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Sample records for simple rapid hiv

  1. Rapid and simple screening and supplemental testing for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Brattegaard, K; Kouadio, J; Adom, M L; Doorly, R; George, J R; De Cock, K M

    1993-06-01

    Researchers from an AIDS research project took blood samples from 1000 consecutive women during childbirth at a maternal and child health center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, and from 185 hospitalized patients to compare the results of a combination of synthetic peptide-based rapid tests (product names, Testpack and Genie), which check for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with those of the Western Blot-based test. They also wanted to see whether the rapid test-based strategy could replace the Western Blot-based test as a supplemental test. The Western Blot indicated the HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 prevalence to be 13% among the new mothers and 78% among the hospitalized patients for an overall prevalence of 23%. 3.3% of all people were positive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. 17.4% tested positive for just HIV-1. 2.1% were positive for HIV-2. The rapid tests had a sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. The positive predictive value was 99.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. The rapid tests identified 4% of the HIV-2 positive samples and 1% of the HIV-1 samples to be dually reactive. These findings demonstrated that rapid synthetic peptide-based assays reliably detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and can be supplemental tests. High quality HIV serology can be performed in a setting without running water and electricity which was the case in this study. A further advantage of this strategy is that each test takes only 10 minutes. These tests would have significant effects on HIV testing and counseling, diagnosis, and screening of blood for transfusion in rural areas of developing countries.

  2. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test

    PubMed Central

    Kanal, Koum; Chou, Thai Leang; Sovann, Ly; Morikawa, Yasuo; Mukoyama, Yumi; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC), which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories) HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0%) were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7%) between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant reports. These findings

  3. Evaluation of the proficiency of trained non-laboratory health staffs and laboratory technicians using a rapid and simple HIV antibody test.

    PubMed

    Kanal, Koum; Chou, Thai Leang; Sovann, Ly; Morikawa, Yasuo; Mukoyama, Yumi; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2005-05-20

    In Cambodia, nearly half of pregnant women attend antenatal care (ANC), which is an entry point of services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, most of ANC services are provided in health centres or fields, where laboratory services by technicians are not available. In this study, those voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) counsellors involved in PMTCT were trained by experienced laboratory technicians in our centre on HIV testing using Determine (Abbot Laboratories) HIV1/2 test kits through a half-day training course, which consisted of use of a pipette, how to process whole blood samples, and how to read test result. The trained counsellors were midwives working for ANC and delivery ward in our centre without any experience on laboratory works. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of the training by evaluating the proficiency of the trained non-laboratory staffs. The trained counsellors withdrew blood sample after pre-test counselling following ANC, and performed the rapid test. Laboratory technicians routinely did the same test and returned reports of the test results to counsellors. Reports by the counsellors and the laboratory technicians were compared, and discordant reports in two groups were re-tested with the same rapid test kit using the same blood sample. Cause of discordance was detected in discussion with both groups. Of 563 blood samples tested by six trained VCCT counsellors and three laboratory technicians, 11 samples (2.0%) were reported positive in each group, however four discordant reports (0.7%) between the groups were observed, in which two positive reports and two negative reports by the counsellors were negative and positive by the laboratory technicians, respectively. Further investigation confirmed that all the reports by the counsellors were correct, and that human error in writing reports in the laboratory was a cause of these discordant reports. These findings

  4. Rapid HIV test in family practice.

    PubMed

    Poirier, C; Aymeric, S; Grammatico-Guillon, L; Lebeau, J P; Bernard, L; Le Bret, P; Le Moal, G; Gras, G

    2015-06-01

    The 2010-2014 HIV/AIDS French program recommends using HIV rapid diagnostic tests in family practice. Our aim was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the RDT in family practice in France. The first part of this study was to determine the opinions of family practitioners (FPs) concerning the news guidelines for screening and the possible use of rapid HIV tests in their practice. The second part was a feasibility study of the actual use of rapid HIV tests given to FPs during six months. The third part was a qualitative analysis of experience feedback to determine the impediments to using rapid HIV tests. Seventy-seven percent of the 352 FPs interviewed were favorable to rapid HIV tests use. The three main impediments were: misinterpretation of test result, complexity of quality control, and lack of training: 23 of the 112 FPs having volunteered to evaluate the rapid HIV tests followed the required training session. Sixty-nine tests were handed out, and three rapid HIV tests were used; the qualitative study involved 12 FPs. The participants all agreed on the difficult use of rapid HIV tests in daily practice. The main reasons were: too few opportunities or requests for use, complex handling, difficulties in proposing the test, fear of having to announce seropositivity, significantly longer consultation. Although FPs are generally favorable to rapid HIV tests use in daily practice, the feasibility and contribution of rapid HIV tests are limited in family practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A simple and rapid DNA extraction method from whole blood for highly sensitive detection and quantitation of HIV-1 proviral DNA by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    McFall, Sally M; Wagner, Robin L; Jangam, Sujit R; Yamada, Douglas H; Hardie, Diana; Kelso, David M

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis and access to treatment for infants with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is critical to reduce infant mortality. The lack of simple point-of-care tests impedes the timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The development of FINA, filtration isolation of nucleic acids, a novel DNA extraction method that can be performed by clinic personnel in less than 2 min has been reported previously. In this report, significant improvements in the DNA extraction and amplification methods are detailed that allow sensitive quantitation of as little as 10 copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA and detection of 3 copies extracted from 100 μl of whole blood. An internal control to detect PCR inhibition was also incorporated. In a preliminary field evaluation of 61 South African infants, the FINA test demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity. The proviral copy number of the infant specimens was quantified, and it was established that 100 microliters of whole blood is required for sensitive diagnosis of infants.

  6. Rapid HIV screening: missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pragna; Bennett, Berry; Sullivan, Timothy; Parker, Monica M; Heffelfinger, James D; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Although rapid HIV tests increase the number of persons who are aware of their HIV status, they may fail to detect early HIV infection. To evaluate the sensitivity for early HIV infection of several rapid tests and third- and fourth-generation assays compared with nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Sensitivity for early HIV infection was evaluated using 62 NAAT-positive/WB-negative or indeterminate specimens from the CDC Acute HIV Infection study. Specimens underwent third-generation testing with Genetic Systems 1/2+O(®) and rapid testing with Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2. A subset was also tested with four FDA-approved rapid tests and Determine HIV-1 Antigen/Antibody Rapid Test(®) and Architect HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo(®), both fourth-generation tests. Of 99,111 specimens screened from April 2006 to March 2008, 62 met the definition for early HIV infection (60 NAAT-positive/seronegative and 2 NAAT-positive/Western blot indeterminate). Third-generation testing correctly detected antibody in 34 specimens (55%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 42-67); Multispot detected antibody in 16 (26%; 95% CI: 16-38). Of the 62 specimens, 33 (53%) had sufficient quantity for further testing. Rapid test sensitivities for early HIV infection ranged from 22-33% compared with 55-57% for the third-generation assay and 76-88% for the fourth-generation tests. Many rapid HIV tests failed to detect half of the early HIV infection cases in whom antibody was present. Programs that screen high-incidence populations with rapid tests should consider supplemental testing with NAAT or other antigen-based tests. These data support the need for more sensitive antigen-based point-of-care screening tests for early HIV infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Convenient cell fusion assay for rapid screening for HIV entry inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shibo; Radigan, Lin; Zhang, Li

    2000-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV)-induced cell fusion is a critical pathway of HIV spread from infected cells to uninfected cells. A rapid and simple assay was established to measure HIV-induce cell fusion. This study is particularly useful to rapid screen for HIV inhibitors that block HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Present study demonstrated that coculture of HIV-infected cells with uninfected cells at 37 degree(s)C for 2 hours resulted in the highest cell fusion rate. Using this cell fusion assay, we have identified several potent HIV inhibitors targeted to the HIV gp41 core. These antiviral agents can be potentially developed as antiviral drugs for chemotherapy and prophylaxis of HIV infection and AIDS.

  8. Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Stetler, H C; Granade, T C; Nunez, C A; Meza, R; Terrell, S; Amador, L; George, J R

    1997-03-01

    To determine the ability of simple, rapid tests to identify HIV-1 antibody-positive specimens in field settings using the World Health Organization's (WHO) alternative testing strategies. Three-phase evaluation of simple, rapid assays using banked specimens and prospectively collected serum specimens at regional hospitals and rural clinics. Seven test (Retrocell, Genie, HIVCHEK, SUDS HIV-1, Testpack, Serodia HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 RTD) were evaluated and results compared with standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results (phase 1). Further evaluation consisted of prospective testing of routine specimens at regional (phase 2; n = 900) and rural, peripheral laboratories (phase 3; n = 1266) throughout Honduras with selected assays. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and combination of assays for each phase to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO alternative testing strategies. All tests in all phases were > 99% sensitive after correcting for technical errors, with two exceptions (SUDS, phase 1; HIVCHEK, phase 3). In phase 3, where the testing algorithm was diagnostic, several combinations of assays were 100% sensitive and specific using WHO strategy II or III. For the Honduras Ministry of Health, the combination of Retrocell and Genie was found to be equally sensitive, more specific (no indeterminate results), and less expensive than EIA/Western blot. Combinations of rapid, simple HIV antibody assays provide sensitivity and specificity performance comparable to EIA/Western blot. Application of these combinations in the WHO alternative testing strategies provides an inexpensive and effective method of determining HIV status. Assay combinations using these strategies can be easily performed in small, rural laboratories and have been implemented in routine HIV screening in Honduras.

  9. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Kawaji, Kumi; Hattori, Toshio; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  10. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    PubMed

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-08-24

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bifunctional recombinant fusion proteins for rapid detection of antibodies to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay K

    2006-01-01

    Background Availability of accurate diagnostic tests has been helpful in curtailing the spread of HIV infection. Among these, simple, point of care, inexpensive tests which require only a drop of blood from finger-prick and give reliable results within minutes are a must for expansion of testing services and for reaching mobile and marginalised populations. Such tests will not only be a boon for the infrastructure-starved developing and underdeveloped countries but will also be extremely useful in developed countries where post-testing compliance is a major problem. Our laboratory has been involved in developing reagents for heamagglutination-based rapid detection of antibodies to HIV in whole blood using recombinant molecules specific for either HIV-1 or HIV-2. Since it is not required of a screening test to differentially detect HIV and HIV-2, it would useful to create a single molecule capable of simultaneous detection of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 in a drop of blood. Results The present paper describes designing, high-level expression and large-scale purification of new molecules comprising recombinant anti-RBC Fab fused to immunodominant regions of envelope sequences from both gp41 of HIV-1 and gp36 of HIV-2. These immunodominant regions of HIV envelope contain cysteine residues, which make disulfide bond and can interfere with the assembly of light chain and heavy chain fragment to make Fab molecule in vitro. To circumvent this problem, a series of fusion proteins having different combinations of native and mutant envelope sequences were constructed, purified and evaluated for their efficacy in detecting antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. A chimeric molecule comprising native envelope sequence of gp41 of HIV-1 and modified envelope sequence of gp36 of HIV-2 gave good production yield and also detected both HIV-1 and HIV-2 samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The new bifunctional antibody fusion protein identified in this study detects both HIV-1

  12. Challenges for rapid molecular HIV diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schito, Marco L; D'Souza, M Patricia; Owen, S Michele; Busch, Michael P

    2010-04-15

    The introduction of serological point-of-care assays 10 years ago dramatically changed the way that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was identified and diagnosed. Testing at the point of care has lead to a dramatic increase in the number of individuals who are screened and, most importantly, receive their HIV test result. As the AIDS epidemic continues to mature and scientific advances in prevention and treatment are evaluated and implemented, there is a need to identify acute (viremic preseroconversion) infections and to discriminate "window phase" infections from those that are serologically positive, especially in resource-limited settings, where the majority of vulnerable populations reside and where the incidence of HIV infection is highest. Rapid testing methods are now at a crossroads. There is opportunity to implement and evaluate the incremental diagnostic usefulness of new test modalities that are based on sophisticated molecular diagnostic technologies and that can be performed in settings where laboratory infrastructure is minimal. The way forward requires sound scientific judgment and an ability to further develop and implement these tests despite a variety of technical, social, and operational hurdles, to declare success.

  13. Simple rapid method for gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, A.F.; Meier, H.

    1990-01-30

    The object of the present invention is to provide methods for gene transfer that reduce or eliminate cellular pretreatment steps, e.g., the removal of cell wall by chemical or enzymatic methods, is rapid and can be practiced without the need of additional expensive equipment. Cells, embryos or tissues selected for genetic manipulation are suspended in an Eppendorf tube in an aliquot of the desired genetic material to be transferred to which the resulting mixture is added and is agitated by vortexing from about 30 to about 90 seconds. The cells, embryos or tissue are sedimented and the DNA supernatant removed. After sedimentation, the injected material is resuspended in or on a growth medium to assay for expression.

  14. Performance of HIV Rapid Tests Among Breastfeeding, Malawian Infants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily R; Sheahan, Anna D; Heyderman, Robert S; Miller, William C; Wheeler, Stephanie; Hudgens, Michael; Nelson, Julie A E; Dube, Queen; Van Rie, Annelies

    2017-04-01

    Timely, accurate and affordable testing algorithms at point-of-care are critical for early infant HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy in the postpartum period. We aimed to assess the utility of HIV rapid tests for young, breast-fed HIV-exposed infants in resource limited, high HIV burden settings. We collected data on the performance of 2 commonly used rapid tests (Determine and Unigold) in Malawi between 2008 and 2012 or at the University of North Carolina between 2014 and 2015. For each 3-month interval between ages 3 and 18 months, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each test compared with the HIV DNA/RNA PCR gold standard. We also assessed the utility of each rapid test to diagnose incident HIV infection during the breastfeeding period. Among 121 HIV-exposed infants who were negative at age 6 weeks, 21 (17.2%) became infected by 18 months. At 3 months of age, both rapid tests had minimal clinical value with specificity values of 7.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-15.7] for Determine and 19.4% (95% CI: 11.1-30.5) for Unigold. Starting at age 6 and 9 months, the Unigold test could be used as a screening tool in the follow-up of HIV-exposed infants with specificity values of 83.7% (95% CI: 74.4-89.9) and 97.7% (95% CI: 94.6-99.7), respectively. Starting at age 12 months, the type of test became less important as both tests performed well in identifying HIV-free children, although both tests failed to detect some incident HIV infections. Updated guidelines for the use of rapid tests in young HIV-exposed children that explicitly take type of test and infant age into account are urgently needed to ensure optimal care for the 1.5 million HIV-exposed infants born annually.

