associated with subsequent infant birth weight by using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods. We examined 9350 mothers and infants participating in the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort in 2001. Weighted regressions estimated the effect of exposure on very low and low birth weight, adjusting for maternal sociodemographic and health factors and stress during pregnancy. Results. Twenty percent of women experienced any PSLE. In adjusted analyses, exposed women were 38% more likely to have a very low birth weight infant than nonexposed women. Furthermore, the accumulation of PSLEs was associated with reduced infant birth weight. Conclusions. This was the first nationally representative study to our knowledge to investigate the impact of PSLEs on very low and low birth weight in the United States. Interventions aimed to improve birth outcomes will need to shift the clinical practice paradigm upstream to the preconception period to reduce women’s exposure to stress over the life course and improve the long-term health of children. PMID:24354829

  2. Eating and weight/shape criticism as a specific life-event related to bulimia nervosa: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sonia Ferreira; Machado, Bárbara César; Martins, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of eating problems in bulimia nervosa patients. A case-control design was used involving the comparison of 60 female subjects who meet DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa with 60 healthy control subjects and 60 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. The RFI (Fairburn et al., 1998) subset of factors that represent exposure to life events in the 12 months immediately before the development of eating problems was used. Women with bulimia nervosa reported higher rates of major stress, criticism about eating, weight and shape and also a great number of antecedent life events during the year preceding the development of eating problems than the healthy control group. However, when compared with the general psychiatric control group only the exposure to critical comments about weight, shape, or eating emerged as a specific trigger for bulimia nervosa. Our findings support the fact that eating and shape/weight criticism in the year preceding the development of eating disturbance seems to be specifically related to bulimia nervosa.

  3. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  4. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-04-04

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors.

  5. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors. PMID:21587191

  6. A simple dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on age or body weight range for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: comparison of therapeutic efficacy with standard dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine.

    PubMed

    Gbotosho, Grace O; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Okuboyejo, Titilope M; Happi, Christian T; Folarin, Onikepe O; Adewoye, Elsie O

    2012-07-01

    A new dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine (NDRAA) based on age or body weight range was compared with standard dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine (SDRAA) calculated according to body weight and with fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine (FDAA) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 304 children afflicted by malaria aged 15 years or younger. In initial comparison (n = 208), children on NDRAA received 1-3 times amodiaquine per kilogram of body weight and 1-1.5 times of artesunate per kilogram of body weight compared with those receiving SDRAA. Parasite but not fever clearance was significantly faster in children who received NDRAA (19.4 ± 8.4 hours vs. 24.6 ± 15.5 hours, P = 0.003). Polymerase chain reaction-uncorrected cure rates on days 28-42 were also significantly higher in children who received NDRAA (P < 0.02 in all cases). Therapeutic responses in children younger than 5 years (n = 96) treated with NDRAA, FDAA, and AL were similar. Changes in hematocrit values and reported adverse events after commencing therapy were similar in those who received NDRAA and SDRAA. All drug regimens were well tolerated. NDRAA based on age or body weight range is simple, is therapeutically superior to SDRAA calculated according to body weight, and is as efficacious as AL in children younger than 5 years.

  7. Jump Distance Increases while Carrying Handheld Weights: Impulse, History, and Jump Performance in a Simple Lab Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2004-01-01

    This laboratory exercise is designed to provide an understanding of the mechanical concept of impulse as it applies to human movement and athletic performance. Students compare jumps performed with and without handheld weights. Contrary to initial expectation, jump distance is increased with moderate additional weights. This was familiar to…

  8. Weighted-ensemble Brownian dynamics simulation: sampling of rare events in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Justus A; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Toral, Raul

    2013-06-01

    We provide an algorithm based on weighted-ensemble (WE) methods, to accurately sample systems at steady state. Applying our method to different one- and two-dimensional models, we succeed in calculating steady-state probabilities of order 10(-300) and reproduce the Arrhenius law for rates of order 10(-280). Special attention is payed to the simulation of nonpotential systems where no detailed balance assumption exists. For this large class of stochastic systems, the stationary probability distribution density is often unknown and cannot be used as preknowledge during the simulation. We compare the algorithm's efficiency with standard Brownian dynamics simulations and the original WE method.

  9. Unbiased Rare Event Sampling in Spatial Stochastic Systems Biology Models Using a Weighted Ensemble of Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Rory M; Tapia, Jose-Juan; Sullivan, Devin P; Faeder, James R; Murphy, Robert F; Dittrich, Markus; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The long-term goal of connecting scales in biological simulation can be facilitated by scale-agnostic methods. We demonstrate that the weighted ensemble (WE) strategy, initially developed for molecular simulations, applies effectively to spatially resolved cell-scale simulations. The WE approach runs an ensemble of parallel trajectories with assigned weights and uses a statistical resampling strategy of replicating and pruning trajectories to focus computational effort on difficult-to-sample regions. The method can also generate unbiased estimates of non-equilibrium and equilibrium observables, sometimes with significantly less aggregate computing time than would be possible using standard parallelization. Here, we use WE to orchestrate particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which include spatial geometry (e.g., of organelles, plasma membrane) and biochemical interactions among mobile molecular species. We study a series of models exhibiting spatial, temporal and biochemical complexity and show that although WE has important limitations, it can achieve performance significantly exceeding standard parallel simulation--by orders of magnitude for some observables.

  10. Unbiased Rare Event Sampling in Spatial Stochastic Systems Biology Models Using a Weighted Ensemble of Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Rory M.; Tapia, Jose-Juan; Sullivan, Devin P.; Faeder, James R.; Murphy, Robert F.; Dittrich, Markus; Zuckerman, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    The long-term goal of connecting scales in biological simulation can be facilitated by scale-agnostic methods. We demonstrate that the weighted ensemble (WE) strategy, initially developed for molecular simulations, applies effectively to spatially resolved cell-scale simulations. The WE approach runs an ensemble of parallel trajectories with assigned weights and uses a statistical resampling strategy of replicating and pruning trajectories to focus computational effort on difficult-to-sample regions. The method can also generate unbiased estimates of non-equilibrium and equilibrium observables, sometimes with significantly less aggregate computing time than would be possible using standard parallelization. Here, we use WE to orchestrate particle-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which include spatial geometry (e.g., of organelles, plasma membrane) and biochemical interactions among mobile molecular species. We study a series of models exhibiting spatial, temporal and biochemical complexity and show that although WE has important limitations, it can achieve performance significantly exceeding standard parallel simulation—by orders of magnitude for some observables. PMID:26845334

  11. A Simple and Universal Gel Permeation Chromatography Technique for Precise Molecular Weight Characterization of Well-Defined Poly(ionic liquid)s

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongkun; Zhong, Mingjiang; Adzima, Brian; Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2013-03-20

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are an important class of technologically relevant materials. However, characterization of well-defined polyionic materials remains a challenge. Herein, we have developed a simple and versatile gel permeation chromatography (GPC) methodology for molecular weight (MW) characterization of PILs with a variety of anions. PILs with narrow MW distributions were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization, and the MWs obtained from GPC were further confirmed via nuclear magnetic resonance end group analysis.

  12. Sparsity-weighted outlier FLOODing (OFLOOD) method: Efficient rare event sampling method using sparsity of distribution.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ryuhei; Nakamura, Tomotake; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2016-03-30

    As an extension of the Outlier FLOODing (OFLOOD) method [Harada et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2015, 36, 763], the sparsity of the outliers defined by a hierarchical clustering algorithm, FlexDice, was considered to achieve an efficient conformational search as sparsity-weighted "OFLOOD." In OFLOOD, FlexDice detects areas of sparse distribution as outliers. The outliers are regarded as candidates that have high potential to promote conformational transitions and are employed as initial structures for conformational resampling by restarting molecular dynamics simulations. When detecting outliers, FlexDice defines a rank in the hierarchy for each outlier, which relates to sparsity in the distribution. In this study, we define a lower rank (first ranked), a medium rank (second ranked), and the highest rank (third ranked) outliers, respectively. For instance, the first-ranked outliers are located in a given conformational space away from the clusters (highly sparse distribution), whereas those with the third-ranked outliers are nearby the clusters (a moderately sparse distribution). To achieve the conformational search efficiently, resampling from the outliers with a given rank is performed. As demonstrations, this method was applied to several model systems: Alanine dipeptide, Met-enkephalin, Trp-cage, T4 lysozyme, and glutamine binding protein. In each demonstration, the present method successfully reproduced transitions among metastable states. In particular, the first-ranked OFLOOD highly accelerated the exploration of conformational space by expanding the edges. In contrast, the third-ranked OFLOOD reproduced local transitions among neighboring metastable states intensively. For quantitatively evaluations of sampled snapshots, free energy calculations were performed with a combination of umbrella samplings, providing rigorous landscapes of the biomolecules.

  13. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules.

  14. A simple method to prepare modified polyethersulfone membrane with improved hydrophilic surface by one-pot: The effect of hydrophobic segment length and molecular weight of copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ran, Fen; Li, Jie; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lingren; Nie, Shengqiang; Song, Haiming; Zhao, Lei; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-04-01

    A simple method to prepare modified polyethersulfone (PES) membrane by one-pot is provided, and the method includes three steps: polymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone (VP), copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and blending with PES. The effect of the PMMA segment length and molecular weight of the copolymer (PVP-b-PMMA-b-PVP, as an additive) on the structures and properties of the modified membranes was investigated. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests indicated that with the increase of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) segment length in the chains of the copolymers and with the increase of the molecular weight of the copolymers, the APTTs of the modified membranes increased to some extent, since less of the additives were lost during liquid-liquid phase separation process. Therefore, the copolymer was designed and prepared with appropriate ratio of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to MMA and with appropriate molecular weight for better membrane performance. When the copolymer was blended in the membrane, the water permeance, protein anti-fouling property and sieving coefficients for PEG-12000 increased obviously. The simple, credible and feasible method had the potential to be used for the modification of membranes with improved blood compatibility, ultrafiltration and antifouling properties of biomaterials and for practical production.

  15. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    PubMed

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. PMID:26463017

  16. Incorporation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data into a simple mathematical model of tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atuegwu, N. C.; Colvin, D. C.; Loveless, M. E.; Xu, L.; Gore, J. C.; Yankeelov, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    We build on previous work to show how serial diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) data can be used to estimate proliferation rates in a rat model of brain cancer. Thirteen rats were inoculated intracranially with 9L tumor cells; eight rats were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and five rats were untreated controls. All animals underwent DW-MRI immediately before, one day and three days after treatment. Values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated from the DW-MRI data and then used to estimate the number of cells in each voxel and also for whole tumor regions of interest. The data from the first two imaging time points were then used to estimate the proliferation rate of each tumor. The proliferation rates were used to predict the number of tumor cells at day three, and this was correlated with the corresponding experimental data. The voxel-by-voxel analysis yielded Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from -0.06 to 0.65, whereas the region of interest analysis provided Pearson's and concordance correlation coefficients of 0.88 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the ratio of positive to negative proliferation values was used to separate the treated and control animals (p <0.05) at an earlier point than the mean ADC values. These results further illustrate how quantitative measurements of tumor state obtained non-invasively by imaging can be incorporated into mathematical models that predict tumor growth.

  17. A novel weighted density functional theory for adsorption, fluid-solid interfacial tension, and disjoining properties of simple liquid films on planar solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang-Xin

    2009-07-14

    A novel weighted density functional theory (WDFT) for an inhomogeneous 12-6 Lennard-Jones fluid is proposed based on the modified fundamental measure theory for repulsive contribution, the mean-field approximation for attractive contribution, and the first-order mean-spherical approximation with a weighted density for correlation contribution. Extensive comparisons of the theoretical results with molecular simulation and experimental data indicate that the new WDFT yields accurate density profiles, adsorption isotherms, fluid-solid interfacial tensions, as well as disjoining potentials and pressures of simple gases such as argon, nitrogen, methane, ethane, and neon confined in slitlike pores or near graphitic solid surfaces. The present WDFT performs better than the nonlocal density functional theory, which is frequently used in the study of adsorption on porous materials. Since the proposed theory possesses a good dimensional crossover and is able to correctly reduce to two-dimensional case, it performs very well even in very narrow pores. In addition, the present WDFT reproduces very well the supercritical fluid-solid interfacial tensions, whereas the theory of Sweatman underestimates them at high bulk densities. The present WDFT predicts that the increase in the fluid-wall attraction may change the sign of the interfacial tension and hence may make the wall from "phobic" to "philic" with respect to the fluid. The new WDFT is computationally as simple and efficient as the mean-field theory and avoids the second-order direct correlation function as an input. It provides a universal way to construct the excess Helmholtz free-energy functional for inhomogeneous fluids such as Yukawa, square-well, and Sutherland fluids.

  18. The role of the density gradient on intermittent cross-field transport events in a simple magnetized toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theiler, C.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podestà, M.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.

    2008-04-01

    Intermittent cross-field particle transport events (ITEs) are studied in the basic toroidal device TORPEX [TORoidal Plasma EXperiment, A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)], with focus on the role of the density gradient. ITEs are due to the intermittent radial elongation of an interchange mode. The elongating positive wave crests can break apart and form blobs. This is not necessary, however, for plasma particles to be convected a considerable distance across the magnetic field lines. Conditionally sampled data reveal two different scenarios leading to ITEs. In the first case, the interchange mode grows radially from a slab-like density profile and leads to the ITE. A novel analysis technique reveals a monotonic dependence between the vertically averaged inverse radial density scale length and the probability for a subsequent ITE. In the second case, the mode is already observed before the start of the ITE. It does not elongate radially in a first stage, but at a later time. It is shown that this elongation is preceded by a steepening of the density profile as well.

  19. Weight Loss and Decrease of Body Mass Index during Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Are Common Events with Limited Clinical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Christina T.; Wischumerski, Isabel; Rust, Christian; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Weight loss in cancer patients has been attributed with significant morbidity and mortality. During allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), oral nutrition is often hampered and hence total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is necessary. We therefore investigated the course of weight during stem cell transplantation and the clinical consequences of weight change. Methods 180 consecutive patients who received allogeneic SCT between January 2010 and December 2011 at our center were analyzed for weight loss, laboratory and clinical parameters. Results During SCT, a median decrease of 6.6% of body mass index (BMI) was observed for the whole population (from 25.3 at admission to 23.6 at discharge), and a 1.6fold increase of malnutrition despite use of TPN (28.3% to 45.0%). 55.6% of patients experienced a significant weight loss of ≥5% with a median decrease of 9.2% in BMI. Serum levels of albumin, total protein and cholesterol rapidly decreased during conditioning therapy. After a median of 2.4 years, the median BMI was still only 23.4 (not different from discharge). However, we did not observe a meaningful difference in side effects and survival between patients that did or did not lose weight. Conclusion Weight loss is commonly observed during allogeneic SCT despite TPN, but the clinical consequences thereof seem limited: we observed no significant impact on patients with a decrease ≥ 5% in BMI on transplant outcome, side effects or survival. PMID:26683031

  20. A Simple Geometric Assessment of Perfusion Lesion Volume at Hyperacute Stage of Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Symptomatic Steno-Occlusion of Major Cerebral Arteries and Risk of Subsequent Cerebral Ischemic Events.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Cheolkyu; Kim, Nayoung; Son, Yoo Ri; Choi, Byungse; Kim, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Jun; Jang, Myung Suk; Yang, Mi Hwa; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2015-12-01

    Our objective is to elucidate the association of baseline perfusion lesion volume on perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI) obtained at hyperacute stage of ischemic stroke with subsequent cerebral ischemic events (SIEs) in patients with symptomatic steno-occlusion of major cerebral arteries. Using a prospective stroke registry database, patients arriving within 24 hours of onset with symptomatic steno-occlusion of major supratentorial cerebral arteries were identified. On baseline PWI, time-to-peak lesion volume (TTP-LV) was determined by a simple geometric method and dichotomized into the highest tertile (large) and the other tertiles (small to medium) according to the vascular territory of occluded arteries. Primary outcome was a time to SIE up to 1 year after stroke onset. A total of 385 patients (a median time delay from onset to arrival, 2.2 hours) were enrolled. During the first year of stroke, the SIE rate of the large TTP-LV group was twice that of the small-to-medium TTP-LV group (35.7% versus 17.4%; P < .001). Large TTP-LV independently raised the hazard of SIE (hazard ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-3.44). This study demonstrates that TTP-LV on PWI measured through a simple geometric method at an emergency setting can be used to predict progression or recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic steno-occlusion of major cerebral arteries.

  1. Rarity-Weighted Richness: A Simple and Reliable Alternative to Integer Programming and Heuristic Algorithms for Minimum Set and Maximum Coverage Problems in Conservation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from <1 ha to 2,500 km2. On average, RWR solutions were more efficient than Zonation solutions. Integer programming remains the only guaranteed way find an optimal solution, and heuristic algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts. PMID:25780930

  2. Stressful Life Events and Behavior Change: A Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Participation in a Weight Loss Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.

    2011-01-01

    We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…

  3. Adapting machine learning techniques to censored time-to-event health record data: A general-purpose approach using inverse probability of censoring weighting.

    PubMed

    Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Models for predicting the probability of experiencing various health outcomes or adverse events over a certain time frame (e.g., having a heart attack in the next 5years) based on individual patient characteristics are important tools for managing patient care. Electronic health data (EHD) are appealing sources of training data because they provide access to large amounts of rich individual-level data from present-day patient populations. However, because EHD are derived by extracting information from administrative and clinical databases, some fraction of subjects will not be under observation for the entire time frame over which one wants to make predictions; this loss to follow-up is often due to disenrollment from the health system. For subjects without complete follow-up, whether or not they experienced the adverse event is unknown, and in statistical terms the event time is said to be right-censored. Most machine learning approaches to the problem have been relatively ad hoc; for example, common approaches for handling observations in which the event status is unknown include (1) discarding those observations, (2) treating them as non-events, (3) splitting those observations into two observations: one where the event occurs and one where the event does not. In this paper, we present a general-purpose approach to account for right-censored outcomes using inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). We illustrate how IPCW can easily be incorporated into a number of existing machine learning algorithms used to mine big health care data including Bayesian networks, k-nearest neighbors, decision trees, and generalized additive models. We then show that our approach leads to better calibrated predictions than the three ad hoc approaches when applied to predicting the 5-year risk of experiencing a cardiovascular adverse event, using EHD from a large U.S. Midwestern healthcare system.

  4. Adapting machine learning techniques to censored time-to-event health record data: A general-purpose approach using inverse probability of censoring weighting.

    PubMed

    Vock, David M; Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Models for predicting the probability of experiencing various health outcomes or adverse events over a certain time frame (e.g., having a heart attack in the next 5years) based on individual patient characteristics are important tools for managing patient care. Electronic health data (EHD) are appealing sources of training data because they provide access to large amounts of rich individual-level data from present-day patient populations. However, because EHD are derived by extracting information from administrative and clinical databases, some fraction of subjects will not be under observation for the entire time frame over which one wants to make predictions; this loss to follow-up is often due to disenrollment from the health system. For subjects without complete follow-up, whether or not they experienced the adverse event is unknown, and in statistical terms the event time is said to be right-censored. Most machine learning approaches to the problem have been relatively ad hoc; for example, common approaches for handling observations in which the event status is unknown include (1) discarding those observations, (2) treating them as non-events, (3) splitting those observations into two observations: one where the event occurs and one where the event does not. In this paper, we present a general-purpose approach to account for right-censored outcomes using inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). We illustrate how IPCW can easily be incorporated into a number of existing machine learning algorithms used to mine big health care data including Bayesian networks, k-nearest neighbors, decision trees, and generalized additive models. We then show that our approach leads to better calibrated predictions than the three ad hoc approaches when applied to predicting the 5-year risk of experiencing a cardiovascular adverse event, using EHD from a large U.S. Midwestern healthcare system. PMID:26992568

  5. Simple, quantitative method for low molecular weight dissolved organic matter extracted from natural waters based upon high performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alfonso; Sandron, Sara; Wilson, Richard; Davies, Noel W; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2016-02-25

    A simple, high-performance counter-current chromatography method with sequential UV absorbance (254 nm) and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was developed for the quantification of pre-extracted low molecular weight dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from natural waters. The method requires solid-phase extraction (SPE) extraction of only small volumes of water samples, here using poly(styrenedivinylbenzene)-based extraction cartridges (Varian PPL). The extracted and concentrated DOM was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), with a water/methanol (5:5) mobile phase and hexane/ethyl acetate (3:7) stationary phase. The critical chromatographic parameters were optimised, applying a revolution speed of 1900 rpm and a flow-rate of 1 mL min(-1). Under these conditions, 50 μL of extracted DOM solution could be injected and quantified using calibration against a reference natural dissolved material (Suwannee River), based upon UV absorbance at 254 nm and ELSD detection. Both detection methods provided excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.995) for DOM across the concentration ranges of interest, with limits of detection of 4 μg ml(-1) and 7 μg ml(-1) for ELSD and UV absorbance, respectively. The method was validated for peak area precision (<5%), and accuracy and recovery based upon spiking seawater samples prior to extraction, together with DOM solutions post-extraction (>95% recovery). The developed method was applied to the determination of the concentration of DOM in seawater, based upon initial sample volumes as small as 20 mL. PMID:26851093

  6. Are Four Simple Questions Able to Predict Weight Loss in Outpatients With Metastatic Cancer? A Prospective Cohort Study Assessing the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Helfenstein, Seth F.; Uster, Alexandra; Rühlin, Maya; Pless, Miklos; Ballmer, Peter E.; Imoberdorf, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Severe weight loss is directly responsible for up to one-fifth of all cancer deaths and has a major impact on quality of life. The simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) was validated to predict weight loss within 6 mo in community-dwelling adults and nursing home residents. Methods: We prospectively assessed the SNAQ in 133 palliative cancer outpatients. The SNAQ predictions were validated after 3 and 6 mo with the observed weight change. In addition, the treating oncologists gave their predictions concerning future weight loss according to their clinical judgment. Results: A significant weight loss of 5% of the original body weight within 6 mo occurred in 20 (24%) of the 133 patients. The SNAQ predicted weight loss with a sensitivity of 0.38 and a specificity of 0.66 (P-value 0.81). The treating oncologists predicted weight loss with a sensitivity of 0.67 and a specificity of 0.7 (P-value 0.002). Conclusion: The SNAQ does not represent a useful tool to predict impending weight loss in palliative cancer outpatients. The predictions of the treating oncologists were more reliable than those from the SNAQ, but remain poor. Better methods to predict weight loss in this patient group are therefore required. PMID:27367202

  7. Source mechanism of small long-period events at Mount St. Helens in July 2005 using template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Shearer, Peter M.; Haney, Matthew M.; Waite, Gregory P.; Moran, Seth C.; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Long-period (LP, 0.5-5 Hz) seismicity, observed at volcanoes worldwide, is a recognized signature of unrest and eruption. Cyclic LP “drumbeating” was the characteristic seismicity accompanying the sustained dome-building phase of the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), WA. However, together with the LP drumbeating was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of tiny LP seismic events (LP “subevents”), which may hold important additional information on the mechanism of seismogenesis at restless volcanoes. We employ template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion to image the source mechanism of one multiplet of these LP subevents at MSH in July 2005. The signal-to-noise ratios of the individual events are too low to produce reliable waveform-inversion results, but the events are repetitive and can be stacked. We apply network-based template matching to 8 days of continuous velocity waveform data from 29 June to 7 July 2005 using a master event to detect 822 network triggers. We stack waveforms for 359 high-quality triggers at each station and component, using a combination of linear and phase-weighted stacking to produce clean stacks for use in waveform inversion. The derived source mechanism pointsto the volumetric oscillation (~10 m3) of a subhorizontal crack located at shallow depth (~30 m) in an area to the south of Crater Glacier in the southern portion of the breached MSH crater. A possible excitation mechanism is the sudden condensation of metastable steam from a shallow pressurized hydrothermal system as it encounters cool meteoric water in the outer parts of the edifice, perhaps supplied from snow melt.

  8. Source mechanism of small long-period events at Mount St. Helens in July 2005 using template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Shearer, Peter M.; Haney, Matthew M.; Waite, Gregory P.; Moran, Seth C.; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Long-period (LP, 0.5-5 Hz) seismicity, observed at volcanoes worldwide, is a recognized signature of unrest and eruption. Cyclic LP "drumbeating" was the characteristic seismicity accompanying the sustained dome-building phase of the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), WA. However, together with the LP drumbeating was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of tiny LP seismic events (LP "subevents"), which may hold important additional information on the mechanism of seismogenesis at restless volcanoes. We employ template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion to image the source mechanism of one multiplet of these LP subevents at MSH in July 2005. The signal-to-noise ratios of the individual events are too low to produce reliable waveform inversion results, but the events are repetitive and can be stacked. We apply network-based template matching to 8 days of continuous velocity waveform data from 29 June to 7 July 2005 using a master event to detect 822 network triggers. We stack waveforms for 359 high-quality triggers at each station and component, using a combination of linear and phase-weighted stacking to produce clean stacks for use in waveform inversion. The derived source mechanism points to the volumetric oscillation (˜10 m3) of a subhorizontal crack located at shallow depth (˜30 m) in an area to the south of Crater Glacier in the southern portion of the breached MSH crater. A possible excitation mechanism is the sudden condensation of metastable steam from a shallow pressurized hydrothermal system as it encounters cool meteoric water in the outer parts of the edifice, perhaps supplied from snow melt.

  9. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  10. SRBreak: A Read-Depth and Split-Read Framework to Identify Breakpoints of Different Events Inside Simple Copy-Number Variable Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang T.; Boocock, James; Merriman, Tony R.; Black, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Copy-number variation (CNV) has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structure as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp) relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximize information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM) the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92, 100, and 82%, respectively). The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/. PMID:27695476

  11. SRBreak: A Read-Depth and Split-Read Framework to Identify Breakpoints of Different Events Inside Simple Copy-Number Variable Regions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang T.; Boocock, James; Merriman, Tony R.; Black, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Copy-number variation (CNV) has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structure as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp) relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximize information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM) the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92, 100, and 82%, respectively). The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  12. A Novel Method to Estimate the Weight of the DIEP Flap in Breast Reconstruction: DIEP-W, a Simple Calculation Formula Using Paraumbilical Flap Thickness.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyong-Je; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lee, Kyeong-Tae; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Background Preoperative estimation of abdominal flap volume is valuable for breast reconstruction, especially in lean patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a formula to estimate the weight of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap using unidimensional parameters. Methods We retrospectively collected data on 100 consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction using the DIEP flap. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop a formula to estimate the weight of the flap. Predictor variables included body mass index, height of the flap, width of the flap, and flap thickness on computed tomography angiographic images at three paraumbilical sites: 5 cm right, left, and inferior from the umbilicus. Then we prospectively tested the accuracy of the developed formula in 38 consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction with free DIEP flaps. Results A calculation formula and a smartphone application, DIEP-W was developed from retrospective analysis (R (2) = 92.7%, p < 0.001). In the prospective study, the average estimated weight was 96.3% of the actual weight, giving the formula a mean absolute percentage error of 7.7% (average differences of 45 g). The flap size in the prospective group was significantly smaller (p < 0.001) and donor-site complications were less (p = 0.002) than those of retrospective group. Conclusion Surgeons can easily calculate the DIEP weight with varying flap dimensions in a real-time fashion using this formula during preoperative planning and intraoperative design. Estimating the flap weight facilitates economical use of the flap, which can lead to reduced donor-site complications.

  13. Is the Association of Hypertension with Cardiovascular Events Stronger Among the Lean and Normal Weight than Among the Overweight and Obese? The Mesa Study

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Laura A; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L; Sibley, Christopher; Liu, Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies that suggest the association of hypertension with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is stronger in the lean/normal weight than in the obese have either included smokers, diabetics, or cancer patients, or did not account for central obesity. This study examines the interaction of adiposity with hypertension on CVD events using BMI-based definitions of overweight and obesity as well as waist circumference (WC) to assess adiposity. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we classified 3657 nonsmoking men and women, free of baseline clinical CVD, diabetes and cancer, into 7 BMI-WC combinations defined by ethnicity-specific BMI (normal, overweight, class 1 obese, and class 2/3 obese) and ethnicity- and sex-specific WC categories (optimal or nonoptimal). Adjusted absolute event rates per 1000 person-years and relative risks (RRs) (95% confidence intervals) for CVD events for hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 or taking medication) vs. no hypertension computed within adiposity categories were: 9.3 vs. 1.9 and 4.96 (2.56-9.60) for normal BMI/optimal WC, 13.2 vs. 4.2 and 3.13 (0.99-9.86) for normal BMI/nonoptimal WC, 9.0 vs. 4.5 and 2.00 (1.19-3.36) for overweight BMI/optimal WC, 8.4 vs. 5.6 and 1.50 (0.88-2.54) for overweight BMI/nonoptimal WC,14.1 vs. 2.1 and 6.75 (0.69-65.57) for class 1 obese/optimal WC, 10.1 vs. 3.7 and 2.69 (1.41-5.16) for class 1 obese/nonoptimal WC, and 9.9 vs. 6.9 and 1.45(0.60-3.52) for class 2/3 obese/WC pooled. This study found a large RR of CVD events associated with hypertension for normal BMI participants and more importantly similarly high absolute risks for both normal and obese BMI with hypertension. PMID:26077561

  14. Is the association of hypertension with cardiovascular events stronger among the lean and normal weight than among the overweight and obese? The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Colangelo, Laura A; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T; Szklo, Moyses; Burke, Gregory L; Sibley, Christopher; Liu, Kiang

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies that suggest the association of hypertension with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is stronger in the lean/normal weight than in the obese have either included smokers, diabetics, or cancer patients, or did not account for central obesity. This study examines the interaction of adiposity with hypertension on CVD events using body mass index (BMI)-based definitions of overweight and obesity, as well as waist circumference (WC) to assess adiposity. In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we classified 3657 nonsmoking men and women, free of baseline clinical CVD, diabetes mellitus and cancer, into 7 BMI-WC combinations defined by ethnicity-specific BMI (normal, overweight, class 1 obese, and class 2/3 obese) and ethnicity- and sex-specific WC categories (optimal or nonoptimal). Adjusted absolute event rates per 1000 person-years and relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for CVD events for hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 or taking medication) versus no hypertension computed within adiposity categories were 9.3 versus 1.9 and 4.96 (2.56-9.60) for normal BMI/optimal WC, 13.2 versus 4.2 and 3.13 (0.99-9.86) for normal BMI/nonoptimal WC, 9.0 versus 4.5 and 2.00 (1.19-3.36) for overweight BMI/optimal WC, 8.4 versus 5.6 and 1.50 (0.88-2.54) for overweight BMI/nonoptimal WC,14.1 versus 2.1 and 6.75 (0.69-65.57) for class 1 obese/optimal WC, 10.1 versus 3.7 and 2.69 (1.41-5.16) for class 1 obese/nonoptimal WC, and 9.9 versus 6.9 and 1.45(0.60-3.52) for class 2/3 obese/WC pooled. This study found a large relative risk of CVD events associated with hypertension for normal BMI participants and more importantly similarly high absolute risks for both normal and obese BMI with hypertension.

  15. Simple prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostatectomy - simple; Suprapubic prostatectomy; Retropubic simple prostatectomy; Open prostatectomy; Millen procedure ... prostate and what caused your prostate to grow. Open simple prostatectomy is often used when the prostate ...

  16. Unravelling developmental disregard in children with unilateral cerebral palsy by measuring event-related potentials during a simple and complex task

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a subset of children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) a discrepancy between capacity and performance of the affected upper limb can be observed. This discrepancy is known as Developmental Disregard (DD). Though the phenomenon of DD has been well documented, its underlying cause is still under debate. DD has originally been explained based on principles of operant conditioning. Alternatively, it has been proposed that DD results from a diminished automaticity of movements, resulting in an increased cognitive load when using the affected hand. To investigate the amount of involved cognitive load we studied Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) preceding task-related motor responses during a single-hand capacity and a dual-hand performance task. It was hypothesised that children with DD show alterations related to long-latency ERP components when selecting a response with the affected upper limb, reflecting increased cognitive load in order to generate an adequate response and especially so within the dual-hand task. Methods Fifteen children with unilateral CP participated in the study. One of the participants was excluded due to major visual impairments. Seven of the remaining participants displayed DD. The other seven children served as a control group. All participants performed two versions of a cue-target paradigm, a single-hand capacity and a dual-hand performance task. The ERP components linked to target presentation were inspected: the mid-latency P2 component and the consecutive long-latency N2b component. Results In the dual-hand performance task children with DD showed an enhancement in mean amplitude of the long-latency N2b component when selecting a response with their affected hand. No differences were found regarding the amplitude of the mid-latency P2 component. No differences were observed regarding the single-hand capacity task. The control group did not display any differences in ERPs linked to target evaluation processes between both

  17. Identification of Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients with urinary tract infection using a simple set of biochemical tests correlating with 16S-23S interspace region molecular weight patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriano Martison; Bonesso, Mariana Fávero; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2012-12-01

    The emergence of Staphylococcus spp. not only as human pathogens, but also as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants, requires the development of methods for their rapid and reliable identification in medically important samples. The aim of this study was to compare three phenotypic methods for the identification of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from patients with urinary tract infection using the PCR of the 16S-23S interspace region generating molecular weight patterns (ITR-PCR) as reference. All 57 S. saprophyticus studied were correctly identified using only the novobiocin disk. A rate of agreement of 98.0% was obtained for the simplified battery of biochemical tests in relation to ITR-PCR, whereas the Vitek I system and novobiocin disk showed 81.2% and 89.1% agreement, respectively. No other novobiocin-resistant non-S. saprophyticus strain was identified. Thus, the novobiocin disk is a feasible alternative for the identification of S. saprophyticus in urine samples in laboratories with limited resources. ITR-PCR and the simplified battery of biochemical tests were more reliable than the commercial systems currently available. This study confirms that automated systems are still unable to correctly differentiate CoNS species and that simple, reliable and inexpensive methods can be used for routine identification.

  18. Establishing weights of members in a multi-model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdi Hartanto, Isnaeni; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, multi-model ensemble methods have been utilized in hydrology to integrate several model outputs to simulate and predict events. Apart from using the ensemble as multiple predictions of equal weight or probability, a weighting scheme can be applied to improve the probability density function and derivatives such as the ensemble mean. The weighting scheme can be static or dynamic. A multi-model ensemble of discharge simulations for the Rijnland water system in the Netherlands was processed using several weighting schemes. The ensemble was constructed using multiple catchment characteristics and forcing data sources available for the area, resulting in 24 members. The first weighting scheme used equal weights. The second was a static weighting scheme using the relative historic performance of a member as its weight. Performance metrics, i.e. bias and NSE were used. Dynamic weighting was using previous day relative performance to establish the weight for the members. Firstly error (distance) of simulated to observed discharge was used. Secondly trend of the previous day simulated discharge was used by giving zero weight to the members with wrong trend. For the static weighting, results showed that the simple equal weight was already giving satisfactory results. The scheme with previous-year performance only gave a small improvement to the ensemble mean as compared to the mean with uniform weights. The weighting using combined performance metrics also gave a small improvement. The dynamic weighting using previous-day error resulted in stronger improvements. Giving zero weight to half of the members with high error was resulting in a significant improvement of ensemble mean NSE. The weight based on the trend, however, only improved the ensemble mean a little bit compared to the equal weighting. Note that part of these results may be specific to the case study water system of Rijnland, which is a highly controlled water system.

  19. Thromboembolic Events Associated with Electrolytic Detachment of Guglielmi Detachable Coils and Target Coils : Comparison with Use of Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lim, Yong Cheol; Oh, Se-yang; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Bum-soo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate and compare the incidence of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesions between the Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) and the Target coil for treating unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods From 2010 to 2011, consecutive 222 patients with an intracranial aneurysm underwent coil embolization. Inclusion criterias were : 1) unruptured intracranial aneurysm, 2) one or more GDC or Target coils used with or without other coils, 3) DWI examination within 24 hours after coiling, and 4) coiling performed without a balloon or stent. Results Ninety patients (92 cases) met the inclusion criteria. DWI lesions were detected in 55 (61.1%) of 90 patients. In the GDC group (n=44), DWI lesions were detected in 31 (70.5%). The average number of DWI lesions was 5.0±8.7 (mean±SD; range, 1-40) in aneurysm-related territory. In the Target coil group (n=48), DWI lesions were detected in 24 (50.0%). The number of DWI lesion was 2.1±5.4 (range, 1-32) in aneurysm-related territory. There was no significant correlation between a number of coils and DWI lesions. No significant differences were also observed in the number of DWI lesions in each group. Conclusion The GDC and Target coils, which have an electrolytic detachable system, showed no differences in the incidence of DWI lesion. PMID:24044075

  20. Holter and Event Monitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Holter and event monitors are similar to an EKG (electrocardiogram). An EKG is a simple test that detects and records ... for diagnosing heart rhythm problems. However, a standard EKG only records the heartbeat for a few seconds. ...

  1. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  2. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...

  3. CHICOM: A code of tests for comparing unweighted and weighted histograms and two weighted histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagunashvili, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    A Fortran-77 program for calculating test statistics to compare weighted histogram with an unweighted histogram and two histograms with weighted entries is presented. The code calculates test statistics for cases of histograms with normalized weights of events and unnormalized weights of events.

  4. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  5. Weight Watcher!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1990-01-01

    The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)

  6. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  7. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  8. Comparison and applicability of landslide susceptibility models based on landslide ratio-based logistic regression, frequency ratio, weight of evidence, and instability index methods in an extreme rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunhung

    2016-04-01

    Few researches have discussed about the applicability of applying the statistical landslide susceptibility (LS) model for extreme rainfall-induced landslide events. The researches focuses on the comparison and applicability of LS models based on four methods, including landslide ratio-based logistic regression (LRBLR), frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), and instability index (II) methods, in an extreme rainfall-induced landslide cases. The landslide inventory in the Chishan river watershed, Southwestern Taiwan, after 2009 Typhoon Morakot is the main materials in this research. The Chishan river watershed is a tributary watershed of Kaoping river watershed, which is a landslide- and erosion-prone watershed with the annual average suspended load of 3.6×107 MT/yr (ranks 11th in the world). Typhoon Morakot struck Southern Taiwan from Aug. 6-10 in 2009 and dumped nearly 2,000 mm of rainfall in the Chishan river watershed. The 24-hour, 48-hour, and 72-hours accumulated rainfall in the Chishan river watershed exceeded the 200-year return period accumulated rainfall. 2,389 landslide polygons in the Chishan river watershed were extracted from SPOT 5 images after 2009 Typhoon Morakot. The total landslide area is around 33.5 km2, equals to the landslide ratio of 4.1%. The main landslide types based on Varnes' (1978) classification are rotational and translational slides. The two characteristics of extreme rainfall-induced landslide event are dense landslide distribution and large occupation of downslope landslide areas owing to headward erosion and bank erosion in the flooding processes. The area of downslope landslide in the Chishan river watershed after 2009 Typhoon Morakot is 3.2 times higher than that of upslope landslide areas. The prediction accuracy of LS models based on LRBLR, FR, WOE, and II methods have been proven over 70%. The model performance and applicability of four models in a landslide-prone watershed with dense distribution of rainfall

  9. The "weighted ensemble" path sampling method is statistically exact for a broad class of stochastic processes and binning procedures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin W; Jasnow, David; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2010-02-01

    The "weighted ensemble" method, introduced by Huber and Kim [Biophys. J. 70, 97 (1996)], is one of a handful of rigorous approaches to path sampling of rare events. Expanding earlier discussions, we show that the technique is statistically exact for a wide class of Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics. The derivation is based on standard path-integral (path probability) ideas, but recasts the weighted-ensemble approach as simple "resampling" in path space. Similar reasoning indicates that arbitrary nonstatic binning procedures, which merely guide the resampling process, are also valid. Numerical examples confirm the claims, including the use of bins which can adaptively find the target state in a simple model.

  10. Webcam classification using simple features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramoun, Thitiporn; Choe, Jeehyun; Li, He; Chen, Qingshuang; Amornraksa, Thumrongrat; Lu, Yung-Hsiang; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of sensors are connected to the Internet and many of these sensors are cameras. The "Internet of Things" will contain many "things" that are image sensors. This vast network of distributed cameras (i.e. web cams) will continue to exponentially grow. In this paper we examine simple methods to classify an image from a web cam as "indoor/outdoor" and having "people/no people" based on simple features. We use four types of image features to classify an image as indoor/outdoor: color, edge, line, and text. To classify an image as having people/no people we use HOG and texture features. The features are weighted based on their significance and combined. A support vector machine is used for classification. Our system with feature weighting and feature combination yields 95.5% accuracy.

  11. Onset of Parenting and Stressful Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; And Others

    A list of stressful events associated with onset of parenting is developed. The events and established weights are ranked to reflect the degree of disruption that would be caused should that event occur. Whether the rankings and weightings differ as a function of parent sex and maternal work status is also considered. The means for developing the…

  12. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} Weight transfer functions for Monte Carlo simulation of coagulation. {yields} Efficient support for single-particle growth processes. {yields} Comparisons to analytic solutions and soot formation problems. {yields} Better numerical accuracy for less common particles. - Abstract: A class of coagulation weight transfer functions is constructed, each member of which leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. These algorithms are based on systems of weighted computational particles and the weight transfer functions are constructed such that the number of computational particles does not change during coagulation events. The algorithms also facilitate the simulation of physical processes that change single particles, such as growth, or other surface reactions. Four members of the algorithm family have been numerically validated by comparison to analytic solutions to simple problems. Numerical experiments have been performed for complex laminar premixed flame systems in which members of the class of stochastic weighted particle methods were compared to each other and to a direct simulation algorithm. Two of the weighted algorithms have been shown to offer performance advantages over the direct simulation algorithm in situations where interest is focused on the larger particles in a system. The extent of this advantage depends on the particular system and on the quantities of interest.

  13. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  14. Synthesis and a Simple Molecular Weight Determination of Polystyrene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Daniel W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information procedures used, results obtained, and instructional strategies are provided for an experiment using thin layer chromatography in conjunction with the synthesis of polystyrene. The experiment has been used and evaluated in a sophomore-level organic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  15. 12 CFR 217.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hedge pair is the dependent variable and the change in value of the other exposure in a hedge pair is the independent variable. However, if the estimated regression coefficient is positive, then the...

  16. 12 CFR 324.152 - Simple risk weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the dependent variable and the change in value of the other exposure in a hedge pair is the independent variable. However, if the estimated regression coefficient is positive, then the value of E...

  17. Unwinding the hairball graph: Pruning algorithms for weighted complex networks.

    PubMed

    Dianati, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here, we focus on integer-weighted graphs commonly arising when weights count the occurrences of an "event" relating the nodes. We introduce a simple and intuitive null model related to the configuration model of network generation and derive two significance filters from it: the marginal likelihood filter (MLF) and the global likelihood filter (GLF). The former is a fast algorithm assigning a significance score to each edge based on the marginal distribution of edge weights, whereas the latter is an ensemble approach which takes into account the correlations among edges. We apply these filters to the network of air traffic volume between US airports and recover a geographically faithful representation of the graph. Furthermore, compared with thresholding based on edge weight, we show that our filters extract a larger and significantly sparser giant component.

  18. Unwinding the hairball graph: Pruning algorithms for weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianati, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Empirical networks of weighted dyadic relations often contain "noisy" edges that alter the global characteristics of the network and obfuscate the most important structures therein. Graph pruning is the process of identifying the most significant edges according to a generative null model and extracting the subgraph consisting of those edges. Here, we focus on integer-weighted graphs commonly arising when weights count the occurrences of an "event" relating the nodes. We introduce a simple and intuitive null model related to the configuration model of network generation and derive two significance filters from it: the marginal likelihood filter (MLF) and the global likelihood filter (GLF). The former is a fast algorithm assigning a significance score to each edge based on the marginal distribution of edge weights, whereas the latter is an ensemble approach which takes into account the correlations among edges. We apply these filters to the network of air traffic volume between US airports and recover a geographically faithful representation of the graph. Furthermore, compared with thresholding based on edge weight, we show that our filters extract a larger and significantly sparser giant component.

  19. SIMPLE: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endres, Frank L.

    Symbolic Interactive Matrix Processing Language (SIMPLE) is a conversational matrix-oriented source language suited to a batch or a time-sharing environment. The two modes of operation of SIMPLE are conversational mode and programing mode. This program uses a TAURUS time-sharing system and cathode ray terminals or teletypes. SIMPLE performs all…

  20. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  1. Controlling chaos with simple limiters

    PubMed

    Corron; Pethel; Hopper

    2000-04-24

    New experimental results demonstrate that chaos control can be accomplished using controllers that are very simple relative to the system being controlled. Chaotic dynamics in a driven pendulum and a double scroll circuit are controlled using an adjustable, passive limiter-a weight for the pendulum and a diode for the circuit. For both experiments, multiple unstable periodic orbits are selectively controlled using minimal perturbations. These physical examples suggest that chaos control can be practically applied to a much wider array of important problems than initially thought possible. PMID:11019218

  2. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  3. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  4. Review of "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The new "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009" from the Reason Foundation provides a simple framework for touting the successes of states and urban school districts that grant greater fiscal autonomy to schools. The report defines the Weighted Student Formula (WSF) reform extremely broadly, presenting a variety of reforms under the WSF umbrella.…

  5. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.

  6. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  7. Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.

  8. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  9. Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…

  10. A Physics Heptathlon: Simple Models of Seven Sporting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spathopoulos, Vassilios McInnes

    2010-01-01

    Anything that can capture the interest of students can be used to enhance the teaching of physics, and sport is practised, watched and followed fanatically by almost every young person. At the same time, in recent years, a wealth of research data has become available from the field of sports science. The purpose of this article is to draw from…

  11. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  12. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  13. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  14. Eliciting benefit-risk preferences and probability-weighted utility using choice-format conjoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Houtven, George; Johnson, F Reed; Kilambi, Vikram; Hauber, A Brett

    2011-01-01

    This study applies conjoint analysis to estimate health-related benefit-risk tradeoffs in a non-expected-utility framework. We demonstrate how this method can be used to test for and estimate nonlinear weighting of adverse-event probabilities and we explore the implications of nonlinear weighting on maximum acceptable risk (MAR) measures of risk tolerance. We obtained preference data from 570 Crohn's disease patients using a web-enabled conjoint survey. Respondents were presented with choice tasks involving treatment options that involve different efficacy benefits and different mortality risks for 3 possible side effects. Using conditional logit maximum likelihood estimation, we estimate preference parameters using 3 models that allow for nonlinear preference weighting of risks--a categorical model, a simple-weighting model, and a rank dependent utility (RDU) model. For the second 2 models we specify and jointly estimate 1- and 2-parameter probability weighting functions. Although the 2-parameter functions are more flexible, estimation of the 1-parameter functions generally performed better. Despite well-known conceptual limitations, the simple-weighting model allows us to estimate weighting function parameters that vary across 3 risk types, and we find some evidence of statistically significant differences across risks. The parameter estimates from RDU model with the single-parameter weighting function provide the most robust estimates of MAR. For an improvement in Crohn's symptom severity from moderate and mild, we estimate maximum 10-year mortality risk tolerances ranging from 2.6% to 7.1%. Our results provide further the evidence that quantitative benefit-risk analysis used to evaluate medical interventions should account explicitly for the nonlinear probability weighting of preferences.