  15. The RARE model of rapid HIV risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Christopher J; Singer, Merrill; Needle, Richard; Trotter, Robert T

    2007-08-01

    The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on minority communities called for interventions to stem the increase in new HIV infections and identify HIV-positive individuals for referral to care and treatment services. The Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (RARE) project was designed to provide highly affected communities with a tool that would quickly identify conditions that fuel new infections and serve as barriers to HIV-positive individuals getting HIV testing, care, and treatment. RARE brought indigenous community health outreach workers and key community-level stakeholders together to advocate for the transfer of findings into programmatic and policy responses in places where high risk behaviors were practiced. This article describes RARE's qualitative methods that captured the voice of those most affected by the HIV/AIDS threat and identified critical insights and dynamics about factors that lead to HIV infections and those that can move positive individuals into care and treatment.

  16. Toward Automating HIV Identification: Machine Learning for Rapid Identification of HIV-Related Social Media Data.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Yu, Wenchao; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data. Using an existing social media data set that was associated with HIV and coded by an HIV domain expert, we tested whether 4 commonly used machine learning methods could learn the patterns associated with HIV risk behavior. We used the 10-fold cross-validation method to examine the speed and accuracy of these models in applying that knowledge to detect HIV content in social media data. Logistic regression and random forest resulted in the highest accuracy in detecting HIV-related social data (85.3%), whereas the Ridge Regression Classifier resulted in the lowest accuracy. Logistic regression yielded the fastest processing time (16.98 seconds). Machine learning can enable social big data to become a new and important tool in HIV research, helping to create a new field of "digital HIV epidemiology." If a domain expert can identify patterns in social data associated with HIV risk or HIV transmission, machine learning models could quickly and accurately learn those associations and identify potential HIV patterns in large social data sets.

  17. Comparison of Enhanced Targeted Rapid HIV Screening Using the Denver HIV Risk Score to Nontargeted Rapid HIV Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Haukoos, Jason S.; Hopkins, Emily; Bender, Brooke; Sasson, Comilla; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Thrun, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Study objective A clinical prediction tool, the Denver HIV Risk Score, was recently developed to help identify patients with increased probability of undiagnosed HIV infection. Our goal was to compare targeted rapid HIV screening using the Denver HIV Risk Score to nontargeted rapid HIV screening in an urban emergency department (ED) and urgent care. Methods We used a prospective, before-after design at an urban medical center with an approximate annual census of 110,000 visits. Patients aged 13 years or older were eligible for screening. Targeted HIV screening of patients identified as high-risk by nurses using the Denver HIV Risk Score during medical screening was compared to nontargeted HIV screening offered by medical screening nurses during 2 separate 4-month time periods. The primary outcome was newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients. Results 28,506 patients presented during the targeted phase, 1,718 were identified as high-risk, and 551 completed HIV testing. Of these, 7 (1.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5% to 2.6%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. 29,510 patients presented during the nontargeted phase and 3,591 completed HIV testing. Of these, 7 (0.2%, 95% CI 0.1% to 0.4%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Targeted HIV screening was significantly associated with identification of newly diagnosed HIV infection when compared to nontargeted screening, adjusting for patient demographics and payer status (relative risk [RR] 10.4, 95% CI 3.4 to 32.0). Conclusion Targeted HIV screening using the Denver HIV Risk Score was strongly associated with new HIV diagnoses when compared to nontargeted screening. Although both HIV screening methods identified the same absolute number of newly diagnosed patients, significantly fewer tests were required during the targeted phase to achieve the same effect. PMID:23290527

  18. Comparison of enhanced targeted rapid HIV screening using the Denver HIV risk score to nontargeted rapid HIV screening in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Haukoos, Jason S; Hopkins, Emily; Bender, Brooke; Sasson, Comilla; Al-Tayyib, Alia A; Thrun, Mark W

    2013-03-01

    A clinical prediction tool, the Denver HIV Risk Score, was recently developed to help identify patients with increased probability of undiagnosed HIV infection. Our goal was to compare targeted rapid HIV screening using the Denver HIV Risk Score to nontargeted rapid HIV screening in an urban emergency department (ED) and urgent care. We used a prospective, before-after design at an urban medical center with an approximate annual census of 110,000 visits. Patients aged 13 years or older were eligible for screening. Targeted HIV screening of patients identified as high-risk by nurses using the Denver HIV Risk Score during medical screening was compared to nontargeted HIV screening offered by medical screening nurses during 2 separate 4-month time periods. The primary outcome was newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients. 28,506 patients presented during the targeted phase, 1,718 were identified as high-risk, and 551 completed HIV testing. Of these, 7 (1.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5% to 2.6%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. 29,510 patients presented during the nontargeted phase and 3,591 completed HIV testing. Of these, 7 (0.2%, 95% CI 0.1% to 0.4%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Targeted HIV screening was significantly associated with identification of newly diagnosed HIV infection when compared to nontargeted screening, adjusting for patient demographics and payer status (relative risk [RR] 10.4, 95% CI 3.4 to 32.0). Targeted HIV screening using the Denver HIV Risk Score was strongly associated with new HIV diagnoses when compared to nontargeted screening. Although both HIV screening methods identified the same absolute number of newly diagnosed patients, significantly fewer tests were required during the targeted phase to achieve the same effect. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who

  20. Sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays or HIV RNA tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Sheng; Chow, Eric P F; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim R H

    2016-07-31

    Determine the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in clinical settings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane reviews and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched until 14 July 2015 for studies of adults comparing point-of-care HIV rapid tests to fourth-generation HIV EIA antibody/p24 antigen or HIV NAAT. From 953 titles, 18 studies were included, involving 110 122 HIV rapid test results. Compared with EIA, the estimated sensitivity (random effects) of HIV rapid tests was 94.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4-97.7]. Compared with NAAT, the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests was 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.5). The sensitivity of HIV rapid tests in high-income countries was 85.7% (95% CI: 81.9-88.9) and in low-income countries was 97.7% (95% CI: 95.2-98.9) compared with either EIA or NAAT (P < 0.01 for difference between settings). Proportions of antibody negative acute infections were 13.6 (95% CI: 10.1-18.0) and 4.7% (95% CI: 2.8-7.7) in studies from high-income and low-income countries, respectively (P < 0.01). In clinical settings, HIV rapid tests were less sensitive in high-income countries compared with low-income countries, missing about one in seven infections, possibly because of the larger proportion of acute infections in targeted populations. This suggests that in high-income countries, HIV rapid tests should be used in combination with fourth-generation EIA or NAAT tests, except in special circumstances. Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews registration number CRD42015020154.Supplementary video link: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A924.

  1. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eric M; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd- or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simple and Rapid Method for Detecting Biofilm Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha; Ray, Subhasree

    2017-03-01

    Biofilm forming bacteria play a vital role in causing infectious diseases and for enhancing the efficiency of the bioremediation process through immobilization. Different media and conditions have been reported for detecting biofilm forming bacteria, however, they are not quite rapid. Here, we propose the use of a simple medium which can be used for detecting biofilm former, and also provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of biofilm formation process.

  3. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Braden R.; Tran, Bonnie R.; Thomas, Anne G.; Grillo, Michael P.; Jacobs, Marni B.; McAnany, Jennifer; Shaffer, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization’s HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis. PMID:28686678

  4. Dental hygienists' knowledge of HIV, attitudes towards people with HIV and willingness to conduct rapid HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Santella, A J; Krishnamachari, B; Davide, S H; Cortell, M; Furnari, W; Watts, B; Haden, S C

    2013-11-01

    To normalize rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in the United States, expanded rapid HIV testing initiatives are needed outside the routine medical setting. The dental setting is a logical choice as almost two-thirds of Americans regularly see a dental provider each year. This study was aimed to determine the dental hygienists' knowledge of HIV, attitudes towards people living with HIV and willingness to conduct rapid HIV testing. A national cross-sectional survey of practicing dental hygienists and senior dental hygiene students were recruited using state dental hygiene associations, email LISTSERVS, dental hygiene programmes and continuing education conferences (n = 634). The mean knowledge score was 10.5/13. High versus low test-scorers (75% of test questions or more answered correctly versus less than 75% answered correctly) did differ in their comfort level in counselling about sexual HIV prevention methods (P = 0.03) and comfort level in working with medically compromised patients (P = 0.04). Dental hygienists, with additional training in HIV prevention counseling and diagnostic testing, may be an appropriate profession to conduct rapid HIV testing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Simple and rapid determination of myristicin in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Dybowski, Michal P

    2013-01-01

    Myristicin (5-allyl-1-methoxy-2,3-methylenodioxybenzene) is the main component of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil. The increasing use of myristicin as a cheap hallucinogenic intoxicant, frequently causing fatal cases of myristicin poisoning, requires new methods for determination of this compound in blood. This report describes the rapid, simple, and useful procedure for myristicin analysis in human serum, involving myristicin-protein complex degradation before chromatographic analysis. The developed method is characterized by a high recovery (above 99 %), a low detection limit (6.0 ng/g) and good repeatability (average RDS of 2.01 %).

  6. Rapid enzymatic test for phenotypic HIV protease drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Assfalg-Machleidt, Irmgard; Nitschko, Hans; von der Helm, Klaus; Koszinowski, Ulrich; Machleidt, Werner

    2003-07-01

    A phenotypic resistance test based on recombinant expression of the active HIV protease in E. coli from patient blood samples was developed. The protease is purified in a rapid one-step procedure as active enzyme and tested for inhibition by five selected synthetic inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) used presently for chemotherapy of HIV-infected patients. The HPLC system used in a previous approach was replaced by a continuous fluorogenic assay suitable for high-throughput screening on microtiter plates. This reduces significantly the total assay time and allows the determination of inhibition constants (Ki). The Michaelis constant (Km) and the inhibition constant (Ki) of recombinant wild-type protease agree well with published data for cloned HIV protease. The enzymatic test was evaluated with recombinant HIV protease derived from eight HIV-positive patients scored from 'sensitive' to 'highly resistant' according to mutations detected by genotypic analysis. The measured Ki values correlate well with the genotypic resistance scores, but allow a higher degree of differentiation. The non-infectious assay enables a more rapid yet sensitive detection of HIV protease resistance than other phenotypic assays.

  7. Microfluidic assay without blocking for rapid HIV screening and confirmation.

    PubMed

    Song, Lusheng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Liying; Liu, Yong; Hao, Yanlin; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-08-01

    The essential step for HIV spreading limitation is the screening tests. However, there are multiple disadvantages in current screening assays which need further confirmation test. Herein we developed a rapid HIV assay combining screening and confirmation test by using the microfluidic network assay. Meanwhile, the assay is accelerated by bypassing the step of blocking. We call this method as microfluidic assay without blocking (MAWB). Both the limit of detection and reagent incubation time of MAWB are determined by screening of one model protein pair: ovalbumin and its antibody. The assay time is accelerated about 25% while the limit of detection (LOD) is well kept. Formatting the method in for both HIV screening (testing 8 HIV-related samples) and confirmation (assaying 6 kinds of HIV antibodies of each sample) within 30 min was successful. Fast HIV screening and confirmation of 20 plasma samples were also demonstrated by this method. MAWB improved the assay speed while keeping the LOD of conventional ELISA. Meanwhile, both the accuracy and throughput of MAWB were well improved, which made it an excellent candidate for a quick HIV test for both screening and confirmation. Methods like this one will find wide applications in clinical diagnosis and biochemical analysis based on the interactions between pairs of molecules.

  8. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    PubMed

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  9. A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

  10. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  11. Simple and Rapid Quantification of Thrombocytes in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Huarng, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Platelets are a critical component of hemostasis, with disorders of number or function resulting in coagulation disturbances. Insights into these processes have primarily been realized through studies using mammalian models or tissues. Increasingly, zebrafish embryos and larvae have been used to study the protein and cellular components of hemostasis and thrombosis, including the thrombocyte, a nucleated platelet analog. However, investigations of thrombocytes have been somewhat limited due to lack of a robust and simple methodology for quantitation, an important component of platelet studies in mammals. Using video capture, we have devised an assay that produces a rapid, reproducible, and precise measurement of thrombocyte number in zebrafish larvae by counting fluorescently tagged cells. Averaging 1000 frames, we were able to subtract background fluorescence, thus limiting assessment to circulating thrombocytes. This method facilitated rapid assessment of relative thrombocyte counts in a population of 372 zebrafish larvae by a single operator in less than 3 days. This technique requires basic microscopy equipment and rudimentary programming, lends itself to high throughput analysis, and will enhance future studies of thrombopoiesis in the zebrafish. PMID:25790244

  12. Simple and rapid quantification of thrombocytes in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Huarng, Michael C; Shavit, Jordan A

    2015-06-01

    Platelets are a critical component of hemostasis, with disorders of number or function resulting in coagulation disturbances. Insights into these processes have primarily been realized through studies using mammalian models or tissues. Increasingly, zebrafish embryos and larvae have been used to study the protein and cellular components of hemostasis and thrombosis, including the thrombocyte, a nucleated platelet analog. However, investigations of thrombocytes have been somewhat limited due to lack of a robust and simple methodology for quantitation, an important component of platelet studies in mammals. Using video capture, we have devised an assay that produces a rapid, reproducible, and precise measurement of thrombocyte number in zebrafish larvae by counting fluorescently tagged cells. Averaging 1000 frames, we were able to subtract background fluorescence, thus limiting assessment to circulating thrombocytes. This method facilitated rapid assessment of relative thrombocyte counts in a population of 372 zebrafish larvae by a single operator in less than 3 days. This technique requires basic microscopy equipment and rudimentary programming, lends itself to high throughput analysis, and will enhance future studies of thrombopoiesis in the zebrafish.