  15. Analysis of time-series correlation between weighted lifestyle data and health data.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Mayuzumi, Yuuki; Kodama, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The time-series data analysis described here is based on the simple idea that the accumulation of the effects of lifestyle events, such as ingestion and exercise, could affect personal health with some delay. The delay may reflect complex bio-reactions such as those of metabolism in a human body. In the analysis, the accumulation of the effects of lifestyle events is represented by a summation of daily lifestyle data whose time-series correlation to variations of health data is examined (healthcare-data-mining). The concept of weighting is introduced for the summation of daily lifestyle data. As a result, it is suggested that the nature of personal health could be represented by a weighting pattern characterized by a small number of parameters.

  16. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis.

  17. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  18. Insights into Biological Complexity from Simple Foundations.

    PubMed

    Albergante, L; Liu, D; Palmer, S; Newman, T J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an overtly "simple approach" to complex biological systems borrowing selectively from theoretical physics. The approach is framed by three maxims, and we show examples of its success in two different applications: investigating cellular robustness at the level of gene regulatory networks and quantifying rare events of DNA replication errors. PMID:27193550

  19. Simple LDAP Schemas for Grid Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial definition of the data we need in a directory service or database so that we can implement a performance monitoring testbed. To begin with, this document describes how to represent producers of events and event schemes. The representation of producers is simple and does not contain information such as who has access to the events and what protocols can be used to access the events. In the future, we will define how to describe consumers of events and add details to our representations. A popular choice for a directory service or database for grid computing is a distributed directory service that is accessed using the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). This document uses LDAP terminology, schemes, and formats to represent the directory service schemes.

  20. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  1. Early Childhood: Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Clare B.; Shafer, Kathryn E.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages teachers to take advantage of the natural curiosity of young children in enhancing their interest in science. Describes four simple activities involving water, living and non-living things, air pollution, and food. (TW)

  2. Simple Machines Simply Put.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.

    1994-01-01

    Students explore the workings of the lever, wheel and axle, and the inclined plane as they build simple toys--a bulldozer and a road grader. The project takes four weeks. Diagrams and procedures are included. (PR)

  3. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  4. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  5. Maintenance Event

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-22

    Time:  08:00 am - 08:30 am EDT Event Impact:  Science Directorate websites will ... outage Thursday morning, 7/24, to perform upgrades to the web environment and are expected to be down for about 30 minutes. ...

  6. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  7. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  8. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple. PMID:11189455

  9. Simple molecules as complex systems.

    PubMed

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Arendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H2(16)O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an "ultra-small-world" property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra.

  10. Simple molecules as complex systems

    PubMed Central

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter; Mellau, Georg; Császár, Attila G.

    2014-01-01

    For individual molecules quantum mechanics (QM) offers a simple, natural and elegant way to build large-scale complex networks: quantized energy levels are the nodes, allowed transitions among the levels are the links, and transition intensities supply the weights. QM networks are intrinsic properties of molecules and they are characterized experimentally via spectroscopy; thus, realizations of QM networks are called spectroscopic networks (SN). As demonstrated for the rovibrational states of H216O, the molecule governing the greenhouse effect on earth through hundreds of millions of its spectroscopic transitions (links), both the measured and first-principles computed one-photon absorption SNs containing experimentally accessible transitions appear to have heavy-tailed degree distributions. The proposed novel view of high-resolution spectroscopy and the observed degree distributions have important implications: appearance of a core of highly interconnected hubs among the nodes, a generally disassortative connection preference, considerable robustness and error tolerance, and an “ultra-small-world” property. The network-theoretical view of spectroscopy offers a data reduction facility via a minimum-weight spanning tree approach, which can assist high-resolution spectroscopists to improve the efficiency of the assignment of their measured spectra. PMID:24722221

  11. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  12. Dramatic weight loss with rufinamide.

    PubMed

    Mourand, Isabelle; Crespel, Arielle; Gelisse, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug considered as second-line therapy in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) have consisted mainly of drowsiness, irritability, vomiting, and loss of appetite. RUF is considered as a "weight-neutral" drug. We found clinically significant weight loss in 7 of 15 consecutive adult patients (47%; 3 male, 4 female, aged 18-31 years) treated with RUF as add-on therapy (800-2,400 mg/day: 23.5-57.1 mg/kg/day). The body mass index (BMI) decreased by 7.3-18.7%. Two patients were obese class I before RUF. Five patients (71%) were underweight before RUF (mild in one case, moderate in two cases, and severe in two cases). Four of these patients stopped RUF because of this adverse effect. RUF was recommenced in two patients using a lower and slower dosing strategy; one patient showed improvement in seizure control and no weight loss but RUF was re-stopped in the second patient because of continued weight loss. Despite of weight loss, RUF was continued in two other patients because it reduced seizure activity. We primarily related weight loss to reduced food intake, that is, loss of appetite and nausea, although in two patients no obvious loss of appetite was reported. RUF can cause clinically significant weight loss in adult patients, even at low dose. This AE can affect patients who are already underweight. There is a possibility that lower starting doses and slower escalation might minimize weight loss, but further information is required to determine whether this is the case. PMID:22780580

  13. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layoutmore » system using customized styles.« less

  14. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  15. On the Utilization of Sample Weights in Latent Variable Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Ferguson, Aaron J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of sample weights in latent variable models in the case where a simple random sample is drawn from a population containing a mixture of strata through a bootstrap simulation study. Results show that ignoring weights can lead to serious bias in latent variable model parameters and reveal the advantages of using sample weights. (SLD)

  16. Estimating ideal body weight--a new formula.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Harry J M; Brodsky, Jay B; Bernstein, Donald P

    2005-08-01

    A simple formula for estimating ideal body weight (IBW) in kilograms for both men and women is presented. The equation IBW = 22 x H2, where H is equal to patient height in meters, yields weight values midway within the range of weights obtained using published IBW formulae.

  17. On Simple Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses San Francisco's Exploratorium, a science teaching center with 500 exhibits focusing on human perception, but extending to everything from the mechanics of voice to the art of illusion, from holograms to harmonics. The Exploratorium emphasizes "simple science" (refractions/resonances, sounds/shadows) to tune in the senses and turn on the…

  18. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  19. Simple epibulbar cartilaginous choristoma.

    PubMed

    Alyahya, Ahmed; Alkhalidi, Hisham; Alsuhaibani, Adel H

    2011-02-01

    A 15-year-old boy was referred for management of a medial, pedunculated, subconjunctival epibulbar mass of 5 months' duration in the left eye. The lesion was removed with complication, and histopathology confirmed a cartilaginous choristoma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a simple epibulbar cartilaginous choristoma.

  20. Simple Lookup Service

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-01

    Simple Lookup Service (sLS) is a REST/JSON based lookup service that allows users to publish information in the form of key-value pairs and search for the published information. The lookup service supports both pull and push model. This software can be used to create a distributed architecture/cloud.

  1. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  2. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  3. Not So "Simple Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author provides his analyses on Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice," a book that portrays the major players involved in the landmark "Brown" decision. He comments generally on Kluger and highlights a few interesting aspects of his analysis, including his interpretation of the actions of then clerk and later justice and still…

  4. A Simple Wave Driver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  5. Simple Library Bookkeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Herbert H.

    A simple and cheap manual double entry continuous transaction posting system with running balances is developed for bookkeeping by small libraries. A very small library may operate without any system of fiscal control but when a library's budget approaches three figures, some kind of bookkeeping must be introduced. To maintain control over his…

  6. Climate Change Made Simple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shallcross, Dudley E.; Harrison, Tim G.

    2007-01-01

    The newly revised specifications for GCSE science involve greater consideration of climate change. This topic appears in either the chemistry or biology section, depending on the examination board, and is a good example of "How Science Works." It is therefore timely that students are given an opportunity to conduct some simple climate modelling.…

  7. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  8. SPE dose prediction using locally weighted regression.

    PubMed

    Hines, J W; Townsend, L W; Nichols, T F

    2005-01-01

    When astronauts are outside Earth's protective magnetosphere, they are subject to large radiation doses resulting from solar particle events. The total dose received from a major solar particle event in deep space could cause severe radiation poisoning. The dose is usually received over a 20-40 h time interval but the event's effects may be reduced with an early warning system. This paper presents a method to predict the total dose early in the event. It uses a locally weighted regression model, which is easier to train, and provides predictions as accurate as the neural network models that were used previously. PMID:16604613

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current research studies and how you can volunteer Community Outreach and Health Fairs Science-based information and tips for planning an outreach effort or community event For Health Care Professionals Patient and provider resources ...

  10. Simple Waveforms, Simply Described

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.

  11. A simple phoswich system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsden, D.; Zhang, S. N.

    1988-06-01

    Normal phoswich detector systems use a combination of NaI(Tl) and CsI(Na) scintillators and require the application of careful pulse-shape discriminator techniques to resolve the two components in the scintillation light output which have decay constants of 250 and 630 ns respectively. These techniques provide a good anticoincidence veto efficiency for a relatively narrow range in the ratio of energy deposits in the two crytals and for a detector system whose temperature is carefully controlled. This paper describes the performance of a simple phoswich which makes use of the fast UV signal from a BaF 2 crystal to provide a prompt veto signal. The performance to be expected from various combinations of a BaF 2 anticoincidence crystal with other primary detectors is presented. These simulations have been verified by simple experimental tests.

  12. Probabilistic simple splicing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2014-06-01

    A splicing system, one of the early theoretical models for DNA computing was introduced by Head in 1987. Splicing systems are based on the splicing operation which, informally, cuts two strings of DNA molecules at the specific recognition sites and attaches the prefix of the first string to the suffix of the second string, and the prefix of the second string to the suffix of the first string, thus yielding the new strings. For a specific type of splicing systems, namely the simple splicing systems, the recognition sites are the same for both strings of DNA molecules. It is known that splicing systems with finite sets of axioms and splicing rules only generate regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered for splicing systems in order to increase their computational power. Recently, probabilistic splicing systems have been introduced where the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probabilities of the generated strings are computed from the probabilities of the initial strings. In this paper, some properties of probabilistic simple splicing systems are investigated. We prove that probabilistic simple splicing systems can also increase the computational power of the splicing languages generated.

  13. Skeleton of weighted social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of social networks, understanding topological structure is an important scientific issue. In this paper, we construct a network from mobile phone call records and use the cumulative number of calls as a measure of the weight of a social tie. We extract skeletons from the weighted social network on the basis of the weights of ties, and we study their properties. We find that strong ties can support the skeleton in the network by studying the percolation characters. We explore the centrality of w-skeletons based on the correlation between some centrality measures and the skeleton index w of a vertex, and we find that the average centrality of a w-skeleton increases as w increases. We also study the cumulative degree distribution of the successive w-skeletons and find that as w increases, the w-skeleton tends to become more self-similar. Furthermore, fractal characteristics appear in higher w-skeletons. We also explore the global information diffusion efficiency of w-skeletons using simulations, from which we can see that the ties in the high w-skeletons play important roles in information diffusion. Identifying such a simple structure of a w-skeleton is a step forward toward understanding and representing the topological structure of weighted social networks.

  14. Events diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  15. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  16. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  17. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...

  18. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  19. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  20. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  1. Watching Your Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Doug

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)

  2. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  3. Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. PMID:19890903

  4. Kriging without negative weights

    SciTech Connect

    Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

    1987-08-01

    Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

  5. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  6. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; Rajendran, Surjeet; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  7. Deciding the liveness for a subclass of weighted Petri nets based on structurally circular wait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GuanJun; Chen, LiJing

    2016-05-01

    Weighted Petri nets as a kind of formal language are widely used to model and verify discrete event systems related to resource allocation like flexible manufacturing systems. System of Simple Sequential Processes with Multi-Resources (S3PMR, a subclass of weighted Petri nets and an important extension to the well-known System of Simple Sequential Processes with Resources, can model many discrete event systems in which (1) multiple processes may run in parallel and (2) each execution step of each process may use multiple units from multiple resource types. This paper gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the liveness of S3PMR. A new structural concept called Structurally Circular Wait (SCW) is proposed for S3PMR. Blocking Marking (BM) associated with an SCW is defined. It is proven that a marked S3PMR is live if and only if each SCW has no BM. We use an example of multi-processor system-on-chip to show that SCW and BM can precisely characterise the (partial) deadlocks for S3PMR. Simultaneously, two examples are used to show the advantages of SCW in preventing deadlocks of S3PMR. These results are significant for the further research on dealing with the deadlock problem.

  8. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  9. Generating functions and multiplicity formulas: The case of rank two simple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Núñez, José; García Fuertes, Wifredo; Perelomov, Askold M.

    2015-09-01

    A procedure is described that makes use of the generating function of characters to obtain a new generating function H giving the multiplicities of each weight in all the representations of a simple Lie algebra. The way to extract from H explicit multiplicity formulas for particular weights is explained and the results corresponding to rank two simple Lie algebras are shown.

  10. Information estimators for weighted observations.

    PubMed

    Hino, Hideitsu; Murata, Noboru

    2013-10-01

    The Shannon information content is a valuable numerical characteristic of probability distributions. The problem of estimating the information content from an observed dataset is very important in the fields of statistics, information theory, and machine learning. The contribution of the present paper is in proposing information estimators, and showing some of their applications. When the given data are associated with weights, each datum contributes differently to the empirical average of statistics. The proposed estimators can deal with this kind of weighted data. Similar to other conventional methods, the proposed information estimator contains a parameter to be tuned, and is computationally expensive. To overcome these problems, the proposed estimator is further modified so that it is more computationally efficient and has no tuning parameter. The proposed methods are also extended so as to estimate the cross-entropy, entropy, and Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simple numerical experiments show that the information estimators work properly. Then, the estimators are applied to two specific problems, distribution-preserving data compression, and weight optimization for ensemble regression.

  11. Charting of daily weight pattern reinforces maintenance of weight reduction in moderately obese patients.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, K; Sakata, T; Etou, H; Fukagawa, K; Ookuma, K; Terada, K; Kurata, K

    1992-03-01

    To maintain reduced body weight by behavioral therapy in moderately obese patients, body weight was measured four times daily and charted in a weekly graph. Seventy-two female patients with simple obesity were divided into two groups: 55 patients with appliance of charting of weight pattern (group-I), and 17 patients without the charting (group-II). The percentage of patients followed for 2 years was different between group-I (87%) and group-II (65%) during 2 years after completion of weight reduction therapy interviews (p less than 0.05). Forty-eight of group-I patients succeeded in decreasing their weight by 15.2 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SEM) kg during the 6.5 +/- 0.8 months of the therapy interviews. They were followed up for 3.8 years with no rebound weight gain. Eleven patients in group-II also succeeded in decreasing their weight by 16.8 +/- 1.9 kg during 7.8 +/- 1.3 months but their body weight rebounded by 9.0 kg during the 2-year followup period. Twelve of 15 male patients with weight charting maintained reduced weight during 4.3 years. It was easier and more effective for obese patients to maintain weight graphs for the longer period than to record no weight graphs. Obese patients could themselves monitor irregular weight patterns produced by overeating and correct the irregularities in food intake and daily lifestyles. This seems to explain why the illustration of daily fluctuations of weight measurements was useful for long-term maintenance of weight reduction.

  12. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2012-12-01

    In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like) galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s-1 at peak), rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds) and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ˜ 2 - 5), created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  13. Adaptive Mallow's optimization for weighted median filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachuri, Raghu; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

    2002-05-01

    This work extends the idea of spectral optimization for the design of Weighted Median filters and employ adaptive filtering that updates the coefficients of the FIR filter from which the weights of the median filters are derived. Mallows' theory of non-linear smoothers [1] has proven to be of great theoretical significance providing simple design guidelines for non-linear smoothers. It allows us to find a set of positive weights for a WM filter whose sample selection probabilities (SSP's) are as close as possible to a SSP set predetermined by Mallow's. Sample selection probabilities have been used as a basis for designing stack smoothers as they give a measure of the filter's detail preserving ability and give non-negative filter weights. We will extend this idea to design weighted median filters admitting negative weights. The new method first finds the linear FIR filter coefficients adaptively, which are then used to determine the weights of the median filter. WM filters can be designed to have band-pass, high-pass as well as low-pass frequency characteristics. Unlike the linear filters, however, the weighted median filters are robust in the presence of impulsive noise, as shown by the simulation results.

  14. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  15. Feynman's simple quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edwin F.

    1997-03-01

    This sample class presents an alternative to the conventional introduction to quantum mechanics and describes its current use in a credit course. This alternative introduction rests on theory presented in professional and popular writings by Richard Feynman. Feynman showed that Nature gives a simple command to the electron: "Explore all paths." All of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, among other fundamental results, comes from this command. With a desktop computer the student points and clicks to tell a modeled electron which paths to follow. The computer then shows the results, which embody the elemental strangeness and paradoxical behaviors of the world of the very small. Feynman's approach requires few equations and provides a largely non-mathematical introduction to the wave function of conventional quantum mechanics. Draft software and materials already used for two semesters in an e-mail computer conference credit university course show that Feynman's approach works well with a variety of students. The sample class explores computer and written material and describes the next steps in its development.

  16. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  17. Quasispecies made simple.

    PubMed

    Bull, J J; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Lachmann, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  18. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized.

  19. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.

  20. Complexity in `simple' metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Bruno; Ashcroft, Neil W.

    2008-03-01

    In electronic and structural terms, the light alkalis have long been regarded as `simple systems', at least under ordinary conditions. However, when compressed they exhibit unforeseen complexity; the melting curve of sodium, for example, has a striking maximum, falling to near room temperature melting where a complex structure (CI16) is found, this being in the cubic class but with 16 atoms per unit cell [1,2]. The light alkalis have been extensively studied using ab initio methods with standard assumptions of transferability made for the key pseudopotential input information, largely atomic based. Lacking still, however, is a somewhat more intuitive and physical understanding of the developments in electronic structure with progressive increase in density. In the present work, the problem is treated with non-linear response theory and non-overlapping pseudopotentials, and the structural complexity traced to effective ion-ion interactions with features that both at short range and long display competing state dependence. [1] Gregoryanz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185502 (2005) [2] McMahon et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 35, 943 (2006)

  1. Two Simple Models for Fracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Jaren Quinn

    Recent developments in fracking have enable the recovery of oil and gas from tight shale reservoirs. These developments have also made fracking one of the most controversial environmental issues in the United States. Despite the growing controversy surrounding fracking, there is relatively little publicly available research. This dissertation introduces two simple models for fracking that were developed using techniques from non-linear and statistical physics. The first model assumes that the volume of induced fractures must be equal to the volume of injected fluid. For simplicity, these fractures are assumed to form a spherically symmetric damage region around the borehole. The predicted volumes of water necessary to create a damage region with a given radius are in good agreement with reported values. The second model is a modification of invasion percolation which was previously introduced to model water flooding. The reservoir rock is represented by a regular lattice of local traps that contain oil and/or gas separated by rock barriers. The barriers are assumed to be highly heterogeneous and are assigned random strengths. Fluid is injected from a central site and the weakest rock barrier breaks allowing fluid to flow into the adjacent site. The process repeats with the weakest barrier breaking and fluid flowing to an adjacent site each time step. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to obtain statistical properties of the growing fracture network. The network was found to be fractal with fractal dimensions differing slightly from the accepted values for traditional percolation. Additionally, the network follows Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga branching statistics which have been used to characterize river networks. As with other percolation models, the growth of the network occurs in bursts. These bursts follow a power-law size distribution similar to observed microseismic events. Reservoir stress anisotropy is incorporated into the model by assigning

  2. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  3. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter. PMID:25570654

  4. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter.

  5. CHIWEI: A code of goodness of fit tests for weighted and unweighted histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagunashvili, N. D.

    2012-02-01

    A Fortran-77 program for goodness of fit tests for histograms with weighted entries as well as with unweighted entries is presented. The code calculates test statistics for case of histogram with normalized weights of events and in case of unnormalized weights of events.

  6. Simple formula for the surface area of the body and a simple model for anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Reading, Bruce D; Freeman, Brian

    2005-03-01

    The body surface area (BSA) of any adult, when derived from the arithmetic mean of the different values calculated from four independent accepted formulae, can be expressed accurately in Systeme International d'Unites (SI) units by the simple equation BSA = 1/6(WH)0.5, where W is body weight in kg, H is body height in m, and BSA is in m2. This formula, which is derived in part by modeling the body as a simple solid of revolution or a prolate spheroid (i.e., a stretched ellipsoid of revolution) gives students, teachers, and clinicians a simple rule for the rapid estimation of surface area using rational units. The formula was tested independently for human subjects by using it to predict body volume and then comparing this prediction against the actual volume measured by Archimedes' principle. PMID:15696524

  7. Weighted Model Components for Gradient Direction Matching in Overhead Images

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C W; Nikolaev, S; Paglieroni, D W

    2006-03-17

    Gradient direction matching (GDM) is the main target identification algorithm used in the Image Content Engine project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. GDM is a 3D solid model-based edge-matching algorithm which does not require explicit edge extraction from the source image. The GDM algorithm is presented, identifying areas where performance enhancement seems possible. Improving the process of producing model gradient directions from the solid model by assigning different weights to different parts of the model is an extension tested in the current study. Given a simple geometric model, we attempt to determine, without obvious semantic clues, if different weight values produce significantly better matching accuracy, and how those weights should be assigned to produce the best matching accuracy. Two simple candidate strategies for assigning weights are proposed--pixel-weighted and edge-weighted. We adjust the weights of the components in a simple model of a tractor/semi-trailer using relevance feedback to produce an optimal set of weights for this model and a particular test image. The optimal weights are then compared with pixel and edge-weighting strategies to determine which is most suitable and under what circumstances.

  8. Weighted conditional least-squares estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.

  9. Empirical law for fault-creep events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crough, S.T.; Burford, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Fault-creep events measured on the San Andreas and related faults near Hollister, California, can be described by a rheological model consisting of a spring, power-law dashpotand sliding block connected in series. An empirical creep-event law, derived from many creep-event records analyzed within the constraints of the model, provides a remarkably simple and accurate representation of creep-event behavior. The empirical creep law is expressed by the equation: D(t)= Df [1-1/{ct(n-1)Dfn-1+1}/(n-1)] where D is the value of displacement at time t following the onset of an event, Df is the final equilibrium value of the event displacementand C is a proportionality constant. This discovery should help determine whether the time-displacement character of creep events is controlled by the material properties of fault gouge, or by other parameters. ?? 1977.

  10. Simple inflationary quintessential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry, we present a non-geodesically past complete model of our Universe without the big bang singularity at finite cosmic time, describing its evolution starting from its early inflationary era up to the present accelerating phase. We found that a hydrodynamical fluid with nonlinear equation of state could result in such scenario, which after the end of this inflationary stage, suffers a sudden phase transition and enters into the stiff matter dominated era, and the Universe becomes reheated due to a huge amount of particle production. Finally, it asymptotically enters into the de Sitter phase concluding the present accelerated expansion. Using the reconstruction technique, we also show that this background provides an extremely simple inflationary quintessential potential whose inflationary part is given by the well-known 1-dimensional Higgs potential, i.e., a double well inflationary potential, and the quintessential one by an exponential potential that leads to a deflationary regime after this inflation, and it can depict the current cosmic acceleration at late times. Moreover the Higgs potential leads to a power spectrum of the cosmological perturbations which fit well with the latest Planck estimations. Further, we compared our viable potential with some known inflationary quintessential potential, which shows that our quintessential model, that is, the Higgs potential combined with the exponential one, is an improved version of them because it contains an analytic solution that allows us to perform all analytic calculations. Finally, we have shown that the introduction of a nonzero cosmological constant simplifies the potential considerably with an analytic behavior of the background which again permits us to evaluate all the quantities analytically.

  11. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  12. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  13. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  14. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  15. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  16. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874

  17. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  18. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  19. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  20. Simple solutions for reduced fish farm hazards.

    PubMed

    Myers, Melvin L; Cole, Henry P

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture poses emerging challenges for agricultural safety and health. Fish farming has many of the same hazards as other types of farming, but it also poses additional hazards associated with water impoundments and night-time work. In a multidisciplinary approach, researchers from four universities are identifying occupational hazards in fish farming and identifying no-cost or low-cost "simple solutions" to reduce or eliminate them. Simple solutions are discovered through farm visits so as to understand the countermeasures that individual stakeholders have taken to protect their workforce, and these countermeasures are documented and photographed to inform other farmers of these solutions. Equipping tractors with rollover protective structures is a standard practice to protect operators from serious injury in the event of an overturn. Other solutions identified include eliminating the need to climb feed bins to open and close the hatch for feed delivery by using a pull-cable at ground level. This simple technology eliminates the exposure to falling from an elevation, a risk that accounts for at least one reported death of a worker on a fish farm. Another solution is to replace metal paddles on a hatchery trough with plastic paddles that if and when entangled in a worker's hair or clothing slip on the rotating drive shaft and thus reduce laceration and entanglement injuries. Another simple solution to prevent entanglements in large pond aerators, used to mechanically dissolve oxygen into the water, that are operated by farm tractor power take-off shafts is to use electrically powered aerators. Bubble-type aerators are safer than electrically powered paddle aerators because workers are shielded from moving parts. Many additional simple solutions have been identified for a range of tasks in this environment. PMID:19437271

  1. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  2. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  3. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  4. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  5. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Event-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that an event-based science curriculum can provide the framework for deciding what to retain in an overloaded science curriculum. Provides examples of current events and the science concepts explored related to the event. (MDH)

  7. Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo

    2000-11-01

    Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.

  8. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  9. Exercise and weight control.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, M L

    1993-01-01

    Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance

  10. Study Guide: Seven Simple Secrets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Nancy; Breaux, Annette; Whitaker, Todd

    2007-01-01

    This study guide has been developed to accompany the "Seven Simple Secrets" book written by Dr. Todd Whitaker and Annette Breaux. "Seven Simple Secrets" focuses on those attributes that have been found to help teachers be their absolute best in their daily challenges of teaching and improving student learning. The study guide is divided into the…

  11. Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

  12. Destructive weighted Poisson cure rate models.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Josemar; de Castro, Mário; Balakrishnan, N; Cancho, Vicente G

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we develop a flexible cure rate survival model by assuming the number of competing causes of the event of interest to follow a compound weighted Poisson distribution. This model is more flexible in terms of dispersion than the promotion time cure model. Moreover, it gives an interesting and realistic interpretation of the biological mechanism of the occurrence of event of interest as it includes a destructive process of the initial risk factors in a competitive scenario. In other words, what is recorded is only from the undamaged portion of the original number of risk factors.

  13. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  14. Light weight dentures: An innovative technique.

    PubMed

    Gundawar, Sham; Zamad, Aakanksha; Gundawar, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Retention, stability and support are the basic principles on which the success of a complete denture relies. The severely resorbed maxillary and mandibular edentulous arches that are narrow and constricted with increased interarch space provide decreased support, retention and stability. To decrease the leverage, reduction in the weight of the prosthesis was recommended and also found beneficial. This article describes a simple procedure to reduce the weight of maxillary complete denture by use of an autopolymerizing acrylic resin shell which is incorporated during the packing stage. This method has the advantage of being easy and requires very little additional time. Hollow maxillary complete denture considerably reduces the weight of the prosthesis, which in turn prevents transmission of detrimental forces by reducing leverage action. This results in increased retention and stability and up to some extent it also preserves the existing residual alveolar ridge. The technique uses a clear matrix of trial denture to facilitate shaping of dough spacer to ensure an even thickness of acrylic to resist deformation and prevent seepage of saliva into the cavity making this technique more predictable. An autopolymerizing acrylic resin shell which creates hollow space and also has strength. Technique is simple to execute, easy economical and matching the shade of autopolymerizing acrylic resin with heat cures acrylic resin enhances esthetics. Light weight hollow dentures provide healthy and comfortable living for the geriatric edentulous patient.

  15. Reservoir parameter inversion based on weighted statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Jin-Yong; Gao, Jian-Hu; Yong, Xue-Shan; Li, Sheng-Jun; Liu, Bin-Yang; Zhao, Wan-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Variation of reservoir physical properties can cause changes in its elastic parameters. However, this is not a simple linear relation. Furthermore, the lack of observations, data overlap, noise interference, and idealized models increases the uncertainties of the inversion result. Thus, we propose an inversion method that is different from traditional statistical rock physics modeling. First, we use deterministic and stochastic rock physics models considering the uncertainties of elastic parameters obtained by prestack seismic inversion and introduce weighting coefficients to establish a weighted statistical relation between reservoir and elastic parameters. Second, based on the weighted statistical relation, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations to generate the random joint distribution space of reservoir and elastic parameters that serves as a sample solution space of an objective function. Finally, we propose a fast solution criterion to maximize the posterior probability density and obtain reservoir parameters. The method has high efficiency and application potential.

  16. Lorcaserin for weight management

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837

  17. A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization.

    PubMed

    Seacat, Jason D; Dougal, Sarah C; Roy, Dooti

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on assessing weight stigmatization has typically been conducted using cross-sectional, retrospective designs. Such designs may impair the scientific understanding of this stigma by limiting participants' recall of frequencies and/or details about stigmatizing events. To address this, 50 overweight/obese women were recruited from public weight forums to complete week-long daily diaries. A total of 1077 weight-stigmatizing events were reported on the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate potential relationships between participant-level factors and reported stigmatization. Results indicate that body mass index, education, age, daily activities, and interpersonal interactions all may impact individuals' levels of stigmatization.

  18. Pre-trained D-CNN models for detecting complex events in unconstrained videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Joseph P.; Fu, Yun

    2016-05-01

    Rapid event detection faces an emergent need to process large videos collections; whether surveillance videos or unconstrained web videos, the ability to automatically recognize high-level, complex events is a challenging task. Motivated by pre-existing methods being complex, computationally demanding, and often non-replicable, we designed a simple system that is quick, effective and carries minimal overhead in terms of memory and storage. Our system is clearly described, modular in nature, replicable on any Desktop, and demonstrated with extensive experiments, backed by insightful analysis on different Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), as stand-alone and fused with others. With a large corpus of unconstrained, real-world video data, we examine the usefulness of different CNN models as features extractors for modeling high-level events, i.e., pre-trained CNNs that differ in architectures, training data, and number of outputs. For each CNN, we use 1-fps from all training exemplar to train one-vs-rest SVMs for each event. To represent videos, frame-level features were fused using a variety of techniques. The best being to max-pool between predetermined shot boundaries, then average-pool to form the final video-level descriptor. Through extensive analysis, several insights were found on using pre-trained CNNs as off-the-shelf feature extractors for the task of event detection. Fusing SVMs of different CNNs revealed some interesting facts, finding some combinations to be complimentary. It was concluded that no single CNN works best for all events, as some events are more object-driven while others are more scene-based. Our top performance resulted from learning event-dependent weights for different CNNs.

  19. The Probabilities of Unique Events

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

  20. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  1. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    PubMed

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822

  2. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  3. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  4. Weight management in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri

    2015-05-01

    Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated.

  5. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  6. Simple ocean carbon cycle models

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K.; Hoffert, M.I.; Siegenthaler, U.

    1994-02-01

    Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

  7. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  8. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra calories. These calories can add up quickly. Look for lower calorie options, such as a splash of juice and soda water. You may want to skip mixed drinks completely ...

  9. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  10. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  11. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...

  12. Simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, A. )

    1994-03-01

    A simple formulation of magnetoplasmadynamic acceleration has been made based on energy conservation relations and a generalized Ohm's law. An exhaust velocity is expressed using three characteristic parameters: (1) a dimensionless characteristic velocity [ital [tilde U

  13. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  14. Student Conceptions of Simple Circuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredette, Norman; Lochhead, John

    1980-01-01

    Investigates some conceptual difficulties which college students have with regard to simple direct current circuits. The clinical interview technique was used with 57 students in a freshman level engineering course. (HM)

  15. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  16. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  17. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  18. Simple motor gestures for birdsongs.

    PubMed

    Gardner, T; Cecchi, G; Magnasco, M; Laje, R; Mindlin, G B

    2001-11-12

    We present a model of sound production in a songbird's vocal organ and find that much of the complexity of the song of the canary (Serinus canaria) can be produced from simple time variations in forcing functions. The starts, stops, and pauses between syllables, as well as variation in pitch and timbre are inherent in the mechanics and can often be expressed through smooth and simple variations in the frequency and relative phase of two driving parameters

  19. Simple motor gestures for birdsongs.

    PubMed

    Gardner, T; Cecchi, G; Magnasco, M; Laje, R; Mindlin, G B

    2001-11-12

    We present a model of sound production in a songbird's vocal organ and find that much of the complexity of the song of the canary (Serinus canaria) can be produced from simple time variations in forcing functions. The starts, stops, and pauses between syllables, as well as variation in pitch and timbre are inherent in the mechanics and can often be expressed through smooth and simple variations in the frequency and relative phase of two driving parameters PMID:11690514

  20. Simple Motor Gestures for Birdsongs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Tim; Cecchi, G.; Magnasco, M.; Laje, R.; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2001-11-01

    We present a model of sound production in a songbird's vocal organ and find that much of the complexity of the song of the canary (Serinus canaria) can be produced from simple time variations in forcing functions. The starts, stops, and pauses between syllables, as well as variation in pitch and timbre are inherent in the mechanics and can often be expressed through smooth and simple variations in the frequency and relative phase of two driving parameters

  1. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  2. Transmembrane helix: simple or complex.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing-Cheong; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Schneider, Georg; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2012-07-01

    Transmembrane helical segments (TMs) can be classified into two groups of so-called 'simple' and 'complex' TMs. Whereas the first group represents mere hydrophobic anchors with an overrepresentation of aliphatic hydrophobic residues that are likely attributed to convergent evolution in many cases, the complex ones embody ancestral information and tend to have structural and functional roles beyond just membrane immersion. Hence, the sequence homology concept is not applicable on simple TMs. In practice, these simple TMs can attract statistically significant but evolutionarily unrelated hits during similarity searches (whether through BLAST- or HMM-based approaches). This is especially problematic for membrane proteins that contain both globular segments and TMs. As such, we have developed the transmembrane helix: simple or complex (TMSOC) webserver for the identification of simple and complex TMs. By masking simple TM segments in seed sequences prior to sequence similarity searches, the false-discovery rate decreases without sacrificing sensitivity. Therefore, TMSOC is a novel and necessary sequence analytic tool for both the experimentalists and the computational biology community working on membrane proteins. It is freely accessible at http://tmsoc.bii.a-star.edu.sg or available for download.

  3. Episodes, events, and models

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Harrison, Anthony M.; Trafton, J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning. PMID:26578934

  4. The global event system

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, J.

    1994-03-02

    The support for the global event system has been designed to allow an application developer to control the APS event generator and receiver boards. This is done by the use of four new record types. These records are customized and are only supported by the device support modules for the APS event generator and receiver boards. The use of the global event system and its associated records should not be confused with the vanilla EPICS events and the associated event records. They are very different.

  5. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  6. Dense simple plasmas as high-temperature liquid simple metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrot, F.

    1990-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of dense plasmas considered as high-temperature liquid metals are studied. An attempt is made to show that the neutral pseudoatom picture of liquid simple metals may be extended for describing plasmas in ranges of densities and temperatures where their electronic structure remains 'simple'. The primary features of the model when applied to plasmas include the temperature-dependent self-consistent calculation of the electron charge density and the determination of a density and temperature-dependent ionization state.

  7. A Simple shower and matching algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Giele, Walter T.; Kosower, David A.; Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    We present a simple formalism for parton-shower Markov chains. As a first step towards more complete 'uncertainty bands', we incorporate a comprehensive exploration of the ambiguities inherent in such calculations. To reduce this uncertainty, we then introduce a matching formalism which allows a generated event sample to simultaneously reproduce any infrared safe distribution calculated at leading or next-to-leading order in perturbation theory, up to sub-leading corrections. To enable a more universal definition of perturbative calculations, we also propose a more general definition of the hadronization cutoff. Finally, we present an implementation of some of these ideas for final-state gluon showers, in a code dubbed VINCIA.

  8. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  9. Weighted guided image filtering.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengguo; Zheng, Jinghong; Zhu, Zijian; Yao, Wei; Wu, Shiqian

    2015-01-01

    It is known that local filtering-based edge preserving smoothing techniques suffer from halo artifacts. In this paper, a weighted guided image filter (WGIF) is introduced by incorporating an edge-aware weighting into an existing guided image filter (GIF) to address the problem. The WGIF inherits advantages of both global and local smoothing filters in the sense that: 1) the complexity of the WGIF is O(N) for an image with N pixels, which is same as the GIF and 2) the WGIF can avoid halo artifacts like the existing global smoothing filters. The WGIF is applied for single image detail enhancement, single image haze removal, and fusion of differently exposed images. Experimental results show that the resultant algorithms produce images with better visual quality and at the same time halo artifacts can be reduced/avoided from appearing in the final images with negligible increment on running times. PMID:25415986

  10. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  11. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  12. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  13. Use of the Hadoop structured storage tools for the ATLAS EventIndex event catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favareto, A.

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC collects billions of events each data-taking year, and processes them to make them available for physics analysis in several different formats. An even larger amount of events is in addition simulated according to physics and detector models and then reconstructed and analysed to be compared to real events. The EventIndex is a catalogue of all events in each production stage; it includes for each event a few identification parameters, some basic non-mutable information coming from the online system, and the references to the files that contain the event in each format (plus the internal pointers to the event within each file for quick retrieval). Each EventIndex record is logically simple but the system has to hold many tens of billions of records, all equally important. The Hadoop technology was selected at the start of the EventIndex project development in 2012 and proved to be robust and flexible to accommodate this kind of information; both the insertion and query response times are acceptable for the continuous and automatic operation that started in Spring 2015. This paper describes the EventIndex data input and organisation in Hadoop and explains the operational challenges that were overcome in order to achieve the expected performance.

  14. Is the Simple View of Reading Too Simple?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoien-Tengesdal, Ingjerd

    2010-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading (SVR), reading comprehension is the product of word decoding ability and linguistic comprehension (R = D x C). However, there is also evidence showing that an additive model (R = D + C) explains just as much or even more of the variance in reading comprehension than the product model. To further evaluate…

  15. Futur "simple" et futur "proche" ("Simple" Future and "Immediate" Future).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franckel, Jean-Jacques

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the use of simple and immediate future tenses in French shows that the expression of time is controlled more by context and modals than by specifically temporal cues. The role of negation in this situation is discussed. (MSE)

  16. How Simple is the Simple View of Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Samuelsson, Christina; Johansson, Ellinor; Wallmann, Julia

    2013-01-01

    According to the Simple View of Reading, reading ability can be divided into decoding and language comprehension. In the present study, decoding and comprehension's contribution to reading ability was studied both in children with reading difficulties and in children with typical reading ability. Decoding and comprehension was further divided…

  17. Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.

    2007-11-01

    We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.

  18. Early Indication of Decompensated Heart Failure in Patients on Home-Telemonitoring: A Comparison of Prediction Algorithms Based on Daily Weight and Noninvasive Transthoracic Bio-impedance

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Goode, Kevin M; Reiter, Harald; Habetha, Joerg; Amft, Oliver; Cleland, John GF

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart Failure (HF) is a common reason for hospitalization. Admissions might be prevented by early detection of and intervention for decompensation. Conventionally, changes in weight, a possible measure of fluid accumulation, have been used to detect deterioration. Transthoracic impedance may be a more sensitive and accurate measure of fluid accumulation. Objective In this study, we review previously proposed predictive algorithms using body weight and noninvasive transthoracic bio-impedance (NITTI) to predict HF decompensations. Methods We monitored 91 patients with chronic HF for an average of 10 months using a weight scale and a wearable bio-impedance vest. Three algorithms were tested using either simple rule-of-thumb differences (RoT), moving averages (MACD), or cumulative sums (CUSUM). Results Algorithms using NITTI in the 2 weeks preceding decompensation predicted events (P<.001); however, using weight alone did not. Cross-validation showed that NITTI improved sensitivity of all algorithms tested and that trend algorithms provided the best performance for either measurement (Weight-MACD: 33%, NITTI-CUSUM: 60%) in contrast to the simpler rules-of-thumb (Weight-RoT: 20%, NITTI-RoT: 33%) as proposed in HF guidelines. Conclusions NITTI measurements decrease before decompensations, and combined with trend algorithms, improve the detection of HF decompensation over current guideline rules; however, many alerts are not associated with clinically overt decompensation. PMID:26892844

  19. Complex Autocatalysis in Simple Chemistries.

    PubMed

    Virgo, Nathaniel; Ikegami, Takashi; McGregor, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth must originally have arisen from abiotic chemistry. Since the details of this chemistry are unknown, we wish to understand, in general, which types of chemistry can lead to complex, lifelike behavior. Here we show that even very simple chemistries in the thermodynamically reversible regime can self-organize to form complex autocatalytic cycles, with the catalytic effects emerging from the network structure. We demonstrate this with a very simple but thermodynamically reasonable artificial chemistry model. By suppressing the direct reaction from reactants to products, we obtain the simplest kind of autocatalytic cycle, resulting in exponential growth. When these simple first-order cycles are prevented from forming, the system achieves superexponential growth through more complex, higher-order autocatalytic cycles. This leads to nonlinear phenomena such as oscillations and bistability, the latter of which is of particular interest regarding the origins of life.

  20. Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention

    PubMed Central

    McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598

  1. Foreshock and Aftershocks in Simple Earthquake Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemian, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.; Dominguez, R.

    2015-02-01

    Many models of earthquake faults have been introduced that connect Gutenberg-Richter (GR) scaling to triggering processes. However, natural earthquake fault systems are composed of a variety of different geometries and materials and the associated heterogeneity in physical properties can cause a variety of spatial and temporal behaviors. This raises the question of how the triggering process and the structure interact to produce the observed phenomena. Here we present a simple earthquake fault model based on the Olami-Feder-Christensen and Rundle-Jackson-Brown cellular automata models with long-range interactions that incorporates a fixed percentage of stronger sites, or asperity cells, into the lattice. These asperity cells are significantly stronger than the surrounding lattice sites but eventually rupture when the applied stress reaches their higher threshold stress. The introduction of these spatial heterogeneities results in temporal clustering in the model that mimics that seen in natural fault systems along with GR scaling. In addition, we observe sequences of activity that start with a gradually accelerating number of larger events (foreshocks) prior to a main shock that is followed by a tail of decreasing activity (aftershocks). This work provides further evidence that the spatial and temporal patterns observed in natural seismicity are strongly influenced by the underlying physical properties and are not solely the result of a simple cascade mechanism.

  2. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    SciTech Connect

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-10-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA{close_quote}s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. A simple hindlimb suspension apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, E.; Schultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a simple, inexpensive apparatus for application of the hindlimb suspension model to studies of the effects of unloading on mammalian physiology. Construction of a cage and suspension assembly is described using materials that can be obtained from most hardware stores. The design is kept simple for easy assembly and disassembly to facilitate cleaning and storage. The suspension assembly allows the animals full access to all portions of the floor area and provides an effective environment to study the effects of unloading.

  4. Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).

  5. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady. PMID:26694394

  6. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady. PMID:26694394

  7. Event Coverage Detection and Event Source Determination in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Xing, Riliang; Duan, Yucong; Zhu, Yueqin; Xiang, Jianming

    2015-12-15

    With the advent of the Internet of Underwater Things, smart things are deployed in the ocean space and establish underwater wireless sensor networks for the monitoring of vast and dynamic underwater environments. When events are found to have possibly occurred, accurate event coverage should be detected, and potential event sources should be determined for the enactment of prompt and proper responses. To address this challenge, a technique that detects event coverage and determines event sources is developed in this article. Specifically, the occurrence of possible events corresponds to a set of neighboring sensor nodes whose sensory data may deviate from a normal sensing range in a collective fashion. An appropriate sensor node is selected as the relay node for gathering and routing sensory data to sink node(s). When sensory data are collected at sink node(s), the event coverage is detected and represented as a weighted graph, where the vertices in this graph correspond to sensor nodes and the weight specified upon the edges reflects the extent of sensory data deviating from a normal sensing range. Event sources are determined, which correspond to the barycenters in this graph. The results of the experiments show that our technique is more energy efficient, especially when the network topology is relatively steady.

  8. Pleasant events, unpleasant events, and depression.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, P D; Shaeffer, D E; Golin, S

    1982-07-01

    A review of previous research on Lewinsohn's model of depression shows that the causal link between a lack of response-contingent positive reinforcement and subsequent depression remains unsubstantiated. The present study was designed to explicitly test this causal relationship through the use of cross-lagged panel correlation. Measures of depression and pleasant events were taken at two different points in time separated by 1 month. The results revealed that the null hypothesis of spuriousness could not be rejected, indicating the relation often found between a lack of pleasant events and depression is probably due to some unmeasured third variable. The results also indicated that there is no causal relation between unpleasant events and depression. In summary, the causal assumptions in Lewinsohn's theory of depression were not supported by the data. Possible third-variable explanations of the data and their implications are discussed.

  9. Construction of a Simple Respirometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboga, Leandro

    1979-01-01

    Instructions for making a simple respirometer, to measure rates of oxygen consumption of organisms, are presented. The instrument incorporates most of the basic elements of commercial respirometers but can be made inexpensively by high school students. Operating instructions and applications are given. (Author/SA)

  10. Simple models of turbulent flowsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Lagrangian models provide a simple and direct way to model turbulent flows and the processes that occur within them. This paper provides an introduction to this approach, aimed at the nonspecialist, and providing some historical perspective. Basic models for the Lagrangian velocity (i.e., the Langevin equation) and composition are described and applied to the simple but revealing case of dispersion from a line source in grid turbulence. With simple extensions, these models are applied to inhomogeneous turbulent reactive flows, where they form the core of probability density function (PDF) methods. The use of PDF methods is illustrated for the case of a lifted turbulent jet flame. Lagrangian time series are now accessible both from experiments and from direct numerical simulations, and this information is used to scrutinize and improve stochastic Lagrangian models. In particular, we describe refinements to account for the observed strong Reynolds-number effects including intermittency. It is emphasized that all models of turbulence are necessarily approximate and incomplete, and that simple models are valuable in many applications in spite of their limitations.

  11. Simple Machines in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Robert; Laroder, Aris; Tippins, Deborah; Emaz, Meliza; Fox, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    The community can be a powerful context and mini-laboratory for cultivating students' common understandings of science and mathematics. On the island of Panay in the Philippines, the community was the starting place for a group of fifth- and sixth-grade students to explore simple machines in their daily lives. What students learned in the process…

  12. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  13. A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzis, Andreas F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…

  14. Simple Games . . . or Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arn, Susan Kyle

    2006-01-01

    Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

  15. Correcting Slightly Less Simple Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aivar, M. P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. B. J.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets…

  16. A Simple Audio Conductivity Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenato, Gregory; Maynard, David F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a simple audio conductivity device built to address the problem of the lack of sensitivity needed to measure small differences in conductivity in crude conductivity devices. Uses a 9-V battery as a power supply and allows the relative resistance differences between substances to be detected by the frequency of its audible tones. Presents…

  17. Simple Machines Curriculum. [Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Independent School District No. 11, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This manual provides suggestions for investigating simple machines and the teaching of certain basic concepts which pertain to them. Many of the lessons are designed to be used with the commercially available LEGO kits, in an effort to teach concepts in a way in which students must translate pictures shown in two dimension into three-dimensional…

  18. Solving Simple Kinetics without Integrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez

    2016-01-01

    The solution of simple kinetic equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…

  19. Simple stringy dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kachru, Shamit; Silverstein, Eva

    2007-12-15

    We present simple string models which dynamically break supersymmetry without non-Abelian gauge dynamics. The Fayet model, the Polonyi model, and the O'Raifeartaigh model each arise from D-branes at a specific type of singularity. D-brane instanton effects generate the requisite exponentially small scale of supersymmetry breaking.