  13. Discordant rapid HIV tests: lessons from a low-resource community.

    PubMed

    Adetunji, A A; Kuti, M A; Audu, R A; Muyibi, S A; Imhansoloeva, M; Mosuro, O A; Solanke, E A; Akpa, O M; Irabor, A E; Ladipo, Mma; Berzins, B; Robertson, K; Ogunniyi, A; Adewole, I F; Taiwo, B O

    2017-07-31

    HIV rapid antibody tests are widely used in Africa, but dual testing sometimes produces discordant results. It is not clear if discordant rapid HIV tests should always heighten suspicion by frontline health workers that early HIV infection is present. Some studies have reported that discordant rapid tests have value for identifying early HIV infection in high HIV prevalence populations. It is not known if rapid test performance influenced this conclusion, or if this observation will hold true for low HIV prevalence populations. We therefore explored the occurrence of discordant rapid HIV tests in a low-resource community. A cross-sectional sample of HIV status-unaware adults with recent exposure to unsafe sex was assessed using a validated risk-based tool (University of North Carolina (UNC)-Malawi Risk Screening Score) for acute HIV infection. Participants received rapid testing with Determine™ HIV 1/2 and Uni-Gold™ HIV assays, plus plasma HIV-1 antigen testing with the COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HIV-1 assay, followed by western blot in those with detected HIV-1 antigen. Of 408 participants, 1.0% were confirmed to have established HIV infection. The discordance between rapid tests at initial screening was 2.45 and 2.94% when the two assays were used sequentially and simultaneously, respectively. Discordant rapid tests were strongly associated with risk scores > 2 [odds ratio (OR) 10.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-50.43], and with detected HIV-1 RNA (OR 26.06; 95% CI 3.91-173.60). When the sample occurrence of discordance between the first and second tests is below 5%, discordant rapid tests in an adult with sexual risk behaviour should trigger strong suspicion of early HIV infection in low HIV prevalence populations. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  14. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Eggman, Ashley A.; Leff, Jared A.; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Methods Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Results Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. Conclusion An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes. PMID:26862232

  15. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Eggman, Ashley A; Leff, Jared A; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes.

  16. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Katherine M; Murray, Alexandra J; Pollack, Ross A; Soliman, Mary G; Laskey, Sarah B; Capoferri, Adam A; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C; Lada, Steven M; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D; Deeks, Steven G; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persists in CD4(+) T cells in a latent form that is not targeted by the immune system or by ART. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to curing individuals of HIV-1 infection. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and the persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. By using an unbiased method to amplify near-full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1-infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early initiation of ART limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly affect the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals who were treated early versus late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size, as determined by the number of genetically intact proviruses. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies.

  17. African American Patient Experiences with a Rapid HIV Testing Program in an Urban Public Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Eng, Whitney; Cornwall, Alexandra; Beckwith, Curt; Dickman, Samuel; Flanigan, Timothy; Kwakwa, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Background Of 1,174 new HIV cases diagnosed in Philadelphia in 2008, 771 (66%) were among African Americans. In 2007, Philadelphia introduced a citywide rapid HIV testing program in public clinics. Methods We conducted a prospective qualitative study among 60 African Americans undergoing rapid HIV testing in one of Philadelphia’s public clinics located in a zipcode with high HIV incidence. Employing grounded theory, we used semi-structured interviews to assess patients’ motivations, perceptions and clinical experiences with rapid HIV testing. Interviews were transcribed and coded; 20% were double coded to enhance reliability. Results Primary motivations for undergoing rapid HIV testing included: testing during routine clinical care, presenting for care with symptomatic STIs or opportunistic infections, knowing someone living with HIV/AIDS, and perceiving oneself at risk for HIV. Most patients reported positive experiences with rapid testing and preferred it to conventional testing because it eliminated the need for return visits and decreased anxiety; however, many expressed concerns about accuracy of rapid HIV testing. Barriers to HIV testing among this population included low self-perceived risk, HIV stigma and reported homophobia in respondents’ communities. Conclusion This rapid testing program was acceptable, convenient, and preferred over conventional HIV testing. Providing educational information about rapid and confirmatory HIV testing may further enhance acceptability of rapid HIV testing in this population. Nationwide expansion of rapid HIV testing in public health centers is an important and acceptable means of achieving President Obama’s National AIDS Strategy goals of reducing racial disparities in HIV infection and HIV/AIDS treatment services. PMID:22708242

  18. Defective proviruses rapidly accumulate during acute HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Katherine M.; Murray, Alexandra J.; Pollack, Ross A.; Soliman, Mary G.; Laskey, Sarah B.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells in a latent form not targeted by the immune system or ART1–5. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to cure. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective6. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. Using an unbiased method to amplify near full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1 infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early ART initiation limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly impact the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals treated early vs. late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:27500724

  19. An Evaluation of Introduction of Rapid HIV Testing in a Perinatal Program.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Sarah; Tulloch, Karen; Maan, Evelyn J; van Schalkwyk, Julianne; Money, Deborah M

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the roll-out of rapid HIV testing as part of an emergency Prevention of Perinatal HIV Transmission Program. Specifically, HIV prevalence in this population, the reason(s) for performing the rapid HIV test, and compliance with recommendations for antiretroviral prophylaxis were assessed. Since November 2011, all women presenting to a tertiary labour and delivery unit with unknown HIV status or with ongoing risk of HIV infection since their last HIV test were offered rapid HIV testing. Through retrospective chart review, demographic data, HIV risk and prior testing history, and antiretroviral prophylaxis, data were collected and descriptive statistics were performed. One hundred fourteen rapid HIV tests were conducted and there were two preliminary reactive rapid results (one true positive, one false positive). None of the infants was HIV infected. Sixty-three percent of women had multiple risk factors for HIV acquisition, most commonly intravenous drug use (54%). Forty-four percent of women were within the 4-week seroconversion window at the time of delivery; 25% of these women and 52% of their infants received prophylactic drug therapy. Rapid HIV testing identified a high-risk cohort and enabled aggressive management of a newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnancy, successfully preventing perinatal HIV transmission. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were ongoing within the seroconversion window for over half of the women, impacting the utility of the test in eliminating unnecessary antiretroviral prophylaxis in this population because prophylaxis is recommended despite a negative rapid HIV test in these cases. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Failure to Identify HIV-Infected Individuals in a Clinical Trial Using a Single HIV Rapid Test for Screening

    PubMed Central

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wolf, Shauna; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Wendel, Sarah; Wang, Lei; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Mannheimer, Sharon; del Rio, Carlos; Kuo, Irene; Harawa, Nina T.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Moore, Richard; Blankson, Joel N.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. Objectives To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Methods Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Results Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. Conclusions In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections. PMID:24710920

  1. Failure to identify HIV-infected individuals in a clinical trial using a single HIV rapid test for screening.

    PubMed

    Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Fogel, Jessica M; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wolf, Shauna; Cummings, Vanessa; Marzinke, Mark A; Clarke, William; Breaud, Autumn; Wendel, Sarah; Wang, Lei; Swanson, Priscilla; Hackett, John; Mannheimer, Sharon; Del Rio, Carlos; Kuo, Irene; Harawa, Nina T; Koblin, Beryl A; Moore, Richard; Blankson, Joel N; Eshleman, Susan H

    2014-01-01

    In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 061 study, 8 (2.3%) of 348 HIV-infected participants identified as HIV uninfected at study enrollment using a single HIV rapid test for screening were found to be HIV infected after additional testing. To evaluate the performance of different HIV assays for detection of HIV infection in HPTN 061 participants with missed infection and individuals with viral suppression. Plasma samples from 8 HPTN 061 participants, 17 elite controllers, and 101 individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) were tested for HIV with 3 rapid tests, 2 laboratory-based immunoassays, and a Western blot assay. The HPTN 061 samples were also tested with 2 HIV RNA assays and an antiretroviral drug assay. Of the 8 HPTN 061 participants with missed infection, 1 was an elite controller, 1 was taking ART, 2 were missed because of testing or clerical errors, 1 had recent HIV infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and 3 had acute HIV infection. Two (1.7%) of 118 individuals with viral suppression (both taking ART) had at least 1 false-negative test. In clinical trials, HIV infections can be missed for a variety of reasons. Using more than one assay to screen for HIV infection may reduce the number of missed infections.

  2. Preferred HIV testing services and programme characteristics among clients of a rapid HIV testing programme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230

  3. Evaluation of SD Bioline HIV/syphilis Duo rapid test kits in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Geeta; Singh, Dipendra Raman; Ojha, Hemanta Chandra; Ojha, Chet Raj; Mishra, Shravan Kumar; Malla, Karishma; Chaudhary, Puspa; Regmi, Kiran

    2016-08-26

    Accurate and prompt diagnosis of HIV and syphilis simultaneously has reinforcing effect on their control program because of their prevalent co-infection. Availability of a simple user-friendly two-pronged and affordable detection tools brings down the cost of health care. They are important in the antenatal clinics, with added opportunity for intervention and prevention of mother to child transmission. In cooperation with rapid test kit manufacturers, SD Bioline, NPHL and NCASC, an evaluation of commercially available HIV/syphilis Duo rapid test kit (SD Bioline) to assess its performance and operational characteristics was done in the present study. A prospective laboratory-based cross sectional study was conducted at a large Women's Hospital. Ten thousand pregnant women, visiting the Hospital for antenatal care or for delivery, were enrolled in study. Tests were performed by the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo kit as well as national algorithm for HIV and syphilis diagnosis which were considered gold standard. Sensitivity, Specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value along with kappa coefficient were calculated for the kit under evaluation. The sensitivity, specificity, Negative predictive value and Positive predictive value of the kit for HIV diagnosis were 100 % (95 % CI 83.18-100 %, 99.96-100 %, 83.18-100 %, and 99.96-100 %, respectively). Kappa value was found to be 1.0. Out of total cases, results of 9985 (99.85 %) cases were concordant with National algorithm for syphilis diagnosis. Thirteen (0.13 %) cases were found false positive while two were false negative. The sensitivity of the kit for syphilis diagnosis was found to be 95.45 % (95 % CI 84.86-98.74 %) and specificity was 99.87 % (95 % CI; 99.78-99.92 %). Positive predictive value was 76.36 % (95 % CI; 63.65-85.63 %) and Negative predictive value was 99.89 % (95 % CI; 99.39-99.99 %). Kappa value was found to be 0.85. The performance characteristics of SD Bioline

  4. Can Home-Based HIV Rapid Testing Reduce HIV Disparities Among African Americans in Miami?

    PubMed

    Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna S; Wallace, Kiera; Ricciardi, Michael; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-09-01

    Sixty percent of African Americans have had an HIV test, yet this population disproportionately contributes to AIDS mortality, suggesting that testing is not occurring early enough to achieve optimal outcomes. OraQuick, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT) could potentially increase testing rates. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) paired with HBRHT could improve HIV screening and health care access among African Americans in Miami, Florida. In October-November 2013, 60 African Americans were enrolled and randomized to the experimental condition, which received CHW assistance to complete HBHRT, or the control condition, which were instructed to complete HBHRT independently. Intervention participants were significantly (p ≤ .05) more likely than control participants to complete HBHRT and, if positive, get linked to HIV care (100% vs. 83%) χ(2) (1, N = 60) = 5.46, p ≤ .02. We concluded that CHW-assisted HBHRT may be a promising strategy to improve HIV testing and care among African Americans.

  5. Rapid Multiplexed Immunoassay for Simultaneous Serodiagnosis of HIV-1 and Coinfections▿

    PubMed Central

    Lochhead, Michael J.; Todorof, Kathryn; Delaney, Marie; Ives, Jeffrey T.; Greef, Charles; Moll, Kevin; Rowley, Keagan; Vogel, Kurt; Myatt, Chris; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Logan, Cathy; Benson, Constance; Reed, Sharon; Schooley, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals remains a major public health challenge, particularly in resource-limited settings. Here, we describe a rapid diagnostic system that delivers a panel of serologic immunoassay results using a single drop of blood, serum, or plasma. The system consists of disposable cartridges and a simple reader instrument, based on an innovative implementation of planar waveguide imaging technology. The cartridge incorporates a microarray of recombinant antigens and antibody controls in a fluidic channel, providing multiple parallel fluorescence immunoassay results for a single sample. This study demonstrates system performance by delivering antibody (Ab) reactivity results simultaneously for multiple antigens of HIV-1, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a collection of clinical serum, plasma, and whole-blood samples. By plotting antibody reactivity (fluorescence intensity) for known positive and negative samples, empirical reactivity cutoff values were defined. The HIV-1 assay shows 100% agreement with known seroreactivity for a collection of 82 HIV Ab-positive and 142 HIV Ab-negative samples, including multiple samples with HCV and syphilis coinfection. The treponema-specific syphilis assay correctly identifies 67 of 68 T. pallidum Ab-positive and 100 of 102 T. pallidum Ab-negative samples, and the HCV assay correctly identifies 59 of 60 HCV Ab-positive and 120 of 121 HCV Ab-negative samples. Multiplexed assay performance for whole-blood samples is also demonstrated. The ability to diagnose HIV and opportunistic infections simultaneously at the point of care should lead to more effective therapy decisions and improved linkage to care. PMID:21865431

  6. Comparison of point-of-care rapid HIV testing in three clinical venues.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Sabrina R; Kroc, Karen A; Couture, Eileen; Weinstein, Robert A

    2004-11-05

    Rapid HIV testing with same-visit results should increase the number of individuals who know they are HIV infected. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of point-of-care rapid testing in three public venues, a sexually transmitted disease clinic, a county jail, and an emergency department. Over 98% of all participants received their results, and 82% of newly identified HIV-positive participants entered care. Point-of-care rapid testing was feasible, acceptable, and may improve entry into care.

  7. Rapid development of a simple ranula in a child.

    PubMed

    Sathanantham, Dinesh Kumar; Shah, Gopi B; Ulüalp, Seckin

    2015-04-01

    A simple ranula is a gradually progressive, benign condition of the salivary gland. The report here describes a very rare case of a simple ranula enlarging in an acute fashion, resulting in airway obstruction. A 7-year-old girl presented with swelling in the floor of the mouth, pushing the tongue upward and backward, requiring immediate nasotracheal intubation. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested a simple ranula requiring urgent surgery. The patient was followed up 4 weeks after discharge, at which time she was doing well. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case reported of a simple ranula presenting in an acute fashion, leading to airway compromise in a pediatric patient. The literature is reviewed and features of diagnosis and treatment are presented. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Rapid Syphilis Screening in Prenatal HIV Testing Programs in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Schackman, Bruce R; Neukermans, Christopher P; Fontain, Sandy N. Nerette; Nolte, Claudine; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

    2007-01-01

    Background New rapid syphilis tests permit simple and immediate diagnosis and treatment at a single clinic visit. We compared the cost-effectiveness, projected health outcomes, and annual cost of screening pregnant women using a rapid syphilis test as part of scaled-up prenatal testing to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Haiti. Methods and Findings A decision analytic model simulated health outcomes and costs separately for pregnant women in rural and urban areas. We compared syphilis syndromic surveillance (rural standard of care), rapid plasma reagin test with results and treatment at 1-wk follow-up (urban standard of care), and a new rapid test with immediate results and treatment. Test performance data were from a World Health Organization–Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases field trial conducted at the GHESKIO Center Groupe Haitien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes in Port-au-Prince. Health outcomes were projected using historical data on prenatal syphilis treatment efficacy and included disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of newborns, congenital syphilis cases, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths. Cost-effectiveness ratios are in US dollars/DALY from a societal perspective; annual costs are in US dollars from a payer perspective. Rapid testing with immediate treatment has a cost-effectiveness ratio of $6.83/DALY in rural settings and $9.95/DALY in urban settings. Results are sensitive to regional syphilis prevalence, rapid test sensitivity, and the return rate for follow-up visits. Integrating rapid syphilis testing into a scaled-up national HIV testing and prenatal care program would prevent 1,125 congenital syphilis cases and 1,223 stillbirths or neonatal deaths annually at a cost of $525,000. Conclusions In Haiti, integrating a new rapid syphilis test into prenatal care and HIV testing would prevent congenital syphilis cases and stillbirths, and is cost-effective. A similar approach may

  9. Dried tube specimens: a simple and cost-effective method for preparation of HIV proficiency testing panels and quality control materials for use in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Bharat S; Anyanwu, Juliana; Patel, Hetal; Downer, Marie; Kalou, Mireille; Gichimu, Catherine; Keipkerich, Bera Steven; Clement, Nelly; Omondi, Michael; Mayer, Oren; Ou, Chin-Yih; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-02-01

    HIV testing has rapidly expanded worldwide, but proficiency testing (PT) programs to monitor and improve the quality of testing are often lacking in resource-limited settings (RLS). Traditional PT programs and quality control reagents use serum or plasma specimens requiring stringent conditions for storage and transportation. A novel, simple and easy to use approach, based on dried tube specimens (DTS), was developed that can help monitor the quality of HIV antibody testing in RLS. DTS were prepared by drying 20 microl of specimen overnight at room temperature. The addition of a green dye (0.1%) made the DTS pellets visible without affecting the test results. Before testing, the DTS were rehydrated with 200 microl of PBS-Tween buffer. A panel of 303 DTS samples (135 HIV positive and 168 HIV negative) was evaluated with two rapid tests. Sensitivity and specificity with the Determine HIV-1/2 test were 99.3% and 99.4%, respectively, and with OraQuick were 98.5% and 100%, respectively. Stability studies showed that HIV-specific antibodies in the DTS specimens were stable at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 4 weeks, with only marginal decline at 37 degrees C and 45 degrees C over 4 weeks. The DTS-based PT program was piloted successfully in 24 testing sites in Kenya. Results demonstrate that the DTS is a simple to use, practical method to prepare and distribute PT panels and quality control specimens to monitor HIV testing practices in RLS.

  10. Timing of HIV Seroreversion Among HIV-Exposed, Breastfed Infants in Malawi: Type of HIV Rapid Test Matters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily R; Hudgens, Michael; Sheahan, Anna D; Miller, William C; Wheeler, Stephanie; Nelson, Julie A E; Dube, Queen; Van Rie, Annelies

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV serological tests are a cost-effective, point-of-care test among HIV exposed infants but cannot distinguish between maternal and infant antibodies. The lack of data on the timing of decay of maternal antibodies in young infants hinders the potential use of rapid tests in exposed infants. We aimed to determine the time to seroreversion for two commonly used rapid tests in a prospective cohort of HIV-exposed breastfeeding infants ages 3-18 months of life. Methods We collected data on the performance of two commonly used rapid tests (Determine and Unigold) in Malawi between 2008 and 2012 or at the University of North Carolina between 2014 and 2015. Time to seroreversion was estimated for both rapid tests using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator which allows for interval censored data. Results At 3 months of age, 3 % of infants had seroreverted according to Determine and 7 % had seroreverted according to Unigold. About one in four infants had achieved seroreversion by 4 months using Unigold, but only about one in twelve infants by 4 months when using Determine. More than 95 % of all infants had seroverted by 7 months according to Unigold and by 12 months according to the Determine assay. Discussion We show that the time of seroreversion depends greatly on the type of test used. Our results highlight the need for recommendations to specify the timing and type of test used in the context of infant HIV detection in resource-poor settings, and base the interpretation of test result on knowledge of time to seroreversion of the selected test.

  11. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test as an alternative to Western blot for confirmation of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Ana María; Baughan, Eleonore; Hodinka, Richard L

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, a new HIV diagnostic algorithm has been proposed that uses an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay instead of Western blot or immunofluoresence for confirmatory testing. To evaluate the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test (Multispot) as an alternative to Western blot analysis for confirmation of HIV infection. A series of 205 serum and plasma specimens positive for HIV-1 or HIV-2 were used to compare the performance of Multispot to a standard HIV-1 Western blot. Positive samples included 63 specimens from patients>18 months of age, 33 proficiency survey specimens, and 109 specimens from nine commercial seroconversion and performance panels. In addition, 63 specimens from 51 HIV-exposed, uninfected children≤18 months of age in various stages of seroreversion and 192 HIV-negative samples were tested. Specimens were initially screened using a 4th generation HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay. Multispot readily discriminated between individuals with HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection and those who were uninfected. Of the 205 samples repeatedly reactive by the 4th generation screening assay, infection status was correctly confirmed by Multispot in 83.9% (172/205) compared to 68.8% (141/205) for Western blot. Multispot detected HIV-1 earlier in 27.6% of low-titer antibody specimens called indeterminate by Western blot, and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results in seroreverting HIV-1 exposed, uninfected infants and for HIV-2 infections misinterpreted as indeterminate or positive by HIV-1 Western blot. Multispot offers speed and simplicity over Western blot and has an excellent performance for differentiation and confirmation of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Can computer-based feedback improve emergency department patient uptake of rapid HIV screening?

    PubMed

    Merchant, Roland C; Clark, Melissa A; Langan, Thomas J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2011-07-01

    We determine whether (1) an audiocomputer-delivered tailored feedback intervention increases emergency department (ED) patient uptake of opt-in, nontargeted rapid HIV screening; and (2) uptake is greater among patients who report more HIV risk and among those whose self-perceived HIV risk increases from baseline after completion of an HIV risk assessment. ED patients aged 18 to 64 years were randomly assigned to receive either an assessment about reported and self-perceived HIV risk or an identical assessment plus feedback about their risk for having or acquiring an HIV infection, tailored according to their reported risk. All participants were offered a fingerstick rapid HIV test. Two-sample tests of binomial proportions were used to compare screening uptake by study arm. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of reported HIV risk and an increase in self-perceived HIV risk with uptake of HIV screening. Of the 566 participants, the median age was 29 years, 62.2% were women, and 66.9% previously had been tested for HIV. Uptake of HIV screening was similar in the intervention and no intervention arms (54.1% versus 55.5% [Δ=-0.01%; 95% confidence interval {CI} -0.09% to 0.07%]). An increase in self-perceived HIV risk predicted greater uptake of HIV screening for women (odds ratio 2.15; 95% CI 1.08 to 4.28) but not men (odds ratio 1.61; 95% CI 0.60 to 4.30). Uptake of HIV screening was not related to reported HIV risk. Uptake of rapid HIV screening in the ED was not improved by this feedback intervention. Other methods need to be investigated to improve uptake of HIV screening by ED patients. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  13. [Rapid spectrochemical qualitative analysis of simple OMA system].

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Lin, Y; Xu, H; Wen, X; Lin, L

    1997-10-01

    Simple optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system which is formed by ordinary one dimension CCD camera, spectrograph and microcomputer was introduced in this paper. Spectrochemical analysis feasible of this OMA system was studied. The applied software programed, by us can realize wavelength calibration, spectral line identification and give out automatically the results of qualitative and semidefinite quantity analysis.

  14. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  15. A rapid HIV testing program for labor and delivery in an inner-city teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Erika; Levine, Amy B; Monahan, Keri; Biondo, Charles P

    2006-01-01

    Although perinatal HIV prophylaxis is probably the most successful HIV prevention intervention to date, between 280 and 370 HIV-positive infants are born in the United States each year. A major reason for continuing vertical transmission is that some HIV-infected women are not aware of their positive HIV serostatus before delivery. A rapid HIV testing program was developed and implemented in a labor and delivery suite at an inner-city teaching hospital in a nonresearch setting. Between April 2002 and June 2005, 259 rapid HIV tests were performed. For the first 19 months of the study, the expedited enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed in 62 patients. For the remainder of the study, the OraQuick rapid HIV-1 antibody test was performed in 197 patients. Turnaround times for the ELISA and OraQuick test were 262 minutes and 143 minutes, respectively, a significant difference (P = .002). Four women had positive test results. Voluntary rapid HIV testing is a feasible strategy for detection of HIV seropositivity in pregnant patients who present in a labor and delivery suite with unknown serostatus. This provides an opportunity to administer antiretroviral prophylaxis and to incorporate other obstetric interventions to decrease vertical HIV transmission.

  16. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  17. Using a Multitest Algorithm to Improve the Positive Predictive Value of Rapid HIV Testing and Linkage to HIV Care in Nonclinical HIV Test Sites

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Kevin P.; Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Facente, Shelley; Dowling, Teri; Janson, Mike; Knoble, Thomas; Vu, Annie; Hu, Yunyin W.; Kerndt, Peter R.; King, Jan; Scheer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of a rapid HIV testing algorithm (RTA) in which all tests are conducted within one client appointment could eliminate off-site confirmatory testing and reduce the number of persons not receiving confirmed results. Methods An RTA was implemented in 9 sites in Los Angeles and San Francisco; results of testing at these sites were compared with 23 sites conducting rapid HIV testing with off-site confirmation. RTA clients with reactive results on more than 1 rapid test were considered HIV+ and immediately referred for HIV care. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of a single rapid HIV test and the RTA were calculated compared with laboratory-based confirmatory testing. A Poisson risk regression model was used to assess the effect of RTA on the proportion of HIV+ persons linked to HIV care within 90 days of a reactive rapid test. Results The PPV of the RTA was 100% compared with 86.4% for a single rapid test. The time between testing and receipt of RTA results was on average 8 days shorter than laboratory-based confirmatory testing. For risk groups other than men who had sex with men, the RTA increased the probability of being in care within 90 days compared with standard testing practice. Conclusions The RTA increased the PPV of rapid testing to 100%, giving providers, clients, and HIV counselors timely information about a client’s HIV-positive serostatus. Use of RTA could reduce loss to follow-up between testing positive and confirmation and increase the proportion of HIV-infected persons receiving HIV care. PMID:26284530

  18. Rapidly developing gas gangrene due to a simple puncture wound.

    PubMed

    Oncel, Selim; Arsoy, Emin Sami

    2010-06-01

    Gas gangrene, an infection caused by Clostridium perfringens, is a potentially fatal and physically disabling disease due to its sometimes incredibly rapid progression. An adolescent boy was referred to our university hospital with a history of nail puncture in the hand that occurred a few hours previously. The physical examination revealed a swollen and tender arm with crepitations up to the shoulder. Gas was coming out from the puncture wound with digital pressure on the forearm. The plain radiograph of the arm was typical of gas gangrene with the presence of gas under the skin and between muscular fibrils.Having received 1 dose of meropenem, the boy had surgery, in which his entire upper extremity had to be disarticulated from the shoulder. The maintenance antimicrobial therapy with intravenously administered penicillin G and clindamycin was continued for a duration of 10 days, at the end of which, the patient was discharged.The rapidly progressive character and the dramatic ending of this case made us wonder whether antimicrobial prophylaxis would play any role in the preventive management of puncture wounds.

  19. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew; Schonberger, Matthias; Schieferstein, Hanno; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2011-10-04

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  20. A simple, rapid method for HPLC analysis of lycopene isomers.

    PubMed

    Ishida, B K; Ma, J; Chan, B

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction, separation and quantification of the geometric isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene from tomato fruit is described. Carotenoids in tomato were separated and eluted using a reversed-phase HPLC with a C30 column and a mobile phase consisting of methyl-t-butyl ether, methanol and ethyl acetate. The system provided sharp resolution of cis- and trans-isomers of lycopene within approximately 23 min in contrast to the longer and more complex gradient procedures required by previously described methods. Experiments indicate that the stability of extracts of fresh tomato may be improved if stored at -20 degrees C, and that the presence of the antioxidant BHA has no apparent effect on stability.

  1. Rapid HIV testing for individuals on probation/parole: outcomes of an intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-07-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.