  20. Simple Stringy Dynamical SUSY Breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Aharony, Ofer; Kachru, Shamit; Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-08-08

    We present simple string models which dynamically break supersymmetry without non-Abelian gauge dynamics. The Fayet model, the Polonyi model, and the O'Raifeartaigh model each arise from D-branes at a specific type of singularity. D-brane instanton effects generate the requisite exponentially small scale of supersymmetry breaking.

  1. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  2. Foreshocks and Aftershocks in Simple Earthquake Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; Klein, W.; Dominguez, R.; Kazemian, J.; González, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural earthquake fault systems are highly heterogeneous in space; inhomogeneities occur because the earth is made of a variety of materials of different strengths and dissipate stress differently. Because the spatial arrangement of these materials is dependent on the geologic history, the distribution of these various materials can be quite complex and occur over a wide range of length scales. Despite their inhomogeneous nature, real faults are often modeled as spatially homogeneous systems. Here we present a simple earthquake fault model based on the Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) and Rundle-Jackson-Brown (RJB) cellular automata models with long-range interactions that incorporates a fixed percentage of stronger sites, or 'asperity cells', into the lattice. These asperity cells are significantly stronger than the surrounding lattice sites but eventually rupture when the applied stress reaches their higher threshold stress. The introduction of these spatial heterogeneities results in temporal clustering in the model that mimics those seen in natural fault systems. We observe sequences of activity that start with a gradually accelerating number of larger events (foreshocks) prior to a mainshock that is followed by a tail of decreasing activity (aftershocks). These recurrent large events occur at regular intervals, as is often observed in historic seismicity, and the time between events and their magnitude are a function of the stress dissipation parameter. The relative length of the foreshock to aftershock sequence depends on the amount of stress dissipation in the system, resulting in relatively long aftershock sequences when the stress dissipation is large versus long foreshock sequences when the stress dissipation is weak. This work provides further evidence that the spatial and temporal patterns observed in natural seismicity are strongly influenced by the underlying physical properties and are not solely the result of a simple cascade mechanism. We find that

  3. Weighted multiplex network of air transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Imre

    2016-06-01

    In several real networks large heterogeneity of links is present either in intensity or in the nature of relationships. Therefore, recent studies in network science indicate that more detailed topological information are available if weighted or multi-layer aspect is applied. In the age of globalization air transportation is a representative example of huge complex infrastructure systems, which has been analyzed from different points of view. In this paper a novel approach is applied to study the airport network as a weighted multiplex taking into account the fact that the rules and fashion of domestic and international flights differ. Restricting study to only topological features and their correlations in the system (disregarding traffic) one can see reasons why simple network approximation is not adequate.

  4. Perceived Causalities of Physical Events Are Influenced by Social Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jifan; Huang, Xiang; Jin, Xinyi; Liang, Junying; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2012-01-01

    In simple mechanical events, we can directly perceive causal interactions of the physical objects. Physical cues (especially spatiotemporal features of the display) are found to associate with causal perception. Here, we demonstrate that cues of a completely different domain--"social cues"--also impact the causal perception of "physical" events:…

  5. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  6. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  7. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  8. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  9. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  10. Weight Advice Associated With Male Firefighter Weight Perception and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Austin L.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Haddock, C. Keith; Luo, Sheng; Delclos, George L.; Day, R. Sue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of overweight and obesity threatens the health and safety of the fire service. Healthcare professionals may play an important role in helping firefighters achieve a healthy weight by providing weight loss counseling to at-risk firefighters. This study characterizes the impact of healthcare professional weight loss advice on firefighter weight perceptions and weight loss behaviors among overweight and obese male firefighters. Methods A national sample of 763 overweight and obese male firefighters who recalled visiting a healthcare provider in the past 12 months reported information regarding healthcare visits, weight perceptions, current weight loss behaviors, and other covariates in 2011–2012. Analyzed in 2013, four unique multilevel logistic regression models estimated the association between healthcare professional weight loss advice and the outcomes of firefighter-reported weight perceptions, intentions to lose weight, reduced caloric intake, and increased physical activity. Results Healthcare professional weight loss advice was significantly associated with self-perception as overweight (OR=4.78, 95% CI=2.16, 10.57) and attempted weight loss (OR=2.06, 95% CI=1.25, 3.38), but not significantly associated with reduced caloric intake (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.82, 1.95) and increased physical activity (OR=1.51, 95% CI=0.89, 2.61), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions Healthcare professional weight loss advice appears to increase the accuracy of firefighter weight perceptions, promote weight loss attempts, and may encourage dieting and physical activity behaviors among overweight firefighters. Healthcare providers should acknowledge their ability to influence the health behaviors of overweight and obese patients and make efforts to increase the quality and frequency of weight loss recommendations for all firefighters. PMID:26141913

  11. Weight maintenance from young adult weight predicts better health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Thearle, Marie S; Piaggi, Paolo; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Defining groups of individuals within a larger population with similar patterns of weight change over time may provide insight into influences of weight stability or gain. Methods Latent class growth modeling was used to define subgroups of weight change in adult members of the Gila River Indian Community participating in at least 4 non-diabetic health exams including OGTTs (N=1157, 762F/395M; 78.4±19.0 kg). In a separate study, 152 individuals had 24-hr EE measured in a respiratory chamber. Results Eight groups with baseline weights of 54.6±7.3 (n=124), 64.2±7.7 (n=267), 73.6±7.8 (n=298), 86.1±10.2 (n=194), 95.5±6.7 (n=90), 97.9±10.4 (n=92), 110.9±11.9 (n=61), and 122.1±13.6 (n=31) kg (P<0.001) were delineated. Group 5, (initial weight=95.5±6.7 kg) maintained a comparatively stable weight over time (+3.3±10.3 kg, +3.8±11.2% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 13.1 years). All other groups gained weight over time (+29.9±21.1% of initial weight; median follow-up time: 16.3 years). Higher starting weight defined weight gain in most groups, but higher 2hr glucose predicted membership in the lower weight trajectories. The weight stable group had higher rates of impaired glucose regulation at baseline and higher 24-hr EE. Conclusions Weight in young adulthood defined weight gain trajectory underscoring the importance of intervening early to prevent weight gain. PMID:25131650

  12. Generalizations of the clustering coefficient to weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saramäki, Jari; Kivelä, Mikko; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2007-02-01

    The recent high level of interest in weighted complex networks gives rise to a need to develop new measures and to generalize existing ones to take the weights of links into account. Here we focus on various generalizations of the clustering coefficient, which is one of the central characteristics in the complex network theory. We present a comparative study of the several suggestions introduced in the literature, and point out their advantages and limitations. The concepts are illustrated by simple examples as well as by empirical data of the world trade and weighted coauthorship networks.

  13. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  15. Dialogue on private events

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, David C.; Eshleman, John; Brandon, Paul; Layng, T. V. Joe; McDonough, Christopher; Michael, Jack; Schoneberger, Ted; Stemmer, Nathan; Weitzman, Ray; Normand, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 2003, the authors corresponded on the topic of private events on the listserv of the Verbal Behavior Special Interest Group. Extracts from that correspondence raised questions about the role of response amplitude in determining units of analysis, whether private events can be investigated directly, and whether covert behavior differs from other behavior except in amplitude. Most participants took a cautious stance, noting not only conceptual pitfalls and empirical difficulties in the study of private events, but doubting the value of interpretive exercises about them. Others argued that despite such obstacles, in domains where experimental analyses cannot be done, interpretation of private events in the light of laboratory principles is the best that science can offer. One participant suggested that the notion that private events can be behavioral in nature be abandoned entirely; as an alternative, the phenomena should be reinterpreted only as physiological events. PMID:22477293

  16. The downside of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Main message Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option. PMID:22586192

  17. Four simple ocean carbon models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the key processes that determine oceanic CO2 uptake and sets this description within the context of four simple ocean carbon models. These models capture, in varying degrees, these key processes and establish a clear foundation for more realistic models that incorporate more directly the underlying physics and biology of the ocean rather than relying on simple parametric schemes. The purpose of this paper is more pedagogical than purely scientific. The problems encountered by current attempts to understand the global carbon cycle not only require our efforts but set a demand for a new generation of scientist, and it is hoped that this paper and the text in which it appears will help in this development.

  18. Simple model of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Lukšič, Miha; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A

    2012-05-31

    Water is an unusual liquid in its solvation properties. Here, we model the process of transferring a nonpolar solute into water. Our goal was to capture the physical balance between water's hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in a model that is simple enough to be nearly analytical and not heavily computational. We develop a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model of water with which we compute the free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and the heat capacity of transfer as a function of temperature, pressure, and solute size. As validation, we find that this model gives the same trends as Monte Carlo simulations of the underlying 2D model and gives qualitative agreement with experiments. The advantages of this model are that it gives simple insights and that computational time is negligible. It may provide a useful starting point for developing more efficient and more realistic 3D models of aqueous solvation.

  19. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer

    PubMed Central

    Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228. PMID:25709309

  20. The Simple Science of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennekes, Henk

    1997-05-01

    From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. The Simple Science of Flight offers a leisurely introduction to the mechanics of flight and, beyond that, to the scientific attitude that finds wonder in simple calculations, forging connections between, say, the energy efficiency of a peanut butter sandwich and that of the kerosene that fuels a jumbo jet. It is the product of a lifetime of watching and investigating the way flight happens. The hero of the book is the Boeing 747, which Tennekes sees as the current pinnacle of human ingenuity in mastering the science of flight. Also covered are paper airplanes, kites, gliders, and human-powered flying machines as well as birds and insects. Tennekes explains concepts like lift, drag, wing loading, and cruising speed through many fascinating comparisons, anecdotes, and examples.

  1. Simple fixed functional space maintainer.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Marwah, Nikhil; Gumber, Parvind; Dutta, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Premature loss of a primary tooth is one of the most common etiology for malocclusion. Space maintainers are employed to prevent this complication. In anterior region, esthetics is an important concern along with function and space management. Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) retained space maintainer solves all these purposes ef ficiently and ef fectively. In addition, the technique is simple and the appliance is very comfortable inside the oral cavity. Here is a case of premature loss of anterior primary tooth which was replaced by FRC retained esthetic functional space maintainer. The appliance was found to be functioning satisfactorily inside the oral cavity till the last visit (1 Year). How to cite this article: Goenka P, Sarawgi A, Marwah N, Gumber P, Dutta S. Simple Fixed Functional Space Maintainer. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):225-228.

  2. Simple model of hydrophobic hydration.

    PubMed

    Lukšič, Miha; Urbic, Tomaz; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A

    2012-05-31

    Water is an unusual liquid in its solvation properties. Here, we model the process of transferring a nonpolar solute into water. Our goal was to capture the physical balance between water's hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions in a model that is simple enough to be nearly analytical and not heavily computational. We develop a 2-dimensional Mercedes-Benz-like model of water with which we compute the free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and the heat capacity of transfer as a function of temperature, pressure, and solute size. As validation, we find that this model gives the same trends as Monte Carlo simulations of the underlying 2D model and gives qualitative agreement with experiments. The advantages of this model are that it gives simple insights and that computational time is negligible. It may provide a useful starting point for developing more efficient and more realistic 3D models of aqueous solvation. PMID:22564051

  3. Performance evaluation of nonlinear weighted T-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfekir, A.; Hamaci, S.; Boimond, J.-L.; Labadi, K.

    2013-10-01

    This article deals with the analysis of discrete event systems which can be modelled by timed event graphs with multipliers (TEGMs). These graphs are an extension of weighted T-systems studied in the Petri net literature. These models do not admit a linear representation in (min, +) algebra. This nonlinearity is due to the presence of weights on arcs. To mitigate this problem of nonlinearity and to apply some basic results used to analyse the performances of linear systems in dioid algebra, we propose a linearisation method of mathematical model reflecting the behaviour of a TEGM in order to obtain a (min, +) linear model.

  4. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  5. Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    D. Boer, L. Gamberg, B.U. Musch, A. Prokudin

    2011-10-01

    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.

  6. A Technique of Treating Negative Weights in WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2000-01-01

    High order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes have recently been developed for finite difference and finite volume methods both in structural and in unstructured meshes. A key idea in WENO scheme is a linear combination of lower order fluxes or reconstructions to obtain a high order approximation. The combination coefficients, also called linear weights, are determined by local geometry of the mesh and order of accuracy and may become negative. WENO procedures cannot be applied directly to obtain a stable scheme if negative linear weights are present. Previous strategy for handling this difficulty is by either regrouping of stencils or reducing the order of accuracy to get rid of the negative linear weights. In this paper we present a simple and effective technique for handling negative linear weights without a need to get rid of them.

  7. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  8. Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-07-13

    Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial. PMID:21604714

  9. Practicable group testing method to evaluate weight/weight GMO content in maize grains.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Yanaka, Yuka; Ikezu, Yoko; Onishi, Mari; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Ninomiya, Kenji; Yotsuyanagi, Yuichi; Spiegelhalter, Frank; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Naito, Shigehiro; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-07-13

    Because of the increasing use of maize hybrids with genetically modified (GM) stacked events, the established and commonly used bulk sample methods for PCR quantification of GM maize in non-GM maize are prone to overestimate the GM organism (GMO) content, compared to the actual weight/weight percentage of GM maize in the grain sample. As an alternative method, we designed and assessed a group testing strategy in which the GMO content is statistically evaluated based on qualitative analyses of multiple small pools, consisting of 20 maize kernels each. This approach enables the GMO content evaluation on a weight/weight basis, irrespective of the presence of stacked-event kernels. To enhance the method's user-friendliness in routine application, we devised an easy-to-use PCR-based qualitative analytical method comprising a sample preparation step in which 20 maize kernels are ground in a lysis buffer and a subsequent PCR assay in which the lysate is directly used as a DNA template. This method was validated in a multilaboratory collaborative trial.

  10. Unfairness of certain events in the Olympic games.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T

    1968-10-12

    Boxing, weight-lifting, wrestling, and judo are graded events in that opponents are matched by weight. If protection were to be denied by removing this restriction such sports would overwhelmingly favour the heavyweights. Data on Olympic winners show that many running and jumping events are seriously biased in favour of the very tall. It is suggested that the rules of these events should be revised to include a grading by height. This would remedy an element of unfairness in many athletic contests, beginning at school. PMID:5696539

  11. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  12. Calculation of substructural analysis weights using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Holliday, John D; Sani, Nor; Willett, Peter

    2015-02-23

    This work describes a genetic algorithm for the calculation of substructural analysis for use in ligand-based virtual screening. The algorithm is simple in concept and effective in operation, with simulated virtual screening experiments using the MDDR and WOMBAT data sets showing it to be superior to substructural analysis weights based on a naive Bayesian classifier.

  13. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  14. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  15. The weight of mass or the mess of weight

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-24

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  16. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  17. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  18. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  19. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  20. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  1. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  2. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  3. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  4. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  5. Traumatic events and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... a one-time traumatic event or a repeated trauma that happens over and over again. Examples of one-time traumatic events are: Natural disasters, such as a tornado, hurricane, fire, or flood Rape Witness shooting or stabbing of a person Sudden ...

  6. Acute otitis media: a simple diagnosis, a simple treatment.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, S S

    2014-09-01

    To assess the symptoms and signs of acute otitis media and efficiency of simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in its treatment in the primary health care setup. This is a prospective longitudinal study including 204 patients from different institutions. Patients were diagnosed as suffering from acute otitis media when presented with earache, fever, fullness and or otorrhea. Patients were divided into two equal groups on basis of the treatment they received, Group A received only symptomatic treatment while Group B were given Amoxicillin (40 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Acute otitis media was common in children under 15 years (64.7%). Patients presented with earache (100%), aural fullness (90.68%), fever (76.47%) associated with recent onset of upper respiratory tract infections (88.23%). In group A, improvement was noticed in 28.43% in 3 days while 35.29% in 7 days. In group B, improvement was noticed in 48.03% in day 3 while 86.27% in day 7. In countries where medical care is scarce, patients lost to follow up, it is wise to treat with simple antibiotics like amoxicillin in adequate dose than to treat only symptomatically. It prevents chronicity, early hearing impairments and reduces antibiotic resistance.

  7. Contrasting Large Solar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-10-01

    After an unusually long solar minimum, solar cycle 24 is slowly beginning. A large coronal mass ejection (CME) from sunspot 1092 occurred on 1 August 2010, with effects reaching Earth on 3 August and 4 August, nearly 38 years to the day after the huge solar event of 4 August 1972. The prior event, which those of us engaged in space research at the time remember well, recorded some of the highest intensities of solar particles and rapid changes of the geomagnetic field measured to date. What can we learn from the comparisons of these two events, other than their essentially coincident dates? One lesson I took away from reading press coverage and Web reports of the August 2010 event is that the scientific community and the press are much more aware than they were nearly 4 decades ago that solar events can wreak havoc on space-based technologies.

  8. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  9. What Is a Simple Liquid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond S.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to identify the real essence of simplicity of liquids in John Locke’s understanding of the term. Simple liquids are traditionally defined as many-body systems of classical particles interacting via radially symmetric pair potentials. We suggest that a simple liquid should be defined instead by the property of having strong correlations between virial and potential-energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble. There is considerable overlap between the two definitions, but also some notable differences. For instance, in the new definition simplicity is not a direct property of the intermolecular potential because a liquid is usually only strongly correlating in part of its phase diagram. Moreover, not all simple liquids are atomic (i.e., with radially symmetric pair potentials) and not all atomic liquids are simple. The main part of the paper motivates the new definition of liquid simplicity by presenting evidence that a liquid is strongly correlating if and only if its intermolecular interactions may be ignored beyond the first coordination shell (FCS). This is demonstrated by NVT simulations of the structure and dynamics of several atomic and three molecular model liquids with a shifted-forces cutoff placed at the first minimum of the radial distribution function. The liquids studied are inverse power-law systems (r-n pair potentials with n=18,6,4), Lennard-Jones (LJ) models (the standard LJ model, two generalized Kob-Andersen binary LJ mixtures, and the Wahnstrom binary LJ mixture), the Buckingham model, the Dzugutov model, the LJ Gaussian model, the Gaussian core model, the Hansen-McDonald molten salt model, the Lewis-Wahnstrom ortho-terphenyl model, the asymmetric dumbbell model, and the single-point charge water model. The final part of the paper summarizes properties of strongly correlating liquids, emphasizing that these are simpler than liquids in general. Simple liquids, as defined here, may be characterized in three quite

  10. Multidirectional direct simple shear apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroot, D.J.; Germaine, J.T.; Ladd, C.C.

    1993-09-01

    The paper describes a new simple shear testing device, the multidirectional direct simple shear (MDSS) apparatus, for testing soil specimens under conditions that simulate, at the element level, the state of stress acting within the foundation soil of an offshore Arctic gravity structure. The MDSS uses a circular specimen that is consolidated under both a vertical effective stress ({sigma}{sub vc}{prime}) and a horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 1}). The specimen is subsequently sheared undrained by applying a second independent horizontal shear stress ({tau}{sub 2}) at an angle {theta} relative to the horizontal consolidation shear stress {tau}{sub 1}. Evaluation of the MDSS first compares conventional K{sub D}-consolidated undrained direct simple shear (CK{sub 0}UDSS) test data ({tau}{sub 1} = 0) on normally consolidated Boston blue clay (BBC) with results obtained in the Geonor DSS device. The MDSS gives lower secant Young`s modulus values and on average 8% lower strengths, but produces remarkably less scatter in the test results than the Geonor DSS. Kinematic proof tests with an elastic material (rubber) confirm that the setup procedure, application of forces, and strain measurement systems in the MDSS work properly and produce repeatable results. Results from a MDSS test program on BBC wherein specimens were first normally consolidated with {sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and {tau}{sub 1} = 0.2{sigma}{sub vc}{prime} and then sheared undrained at {theta} varing in 30{degree} increments from zero (shear in same direction) to 150{degree} show dramatic differences in the response of the soil as a function of {theta}. The peak undrained strength varies almost twofold from 0 = 0 to 120{degree}, while the deformation behavior varies from very brittle at low {theta} angles to becoming ductile at higher angles. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  11. 12 CFR 324.52 - Simple risk-weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure in a hedge pair is the dependent variable and the change in value of the other exposure in a hedge pair is the independent variable. However, if the estimated regression coefficient is positive, then...

  12. 12 CFR 217.52 - Simple risk-weight approach (SRWA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exposure in a hedge pair is the dependent variable and the change in value of the other exposure in a hedge pair is the independent variable. However, if the estimated regression coefficient is positive, then...

  13. A simple theory of condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, S.

    2011-04-15

    A simple assumption of the emergence in gas of small atomic clusters consisting of c particles each leads to a phase separation (first-order transition). It reveals itself by the emergence of a 'forbidden' density range starting at a certain temperature. Defining this latter value as the critical temperature predicts the existence of an interval with the anomalous heat capacity behavior c{sub p} {proportional_to} {Delta}T{sup -1/c}. The value c = 13 suggested in the literature yields the heat capacity exponent {alpha} = 0.077.

  14. Simple sensor for potentiometric titrations

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1982-01-01

    A sensor for potentiometric titrations was prepared by coating a spectroscopic graphite rod with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) and dioctylphthalate in tetrahydrofuran. The reference was an Ag/AgCl single-junction electrode. The sensor was used in the following potentiometric titrations: (1) precipitation titrations, (2) acid-base titrations, (3) compleximetric titrations, and (4) redox titrations. A survey of its use in such titrations is presented. Preparation of the coated-graphite sensor is simple and rapid. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive. A limitation is its applicability in aqueous media only, because organic solvents will dissolve the membrane. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Dynamics of Simple Food Webs.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, Tomas; Murphy, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    We consider a simple food web with commensal relationship, where organisms utilize both external resources and resources produced by other organisms. We show that in such a community with no competition, there is at most one possible equilibrium for each fixed set of surviving species, and develop a natural condition that determines which species survive based on available resource. Our main result shows that among all possible communities described by equilibria, the one which is stable has the largest number of surviving species and largest combined biomass and hence maximizes utilization of available resources.

  16. Simple Simulations of DNA Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    STEVENS,MARK J.

    2000-07-12

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a simple, bead-spring model of semiflexible polyelectrolytes such as DNA are performed. All charges are explicitly treated. Starting from extended, noncondensed conformations, condensed structures form in the simulations with tetravalent or trivalent counterions. No condensates form or are stable for divalent counterions. The mechanism by which condensates form is described. Briefly, condensation occurs because electrostatic interactions dominate entropy, and the favored Coulombic structure is a charge ordered state. Condensation is a generic phenomena and occurs for a variety of polyelectrolyte parameters. Toroids and rods are the condensate structures. Toroids form preferentially when the molecular stiffness is sufficiently strong.

  17. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The complete birth population in Norway 1967-98.
PARTICIPANTS—67 795 families.
MAIN RESULTS—The birth weight correlations were 0.226 for mother-child and 0.126 for father-child. The spousal correlation was low, 0.020. The relative risk of low birth weight in the first born child was 8.2 if both parents were low birth weight themselves, with both parents being above 4 kg as the reference. The estimate of heritability is about 0.25 for birth weight, under the assumption that cultural transmission on the paternal side has no effect on offspring prenatal growth.
CONCLUSIONS—Paternal birth weight is a significant and independent predictor of low birth weight in offspring. The estimate of the heritability of birth weight in this study is lower than previously estimated from data within one generation in the Norwegian population.