  2. Low Rates of Adoption and Implementation of Rapid HIV Testing in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Jemima A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Helleringer, Stéphane; Metsch, Lisa R

    2016-04-01

    Rapid HIV testing (RHT) greatly increases the proportion of clients who learn their test results. However, existing studies have not examined the adoption and implementation of RHT in programs treating persons with substance use disorders, one of the population groups at higher risk for HIV infection. We examined 196 opioid treatment programs (OTPs) using data from the 2011 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS). We used logistic regressions to identify client and organizational characteristics of OTPs associated with availability of on-site RHT. We then used zero-inflated negative binomial regressions to measure the association between the availability of RHT on-site and the number of clients tested for HIV. Only 31.6% of OTPs offered on-site rapid HIV testing to their clients. Rapid HIV testing was more commonly available on-site in larger, publicly owned and better-staffed OTPs. On the other hand, on-site rapid HIV testing was less common in OTPs that prescribed only buprenorphine as a method of opioid dependence treatment. The availability of rapid HIV testing on-site reduced the likelihood that an OTP did not test any of its clients during the prior year. But on-site availability rapid HIV testing was not otherwise associated with an increased number of clients tested for HIV at an OTP. New strategies are needed to a) promote the adoption of rapid HIV testing on-site in substance use disorder treatment programs and b) encourage substance use disorder treatment providers to offer rapid HIV testing to their clients when it is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Integration of routine rapid HIV screening in an urban family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Criniti, Shannon M; Aaron, Erika; Hilley, Amy; Wolf, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Family planning centers can play an important role in HIV screening, education, and risk-reduction counseling for women who are sexually active. This article describes how 1 urban Title X-funded family planning clinic transitioned from using a designated HIV counselor for targeted testing to a model that uses clinic staff to provide integrated, routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing as standard of care. Representative clinic staff members developed an integrated testing model that would work within the existing clinic flow. Education sessions were provided to all staff, signs promoting routine HIV testing were posted, and patient and clinician information materials were developed. A review of HIV testing documentation in medical charts was performed after the new model of routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV testing was integrated, to determine any changes in patient testing rates. A survey was given to all staff members 6 months after the transition to full integration of HIV testing to evaluate the systems change process. Two years after the transition, the rate of patients with an HIV test in the medical chart within the last 12 months increased 25.5%. The testing acceptance rate increased 17%. Sixteen HIV seropositive individuals were identified and linked into medical care. All surveyed clinic staff agreed that offering routine HIV screening to all patients is very important, and 78% rated the integration efforts as successful. Integrating routine HIV screening into a family planning clinic can be critical to identifying new HIV infections in women. This initiative demonstrated that routine, nontargeted, rapid HIV screening can be offered successfully as a standard of care in a high-volume, urban, reproductive health care setting. This description and evaluation of the process of changing the model of HIV testing in a clinic setting is useful for clinicians who are interested in expanding routine HIV testing in their clinics. © 2011 by the American College of

  4. RAPID HOME-BASED HIV TESTING TO REDUCE COSTS IN A LARGE TUBERCULOSIS COHORT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Galea, Jerome T; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Shin, Sonya; Lobatón, Raúl; Zhang, Zibiao; Calderón, Roger; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-21

    To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based HIV testing with home-based rapid testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Though the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were lower with the home-based rapid testing strategy compared to the original approach. Rapid testing could be used in similar research or routine care settings.

  5. Patients' attitudes about rapid oral HIV screening in an urban, free dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Craig Allan; Ablah, Elizabeth; Reznik, David; Robbins, Darcy K

    2008-03-01

    The 2006 Centers for Disease Control recommendations for routine HIV screening in all health care settings could include dental clinics an important testing venue. However, little is known about patients' attitudes regarding the routine use of rapid oral HIV screening at an urban free dental clinic. This pilot study seeks to evaluate the patient perspective on rapid HIV screening in this setting. In June 2007, patients at a free dental clinic in Kansas City, Missouri, were provided an attitude assessment survey prior to their dental visit. This dental clinic serves a diverse patient population consisting of approximately 37% white, 47% black, 6% Hispanic, 4% Asian, and 1% Native American uninsured patients. Results were analyzed for acceptance of testing and potential barriers. Of the 150 respondents, 73% reported they would be willing to take a free rapid HIV screening test during their dental visit. Overall, 91% of Hispanics, 79% of Caucasians, and 73% of African American patients reported they would be willing to be screened. Patients with a history of multiple prior screening tests for HIV were more likely to agree to oral rapid HIV screening in the dental clinic. The majority (62%) reported that it did not matter who provided them with the screening result, although some (37%) preferred their dentist above any other provider. Low self-perception of risk (37%) and having already received screening elsewhere (24%) were the main reasons for not accepting a free, rapid HIV screening. Overall, dental clinic patients widely accepted the offer of rapid oral HIV screening. Rapid HIV screening in the dental clinic setting is a viable option to increase the number of individuals who know their HIV status.

  6. Rapid development of advanced liver fibrosis after acquisition of hepatitis C infection during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Osinusi, Anu; Kleiner, David; Wood, Brad; Polis, Michael; Masur, Henry; Kottilil, Shyam

    2009-06-01

    We report the first reported case of a 61-year-old MSM who was diagnosed with syphilis, primary HIV infection, and acute hepatitis C (HCV) within the same time period who rapidly developed significant liver fibrosis within 6 months of acquisition of both infections. It has been well described that individuals with primary HIV infection have an increase in activated CD8+ T cells, which causes a state of immune activation as was evident in this patient. Acquisition of HCV during this time could have further skewed this response resulting in massive hepatocyte destruction, inflammation, and subsequent liver fibrosis. Recent literature suggest that MSM with primary HIV infection have higher rates of acquisition of HCV than other HIV-positive cohorts and HCV acquisition can occur very soon after acquiring HIV. This case of rapid hepatic fibrosis progression coupled with the increasing incidence of HCV in individuals with primary HIV infection demonstrates a need for this phenomenon to be studied more extensively.

  7. Programmatic Cost Evaluation of Nontargeted Opt-Out Rapid HIV Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Haukoos, Jason S.; Campbell, Jonathan D.; Conroy, Amy A.; Hopkins, Emily; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Sasson, Comilla; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Thrun, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends nontargeted opt-out HIV screening in healthcare settings. Cost effectiveness is critical when considering potential screening methods. Our goal was to compare programmatic costs of nontargeted opt-out rapid HIV screening with physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing in an urban emergency department (ED) as part of the Denver ED HIV Opt-Out Trial. Methods This was a prospective cohort study nested in a larger quasi-experiment. Over 16 months, nontargeted rapid HIV screening (intervention) and diagnostic rapid HIV testing (control) were alternated in 4-month time blocks. During the intervention phase, patients were offered HIV testing using an opt-out approach during registration; during the control phase, physicians used a diagnostic approach to offer HIV testing to patients. Each method was fully integrated into ED operations. Direct program costs were determined using the perspective of the ED. Time-motion methodology was used to estimate personnel activity costs. Costs per patient newly-diagnosed with HIV infection by intervention phase, and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated. Results During the intervention phase, 28,043 eligible patients were included, 6,933 (25%) completed testing, and 15 (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.1%–0.4%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV infection. During the control phase, 29,925 eligible patients were included, 243 (0.8%) completed testing, and 4 (1.7%, 95% CI: 0.4%–4.2%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV infection. Total annualized costs for nontargeted screening were $148,997, whereas total annualized costs for diagnostic HIV testing were $31,355. The average costs per HIV diagnosis were $9,932 and $7,839, respectively. Nontargeted HIV screening identified 11 more HIV infections at an incremental cost of $10,693 per additional infection. Conclusions Compared to diagnostic testing, nontargeted HIV screening was more costly but identified more HIV infections

  8. Field Evaluation of a Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Serial Serologic Testing Algorithm for Diagnosis and Differentiation of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Dual HIV-1-HIV-2 Infections in West African Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, François; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Inwoley, André; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Burgard, Marianne; Bequet, Laurence; Viho, Ida; Leroy, Valériane; Simon, François; Dabis, François; Rouzioux, Christine

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a two-rapid-test serial algorithm using the Determine and Genie II rapid assays, performed on-site in four peripheral laboratories during the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus cohort developed for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 1,039 specimens were retested by two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The following specimens were tested: 315 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), 8 specimens found on-site to be infected with HIV-2, 71 specimens found on-site to be infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2, 40 specimens found on-site to have indeterminate results for HIV infection, and 605 specimens taken during a quality assurance program. For HIV discrimination, 99 positive serum samples (20 with HIV-1, 8 with HIV-2, and 71 with HIV-1 and HIV-2 on the basis of our rapid test algorithm) were retested by the Peptilav test, Western blot (WB) assays, and homemade monospecific ELISAs. Real-time DNA PCRs for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 were performed with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35 women diagnosed on-site with HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Compared to the results of the ELISAs, the sensitivities of the Determine and Genie II assays were 100% (95% lower limit [95% LL], 99.1%) and 99.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 98.2 to 99.9%), respectively. The specificities were 98.4% (95% CI, 96.9 to 99.3%) and 100% (95% LL, 99.3%), respectively. All serological assays gave concordant results for infections with single types. By contrast, for samples found to be infected with dual HIV types by the Genie II assay, dual reactivity was detected for only 37 samples (52.1%) by WB assays, 34 samples (47.9%) by the Peptilav assay, and 23 samples (32.4%) by the monospecific ELISAs. For specimens with dual reactivity by the Genie II assay, the rates of concordance between the real

  9. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joseph M.; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Conclusion: Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1. PMID:26558545

  10. The cost of implementing rapid HIV testing in sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eggman, Ashley A; Feaster, Daniel J; Leff, Jared A; Golden, Matthew R; Castellon, Pedro C; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Colfax, Grant N; Metsch, Lisa R; Schackman, Bruce R

    2014-09-01

    Rapid HIV testing in high-risk populations can increase the number of persons who learn their HIV status and avoid spending clinic resources to locate persons identified as HIV infected. We determined the cost to sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics of point-of-care rapid HIV testing using data from 7 public clinics that participated in a randomized trial of rapid testing with and without brief patient-centered risk reduction counseling in 2010. Costs included counselor and trainer time, supplies, and clinic overhead. We applied national labor rates and test costs. We calculated median clinic start-up costs and mean cost per patient tested, and projected incremental annual costs of implementing universal rapid HIV testing compared with current testing practices. Criteria for offering rapid HIV testing and methods for delivering nonrapid test results varied among clinics before the trial. Rapid HIV testing cost an average of US $22/patient without brief risk reduction counseling and US $46/patient with counseling in these 7 clinics. Median start-up costs per clinic were US $1100 and US $16,100 without and with counseling, respectively. Estimated incremental annual costs per clinic of implementing universal rapid HIV testing varied by whether or not brief counseling is conducted and by current clinic testing practices, ranging from a savings of US $19,500 to a cost of US $40,700 without counseling and a cost of US $98,000 to US $153,900 with counseling. Universal rapid HIV testing in STD clinics with same-day results can be implemented at relatively low cost to STD clinics, if brief risk reduction counseling is not offered.

  11. HIV Treatment and Prevention: A Simple Model to Determine Optimal Investment.

    PubMed

    Juusola, Jessie L; Brandeau, Margaret L

    2016-04-01

    To create a simple model to help public health decision makers determine how to best invest limited resources in HIV treatment scale-up and prevention. A linear model was developed for determining the optimal mix of investment in HIV treatment and prevention, given a fixed budget. The model incorporates estimates of secondary health benefits accruing from HIV treatment and prevention and allows for diseconomies of scale in program costs and subadditive benefits from concurrent program implementation. Data sources were published literature. The target population was individuals infected with HIV or at risk of acquiring it. Illustrative examples of interventions include preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), community-based education (CBE), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the US. Outcome measures were incremental cost, quality-adjusted life-years gained, and HIV infections averted. Base case analysis indicated that it is optimal to invest in ART before PrEP and to invest in CBE before scaling up ART. Diseconomies of scale reduced the optimal investment level. Subadditivity of benefits did not affect the optimal allocation for relatively low implementation levels. The sensitivity analysis indicated that investment in ART before PrEP was optimal in all scenarios tested. Investment in ART before CBE became optimal when CBE reduced risky behavior by 4% or less. Limitations of the study are that dynamic effects are approximated with a static model. Our model provides a simple yet accurate means of determining optimal investment in HIV prevention and treatment. For MSM in the US, HIV control funds should be prioritized on inexpensive, effective programs like CBE, then on ART scale-up, with only minimal investment in PrEP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. An Evaluation of a Routine Opt-Out Rapid HIV Testing Program in a Rhode Island Jail

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Bazerman, Lauri; Cornwall, Alexandra H.; Patry, Emily; Poshkus, Michael; Fu, Jeannia; Nunn, Amy

    2013-01-01

    There is an increased prevalence of HIV among incarcerated populations. We conducted a rapid HIV testing pilot program using oral specimens at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections jail. 1364 detainees were offered rapid testing upon jail entrance and 98% completed testing. Twelve detainees had reactive rapid tests, one of which was a new HIV diagnosis. To evaluate the program qualitatively, we conducted key informant interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders. There was overwhelming support for the oral fluid rapid HIV test. Correctional staff reported improved inmate processing due to the elimination of phlebotomy required with conventional HIV testing. Delivering negative rapid HIV test results in real-time during the jail intake process remained a challenge but completion of confirmatory testing among those with reactive rapid tests was possible. Rapid HIV testing using oral specimens in the RIDOC jail was feasible and preferred by correctional staff. PMID:21689040

  13. [HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Family Medicine Unit 171].

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Hernández, Gustavo; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Coverage for HIV in our country through the rapid test has increased, from 8.2 % in 2006 to 59.8 % in 2012; however, it is still insufficient. The objective is to determine the prevalence of HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171. It was carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with non-probability sampling that included pregnant women of any age who came to birth control in the UMF 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Review of medical records was applied as a tool to gather information on the rapid test. A sample of 85 patients was calculated and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 85 patient records were reviewed in control pregnancy. Rapid testing for detection of antibodies to HIV was performed in 79 patients (93 %). In nine (10 %) of the patients who underwent the test, the result was not reported in their file. In six patients (7 %) of the total sample the rapid test was not requested or performed. The result of all rapid tests reported was HIV negative. There is an increase in the coverage of rapid HIV testing in pregnant women; however, not reporting and not requesting the test are still common problems in the early detection of HIV infection in pregnant women.

  14. Rapid Point-of-Care Testing for Detection of HIV and Clinical Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arora, D R; Maheshwari, Megha; Arora, B

    2013-05-23

    Reversing and arresting the epidemic of HIV are a challenge for any country. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of treatment remain a key strategy in the control of HIV. Technological advances in the form of low-cost rapid point-of-care tests have completely transformed the diagnosis and management of HIV, especially in resource limited settings, where health infrastructure is poor and timely access to medical care is a challenge. Point-of-care devices have proven to be easy to transport, operate, and maintain, and also lower-skilled staff is equally able to perform these tests as compared to trained laboratory technicians. Point-of-care tests allow rapid detection of HIV allowing for rapid initiation of therapy, monitoring of antiretroviral therapy and drug toxicity, and detection of opportunistic infections and associated illnesses.

  15. Field Evaluation of a Dual Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for HIV and Syphilis infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Claire C.; Leon, Segundo R.; Huang, Emily; Ramos, Lourdes B.; Vargas, Silver K.; Flores, Juan A.; Konda, Kelika A.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated prevention for HIV and syphilis is warranted because both syphilis and HIV infections have evidence-based, scalable interventions using current health care mechanisms. The advent of dual rapid point-of-care tests, single devices that can detect multiple infections using the same specimen, provides the opportunity to integrate the screening of syphilis into HIV programs, potentially increasing the numbers of people tested and allowing for same-day testing and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test (MedMira Inc, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), a qualitative, rapid immunoassay that detects antibodies to T. pallidum and HIV. Methods The reference standard test for comparison to the T. pallidum component of the Multiplo TP/HIV Test was Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination assay. For the HIV component, the reference test included a 4th-generation enzyme immunoassay with a confirmatory Western blot test. Results The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody component were 93.8% (95% CI: 69.8%, 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI: 97.7%, 100%), respectively. The Treponema pallidum component of the test had a sensitivity of 81.0% (95% CI: 68.1%, 94.6%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%). Conclusions Our study showed excellent performance of the HIV antibody component of the test and very good performance for the Treponema pallidum antibody component of the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test, which should be considered to improve screening coverage. Use of effective dual tests will create improved access to more comprehensive care by integrating the screening of syphilis into HIV prevention programs. PMID:26650998

  16. Rapid HIV testing experience at Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System's Homeless Stand Downs.

    PubMed

    Hooshyar, Dina; Surís, Alina M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Lepage, James P; Bedimo, Roger; North, Carol S

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, 21% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are unaware they are HIV-infected. In 2011, Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Office of Public Health in conjunction with VHA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program funded grants to support rapid HIV testing at homeless outreach events because homeless populations are more likely to obtain emergent rather than preventive care and have a higher HIV seroprevalence as compared to the general population. Because of a Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS)'s laboratory testing requirement, VANTHCS partnered with community agencies to offer rapid HIV testing for the first time at VANTHCS' 2011 Homeless Stand Downs in Dallas, Fort Worth, and Texoma, Texas. Homeless Stand Downs are outreach events that connect Veterans with services. Veterans who declined testing were asked their reasons for declining. Comparisons by Homeless Stand Down site used Pearson χ², substituting Fisher's Exact tests for expected cell sizes <5. Of the 910 Veterans attending the Homeless Stand Downs, 261 Veterans reported reasons for declining HIV testing, and 133 Veterans were tested, where 92% of the tested Veterans obtained their test results at the events - all tested negative. Veterans' reported reasons for declining HIV testing included previous negative result (n=168), no time to test (n=49), no risk factors (n=36), testing is not a priority (n=11), uninterested in knowing serostatus (n=6), and HIV-infected (n=3). Only "no time to test" differed significantly by Homeless Stand Down site. Nonresponse rate was 54%. Offering rapid HIV testing at Homeless Stand Downs is a promising testing venue since 15% of Veterans attending VANTHCS' Homeless Stand Downs were tested for HIV, and majority obtained their HIV test results at point-of-care while further research is needed to determine how to improve these rates.

  17. Evaluation of a rapid HIV testing initiative in an urban, hospital-based dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; King, James R; Mason, Roger D; Lee, Cynthia C; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2010-12-01

    Performing rapid HIV testing in nontraditional clinical settings such as dental clinics is a potential method for targeting high-risk individuals who may not otherwise access health care settings that offer HIV testing. In March 2008, Harlem Hospital Center, located in New York City, launched a counselor-based rapid HIV testing initiative in its on-site dental clinic. A full-time, trained counselor consented and tested patients as they waited for their appointments. HIV screening was performed using a whole-blood, finger-stick rapid HIV test. Through this initiative, 3864 HIV tests were performed from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009, representing 3565 unique individuals and 97.6% of dental patients approached for testing. Of those tested, the mean age was 38.5 years, with 47.1% female, 75.5% black, and 20.6% Hispanic. Self-reported HIV risk behaviors included 73.5% with recent unprotected heterosexual intercourse, 4.6% with recent or past injection drug use, and 2.6% who identified as men who have sex with men. Nineteen previously undiagnosed individuals (0.53%) were confirmed HIV positive. Of these individuals, mean age was 38.3 years with males representing 84.2%. Fifteen newly diagnosed patients (78.9%) were linked to care. Of those linked to care, median initial CD4 cell count was 317 cells/mm(3); 6 of these individuals (40%) had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm(3). Our results demonstrate that a counselor-based rapid HIV testing program with linkage to specialized HIV care can be successfully integrated into the dental clinic setting.

  18. Verbal memory declines more rapidly with age in HIV infected versus uninfected adults.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Luo, Xi; Gongvatana, Assawin; Devlin, Kathryn N; de la Monte, Suzanne M; Chasman, Jesse D; Yan, Peisi; Tashima, Karen T; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    In the current era of effective antiretroviral treatment, the number of older adults living with HIV is rapidly increasing. This study investigated the combined influence of age and HIV infection on longitudinal changes in verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. In this longitudinal, case-control design, 54 HIV seropositive and 30 seronegative individuals aged 40-74 years received neurocognitive assessments at baseline visits and again one year later. Assessment included tests of verbal and visuospatial learning and memory. Linear regression was used to predict baseline performance and longitudinal change on each test using HIV serostatus, age, and their interaction as predictors. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to assess the effects of these predictors on overall baseline performance and overall longitudinal change. The interaction of HIV and age significantly predicted longitudinal change in verbal memory performance, as did HIV status, indicating that although the seropositive group declined more than the seronegative group overall, the rate of decline depended on age such that greater age was associated with a greater decline in this group. The regression models for visuospatial learning and memory were significant at baseline, but did not predict change over time. HIV status significantly predicted overall baseline performance and overall longitudinal change. This is the first longitudinal study focused on the effects of age and HIV on memory. Findings suggest that age and HIV interact to produce larger declines in verbal memory over time. Further research is needed to gain a greater understanding of the effects of HIV on the aging brain.

  19. OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Steven J; Muwonga, Jérémie

    2004-09-01

    Rapid HIV antibody tests represent a key development in the current diagnosis and management of HIV infection. The OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test (OraSure Technologies) has received US Food and Drug Administration approval on the basis of its performance characteristics and a subsequent Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments waiver based on its simplicity and accuracy. The test has been approved for use on oral mucosal transudate, whole blood or plasma. Clinical evaluation of the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test has revealed high sensitivity and specificity. The test has many important applications, extending the opportunities for voluntary counseling and testing, and as a tool for the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.

  20. Knowledge of HIV and willingness to conduct oral rapid HIV testing among dentists in Xi'an China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lirong; Santella, Anthony J; Huang, Ruizhe; Kou, Lingling; You, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Shu; Wang, Jingyao; Gao, Longfei; Yin, Juan; Zhuang, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    China is considered a country of low HIV prevalence (780,000 people living with HIV), however, HIV infections among high-risk populations continue to grow at alarming rates. Voluntary Counseling and Testing services were first implemented in 2003, and oral rapid HIV testing (ORHT) began in 2012. Dentists, as oral health experts, would be well placed to conduct ORHT. We assessed willingness of dentists to undertake ORHT in their clinical practice. A cross-sectional, paper-based survey of dentists from the Xi'an region of China was conducted from April to June 2013. Dentists were recruited from Shaanxi Stomatological Association using a stratified sampling methodology. A 40-item survey was used to measure knowledge of HIV, attitudes toward people living with HIV and willingness to conduct ORHT. 477 dentists completed the survey with a mean HIV knowledge test score of 13.2/18 (SD 1.9). If made available in the dental setting, 276 (57.9%) preferred to use blood to diagnose HIV, only 190 (39.8%) preferred saliva or both. Four hundred and thirty-five (91.2%) thought that ORHT was needed in dental clinics. Female dentists felt more accepting of ORHT than males (93.8% vs. 87.8%; χ2=5.145; p<0.05). 42.6% of the participants who responded thought that lack of education on ORHT for dentists was the most urgent problem to solve for ORHT, 144 (31.3%) thought that lack of support for ORHT from patients was the most urgent problem. There was statistically significant difference among dental hospital, dentistry and department of dentistry (χ2=24.176; p<0.05). The majority of Chinese dentists thought that ORHT was needed in the dental setting. Providing opportunities for dentists and dental students to learn about HIV testing guidelines and practices is needed as well as feasibility and implementation science research.

  1. Knowledge of HIV and Willingness to Conduct Oral Rapid HIV Testing among Dentists in Xi’an China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruizhe; Kou, Lingling; You, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Shu; Wang, Jingyao; Gao, Longfei; Yin, Juan; Zhuang, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    Introduction China is considered a country of low HIV prevalence (780,000 people living with HIV), however, HIV infections among high-risk populations continue to grow at alarming rates. Voluntary Counseling and Testing services were first implemented in 2003, and oral rapid HIV testing (ORHT) began in 2012. Dentists, as oral health experts, would be well placed to conduct ORHT. We assessed willingness of dentists to undertake ORHT in their clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional, paper-based survey of dentists from the Xi’an region of China was conducted from April to June 2013. Dentists were recruited from Shaanxi Stomatological Association using a stratified sampling methodology. A 40-item survey was used to measure knowledge of HIV, attitudes toward people living with HIV and willingness to conduct ORHT. Results 477 dentists completed the survey with a mean HIV knowledge test score of 13.2/18 (SD 1.9). If made available in the dental setting, 276 (57.9%) preferred to use blood to diagnose HIV, only 190 (39.8%) preferred saliva or both. Four hundred and thirty-five (91.2%) thought that ORHT was needed in dental clinics. Female dentists felt more accepting of ORHT than males (93.8% vs. 87.8%; χ2=5.145; p<0.05). 42.6% of the participants who responded thought that lack of education on ORHT for dentists was the most urgent problem to solve for ORHT, 144 (31.3%) thought that lack of support for ORHT from patients was the most urgent problem. There was statistically significant difference among dental hospital, dentistry and department of dentistry (χ2=24.176; p<0.05). Conclusions The majority of Chinese dentists thought that ORHT was needed in the dental setting. Providing opportunities for dentists and dental students to learn about HIV testing guidelines and practices is needed as well as feasibility and implementation science research. PMID:25742600

  2. Cost-effectiveness of rapid hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Leff, Jared A; Barter, Devra M; DiLorenzo, Madeline A; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Linas, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rapid hepatitis C virus (HCV) and simultaneous HCV/HIV antibody testing in substance abuse treatment programs. We used a decision analytic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of no HCV testing referral or offer, off-site HCV testing referral, on-site rapid HCV testing offer and on-site rapid HCV and HIV testing offer. Base case inputs included 11% undetected chronic HCV, 0.4% undetected HIV, 35% HCV co-infection among HIV-infected, 53% linked to HCV care after testing antibody-positive and 67% linked to HIV care. Disease outcomes were estimated from established computer simulation models of HCV [Hepatitis C Cost-Effectiveness (HEP-CE)] and HIV [Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)]. Data on test acceptance and costs were from a national randomized trial of HIV testing strategies conducted at 12 substance abuse treatment programs in the United States. Lifetime costs (2011 US$) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) discounted at 3% annually; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). On-site rapid HCV testing had an ICER of $18,300/QALY compared with no testing, and was more efficient than (dominated) off-site HCV testing referral. On-site rapid HCV and HIV testing had an ICER of $64,500/QALY compared with on-site rapid HCV testing alone. In one- and two-way sensitivity analyses, the ICER of on-site rapid HCV and HIV testing remained <$100,000/QALY, except when undetected HIV prevalence was <0.1% or when we assumed frequent HIV testing elsewhere. The ICER remained <$100,000/QALY in 91% of probabilistic sensitivity analyses. On-site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost-effective at a <$100,000/quality-adjusted life year threshold. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-medicated transformation method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plan...