Keywords: birth weight; genes; paternal effects PMID:11707480

  18. Pseudohyperplastic prostatic carcinoma in simple prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, Julián; Martinez-Benitez, Braulio; Fernandez-Amador, Jose Antonio; Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Arceo-Olaiz, Ricardo; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma (PHPC) is a prostatic neoplasm that can be easily mistaken for nodular hyperplasia or atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. To determine the frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of PHPC, we reviewed 200 simple prostatectomy specimens. We found 3 cases (1.5%) of PHPC. The tumors were small and ranged in size from 4 to 6 mm. Two of them were erroneously diagnosed as benign glandular proliferations in the original interpretation. Their histologic aspect at low magnification showed nodules of well-differentiated medium-sized glands with cystic dilation in a tight arrangement that imparted a benign appearance. Corpora amylacea were found in 2 cases. However, the lining cells showed nucleomegaly and prominent nuclei in most of the neoplastic glands, and the high-molecular-weight keratin (34BE12) immunostain revealed absence of basal cells. α-Methylacyl-CoA-racemase was positive in 2 cases. In one case, a small focus of moderated acinar adenocarcinoma was found adjacent to the pseudohyperplastic glands facilitating the diagnosis. The 3 patients are disease-free 3 and 4 years after surgery probably because of the small size of the tumors; however, it must be emphasized that most PHPC are considered moderately differentiated and potentially aggressive neoplasms.

  19. Simple models for reading neuronal population codes.

    PubMed Central

    Seung, H S; Sompolinsky, H

    1993-01-01

    In many neural systems, sensory information is distributed throughout a population of neurons. We study simple neural network models for extracting this information. The inputs to the networks are the stochastic responses of a population of sensory neurons tuned to directional stimuli. The performance of each network model in psychophysical tasks is compared with that of the optimal maximum likelihood procedure. As a model of direction estimation in two dimensions, we consider a linear network that computes a population vector. Its performance depends on the width of the population tuning curves and is maximal for width, which increases with the level of background activity. Although for narrowly tuned neurons the performance of the population vector is significantly inferior to that of maximum likelihood estimation, the difference between the two is small when the tuning is broad. For direction discrimination, we consider two models: a perceptron with fully adaptive weights and a network made by adding an adaptive second layer to the population vector network. We calculate the error rates of these networks after exhaustive training to a particular direction. By testing on the full range of possible directions, the extent of transfer of training to novel stimuli can be calculated. It is found that for threshold linear networks the transfer of perceptual learning is nonmonotonic. Although performance deteriorates away from the training stimulus, it peaks again at an intermediate angle. This nonmonotonicity provides an important psychophysical test of these models. PMID:8248166

  20. A simple technique for the automatic opening of a wet deposition collector.

    PubMed

    Mirlean, Nicolai; Andrus, Vlad E; Casartelli, Maria R

    2003-08-01

    The description of a simple device designed for the automatic opening of a lid of a collector at the beginning of a precipitation event and the results of its testing are presented. This device can be produced from minimal improvised means, is inexpensive and simple in operation in comparison with known analogues. Effective protection of the collector from penetration by dry deposits such as dust, insects and plant detritus prior to the precipitation event along with minimal sample losses during 20 precipitation events was confirmed.

  1. Analysing adverse events by time-to-event models: the CLEOPATRA study.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Tanja; Schumacher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    When analysing primary and secondary endpoints in a clinical trial with patients suffering from a chronic disease, statistical models for time-to-event data are commonly used and accepted. This is in contrast to the analysis of data on adverse events where often only a table with observed frequencies and corresponding test statistics is reported. An example is the recently published CLEOPATRA study where a three-drug regimen is compared with a two-drug regimen in patients with HER2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer. Here, as described earlier, primary and secondary endpoints (progression-free and overall survival) are analysed using time-to-event models, whereas adverse events are summarized in a simple frequency table, although the duration of study treatment differs substantially. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of time-to-event models to first serious adverse events using the data of the CLEOPATRA study. This will cover the broad range between a simple incidence rate approach over survival and competing risks models (with death as a competing event) to multi-state models. We illustrate all approaches by means of graphical displays highlighting the temporal dynamics and compare the obtained results. For the CLEOPATRA study, the resulting hazard ratios are all in the same order of magnitude. But the use of time-to-event models provides valuable and additional information that would potentially be overlooked by only presenting incidence proportions. These models adequately address the temporal dynamics of serious adverse events as well as death of patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Capture zones for simple aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McElwee, Carl D.

    1991-01-01

    Capture zones showing the area influenced by a well within a certain time are useful for both aquifer protection and cleanup. If hydrodynamic dispersion is neglected, a deterministic curve defines the capture zone. Analytical expressions for the capture zones can be derived for simple aquifers. However, the capture zone equations are transcendental and cannot be explicitly solved for the coordinates of the capture zone boundary. Fortunately, an iterative scheme allows the solution to proceed quickly and efficiently even on a modest personal computer. Three forms of the analytical solution must be used in an iterative scheme to cover the entire region of interest, after the extreme values of the x coordinate are determined by an iterative solution. The resulting solution is a discrete one, and usually 100-1000 intervals along the x-axis are necessary for a smooth definition of the capture zone. The presented program is written in FORTRAN and has been used in a variety of computing environments. No graphics capability is included with the program; it is assumed the user has access to a commercial package. The superposition of capture zones for multiple wells is expected to be satisfactory if the spacing is not too close. Because this program deals with simple aquifers, the results rarely will be the final word in a real application.

  3. Two methods for recommending bat weights.

    PubMed

    Bahill, A T; Freitas, M M

    1995-01-01

    Baseball players swung very light and very heavy bats through our instrument and the speed of the bat was recorded. These data were used to make mathematical models for each person. Then these models were coupled with equations of physics for bat-ball collisions to compute the Ideal Bat Weight for each individual. However, these calculations required the use of a sophisticated instrument that is not conveniently available to most people. So, we tried to find items in our database that correlated with Ideal Bat Weight. However, because many cells in the database were empty, we could not use traditional statistical techniques or even neural networks. Therefore, three new methods were used to estimate the missing data: (i) a neural network was trained using subjects that had no empty cells, then that neural network was used to predict the missing data, (ii) the data patching facility of a commercial software package was used, and (iii) the empty cells were filled with random numbers. Then, using these fully populated databases, several simple models were derived for recommending bat weights.

  4. Lifting Events in RDF from Interactions with Annotated Web Pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stühmer, Roland; Anicic, Darko; Sen, Sinan; Ma, Jun; Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stojanovic, Nenad

    In this paper we present a method and an implementation for creating and processing semantic events from interaction with Web pages which opens possibilities to build event-driven applications for the (Semantic) Web. Events, simple or complex, are models for things that happen e.g., when a user interacts with a Web page. Events are consumed in some meaningful way e.g., for monitoring reasons or to trigger actions such as responses. In order for receiving parties to understand events e.g., comprehend what has led to an event, we propose a general event schema using RDFS. In this schema we cover the composition of complex events and event-to-event relationships. These events can then be used to route semantic information about an occurrence to different recipients helping in making the Semantic Web active. Additionally, we present an architecture for detecting and composing events in Web clients. For the contents of events we show a way of how they are enriched with semantic information about the context in which they occurred. The paper is presented in conjunction with the use case of Semantic Advertising, which extends traditional clickstream analysis by introducing semantic short-term profiling, enabling discovery of the current interest of a Web user and therefore supporting advertisement providers in responding with more relevant advertisements.

  5. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  6. Weighted EMPCA: Weighted Expectation Maximization Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Weighted EMPCA performs principal component analysis (PCA) on noisy datasets with missing values. Estimates of the measurement error are used to weight the input data such that the resulting eigenvectors, when compared to classic PCA, are more sensitive to the true underlying signal variations rather than being pulled by heteroskedastic measurement noise. Missing data are simply limiting cases of weight = 0. The underlying algorithm is a noise weighted expectation maximization (EM) PCA, which has additional benefits of implementation speed and flexibility for smoothing eigenvectors to reduce the noise contribution.

  7. A simple physical model for deep moonquake occurrence times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, R.C.; Bills, B.G.; Johnson, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The physical process that results in moonquakes is not yet fully understood. The periodic occurrence times of events from individual clusters are clearly related to tidal stress, but also exhibit departures from the temporal regularity this relationship would seem to imply. Even simplified models that capture some of the relevant physics require a large number of variables. However, a single, easily accessible variable - the time interval I(n) between events - can be used to reveal behavior not readily observed using typical periodicity analyses (e.g., Fourier analyses). The delay-coordinate (DC) map, a particularly revealing way to display data from a time series, is a map of successive intervals: I(n+. 1) plotted vs. I(n). We use a DC approach to characterize the dynamics of moonquake occurrence. Moonquake-like DC maps can be reproduced by combining sequences of synthetic events that occur with variable probability at tidal periods. Though this model gives a good description of what happens, it has little physical content, thus providing only little insight into why moonquakes occur. We investigate a more mechanistic model. In this study, we present a series of simple models of deep moonquake occurrence, with consideration of both tidal stress and stress drop during events. We first examine the behavior of inter-event times in a delay-coordinate context, and then examine the output, in that context, of a sequence of simple models of tidal forcing and stress relief. We find, as might be expected, that the stress relieved by moonquakes influences their occurrence times. Our models may also provide an explanation for the opposite-polarity events observed at some clusters. ?? 2010.

  8. Recurrent events and the exploding Cox model

    PubMed Central

    Gjessing, Håkon K.; Røysland, Kjetil; Pena, Edsel A.; Aalen, Odd O.

    2014-01-01

    Counting process models have played an important role in survival and event history analysis for more than 30 years. Nevertheless, almost all models that are being used have a very simple structure. Analyzing recurrent events invites the application of more complex models with dynamic covariates. We discuss how to define valid models in such a setting. One has to check carefully that a suggested model is well defined as a stochastic process. We give conditions for this to hold. Some detailed discussion is presented in relation to a Cox type model, where the exponential structure combined with feedback lead to an exploding model. In general, counting process models with dynamic covariates can be formulated to avoid explosions. In particular, models with a linear feedback structure do not explode, making them useful tools in general modeling of recurrent events. PMID:20625827

  9. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-10

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  10. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another – from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a ‘lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  11. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  12. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  13. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  14. Special Event Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Offers a descriptive table of software that helps higher education institutions orchestrate events. Information includes vendor, contact, software, price, database engine/server platform, specific features, and client type. (EV)

  15. CCG - News & Events

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  16. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  17. "Universe" event at AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  18. QCD (&) event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  19. Activating Event Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961

  20. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  1. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  2. A simple ice nucleation spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wharton, David A; Mutch, Jodi S; Wilson, Peter W; Marshall, Craig J; Lim, Miang

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a simple ice nucleation spectrometer is described. It uses 10 microliter droplets loaded into glass capillary tubes which are then inserted into an aluminium holder. Each holder takes six capillary tubes surrounding a central thermocouple. Four holders are placed into a cooling block, cooled by fluid from a programmable refrigerated circulator, and the thermocouples interfaced to a computer to record temperatures. Freezing of each sample is detected by an exotherm on the temperature recording, with 24 samples recorded per run. The spectrometer was tested using deionized water, an extract from a New Zealand alpine cockroach and an extract of lawn grass. The cockroach extract is estimated to contain about 10(3) more nucleators, active at -5 degrees C, than the grass extract. PMID:15618985

  3. Simple photoreceptors in Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, R; Bradbury, J; Mauro, A

    1966-12-01

    The "olfactory nerve," the endoparietal eye, and the rudimentary lateral eyes of Limulus (polyphemus) contain simple photoreceptor cells that duplicate many of the electrical responses of the retinular cells of the lateral eye; the responses are a receptor potential consisting of aninitial transient phase and a subsequent steady phase,low-amplitude fluctuations, and a small locally regenerative response to pulses of both light and current. Photic stimulation does not induce conducted action potentials, but does increase the membrane conductance. The receptor potentialrequires the presence of sodium ions in the external medium. Measurements of action and absorption spectra indicate a photopigment whose maximum absorption is of light with wavelength of 535 nanometers. The functional significance of these cells has not been ascertained. PMID:5921383

  4. Simple soluble molecular ionization model

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Gauthier, Christopher S.

    2004-05-01

    We present a simple exact analytical solution, using the Weyl-Titchmarsh-Kodaira spectral theorem, for the spectral function of the one-dimensional diatomic molecule model consisting of two attractive {delta}-function wells in the presence of a static external electric field. For sufficiently deep and far apart wells, this molecule supports both an even and an odd state, and the introduction of a static electric field turns these bound states into quasibound states which are Stark-shifted and broadened. The continuum spectrum also inherits an intricate pattern of resonances which reflect the competition between resonant scattering between the two atomic wells and between the linear potential and one or both atomic well(s). All results are analytic and can be easily plotted. The relation between the large orders of the divergent perturbative Stark-shift series and the nonperturbative widths of quasibound levels is studied.

  5. Simple soluble molecular ionization model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Gerald V.; Gauthier, Christopher S.

    2004-05-01

    We present a simple exact analytical solution, using the Weyl-Titchmarsh-Kodaira spectral theorem, for the spectral function of the one-dimensional diatomic molecule model consisting of two attractive δ -function wells in the presence of a static external electric field. For sufficiently deep and far apart wells, this molecule supports both an even and an odd state, and the introduction of a static electric field turns these bound states into quasibound states which are Stark-shifted and broadened. The continuum spectrum also inherits an intricate pattern of resonances which reflect the competition between resonant scattering between the two atomic wells and between the linear potential and one or both atomic well(s). All results are analytic and can be easily plotted. The relation between the large orders of the divergent perturbative Stark-shift series and the nonperturbative widths of quasibound levels is studied.

  6. Simple lattice model of macroevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Wojciech

    2009-04-01

    In future astrobiology, like in modern astrophysics, the numerical simulations can be a very important tool for proving theories. In this paper, I propose a simple lattice model of a multi-species ecosystem suitable for the study of emergent properties of macroevolution. Unlike the majority of ecological models, the number of species is not fixed - they emerge by "mutation" of existing species, then survive or go extinct depending on the balance between local ecological interactions. The Monte-Carlo numerical simulations show that this model is able to qualitatively reproduce phenomena that have been empirically observed, like the dependence between size of the isolated area and the number of species inhabiting there, primary production and species-diversity. The model allows also studying the causes of mass extinctions and more generally, repeatability, and the role of pure chance in macroevolution.

  7. Simple cyst of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Simple cysts are rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the urologist and the histopathologist. No case study was found in the database of Elsevier Science Direct, Spring-Link, or PubMed. We present two cases of subserous cyst in the bladder and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The cystic lesion at bladder dome was detected by radiologic examination and confirmed by cystoscopy. In case 1, transurethral resection was first performed which was followed by partial cystectomy; In case 2, the cyst was removed with the urachus using laparoscopic surgery. The patients recovered uneventfully and the histopathology showed cysts in subserous layer of urinary bladder. The bladder cyst should be distinguished from urachal tumor, and laparoscopic partial cystectomy is the preferred operative procedure.

  8. Simple aging in molecular glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine

    2015-03-01

    The glass transition takes place when the structural (alpha) relaxation freezes in and the liquid enters a non-equilibrium solid state. This usually happens when the relaxation time, τ, reaches a timescale of 1000 seconds, and τ = 1000 s is pragmatically used as a definition of the glass transition temperature Tg. However, if the glass is studied on a long enough time scale then relaxation is still seen as physical aging. Aging is a non-linear signature of the alpha relaxation in which the relaxation dynamics changes as a function of how far the system has relaxed. If the system is studied well below Tg then equilibrium will not be achieved, but just below or around Tg it is possible to systematically monitor the non-linear relaxation all the way to equilibrium. We have developed a micro crystat which is optimized for making fast changes in temperature and keeping temperature stable over days and even weeks. Combining this micro cryostat with a small dielectric cell it is possible to monitor non-linear relaxation in a dynamical range of more than 4 decades from 10 seconds to a 105 seconds. The aging is monitored after a fast temperature jump. This means that the aging itself is isotherm, and the data therefore directly shows, how the relaxation-rate changes as volume and structure change on the isotherm. We have studied several molecular liquids and find that the data to a very large extend can be understood in terms of a TNM formalism. This implies time-aging-time superposition and suggests a simple picture where the out of equlibrium ``states'' correspond to equilibrium states - at an other temperature. If the alpha relaxation is dynamically heterogeneous as it is commonly believed, then the aging results show that fast and slow ``modes'' of the relaxation are governed in the same way by structure and volume. We hypothesize that aging according to TNM formalism is an intrinsic property of Roskilde Simple liquids.

  9. Search in weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadakamalla, Hari P.; Albert, R.; Kumara, S. R. T.

    2005-12-01

    We study trade-offs presented by local search algorithms in complex networks which are heterogeneous in edge weights and node degree. We show that search based on a network measure, local betweenness centrality (LBC), utilizes the heterogeneity of both node degrees and edge weights to perform the best in scale-free weighted networks. The search based on LBC is universal and performs well in a large class of complex networks.

  10. A daily diary assessment of female weight stigmatization.

    PubMed

    Seacat, Jason D; Dougal, Sarah C; Roy, Dooti

    2016-02-01

    Research focused on assessing weight stigmatization has typically been conducted using cross-sectional, retrospective designs. Such designs may impair the scientific understanding of this stigma by limiting participants' recall of frequencies and/or details about stigmatizing events. To address this, 50 overweight/obese women were recruited from public weight forums to complete week-long daily diaries. A total of 1077 weight-stigmatizing events were reported on the Stigmatizing Situations Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to investigate potential relationships between participant-level factors and reported stigmatization. Results indicate that body mass index, education, age, daily activities, and interpersonal interactions all may impact individuals' levels of stigmatization. PMID:24648323

  11. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  12. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  13. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  14. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  15. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks.

  16. Event tunnel: exploring event-driven business processes.

    PubMed

    Suntinger, Martin; Obweger, Hannes; Schiefer, Josef; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Event-based systems monitor business processes in real time. The event-tunnel visualization sees the stream of events captured from such systems as a cylindrical tunnel. The tunnel allows for back-tracing business incidents and exploring event patterns' root causes. The authors couple this visualization with tools that let users search for relevant events within a data repository.

  17. The Healthy Weight Collaborative: quality improvement methods promoting healthy weight.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Vanderkruik, Rachel; Reims, Kathy; Coulouris, Natasha; Anand, Shikha; Linde-Feucht, Sarah; Homer, Charles J

    2012-08-01

    Promoting healthy weight requires innovative approaches and a concerted response across all sectors of society. This commentary features the framework guiding the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a two-phased quality improvement (QI) learning collaborative and key activity of the Collaborate for Healthy Weight initiative. Multi-sector teams from primary care, public health, and community-based organizations use QI to identify, test, and implement program and policy changes in their communities related to promoting healthy weight. We describe the Collaborative's overall design based on the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Goals and our approach of applying QI methods to advance implementation of sustainable ways to promote healthy weight and healthy equity. We provide specifics on measurement and change strategies as well as examples of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from teams participating in Phase 1 of the Collaborative. These teams will serve as leaders for sustainable, positive change in their communities.

  18. Concepts of event-by-event analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stroebele, H.

    1995-07-15

    The particles observed in the final state of nuclear collisions can be divided into two classes: those which are susceptible to strong interactions and those which are not, like leptons and the photon. The bulk properties of the {open_quotes}matter{close_quotes} in the reaction zone may be read-off the kinematical characteristics of the particles observable in the final state. These characteristics are strongly dependent on the last interaction these particles have undergone. In a densly populated reaction zone strongly interacting particles will experience many collisions after they have been formed and before they emerge into the asymptotic final state. For the particles which are not sensitive to strong interactions their formation is also their last interaction. Thus photons and leptons probe the period during which they are produced whereas hadrons reflect the so called freeze-out processes, which occur during the late stage in the evolution of the reaction when the population density becomes small and the mean free paths long. The disadvantage of the leptons and photons is their small production cross section; they cannot be used in an analysis of the characteristics of individual collision events, because the number of particles produced per event is too small. The hadrons, on the other hand, stem from the freeze-out period. Information from earlier periods requires multiparticle observables in the most general sense. It is one of the challenges of present day high energy nuclear physics to establish and understand global observables which differentiate between mere hadronic scenarios, i.e superposition of hadronic interactions, and the formation of a partonic (short duration) steady state which can be considered a new state of matter, the Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  19. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Bruce M; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-05-27

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated.

  20. A simple procedure for estimating soil porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Holden, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Soil degradation from mismanagement is of international concern. Simple, accessible tools for rapidly assessing impacts of soil management are required. Soil structure is a key component of soil quality and porosity is a useful indicator of structure. We outline a version of a procedure described by Piwowarczyk et al. (2011) used to estimate porosity of samples taken during a soil quality survey of 38 sites across Ireland as part of the Government funded SQUARE (Soil Quality Assessment Research) project. This required intact core (r = 2.5 cm, H = 5cm) samples taken at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, to be covered with muslin cloth at one end and secured with a jubilee clip. Samples were saturated in sealable water tanks for ≈ 64 hours, then allowed to drain by gravity for 24 hours, at which point Field Capacity (F.C.) was assumed to have been reached, followed by oven drying with weight determined at each stage. This allowed the calculation of bulk density and the estimation of water content at saturation and following gravitational drainage, thus total and functional porosity. The assumption that F.C. was reached following 24 hours of gravitational drainage was based on the Soil Moisture Deficit model used in Ireland to predict when soils are potentially vulnerable to structural damage and used nationally as a management tool. Preliminary results indicate moderately strong, negative correlations between estimated total porosity at 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth (rs = -0.7, P < 0.01 in both cases) and soil quality scores of the Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) method which was conducted at each survey site. Estimated functional porosity at 5-10 cm depth was found to moderately, negatively correlate with VESS scores (rs = - 0.5, P < 0.05). This simple procedure requires inexpensive equipment and appears useful in indicating porosity of a large quantity of samples taken at numerous sites or if done periodically, temporal changes in porosity at a field scale

  1. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  2. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  3. Solar extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Hugh S.

    2015-08-01

    Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “extreme events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for extreme solar events.

  4. 26 CFR 1.989(b)-1 - Definition of weighted average exchange rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of weighted average exchange rate. 1... average exchange rate. For purposes of section 989(b)(3) and (4), the term “weighted average exchange rate” means the simple average of the daily exchange rates (determined by reference to a qualified source...

  5. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  6. A Simple Demonstration Model of Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Joseph G.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device constructed from a wire screen, a large beaker, beans, and oats is described. It provides a simple and effective visual model of the phenomenon of osmosis and, by extension, the origin of other colligative properties of solutions.

  7. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  8. Simple method for model reference adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1989-01-01

    A simple method is presented for combined signal synthesis and parameter adaptation within the framework of model reference adaptive control theory. The results are obtained using a simple derivation based on an improved Liapunov function.

  9. Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: what are the concerns?

    PubMed

    Shapses, Sue A; Riedt, Claudia S

    2006-06-01

    Of the U.S. population, 65% is either overweight or obese, and weight loss is recommended to reduce co-morbid conditions. However, bone mobilization and loss may also occur with weight loss. The risk for bone loss depends on initial body weight, age, gender, physical activity, and conditions of dieting such as the extent of energy restriction and specific levels of nutrient intake. Older populations are more prone to bone loss with weight loss; in women, this is due at least in part to a reduced dietary Ca intake and/or efficiency of absorption. Potential hormonal mechanisms regulating bone loss during weight loss are discussed, including decreases in estrogen, leptin, glucagon-like peptide-2, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, or an increase in cortisol. In contrast, the rise in adiponectin and ghrelin with weight reduction should not be detrimental to bone. Combining energy restriction with exercise does not necessarily prevent bone loss, but may attenuate loss as was shown with additional Ca intake or osteoporosis medications. Future controlled weight loss trials should be designed to further address mechanisms influencing the density and quality of bone sites vulnerable to fracture, in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:16702302

  10. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

    2011-04-01

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2simple fermionic example for Weinberg’s asymptotic safety scenario: despite being perturbatively nonrenormalizable, the model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-Nf expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  12. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, Jens; Gies, Holger; Scherer, Daniel D.

    2011-04-15

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2simple fermionic example for Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario: despite being perturbatively nonrenormalizable, the model defines an interacting quantum field theory being valid to arbitrarily high momentum scales owing to the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point. Using the functional renormalization group, we study the uv behavior of the model in both the purely fermionic as well as a partially bosonized language. We show that asymptotic safety is realized at non-Gaussian fixed points in both formulations, the universal critical exponents of which we determine quantitatively. The partially bosonized formulation allows to make contact to the large-N{sub f} expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  13. Pharmacogenomics of suicidal events

    PubMed Central

    Brent, David; Melhem, Nadine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacogenomic studies of antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal events in depressed patients report associations with polymorphisms in genes involved in transcription (CREB1), neuroprotection (BDNF and NTRK2), glutamatergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission (GRIA3, GRIK2 and ADRA2A), the stress and inflammatory responses (FKBP5 and IL28RA), and the synthesis of glycoproteins (PAPLN). Nearly all of the reported events in these studies were modest one-time increases in suicidal ideation. In 3231 unique subjects across six studies, 424 (13.1%) patients showed increases in suicidal ideation, eight (0.25%) attempted suicide and four (0.12%) completed suicide. Systems related to most of these genes have also been implicated in studies of suicidal behavior irrespective of treatment. Future pharmacogenomic studies should target events that are clinically significant, related clinical phenotypes of response and medication side effects, and biological pathways that are involved in these outcomes in order to improve treatment approaches. PMID:20504254

  14. Detection of anomalous events

    DOEpatents

    Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.

    2016-06-07

    A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.

  15. Simple sugar intake and hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiological and mechanistic insight.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Núria

    2014-12-01

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Interestingly, all of these metabolic alterations have also been related to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this review is to discuss the evidence coming from epidemiological studies and data from animal models relating the consumption of simple sugars, and specifically fructose, with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and to gain insight into the putative molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:25533006

  16. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  17. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

  18. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-08-01

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological “multiverse” scenarios involving eternal inflation. The “reheating-volume (RV) cutoff” calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the “youngness paradox,” and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to “landscape” scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  19. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2008-08-15

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  20. Understanding the LIGO GW150914 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naselsky, Pavel; Jackson, Andrew D.; Liu, Hao

    2016-08-01

    We present a simplified method for the extraction of meaningful signals from Hanford and Livingston 32 second data for the GW150914 event made publicly available by the LIGO collaboration, and demonstrate its ability to reproduce the LIGO collaboration's own results quantitatively given the assumption that all narrow peaks in the power spectrum are a consequence of physically uninteresting signals and can be removed. After the clipping of these peaks and return to the time domain, the GW150914 event is readily distinguished from broadband background noise. This simple technique allows us to identify the GW150914 event without any assumption regarding its physical origin and with minimal assumptions regarding its shape. We also confirm that the LIGO GW150914 event is uniquely correlated in the Hanford and Livingston detectors for the full 4096 second data at the level of 6-7 σ with a temporal displacement of τ = 6.9 ± 0.4 ms. We have also identified a few events that are morphologically close to GW150914 but less strongly cross correlated with it.

  1. Experimental determination of the rattle of simple models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the excitation frequency on the rattle boundaries of simple models was investigated. The frequency range investigated was from 40 to 4,000 Hz. A 1-inch steel ball was studied to determine the rattle boundary for both vertical motion and for the ball suspended as a pendulum. Effects of surface contact and weight were also studied. Results indicate that the shape of the rattle boundary depends on the particular configuration being investigated as well as the range of frequency being investigated. Although there was condiderable scatter in the data, the general trend indicates that the level of acceleration required for the onset of rattle was independent of excitation frequency.

  2. A simple explanation of the classic hydrostatic paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-07-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the same. However, if the shape of the container is different, the amount of the liquid (and as a consequence the weight) can greatly vary. In this paper, a simple explanation of the hydrostatic paradox, specifically designed and implemented for educational purposes regarding secondary education, is provided.

  3. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  4. Simple indicators for Lorentzian causets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Tommaso; Lamb, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Several classes of directed acyclic graphs have been investigated in the last two decades, in the context of the causal set program, in search for good discrete models of spacetime. We introduce some statistical indicators that can be used for comparing these graphs and for assessing their closeness to the ideal Lorentzian causal sets (‘causets’)—those obtained by sprinkling points in a Lorentzian manifold. In particular, with the reversed triangular inequality of Special Relativity in mind, we introduce ‘longest/shortest path plots’, an easily implemented tool to visually detect the extent to which a generic causet matches the wide range of path lengths between events of Lorentzian causets. This tool can attribute some degree of ‘Lorentzianity’—in particular ‘non-locality’—also to causets that are not (directly) embeddable and that, due to some regularity in their structure, would not pass the key test for Lorentz invariance: the absence of preferred reference frames. We compare the discussed indicators and use them for assessing causets both of stochastic and of deterministic, algorithmic origin, finding examples of the latter that behave optimally w.r.t. our longest/shortest path plots.

  5. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy ...

  6. SSL - THE SIMPLE SOCKETS LIBRARY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Simple Sockets Library (SSL) allows C programmers to develop systems of cooperating programs using Berkeley streaming Sockets running under the TCP/IP protocol over Ethernet. The SSL provides a simple way to move information between programs running on the same or different machines and does so with little overhead. The SSL can create three types of Sockets: namely a server, a client, and an accept Socket. The SSL's Sockets are designed to be used in a fashion reminiscent of the use of FILE pointers so that a C programmer who is familiar with reading and writing files will immediately feel comfortable with reading and writing with Sockets. The SSL consists of three parts: the library, PortMaster, and utilities. The user of the SSL accesses it by linking programs to the SSL library. The PortMaster initializes connections between clients and servers. The PortMaster also supports a "firewall" facility to keep out socket requests from unapproved machines. The "firewall" is a file which contains Internet addresses for all approved machines. There are three utilities provided with the SSL. SKTDBG can be used to debug programs that make use of the SSL. SPMTABLE lists the servers and port numbers on requested machine(s). SRMSRVR tells the PortMaster to forcibly remove a server name from its list. The package also includes two example programs: multiskt.c, which makes multiple accepts on one server, and sktpoll.c, which repeatedly attempts to connect a client to some server at one second intervals. SSL is a machine independent library written in the C-language for computers connected via Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on a variety of platforms, including Sun series computers running SunOS, DEC VAX series computers running VMS, SGI computers running IRIX, DECstations running ULTRIX, DEC alpha AXPs running OSF/1, IBM RS/6000 computers running AIX, IBM PC and compatibles running BSD/386 UNIX and HP Apollo 3000

  7. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider.

  8. Colligative properties of simple solutions.

    PubMed

    Andrews, F C

    1976-11-01

    Vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression are all related quantitatively to the decrease in micro(1)(soln) upon the addition of solute in forming a solution. In any equilibrium system, regardless of whether it is in a gravitational field or whether it contains walls, semipermeable membranes, phase transitions, or solutes, all equilibria are maintained locally, in the small region of the equilibrium, by the equality of micro(1)(soln). If there are several subsystems in a gravitational field, at any fixed height, microi will have the same value in each subsystem into which substance i can get, and microi + M(i)gh is constant throughout the entire system. In a solution, there is no mechanism by which solvent and solute molecules could sustain different pressures. Both the solvent and solute are always under identical pressures in a region of solution, namely, the pressure of the solution in that region. Since nature does not know which component we call the solvent and which the solute, equations should be symmetric in the two (acknowledging that the nonvolatile component, if any, is commonly chosen to be solute). Simple molecular pictures illustrate what is happening to cause pressure (positive or negative) in liquids, vapor pressure of liquids, and the various colligative properties of solutions. The only effect of solute involved in these properties is that it dilutes the solvent, with the resulting increase in S and decrease in micro(1)(soln). Water can be driven passively up a tree to enormous heights by the difference between its chemical potential in the roots and the ambient air. There is nothing mysterious about the molecular bases for any of these phenomena. Biologists can use the well-understood pictures of these phenomena with confidence to study what is happening in the complicated living systems they consider. PMID:17818408

  9. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  10. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  11. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  12. Teaching with Current Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher changed all his plans to teach the hurricane. When the Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast, kids become naturally curious and seek answers in an event this big. The author suggests the use of tragedies to help them grow as students and as citizens.

  13. Language As Social Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  14. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  15. Morphometric analysis of a fresh simple crater on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, V.; Ninfo, A.; Massironi, M.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.

    In this research we are proposing an innovative method to determine and quantify the morphology of a simple fresh impact crater. Linné is a well preserved impact crater of 2.2 km in diameter, located at 27.7oN 11.8oE, near the western edge of Mare Serenitatis on the Moon. The crater was photographed by the Lunar Orbiter and the Apollo space missions. Its particular morphology may place Linné as the most striking example of small fresh simple crater. Morphometric analysis, conducted on recent high resolution DTM from LROC (NASA), quantitatively confirmed the pristine morphology of the crater, revealing a clear inner layering which highlight a sequence of lava emplacement events.

  16. Weighting climate model projections using observational constraints.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P

    2015-11-13

    Projected climate change integrates the net response to multiple climate feedbacks. Whereas existing long-term climate change projections are typically based on unweighted individual climate model simulations, as observed climate change intensifies it is increasingly becoming possible to constrain the net response to feedbacks and hence projected warming directly from observed climate change. One approach scales simulated future warming based on a fit to observations over the historical period, but this approach is only accurate for near-term projections and for scenarios of continuously increasing radiative forcing. For this reason, the recent Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) included such observationally constrained projections in its assessment of warming to 2035, but used raw model projections of longer term warming to 2100. Here a simple approach to weighting model projections based on an observational constraint is proposed which does not assume a linear relationship between past and future changes. This approach is used to weight model projections of warming in 2081-2100 relative to 1986-2005 under the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 forcing scenario, based on an observationally constrained estimate of the Transient Climate Response derived from a detection and attribution analysis. The resulting observationally constrained 5-95% warming range of 0.8-2.5 K is somewhat lower than the unweighted range of 1.1-2.6 K reported in the IPCC AR5.

  17. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  18. Variations of archived static-weight data and WIM

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.J.; Gillmann, R.; Kent, P.M.

    1998-12-01

    Using seven-card archived, static-weight and weigh-in-motion (WIM), truck data received by FHWA for 1966--1992, the authors examine the fluctuations of four fiducial weight measures reported at weight sites in the 50 states. The reduced 172 MB Class 9 (332000) database was prepared and ordered from 2 CD-ROMS with duplicate records removed. Front-axle weight and gross-vehicle weight (GVW) are combined conceptually by determining the front axle weight in four-quartile GVW categories. The four categories of front axle weight from the four GVW categories are combined in four ways. Three linear combinations are with fixed-coefficient fiducials and one is that optimal linear combination producing the smallest standard deviation to mean value ratio. The best combination gives coefficients of variation of 2--3% for samples of 100 trucks, below the expected accuracy of single-event WIM measurements. Time tracking of data shows some high-variation sites have seasonal variations, or linear variations over the time-ordered samples. Modeling of these effects is very site specific but provides a way to reduce high variations. Some automatic calibration schemes would erroneously remove such seasonal or linear variations were they static effects.

  19. Energetics and dynamics of simple impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, R.; Heindl, W. A.; Crannell, C. J.; Thomas, R. J.; Batchelor, D. A.; Magun, A.

    1987-01-01

    Flare energetics and dynamics were studied using observations of simple impulsive spike bursts. A large, homogeneous set of events was selected to enable the most definite tests possible of competing flare models, in the absence of spatially resolved observations. The emission mechanisms and specific flare models that were considered in this investigation are described, and the derivations of the parameters that were tested are presented. Results of the correlation analysis between soft and hard X-ray energetics are also presented. The ion conduction front model and tests of that model with the well-observed spike bursts are described. Finally, conclusions drawn from this investigation and suggestions for future studies are discussed.

  20. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    PubMed

    Pater, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  1. Eating Well and Losing Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Sodium & High Blood Pressure Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) ...

  2. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  3. Biological event composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, biological event extraction has emerged as a key natural language processing task, aiming to address the information overload problem in accessing the molecular biology literature. The BioNLP shared task competitions have contributed to this recent interest considerably. The first competition (BioNLP'09) focused on extracting biological events from Medline abstracts from a narrow domain, while the theme of the latest competition (BioNLP-ST'11) was generalization and a wider range of text types, event types, and subject domains were considered. We view event extraction as a building block in larger discourse interpretation and propose a two-phase, linguistically-grounded, rule-based methodology. In the first phase, a general, underspecified semantic interpretation is composed from syntactic dependency relations in a bottom-up manner. The notion of embedding underpins this phase and it is informed by a trigger dictionary and argument identification rules. Coreference resolution is also performed at this step, allowing extraction of inter-sentential relations. The second phase is concerned with constraining the resulting semantic interpretation by shared task specifications. We evaluated our general methodology on core biological event extraction and speculation/negation tasks in three main tracks of BioNLP-ST'11 (GENIA, EPI, and ID). Results We achieved competitive results in GENIA and ID tracks, while our results in the EPI track leave room for improvement. One notable feature of our system is that its performance across abstracts and articles bodies is stable. Coreference resolution results in minor improvement in system performance. Due to our interest in discourse-level elements, such as speculation/negation and coreference, we provide a more detailed analysis of our system performance in these subtasks. Conclusions The results demonstrate the viability of a robust, linguistically-oriented methodology, which clearly distinguishes

  4. Syntactic processing with aging: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Kemmer, Laura; Coulson, Seana; De Ochoa, Esmeralda; Kutas, Marta

    2004-05-01

    To assess age-related changes in simple syntactic processing with normal aging, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by grammatical number violations as individuals read sentences for comprehension were analyzed. Violations were found to elicit a P600 of equal amplitude and latency regardless of an individual's age. Instead, advancing age was associated with a change in the scalp distribution of the P600 effect, being less asymmetric and more frontal (though still with a parietal maximum) in older than younger adults. Our results thus show that the brain's response to simple syntactic violations, unlike those reported for simple binary categorizations and simple semantic violations, is neither slowed nor diminished in amplitude by age. At the same time, the brain's processing of these grammatical number violations did engage at least somewhat different brain regions as a function of age, suggesting a qualitative change rather than any simple quantitative change in speed of processing.

  5. Financial incentives and weight control.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  6. Financial incentives and weight control.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  7. Tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) provide a powerful probe of many astrophysical processes. They occur when the powerful tidal field around a black hole disrupts a passing star which is subsequently accreted. The resulting signal is a powerful X-ray, UV/opt and possibly even radio source, that provides us with a view of accretion aroud supermassive black holes from switch-on to switch-off over the timescale of years. TDEs probe accretion physics, the ubquity of black holes in galactic nuclei and dynamics in their cores, offering a novel route to addressing these issues. I will review observations of TDEs over the past decade, outlining how samples of candidates have been gradually building, and how they can be identified against other more common transient events. I will also discuss the implications of the discovery of a population of TDEs apparently launching relativisitc jets, and how these powerful transients may be detected in upcoming X-ray to radio surveys.

  8. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J.

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  9. Link weight evolution in a network of coupled chemical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Ke, Hua; Tinsley, Mark R; Steele, Aaron; Wang, Fang; Showalter, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Link weight evolution is studied in a network of coupled chemical oscillators. Oscillators are perturbed by adjustments in imposed light intensity based on excitatory or inhibitory links to other oscillators undergoing excitation. Experimental and modeling studies demonstrate that the network is capable of producing sustained coordinated activity. The individual nodes of the network exhibit incoherent firing events; however, a dominant frequency can be discerned within the collective signal by Fourier analysis. The introduction of spike-timing-dependent plasticity yields a network that evolves to a stable unimodal link weight distribution.

  10. On the interpretation of event and sub-event rainfall chemistry.

    PubMed

    Beverland, I J; Crowther, J M

    1992-01-01

    Variations in precipitation chemistry between and within rain events have been examined in order to identify possible relationships with synoptic, mesoscale and micrometeorological processes. A microprocessor-based acid rain monitor was used to provide high resolution meteorological and rain chemistry data from which two case study events have been selected to illustrate event and sub-event rainfall chemistry characteristics. Event rainfall chemistry is strongly influenced by the history of the prevailing air mass and the synoptic situation. From back trajectories calculated at the 950 mbar level it is clear that air mass history can change markedly within a few hours. These observations emphasise the value of high resolution rainfall chemistry measurements. Pollutant concentrations in rainwater have been shown to fluctuate markedly within the course of individual events as a result of both advective and scavenging processes. Advective effects may result from: (a) air mass discontinuities at frontal zones; and/or (b) variable rainfall interception of the air mass prior to arrival at the site. A simple mathematical model has been developed to describe the scavenging mechanisms and it shows good agreement with field observations. Theoretical considerations suggest that in-cloud processes give rise to most of the observed decline in concentrations.

  11. Staged Event Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoschek, Wolfgang; Berket, Karlo

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  12. On the topology of flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A topological analysis is made of a simple model magnetic field of a perturbation at the magnetopause that shares magnetic properties with flux transfer events. The aim is to clarify a number of topological aspects that arise in the case of fully three-dimensional magnetic fields. It is shown that a localized perturbation at the magnetopause can in principle open a closed magnetosphere by establishing magnetic connections across the magnetopause by the formation of a ropelike magnetic field structure. For this purpose a global topological model of a closed magnetosphere is considered as the unperturbed state. The topological substructure of the model flux rope is discussed in detail.

  13. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  14. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  15. Pneumopericardium in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hook, B; Hack, M; Morrison, S; Borawski-Clark, E; Newman, N S; Fanaroff, A

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, neonatal correlates, and outcome of pneumopericardium (PPC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) < or = 1.5 kg infants. Forty-seven VLBW infants with a PPC, born during 1977 to 1989, were compared with a cohort of 1302 ventilated VLBW infants. PPC developed in 2% of 2389 VLBW infants and 3.5% of 1349 ventilated infants. The mean birth weight (1008 +/- 220 gm), and mean gestation (27 +/- 2 weeks) of the PPC cohort was similar to the control cohort. Thirty-two (68%) of the infants with PPC were male, compared with 691 (53%) of the ventilated infants (p < 0.05). Eight (17%) of the infants with PPC survived, compared with 780 (60%) of the control cohort (p < 0.00001). The oxygenation index significantly increased before PPC, and was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors. Four (50%) of the PPC survivors had neurodevelopmental impairment at 20 months, compared with 35% of the control cohort. Pneumopericardium is a rare event with high morbidity and mortality. Clinicians should suspect this diagnosis in VLBW infants with a rising oxygenation index and subsequent acute deterioration.

  16. Development of Memory for Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Hilary Horn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines development of event memory by determining how personally experienced events with two types of structure were reported by kindergartners and adults. Events in making and playing with clay were organized causally and temporally. Results show that adults and children used a goal-based hierarchical structure to remember events, although use…

  17. Objective functions of online weight noise injection training algorithms for MLPs.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kevin; Leung, Chi-Sing; Sum, John

    2011-02-01

    Injecting weight noise during training has been a simple strategy to improve the fault tolerance of multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) for almost two decades, and several online training algorithms have been proposed in this regard. However, there are some misconceptions about the objective functions being minimized by these algorithms. Some existing results misinterpret that the prediction error of a trained MLP affected by weight noise is equivalent to the objective function of a weight noise injection algorithm. In this brief, we would like to clarify these misconceptions. Two weight noise injection scenarios will be considered: one is based on additive weight noise injection and the other is based on multiplicative weight noise injection. To avoid the misconceptions, we use their mean updating equations to analyze the objective functions. For injecting additive weight noise during training, we show that the true objective function is identical to the prediction error of a faulty MLP whose weights are affected by additive weight noise. It consists of the conventional mean square error and a smoothing regularizer. For injecting multiplicative weight noise during training, we show that the objective function is different from the prediction error of a faulty MLP whose weights are affected by multiplicative weight noise. With our results, some existing misconceptions regarding MLP training with weight noise injection can now be resolved. PMID:21189237

  18. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ≈4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ≈1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional

  19. Topography's crucial role in Heinrich Events

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William H. G.; Valdes, Paul J.; Payne, Antony J.

    2014-01-01

    Heinrich Events, the abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet that cause the appearance of the well-observed Heinrich Layers, are thought to have a strong effect on the global climate. The focus of most studies that have looked at the climate’s response to these events has been the freshwater flux that results from melting icebergs. However, there is the possibility that the varying height of the ice sheet could force a change in the climate. In this study, we present results from a newly developed coupled climate/ice sheet model to show what effect this topographic change has both on its own and in concert with the flux of freshwater from melting icebergs. We show that the topographic forcing can explain a number of the climate changes that are observed during Heinrich Events, such as the warming and wettening in Florida and the warm sea surface temperatures in the central North Atlantic, which freshwater forcing alone cannot. We also find regions, for example the tropical Atlantic, where the response is a mixture of the two: Here observations may help disentangle the relative importance of each mechanism. These results suggest that the simple paradigm of a Heinrich Event causing climate change via freshwater inputs into the North Atlantic needs to be revised. PMID:25368154

  20. Analysis hierarchical model for discrete event systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciortea, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The This paper presents the hierarchical model based on discrete event network for robotic systems. Based on the hierarchical approach, Petri network is analysed as a network of the highest conceptual level and the lowest level of local control. For modelling and control of complex robotic systems using extended Petri nets. Such a system is structured, controlled and analysed in this paper by using Visual Object Net ++ package that is relatively simple and easy to use, and the results are shown as representations easy to interpret. The hierarchical structure of the robotic system is implemented on computers analysed using specialized programs. Implementation of hierarchical model discrete event systems, as a real-time operating system on a computer network connected via a serial bus is possible, where each computer is dedicated to local and Petri model of a subsystem global robotic system. Since Petri models are simplified to apply general computers, analysis, modelling, complex manufacturing systems control can be achieved using Petri nets. Discrete event systems is a pragmatic tool for modelling industrial systems. For system modelling using Petri nets because we have our system where discrete event. To highlight the auxiliary time Petri model using transport stream divided into hierarchical levels and sections are analysed successively. Proposed robotic system simulation using timed Petri, offers the opportunity to view the robotic time. Application of goods or robotic and transmission times obtained by measuring spot is obtained graphics showing the average time for transport activity, using the parameters sets of finished products. individually.