  4. Coins and Costs: A Simple and Rapid Assessment of Basic Financial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Bailey, Rebecca; Dymond, Simon; Parry, Rhonwen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We describe a simple and rapid screening test for basic financial knowledge that is suitable for administration to people with mild intellectual disabilities. Method: The Coins and Costs test asks respondents to name coins, and to estimate prices of objects ranging between 1 British Pound (an ice cream) and 100K British Pounds (a…

  5. Coins and Costs: A Simple and Rapid Assessment of Basic Financial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Bailey, Rebecca; Dymond, Simon; Parry, Rhonwen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We describe a simple and rapid screening test for basic financial knowledge that is suitable for administration to people with mild intellectual disabilities. Method: The Coins and Costs test asks respondents to name coins, and to estimate prices of objects ranging between 1 British Pound (an ice cream) and 100K British Pounds (a…

  6. Effect of Risk-Reduction Counseling With Rapid HIV Testing on Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections: The AWARE Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Schackman, Bruce R.; Matheson, Tim; Das, Moupali; Golden, Matthew R.; Huffaker, Shannon; Haynes, Louise F.; Tross, Susan; Malotte, C. Kevin; Douaihy, Antoine; Korthuis, P. Todd; Duffus, Wayne A.; Henn, Sarah; Bolan, Robert; Philip, Susan S.; Castro, Jose G.; Castellon, Pedro C.; McLaughlin, Gayle; Mandler, Raul N.; Branson, Bernard; Colfax, Grant N.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To increase HIV testing rates, many institutions and jurisdictions have revised policies to make the testing process rapid, simple, and routine. A major issue for testing scale-up efforts is the effectiveness of HIV risk-reduction counseling, which has historically been an integral part of the HIV testing process. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling at the time of a rapid HIV test on the subsequent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From April to December 2010, Project AWARE randomized 5012 patients of 9 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the US to either receive brief patient-centered HIV risk-reduction counseling with a rapid HIV test or the rapid HIV test with information only. Participants were assessed for multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at both baseline and at 6-month follow-up. INTERVENTION Participants randomized to counseling received individual patient-centered risk-reduction counseling based on an evidence-based model. The core elements included a focus on the patient’s specific HIV/STI risk behavior and negotiation of realistic and achievable risk-reduction steps. All participants received a rapid HIV test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prespecified outcome was a composite endpoint of cumulative incidence of any of the measured STIs over 6 months. All participants were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and HIV. Women were also tested for Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in 6-month composite STI incidence by study group (aRR = 1.12, 95% CI (0.94–1.33). There were 250/2039 (12.3%) incident cases in the counseling group and 226/2032 (11.1%) in the information-only group. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Risk-reduction counseling in conjunction with a rapid HIV test did not significantly affect STI acquisition

  7. Effect of rapid HIV testing on HIV incidence and services in populations at high risk for HIV exposure: an equity-focused systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Medu, Olanrewaju; Welch, Vivian; Dahal, Govinda P; Tyndall, Mark; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George

    2014-12-15

    To assess the effects of rapid voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV on HIV incidence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services in people at high risk for HIV exposure. Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSearch, LILACS, Global Health, Medline Africa, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group Specialized Register and grey literature from 1 January 2001 to 5 June 2014 without language restriction. We included controlled studies that compared rapid VCT with conventional testing among people at risk for HIV exposure. Two reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE criteria: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias. For observational studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the PRISMA-Equity reporting guideline. From 2441 articles, we included 8 randomised controlled trials and 5 observational studies. Rapid VCT was associated with a threefold increase in HIV-testing uptake (relative risk (RR)=2.95 95% CI 1.69 to 5.16) and a twofold increase in the receipt of test results (RR=2.14, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.24). Women accepted testing more often than men in rapid VCT arm, but no differences in effect for age or socioeconomic status. Observational studies also showed rapid VCT led to higher rates of uptake of testing. Heterogeneity was high. A cluster-randomised trial reported an 11% reduction in HIV incidence in intervention communities (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.63 to 1.24) over 3 years trial. Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  8. Effect of rapid HIV testing on HIV incidence and services in populations at high risk for HIV exposure: an equity-focused systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Medu, Olanrewaju; Welch, Vivian; Dahal, Govinda P; Tyndall, Mark; Rader, Tamara; Wells, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of rapid voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV on HIV incidence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services in people at high risk for HIV exposure. Design Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSearch, LILACS, Global Health, Medline Africa, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group Specialized Register and grey literature from 1 January 2001 to 5 June 2014 without language restriction. Data selection We included controlled studies that compared rapid VCT with conventional testing among people at risk for HIV exposure. Data extraction Two reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE criteria: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias. For observational studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the PRISMA-Equity reporting guideline. Results From 2441 articles, we included 8 randomised controlled trials and 5 observational studies. Rapid VCT was associated with a threefold increase in HIV-testing uptake (relative risk (RR)=2.95 95% CI 1.69 to 5.16) and a twofold increase in the receipt of test results (RR=2.14, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.24). Women accepted testing more often than men in rapid VCT arm, but no differences in effect for age or socioeconomic status. Observational studies also showed rapid VCT led to higher rates of uptake of testing. Heterogeneity was high. A cluster-randomised trial reported an 11% reduction in HIV incidence in intervention communities (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.63 to 1.24) over 3 years trial. Conclusions Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing

  9. Factors Associated With Receiving Rapid HIV Testing Among Individuals on Probation or Parole.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Carswell, Steven B; Wilson, Monique; Kinlock, Timothy W; Restivo, Lauren; McKenzie, Michelle; Rich, Josiah D

    2016-10-01

    Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = .024), Black race (p = .004), homeless (p = .016), early age of crime onset (p = .001), more drug use during the past 90 days (p = .033), and previously tested for hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (p = .024). Such findings make it especially important that individuals under community supervision be linked with services in the community to ensure that HIV testing and health care planning occur simultaneously.

  10. Use of rapid HIV assays as supplemental tests in specimens with repeatedly reactive screening immunoassay results not confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Delaney, Kevin P; Meyer, William A; Blatt, Amy J; Bennett, Berry; Chavez, Pollyanna; Granade, Timothy C; Owen, Michele

    2013-09-01

    An alternate HIV testing algorithm has been proposed which includes a fourth-generation immunoassay followed by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation supplemental test for reactive specimens and a nucleic acid test (NAT) for specimens with discordant results. To evaluate the performance of five rapid tests (Alere Clearview, Bio-Rad Multispot, OraSure OraQuick, MedMira Reveal, and Trinity Biotech Unigold) as the supplemental antibody assay in the algorithm. A total of 3273 serum and plasma specimens that were third-generation immunoassay repeatedly reactive and Western blot (WB) negative or indeterminate were tested with rapid tests and NAT. Specimens were classified by NAT: (1) HIV-1 infected (NAT-reactive; n=184, 5.6%), (2) HIV-status unknown (NAT nonreactive; n=3078, 94.2%) or by Multispot, (3) HIV-2 positive (n=5), and (4) HIV-1 and HIV-2 positive (n=6). Excluding HIV-2 positive specimens, we calculated the proportion of reactive rapid tests among specimens with reactive and nonreactive NAT. The proportion of infected specimens with reactive rapid test results and negative or indeterminate WB ranged from 30.4% (56) to 47.8% (88) depending on the rapid test. From 1% to 2% of NAT-negative specimens had reactive rapid test results. In these diagnostically challenging specimens, all rapid tests identified infections that were missed by the Western blot, but only Multispot could differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2. Regardless of which rapid test is used as a supplemental test in the alternative algorithm, false-positive algorithm results (i.e., reactive screening and rapid test in uninfected person) may occur, which will need to be resolved during the baseline medical evaluation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Primary HIV infection: a medical and public health emergency requiring rapid specialist management.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Sarah; Fox, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Primary HIV infection (PHI) refers to the first six months following HIV acquisition and represents a unique opportunity for expedited diagnosis, and consideration of rapid antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to improve immune function, reduce the size of the viral reservoir and limit the risk of onward viral transmission. Failure to diagnose and rapidly treat individuals with PHI has significant individual and public health implications. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment trial recently identified a clinical benefit of immediate ART over deferral of treatment according to CD4 count threshold, and has led to rapid changes in World Health Organization and specialist national guidelines. For all individuals living with HIV, the offer of immediate therapy irrespective of CD4 count is now recommended. This paper summarises the presentation and management of PHI, incorporating current research and guideline changes and discusses the role of PHI in onward transmission. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  12. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  13. Staging of recent HIV-1 infection using Geenius rapid confirmatory assay compared to INNO-LIA, New Lav and Blot 2.2 assays.

    PubMed

    Tuaillon, E; Sanosyan, A; Pisoni, A; Liscouët, J; Makinson, A; Perre, P Van de

    2017-10-01

    Besides confirmation of HIV seropositivity, Western Blot (WB) assays play an important role for identification of recent infection based on incomplete antibody reactivity and lack of p31 band. We evaluated the capacities of the Geenius™ HIV1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Bio-Rad), a new generation rapid confirmatory assay based on immune-chromatography and automated reading, for staging of HIV-1 infection. Sixteen samples collected during early HIV-1 infections (Fiebig stage III-VI) were tested using the Geenius assay, and compared to HIV Blot 2.2 WB assay (MP Diagnostics), New Lav Blot I WB assay (Bio-Rad) and INNO-LIA™ HIV I/II Score Dot Blot assay (Fujirebio). Results obtained with Geenius and INNO LIA in 47 newly diagnosed chronic HIV-1 infections were also compared. The p24 band was less frequently detected in early HIV-1 infections using the Geenius (3/16) compared to the New Lav (15/16, p<0.0001), INNO-LIA (13/16, p=0.0011), and Blot 2.2 (13/16, p=0.0011). Testing samples collected during chronic infection allowed to confirm that p31 band and complete Gag, Pol, Env profiles were less frequently observed using the Geenius assay compared to the INNO LIA assay (p=0.027 for p31, and p=0.0015 for complete profile). The Geenius assay is a simple and rapid test showing a high sensitivity to detect Env bands and to confirm HIV-1 seropositivity during the early phases of infection. However, this test is less suitable for distinguishing between later stages of acute and chronic infections because of a reduced sensitivity to detect the p31 and p24 bands compared to INNO LIA and New Lav assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective multicentre study of healthcare provider preference in rapid HIV testing kits: Determine versus INSTI.

    PubMed

    Amyai, N; Darling, Kea; D'Acremont, V; Castro, E; Ebert, S; Monnat Diserens, M; Perdrix, J; Hérard Fossati, A; Bodenmann, P; Cavassini, M

    2017-01-01

    Rapid HIV testing may circumvent the practical barriers to HIV testing in several settings. User preference of the testing kits available has been relatively underexplored. We examined healthcare provider (HCP) ratings of two validated rapid testing kits in clinical practice. From 1 July to 1 December 2012 we prospectively recruited HCPs (clinic nurses) from three outpatient clinics linked to Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. The HCPs had experience in taking blood samples but varying experience in rapid HIV testing. Participating HCPs performed rapid HIV testing using Determine™ Combo (DETE) or INSTI™ (INSTI), according to a predefined randomization sequence, and rated practical aspects of each test using a Likert scale. Seventeen HCPs of 23 approached (74%) were eligible and agreed to participate, performing a total of 336 HIV tests. Globally, the testing procedure was rated as easy or very easy by 97% (DETE) to 99% (INSTI) of tests performed. Among experienced HCPs, DETE was rated easier than INSTI for kit storage (p < 0.001) and blood collection ( P = 0.012) while INSTI was rated easier than DETE for blood application ( P = 0.001) and test interpretation ( P = 0.005). Among less experienced HCPs, both tests performed equally with the exception of test interpretation ( P < 0.001) and overall ease of use ( P = 0.05) in favour of INSTI. Of all HCPs, 94% stated they would recommend INSTI over DETE based on the time to result, ease of test interpretation and overall ease of use. Rapid HIV testing was considered easy to perform, even by inexperienced nursing staff. Whilst both tests were considered easy to use, the HCPs in this study preferred INSTI to DETE overall, due to rapid time to result, ease of test interpretation and general ease of use.

  15. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Monoclonal surface display SELEX for simple, rapid, efficient, and cost-effective aptamer enrichment and identification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Li, Cong; Zou, Yuan; Zhu, Ling; An, Yuan; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-06-17

    A novel method, monoclonal surface display SELEX (MSD-SELEX), has been designed for simple, rapid, efficient, and cost-effective enrichment and identification of aptamers from a library of monoclonal DNA-displaying beads produced via highly parallel single-molecule emulsion PCR. The approach was successfully applied for the identification of high-affinity aptamers that bind specifically to different types of targets, including cancer biomarker protein EpCAM and small toxin molecule aflatoxin B1. Compared to the conventional sequencing-chemical synthesis-screening work flow, MSD-SELEX avoids large-scale DNA sequencing, expensive and time-consuming DNA synthesis, and labor-intensive screening of large populations of candidates, thus offering a new approach for simple, rapid, efficient, and cost-effective aptamer identification for a wide variety of applications.

  17. A simple and rapid quantitative sweat test based on cobalt chloride color change.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Kriehuber, E; Trautinger, F

    2012-01-01

    Existing sweat tests are either cumbersome, require dedicated technical equipment and/or do not give reliable quantitative results. The present study was performed to develop and describe a rapid and simple test for a practical and quantitative evaluation of sweating. Cobalt chloride patches were used to collect sweat during exercise and after application of aluminum hydrochloride. Color change from blue to red was recorded and quantified, and the amount of sweat was calculated from a standard curve. Cobalt-chloride-containing patches evaluated with standard office equipment provide a rapid, simple and highly sensitive method for the quantitative measurement of sweating. Possible applications that need to be evaluated in further studies are the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases associated with disordered sweat production and the evaluation of antiperspirants. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Improving HIV Rapid Testing Rates Among STD Clinic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that HIV testing be a standard part of medical care; however, testing is voluntary and some patients decline. We evaluated two brief interventions to promote rapid HIV testing among STD clinic patients who initially declined testing. Method Using a randomized controlled trial, patients either viewed an educational digital video disc (DVD) or participated in stage-based behavioral counseling (SBC) provided by a nurse. Sixty clients presenting for care at a STD clinic who initially declined HIV testing at registration and during risk behavior screening participated in the study. Results The primary outcome was whether patients agreed to be tested for HIV. The secondary outcomes included attitudes, knowledge, and stage-of-change regarding HIV testing. Patients receiving both interventions improved their attitudes and knowledge about testing (ps < .01). Patients receiving SBC agreed to testing more often (45%) than did patients who viewed the DVD (19%; p < .05). Conclusions Brief interventions can increase rapid HIV testing acceptance among patients who are reluctant to be tested; counseling guided by behavioral science theory is more effective than a well-designed information-based intervention. PMID:19025280

  19. Plasma levels of soluble CD27: a simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    DE MILITO, A; ALEMAN, S; MARENZI, R; SÖNNERBORG, A; FUCHS, D; ZAZZI, M; CHIODI, F

    2002-01-01

    Plasma levels of soluble CD27 (sCD27) are elevated in diseases characterized by T cell activation and are used as a marker of immune activation. We assessed the usefulness of determining plasma sCD27 as a marker for monitoring immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A first cross-sectional examination of 68 HIV-1-infected and 18 normal subjects showed high levels of sCD27 in HIV-1 infection; plasma sCD27 was correlated to HIV-1 viraemia and inversely correlated to CD4+ T cell count. Twenty-six HIV-1-infected patients undergoing HAART were studied at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of therapy. Seven additional patients under HAART were analysed at baseline, during and after interruption of therapy. In the total population, HAART induced a significant and progressive reduction, but not a normalization, of plasma levels of sCD27 after 24 months. A full normalization of plasma sCD27 was observed in the virological responders (undetectable HIV-1 RNA at months 18 and 24) and also in patients with moderate immunodeficiency at baseline (CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/mm3). Changes in plasma neopterin paralleled the changes in sCD27 but only baseline sCD27 levels were predictive of a greater increase in CD4+ T cell count during the follow-up. Discontinuation of therapy resulted in a rapid increase of sCD27 plasma levels associated with viraemia rebound and drop in CD4+ T cell count. Our findings suggest that plasma sCD27 may represent an alternative and simple marker to monitor immune activation during potent antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1-induced immune activation can be normalized by HAART in successfully treated patients where the disease is not advanced. PMID:11966765

  20. Rapid and simple colorimetric assay for detecting the enzymatic degradation of biodegradable plastic films.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-01-01

    We developed a rapid and simple method for evaluating the degradation of solid biodegradable plastics (BPs). Dye-containing BP films were used as substrates and the release of dye caused by the degradation of BPs was confirmed by a color change in the enzyme solution after a reaction time of 24 h. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A simple and rapid nuclear staining method for Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Seema, M; Punith, B D; Devaki, N S

    2012-04-01

    We developed a modified staining technique using acridine orange to stain the nuclei of Rhizoctonia solani. Acridine orange solution was prepared in acetic acid buffer, pH 7.2. Staining for 15 min was critical for observing the nuclei. All of the isolates were found to be multinucleated. The nuclei appeared bright green with light orange background. This method is simple, rapid and reproducible.