  1. How Verb Tense Affects the Construal of Action: The Simple Past Tense Leads People into an Abstract Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Pilar; Muñoz, Dolores; Caballero, Amparo; Fernández, Itziar; Aguilar, Pilar; Albarracín, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the influence of verb tense on how abstractly people construe action representations. Experiment 1 revealed that written descriptions of several daily events using the simple past tense (vs. simple present tense) resulted in actions and the action's target being seen as less likely and less familiar, respectively. In…

  2. The Associative Structure of Memory for Multi-Element Events

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampus is thought to be an associative memory “convergence zone,” binding together the multimodal elements of an experienced event into a single engram. This predicts a degree of dependency between the retrieval of the different elements comprising an event. We present data from a series of studies designed to address this prediction. Participants vividly imagined a series of person–location–object events, and memory for these events was assessed across multiple trials of cued retrieval. Consistent with the prediction, a significant level of dependency was found between the retrieval of different elements from the same event. Furthermore, the level of dependency was sensitive both to retrieval task, with higher dependency during cued recall than cued recognition, and to subjective confidence. We propose a simple model, in which events are stored as multiple pairwise associations between individual event elements, and dependency is captured by a common factor that varies across events. This factor may relate to between-events modulation of the strength of encoding, or to a process of within-event “pattern completion” at retrieval. The model predicts the quantitative pattern of dependency in the data when changes in the level of guessing with retrieval task and confidence are taken into account. Thus, we find direct behavioral support for the idea that memory for complex multimodal events depends on the pairwise associations of their constituent elements and that retrieval of the various elements corresponding to the same event reflects a common factor that varies from event to event. PMID:23915127

  3. Determination of riverbank erosion probability using Locally Weighted Logistic Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Elena; Flori, Aikaterini; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Giannakis, Georgios; Vozinaki, Anthi Eirini K.; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    erosion occurrence probability can be calculated in conjunction with the model deviance regarding the independent variables tested. The most straightforward measure for goodness of fit is the G statistic. It is a simple and effective way to study and evaluate the Logistic Regression model efficiency and the reliability of each independent variable. The developed statistical model is applied to the Koiliaris River Basin on the island of Crete, Greece. Two datasets of river bank slope, river cross-section width and indications of erosion were available for the analysis (12 and 8 locations). Two different types of spatial dependence functions, exponential and tricubic, were examined to determine the local spatial dependence of the independent variables at the measurement locations. The results show a significant improvement when the tricubic function is applied as the erosion probability is accurately predicted at all eight validation locations. Results for the model deviance show that cross-section width is more important than bank slope in the estimation of erosion probability along the Koiliaris riverbanks. The proposed statistical model is a useful tool that quantifies the erosion probability along the riverbanks and can be used to assist managing erosion and flooding events. Acknowledgements This work is part of an on-going THALES project (CYBERSENSORS - High Frequency Monitoring System for Integrated Water Resources Management of Rivers). The project has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: THALES. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  4. Acoustic source identification using a Generalized Weighted Inverse Beamforming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presezniak, Flavio; Zavala, Paulo A. G.; Steenackers, Gunther; Janssens, Karl; Arruda, Jose R. F.; Desmet, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    In the last years, acoustic source identification has gained special attention, mainly due to new environmental norms, urbanization problems and more demanding acoustic comfort expectation of consumers. From the current methods, beamforming techniques are of common use, since normally demands affordable data acquisition effort, while producing clear source identification in most of the applications. In order to improve the source identification quality, this work presents a method, based on the Generalized Inverse Beamforming, that uses a weighted pseudo-inverse approach and an optimization procedure, called Weighted Generalized Inverse Beamforming. To validate this method, a simple case of two compact sources in close vicinity in coherent radiation was investigated by numerical and experimental assessment. Weighted generalized inverse results are compared to the ones obtained by the conventional beamforming, MUltiple Signal Classification, and Generalized Inverse Beamforming. At the end, the advantages of the proposed method are outlined together with the computational effort increase compared to the Generalized Inverse Beamforming.

  5. Room weighting factors calculated from resistance-capacitance networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    A new technique has been developed for calculating room weighting factors used in building energy analyses. A resistance-capacitance network model of the thermal behavior of a room is solved numerically. Simple circuit elements representing components such as walls, furniture, and room air are interconnected by convective or radiative heat flow paths to form the network. Methods for calculating values of the circuit parameters from wall response factors and other information are given. The main advantage of this technique is that the weighting factors determined are specific to the room described by the network. Weighting factors for a single-room building, dominated by direct-gain solar input, have been calculated as an example of an application of the technique.

  6. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  7. The Not-So-Simple Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Cindy

    1995-01-01

    Describes learnings originating from a simple pendulum simulation using "interactive physics" simulations. Discusses tension in the rope, acceleration of the pendulum bob, and initial displacements. (JRH)

  8. Event selection services in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Gallas, E.; Hrivnac, J.; Kenyon, M.; McGlone, H.; Malon, D.; Mambelli, M.; Nowak, M.; Viegas, F.; Vinek, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-04-01

    ATLAS has developed and deployed event-level selection services based upon event metadata records ("TAGS") and supporting file and database technology. These services allow physicists to extract events that satisfy their selection predicates from any stage of data processing and use them as input to later analyses. One component of these services is a web-based Event-Level Selection Service Interface (ELSSI). ELSSI supports event selection by integrating run-level metadata, luminosity-block-level metadata (e.g., detector status and quality information), and event-by-event information (e.g., triggers passed and physics content). The list of events that survive after some selection criterion is returned in a form that can be used directly as input to local or distributed analysis; indeed, it is possible to submit a skimming job directly from the ELSSI interface using grid proxy credential delegation. ELSSI allows physicists to explore ATLAS event metadata as a means to understand, qualitatively and quantitatively, the distributional characteristics of ATLAS data. In fact, the ELSSI service provides an easy interface to see the highest missing ET events or the events with the most leptons, to count how many events passed a given set of triggers, or to find events that failed a given trigger but nonetheless look relevant to an analysis based upon the results of offline reconstruction, and more. This work provides an overview of ATLAS event-level selection services, with an emphasis upon the interactive Event-Level Selection Service Interface.

  9. A CORBA event system for ALMA common software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugate, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software notification channel framework provides developers with an easy to use, high-performance, event-driven system supported across multiple programming languages and operating systems. It sits on top of the CORBA notification service and hides nearly all CORBA from developers. The system is based on a push event channel model where suppliers push events onto the channel and consumers process these asynchronously. This is a many-to-many publishing model whereby multiple suppliers send events to multiple consumers on the same channel. Furthermore, these event suppliers and consumers can be coded in C++, Java, or Python on any platform supported by ACS. There are only two classes developers need to be concerned with: SimpleSupplier and Consumer. SimpleSupplier was designed so that ALMA events (defined as IDL structures) could be published in the simplest manner possible without exposing any CORBA to the developer. Essentially all that needs to be known is the channel's name and the IDL structure being published. The API takes care of everything else. With the Consumer class, the developer is responsible for providing the channel's name as well as associating event types with functions that will handle them.

  10. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  11. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    SciTech Connect

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  12. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  13. Personality disorders and body weight.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  14. Cascaded failures in weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi; Safari, Mohammadali

    2011-10-01

    Many technological networks can experience random and/or systematic failures in their components. More destructive situations can happen if the components have limited capacity, where the failure in one of them might lead to a cascade of failures in other components, and consequently break down the structure of the network. In this paper, the tolerance of cascaded failures was investigated in weighted networks. Three weighting strategies were considered including the betweenness centrality of the edges, the product of the degrees of the end nodes, and the product of their betweenness centralities. Then, the effect of the cascaded attack was investigated by considering the local weighted flow redistribution rule. The capacity of the edges was considered to be proportional to their initial weight distribution. The size of the survived part of the attacked network was determined in model networks as well as in a number of real-world networks including the power grid, the internet in the level of autonomous system, the railway network of Europe, and the United States airports network. We found that the networks in which the weight of each edge is the multiplication of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes had the best robustness against cascaded failures. In other words, the case where the load of the links is considered to be the product of the betweenness centrality of the end nodes is favored for the robustness of the network against cascaded failures.

  15. Event mapping meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, L.; Mason, D.

    1997-02-20

    A one-day meeting was held by the authors to evaluate how the strategic lab workshops would tie to this year`s tactical planning exercise. In particular, they wanted to find recent events that would support the tactical goal decisions of the Lab, and they wanted to find events that verify the Lab`s present course. The events which are each briefly discussed are: Galvin Commission recommends consolidating DOE defense labs (1995); Congressional subcommittee staff force budget cuts and consolidation (1995); 28% of DOE/DP budget held back pending completion of a clear 5-yr plan for nukes (1995); DOD and DOE focus on dual use (1995); LANL work includes weapons rebuilds (1995); LANL chosen by DOE to develop and test advanced remediation techniques (1995); AGEX/DARHT Project is stopped by suits from environmental activities (1996); Non-proliferation treaty renewed (1996); US complies with Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996); Capability based deterrence policy put into place (1998); Stockpile shrinks to approximately 2000 weapons (2005); DOE weapons labs re-chartered as true national labs (1996); DOE terminates all nuclear weapons testing support (1996); Industrial projects at LANL up 20% from previous year (1997); NIST-ATP Program becomes an interagency process (1997); DOE warns that spent commercial reactor fuels is a major proliferation threat (1998); Non-lethal weapons work helps to reshape LANL image (1998); Global warning theory proven (2005); Overall US spending on science has been flat or decreasing for three years (1998); and Economic role of LANL in northern New Mexico declines (2005).

  16. Tectonic events in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, T.; Voss, P.; Larsen, T.; Pinna, L.

    2012-12-01

    In Greenland a station separation of around 400km mean that many earthquakes are only detected on one or two stations. The development of the seismic monitoring have gone from having only three seismic stations in Greenland up to the late 1990'ies, till today where there are 18 permanent stations. All stations are equipped with broadband sensors and all of the permanent stations transmit data in real time. The recent major improvement of the seismic monitoring is performed by the Greenland ice sheet monitoring network (GLISN, http://glisn.info). The primary goal of GLISN is to provide broadband seismic data for the detection of glacial earthquakes. GLISN is now fully implemented with Iridium real time data transfer is in operation at five stations. In the Ammassalik region in Southeast Greenland, where small earthquakes often are felt, data from a temporary additional station has been utilized for a study covering 9 months in 2008/9. In this period 62 local earthquakes have been analyzed and re-located. Some of the events had formerly been located from distant stations by using a universal earth model. The result of this localization was a scattered distribution of the events in the region. The locations have now been improved by using a local earth model along with phase readings from two local stations not previously included; ANG in Tasiilaq and ISOG in Isortoq. From relocating the events two zones with a higher degree of seismicity than in the rest of the region are observed. The first zone is located by felsic intrusions. The second zone is at the boundary between the Archaean Craton and the Ammasalik region where reworked Archaean gneisses are dominating the geology. During the analysis it was observed that the additional information from the local stations are of great importance for the result. Active broad band stations in Greenland

  17. Prediction of Transport Properties of Permeants through Polymer Films. A Simple Gravimetric Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, L. N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Considers the applicability of the simple emersion/weight-gain method for predicting diffusion coefficients, solubilities, and permeation rates of chemicals in polymers that do not undergo physical and chemical deterioration. Presents the theoretical background, procedures and typical results related to this activity. (CW)

  18. The Design and Construction of a Simple Transmission Electron Microscope for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearsey, Paul K.

    This document presents a model for a simple transmission electron microscope for educational purposes. This microscope could demonstrate thermonic emission, particle acceleration, electron deflection, and flourescence. It is designed to be used in high school science courses, particularly physics, taking into account the size, weight, complexity…

  19. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  20. Presidential Events: Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walworth, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Catherine T. ("Katie") Hunt, ACS President 2007, will cosponsor a full week of presidential events and sessions. In her desire to work together to address substantive societal issues, she has selected Sustainability of Energy, Food, and Water as the presidential theme for this meeting. The goal is to successfully execute meaningful thematic programming at national meetings that will not only nucleate ideas, foster community, and accelerate innovation, but be essential to effectively communicate chemistry to a broader audience. Open discussions as a scientific community will better enable us to speak with one voice to our membership, the media, and the general public.

  1. Detection of solar events

    DOEpatents

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  2. Vaccine adverse events.

    PubMed

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  3. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  4. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    PubMed

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  5. The Cognitive Behavioral Approach to Weight Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girdano, Dorothy Dusek

    The cognitive behavioral approach to weight maintenance assumes that obese people should be concerned with weight control rather than weight loss, and it embraces both the behavioral approach and a maintenance program which examines risks, value priorities, and the basic principles of weight loss/weight gain. The University of Maryland offers a…

  6. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  7. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  8. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  9. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  10. 14 CFR 29.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Weight limits. 29.25 Section 29.25... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 29.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part...

  11. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Weight limits. 27.25 Section 27.25... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum weight (the highest weight at which compliance with each applicable requirement of this part is...

  12. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum... rotorcraft, assuming for each crewmember a weight no more than 170 pounds, or any lower weight selected by... external load. A total weight for the rotorcraft with a jettisonable external load attached that is...

  13. 14 CFR 27.25 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight General § 27.25 Weight limits. (a) Maximum weight. The maximum... rotorcraft, assuming for each crewmember a weight no more than 170 pounds, or any lower weight selected by... external load. A total weight for the rotorcraft with a jettisonable external load attached that is...

  14. Anion size of sodium salts and simple taste reaction times.

    PubMed

    Delwiche, J F; Halpern, B P; Desimone, J A

    1999-03-01

    Simple taste reaction times (RT) and taste intensities were measured in adult humans for 100-mM aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, acetate, glutamate, ascorbate, and gluconate flowed over the anterodorsal tongue with a closed liquid delivery system. Results from 12 subjects showed a significant increase in RT with molecular weight of the tastant, and a correlation of 0.941 between RT and the square roots of anionic weights. A multiple regression analysis controlling for perceived taste intensity indicated that RT increased linearly with the square root of the anionic weight. These findings support a model that includes both the permeability of ions through the tight junctions between the taste receptor cells of fungiform papillae taste buds and the effects of ions at apical portions of the receptor cells. They also suggest that gustatory transduction of sodium salts in humans normally involves intercellular spaces of taste buds as part of the functional sensory structures, in addition to individual taste receptor cells. PMID:10222469

  15. Olecranon stress fracture in a weight lifter: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Rao, S K; Navadgi, B C

    2001-02-01

    Stress fractures have been reported in the upper limb of sportspeople involved in upper limb dominated events. Olecranon stress fractures have been cited in baseball pitchers, javelin throwers, and gymnasts. The unusual case of a stress fracture of the olecranon in a young weight lifter is reported here. The minimally displaced stress fracture was treated with tension band and two Kirschner wires. The fracture healed in four months and the patient returned to light sports activity after six months.

  16. Handling Temporality of Clinical Events for Drug Safety Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Henriksson, Aron; Kvist, Maria; Asker, Lars; Boström, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data in electronic health records (EHRs) for post-marketing adverse drug event (ADE) detection allows for monitoring patients throughout their medical history. Machine learning methods have been shown to be efficient and effective in screening health records and detecting ADEs. How best to exploit historical data, as encoded by clinical events in EHRs is, however, not very well understood. In this study, three strategies for handling temporality of clinical events are proposed and evaluated using an EHR database from Stockholm, Sweden. The random forest learning algorithm is applied to predict fourteen ADEs using clinical events collected from different lengths of patient history. The results show that, in general, including longer patient history leads to improved predictive performance, and that assigning weights to events according to time distance from the ADE yields the biggest improvement. PMID:26958278

  17. Psychological impediments to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Strain, J J

    1979-01-01

    An understanding of the possible psychologic impediments to weight loss can promote improved therapeutic intervention for the obese patient. Certain psychological tasks are imposed by chronic medical illness including obesity. The universal stresses that accompany medical illness, the basic threat to self-esteem and sense of intactness, the fear--of loss of love and approval, of loss of control of function, of injury to body parts, of pain, and of guilt--all become psychological impediments thwarting weight loss and its maintenance. The physician's awareness of these psychological stresses helps him identify areas of necessary support. PMID:528129

  18. Free unitary groups are (almost) simple

    SciTech Connect

    Chirvasitu, Alexandru

    2012-12-15

    We show that the quotients of Wang and Van Daele's universal quantum groups by their centers are simple in the sense that they have no normal quantum subgroups, thus providing the first examples of simple compact quantum groups with non-commutative fusion rings.

  19. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  20. A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong-Fu; He, Ji-Huan

    2009-10-01

    A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  1. Restoration Monitoring - A Simple Photo Monitoring Method

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.K.

    2000-02-14

    Through the use of a simple photo monitoring design, it is possible to visually document, with both landscape and ground views, the progression of a restoration/revegetation project in a repeatable, cost-effective manner. The use of web browser technology can display the results in a simple, informative, professional manner, suitable for presentations and displays.

  2. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  3. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  4. Simple Experiments for Teaching Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsipour, Gholamreza

    2006-01-01

    Everyone who teaches physics knows very well that sometimes a simple device or experiment can help to make a concept clear. In this paper, inspired by "The Jumping Pencil" by Martin Gardner, I will discuss a simple demonstration device that can be used to start the study of air pressure.

  5. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  6. Screening for adverse events.

    PubMed

    Karson, A S; Bates, D W

    1999-02-01

    Adverse events (AEs) in medical patients are common, costly, and often preventable. Development of quality improvement programs to decrease the number and impact of AEs demands effective methods for screening for AEs on a routine basis. Here we describe the impact, types, and potential causes of AEs and review various techniques for identifying AEs. We evaluate the use of generic screening criteria in detail and describe a recent study of the sensitivity and specificity of individual generic screening criteria and combinations of these criteria. In general, the most sensitive screens were the least specific and no small sub-set of screens identified a large percentage of adverse events. Combinations of screens that were limited to administrative data were the least expensive, but none were particularly sensitive, although in practice they might be effective since routine screening is currently rarely done. As computer systems increase in sophistication sensitivity will improve. We also discuss recent studies that suggest that programs that screen for and identify AEs can be useful in reducing AE rates. While tools for identifying AEs have strengths and weaknesses, they can play an important role in organizations' quality improvement portfolios. PMID:10468381

  7. Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    It s long been known that the Sun plays host to the most energetic explosions in the solar system. But key insights into the forms that energy takes have only recently become available. Solar flares have been phenomena of both academic and practical interest since their discovery in 1859. From the academic point of view, they are the nearest events for studying the explosive release of energy in astrophysical magnetized plasmas. From the practical point of view, they disrupt communication channels on Earth, from telegraph communications in 1859 to radio and television signals today. Flares also wreak havoc on the electrical power grid, satellite operations, and GPS signals, and energetic charged particles and radiation are dangerous to passengers on high-altitude polar flights and to astronauts. Flares are not the only explosive phenomena on the Sun. More difficult to observe but equally energetic are the large coronal mass ejections (CMEs), the ejection of up to ten billion tons of magnetized plasma into the solar wind at speeds that can exceed 1000 km/s. CMEs are primarily observed from the side, with coronagraphs that block out the bright disk of the Sun and lower solar atmosphere so that light scattered from the ejected mass can be seen. Major geomagnetic storms are now known to arise from the interaction of CMEs with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar flares are observed without CMEs, and CMEs are observed without flares. The two phenomena often occur together, however, and almost always do in the case of large flares and fast CMEs. The term solar eruptive event refers to the combination of a flare and a CME. Solar eruptive events generate a lot of heat: They can heat plasma to temperatures as high at 50 million Kelvin, producing radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. But that s not all. A fascinating aspect of solar eruptive events is the acceleration of electrons and ions to suprathermal often relativistic energies. The accelerated particles are primarily

  8. MHD simple waves and the divergence wave

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G. M.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2010-03-25

    In this paper we investigate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simple divergence waves in MHD, for models in which nablacentre dotBnot =0. These models are related to the eight wave Riemann solvers in numerical MHD, in which the eighth wave is the divergence wave associated with nablacentre dotBnot =0. For simple wave solutions, all physical variables (the gas density, pressure, fluid velocity, entropy, and magnetic field induction in the MHD case) depend on a single phase function phi. We consider the form of the MHD equations used by both Powell et al. and Janhunen. It is shown that the Janhunen version of the equations possesses fully nonlinear, exact simple wave solutions for the divergence wave, but no physically meaningful simple divergence wave solution exists for the Powell et al. system. We suggest that the 1D simple, divergence wave solution for the Janhunen system, may be useful for the testing and validation of numerical MHD codes.

  9. What is conditional event algebra and why should you care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, I. R.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; Nguyen, H. T.

    1999-07-01

    Building practical intelligent-system algorithms requires appropriate tools for capturing the basic features of highly complex real-world environments. One of the most important of these tools, probability theory, is a calculus of events (e.g. EVENT = 'A fire-control radar of type A is detected' with Prob(EVENT) = 0.80). Conditional Event Algebra (CEA) is a relatively new inference calculus which rigorously extends standard probability theory to include events which are contingent--e.g. rules such as `If fire-control radar A is detected, then weapon B will be launched'; or conditionals such as `observation Z given target state X.' CEA allows one to (1) probabilistically model a contingent event; (2) assign a probability Prob(COND_EVENT) equals 0.50 to it; and (3) compute with such conditional events and probabilities using the same basic rules that govern ordinary events and probabilities. Since CEA is only about ten years old, it has achieved visibility primarily among specialists in expert-systems theory and mathematical logic. Recently, however, it has become clear that CEA has potentially radical implications for engineering practice as well. The purpose of this paper is to bring this promising new tool to the attention of the wider engineering community. We will give a tutorial introduction to CEA, based on simple motivational examples, and describe its potential applications in a number of practical engineering problems.

  10. Thoracic Splenosis after a Gunshot: Diffusion-Weighted MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Tutar, Onur; Bakan, Selim; Samanci, Cesur; Nurili, Fuat; Sayman, Haluk Burcak; Akman, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intrathoracic splenosis is a rare condition resulting from concomitant rupture of the spleen and left hemidiaphragm after a traumatic event involving the spleen and the diaphragma and is defined as autotransplantation of splenic tissue in thorax. Case Report The aim of this study was to present a case report of a combined intrathoracic and subcutaneous splenosis in a patient 19 years after penetrating trauma. She has left dorsal side pain and routine chest roentgenogram shows pleural nodular masses. The patient was referred to us for radiologic work up. Conclusions The MRI scans revealed the intrathoracic and subcutan masses as mainly hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and significant restriction in diffusion-weighted images. Scintigraphy revealed abnormal hot spots in subcutaneous tissue and diaphragmatic pleura of the left hemithorax. PMID:25745523

  11. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...

  12. Getting the Weights of Lewis Structures out of Huckel Theory: Huckel-Lewis Configuration Interaction (HL-CI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbel, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    A simple method is proposed based on energies obtained with the Huckel theory to compute the weights of the structures. The Huckel-Lewis CI technique extends to the Huckel theory the field of the resonance between Lewis structures.

  13. FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159362.html FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device Surgically implanted port allows obese patients to ... have been unable to lose weight and maintain weight loss using nonsurgical treatments. The FDA approval is for ...

  14. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  15. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  16. Assessment in the Weight Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Tim; Jenkins, Jayne

    2006-01-01

    Physical educators continually investigate purposeful, meaningful, and authentic means to assess student learning in relationship to the national standards. Here, the authors describe a means of assessing several of the national standards for physical education in a high school weight training class. Adopting the North Dakota Standards for…

  17. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements, they won’t be listed on the product label and they could harm you. Weight-loss supplements can be sold without being tested or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... can recall that product. Visit this website to view the FDA’s public ...

  18. Psychosocial Consequences of Weight Cycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Susan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Participants were 130 obese women who reported undertaking a mean lifetime total of 4.7 major diets on which they had lost a mean of 45.9 kilograms. Participants with a severe history of weight cycling had a significantly younger age of onset of obesity than mild cyclers and reported initiating dieting at a significantly younger age and lower…

  19. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  20. Longevity, mortality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Thomas T; Storms, Lowell H; Elrick, Harold

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation of total body weight to longevity and mortality. The MEDLINE database was searched for data that allow analysis of the relationship between absolute body weight and longevity or mortality. Additional data were used involving US veterans and baseball players. Trend lines of age at death versus body weight are presented. Findings show absolute body size is negatively related to longevity and life expectancy and positively to mortality. Trend lines show an average age at death versus weight slope of -0.4 years/kg. We also found that gender differences in longevity may be due to differences in body size. Animal research is consistent with the findings presented. Biological mechanisms are also presented to explain why increased body mass may reduce longevity. Life expectancy has increased dramatically through improved public health measures and medical care and reduced malnutrition. However, overnourishment and increased body size have promoted an epidemic of chronic disease and reduced our potential longevity. In addition, both excess lean body mass and fat mass may promote chronic disease.