  2. A randomized control trial evaluating the educational effectiveness of a rapid HIV posttest counseling video.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Yvette; Leider, Jason; Hailpern, Susan; Haughey, Marianne; Ghosh, Reena; Lombardi, Pamela; Bijur, Polly; Bauman, Laurie

    2009-04-01

    Many of the individuals most at risk for HIV infection (i.e., minority populations, women, adolescents) are also the most marginalized by our health care system. Lacking primary care providers, they rely on the Emergency Department (ED) for their health care needs and education. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, we compared the educational effectiveness of a 15-minute posttest counseling video with the normal practice of a session with an HIV counselor. The study population was composed of ambulatory patients recruited for rapid HIV testing in the ED. The RAs (research assistants) recruited a convenience sample of stable patients presenting to the walk-in section of an inner-city adult ED for rapid HIV testing. Eligible patients for this study included patients who consented for the rapid HIV test and completed measures on condom intention and condom use self-efficacy. Before receiving their results, participants who consented to be in this study were randomized to either a 15-minute HIV posttest educational video available in English/Spanish or to a posttest educational session with an HIV counselor. Afterwards, both groups completed an assessment tool concerning HIV prevention and transmission. Of the 128 participants, 61 and 67 patients were randomized to the video and counselor groups, respectively. The groups were similar with respect to gender, ethnicity and experience with prior HIV testing. Mean knowledge scores were higher in the video group (76.20% vs. 69.3%; 90% CI for the difference, 2.8, 11.2). As the lower bound of the CI for the difference was higher than the lower equivalence boundary (-5%), we infer that the video was at least as effective as the counselor educational session. The use of an educational counseling video is a valid alternative for providing posttest education and prevention information during the waiting period associated with the 20-minute HIV rapid test. Without disruption in clinical flow, both testing and education

  3. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts.

  4. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  5. Rapid access to speech gestures in perception: Evidence from choice and simple response time tasks☆

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Carol A.; Brown, Julie M.; Sabadini, Laura; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Participants took part in two speech tests. In both tests, a model speaker produced vowel–consonant–vowels (VCVs) in which the initial vowel varied unpredictably in duration. In the simple response task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to production of any of three CVs (/pa/, /ta/ or /ka/), participants produced a CV that they were assigned to say (one of /pa/, /ta/ or /ka/). In the choice task, participants shadowed the initial vowel; when the model shifted to a CV, participants shadowed that too. We found that, measured from the model’s onset of closure for the consonant to the participant’s closure onset, response times in the choice task exceeded those in the simple task by just 26 ms. This is much shorter than the canonical difference between simple and choice latencies [100–150 ms according to Luce (1986)] and is near the fastest simple times that Luce reports. The findings imply rapid access to articulatory speech information in the choice task. A second experiment found much longer choice times when the perception–production link for speech could not be exploited. A third experiment and an acoustic analysis verified that our measurement from closure in Experiment 1 provided a valid marker of speakers’ onsets of consonant production. A final experiment showed that shadowing responses are imitations of the model’s speech. We interpret the findings as evidence that listeners rapidly extract information about speakers’ articulatory gestures. PMID:20622982

  6. Rapid and simple spectrophotometric determination of persulfate in water by microwave assisted decolorization of Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lajuan; Yang, Shiying; Wang, Leilei; Shi, Chao; Huo, Meiqing; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A rapid and simple method for determination of persulfate in aqueous solution was developed. The method is based on the rapid reaction of persulfate with Methylene Blue (MB) via domestic microwave activation, which can promote the activation of persulfate and decolorize MB quickly. The depletion of MB at 644 nm (the maximum absorption wavelength of MB) is in proportion to the increasing concentration of persulfate in aqueous solution. Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range 0-1.5 mmol/L, with a limit of detection of 0.0028 mmol/L. The reaction time is rapid (within 60 sec), which is much shorter than that used for conventional methods. Compared with existing analytical methods, it need not any additives, especially colorful Fe2+, and need not any pretreatment for samples, such as pH adjustment.

  7. Compression-based distance (CBD): a simple, rapid, and accurate method for microbiota composition comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal tract-related diseases. The alleviation of symptoms has been achieved using treatments that alter the gastrointestinal tract microbiota toward that of healthy individuals. Identifying differences in microbiota composition through the use of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable tag sequencing has profound health implications. Current computational methods for comparing microbial communities are usually based on multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, making them time consuming and requiring exceptional expertise and computational resources. As sequencing data rapidly grows in size, simpler analysis methods are needed to meet the growing computational burdens of microbiota comparisons. Thus, we have developed a simple, rapid, and accurate method, independent of multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, to support microbiota comparisons. Results We create a metric, called compression-based distance (CBD) for quantifying the degree of similarity between microbial communities. CBD uses the repetitive nature of hypervariable tag datasets and well-established compression algorithms to approximate the total information shared between two datasets. Three published microbiota datasets were used as test cases for CBD as an applicable tool. Our study revealed that CBD recaptured 100% of the statistically significant conclusions reported in the previous studies, while achieving a decrease in computational time required when compared to similar tools without expert user intervention. Conclusion CBD provides a simple, rapid, and accurate method for assessing distances between gastrointestinal tract microbiota 16S hypervariable tag datasets. PMID:23617892

  8. Compression-based distance (CBD): a simple, rapid, and accurate method for microbiota composition comparison.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Chia, Nicholas; White, Bryan A; Schook, Lawrence B

    2013-04-23

    Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal tract-related diseases. The alleviation of symptoms has been achieved using treatments that alter the gastrointestinal tract microbiota toward that of healthy individuals. Identifying differences in microbiota composition through the use of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable tag sequencing has profound health implications. Current computational methods for comparing microbial communities are usually based on multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, making them time consuming and requiring exceptional expertise and computational resources. As sequencing data rapidly grows in size, simpler analysis methods are needed to meet the growing computational burdens of microbiota comparisons. Thus, we have developed a simple, rapid, and accurate method, independent of multiple alignments and phylogenetic inference, to support microbiota comparisons. We create a metric, called compression-based distance (CBD) for quantifying the degree of similarity between microbial communities. CBD uses the repetitive nature of hypervariable tag datasets and well-established compression algorithms to approximate the total information shared between two datasets. Three published microbiota datasets were used as test cases for CBD as an applicable tool. Our study revealed that CBD recaptured 100% of the statistically significant conclusions reported in the previous studies, while achieving a decrease in computational time required when compared to similar tools without expert user intervention. CBD provides a simple, rapid, and accurate method for assessing distances between gastrointestinal tract microbiota 16S hypervariable tag datasets.

  9. Rapid and Simple Kinetics Screening Assay for Electrophilic Dermal Sensitizers using Nitrobenzenethiol

    PubMed Central

    Chipinda, Itai; Ajibola, Risikat O.; Morakinyo, Moshood K.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Simoyi, Reuben H.; Siegel, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    The need for alternatives to animal based skin sensitization testing has spurred research on the use of in-vitro, in silico and in chemico methods. Glutathione and other select peptides have been used to determine the reactivity of electrophilic allergens to nucleophiles, but these methods are inadequate to accurately measure rapid kinetics observed with many chemical sensitizers. A kinetic spectrophotometric assay involving the reactivity of electrophilic sensitizers to nitrobenzenethiol was evaluated. Stopped flow techniques and conventional UV spectrophotometric measurements enabled determination of reaction rates with half-lives ranging from 0.4 ms (benzoquinone) to 46.2 s (ethyl acrylate). Rate constants were measured for 7 extreme, 5 strong, 7 moderate and 4 weak/non-sensitizers. 17 out of the 23 tested chemicals were pseudo-first order and 3 were second order. In 3 out of the 23 chemicals, deviations from first and second order were apparent where the chemicals exhibited complex kinetics whose rates are mixed order. The reaction rates of the electrophiles correlated positively with their EC3 values within the same mechanistic domain. Nonsensitizers such as benzaldehyde, sodium lauryl sulfate and benzocaine did not react with nitrobenzenethiol. Cyclic anhydrides, diones and aromatic aldehydes proved to be false negatives in this assay. The findings from this simple and rapid absorbance model show that for the same mechanistic domain, skin sensitization is driven mainly by electrophilic reactivity. This simple, rapid and inexpensive absorbance based method has great potential for use as a preliminary screening tool for skin allergens. PMID:20402462

  10. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  11. Ensuring the quality of HIV rapid testing in resource-poor countries using a systematic approach to training.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katy; Wafula, Winnie; Bile, Ebi Celestin; Cheignsong, Rachanee; Howard, Stacy; Demby, Austin; Nkengasong, John

    2010-10-01

    HIV rapid testing is a key tool in the fight against the HIV/AIDS epidemic; it enables the rapid expansion of prevention and treatment programs in resource-limited countries. Meeting the goals of these programs means that millions of people will need testing annually. Accuracy and reliability of these tests are critical to the success of these programs. Given the enormous number of rapid tests that are performed each year, even a low error rate of 0.5% applied to 100 million people will result in 500,000 erroneous results. Ensuring the quality of HIV rapid testing presents unique challenges in that testing is often performed in various settings by personnel without formal laboratory training. This article describes the development and implementation of a generic HIV rapid test training package using a systems approach in an effort to standardize training and ensure the quality of rapid tests. It also highlights achievements from Uganda, Haiti, and Botswana.

  12. High-volume rapid HIV testing in an urban emergency department.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Yvette; Leider, Jason; Hailpern, Susan; Chin, Robert; Ghosh, Reena; Fettig, Jade; Gennis, Paul; Bijur, Polly; Bauman, Laurie

    2009-09-01

    New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend routine HIV screening in locations including emergency departments. This study evaluates a novel approach to HIV counseling and testing (C&T) in a high-volume inner-city emergency department in terms of the number of patients who can be recruited, tested, test positive, and are linked to care. This prospective evaluation was conducted for 26 months. Noncritically ill or injured patients presenting to an inner-city emergency department were recruited. Patients used a multimedia program that facilitated data entry and viewed previously evaluated HIV counseling videos. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, and sexual history were collected. Data were collected on the number of patients tested, number of HIV-positive patients identified, and number linked to care. Demographic characteristics of the participants were as follows: 48.7% males, mean age 32.6 +/- 11.3, 34.6% Hispanic, and 37.9 % African American. Of the 7109 eligible patients approached, 6214 (87.4%) agreed to be HIV tested. There were 57 newly diagnosed or confirmed HIV-positive patients, representing a seroprevalence of 0.92%. Of those testing positive, 49 (84.2%) were linked to care and had a mean initial CD4 count of 238 cells/mm(3). In conclusion, a video-assisted rapid HIV program in a busy inner-city hospital emergency department can effectively test a high volume of patients and successfully link HIV-positive individuals to care, while providing high-quality education and prevention messages for all those who test.

  13. Integrase inhibitors in late pregnancy and rapid HIV viral load reduction.

    PubMed

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Cates, Jordan; Potter, JoNell; Badell, Martina L; Seidman, Dominika; Miller, Emilly S; Coleman, Jenell S; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Levison, Judy; Short, William R; Yawetz, Sigal; Ciaranello, Andrea; Livingston, Elizabeth; Duthely, Lunthita; Rimawi, Bassam H; Anderson, Jean R; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing time to HIV viral suppression is critical in pregnancy. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), like raltegravir, are known to rapidly suppress plasma HIV RNA in nonpregnant adults. There are limited data in pregnant women. We describe time to clinically relevant reduction in HIV RNA in pregnant women using INSTI-containing and non-INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) options. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States from 2009 through 2015. We included women who initiated ART, intensified their regimen, or switched to a new regimen due to detectable viremia (HIV RNA >40 copies/mL) at ≥20 weeks gestation. Among women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, we estimated time to 1-log RNA reduction using the Kaplan-Meier estimator comparing women starting/adding an INSTI in their regimen vs other ART. To compare groups with similar follow-up time, we also conducted a subgroup analysis limited to women with ≤14 days between baseline and follow-up RNA data. This study describes 101 HIV-infected pregnant women from 11 US clinics. In all, 75% (76/101) of women were not taking ART at baseline; 24 were taking non-INSTI containing ART, and 1 received zidovudine monotherapy. In all, 39% (39/101) of women started an INSTI-containing regimen or added an INSTI to their ART regimen. Among 90 women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, the median time to 1-log RNA reduction was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7-14) in the INSTI group vs 35 days (IQR, 20-53) in the non-INSTI ART group (P < .01). In a subgroup of 39 women with first and last RNA measurements ≤14 days apart, median time to 1-log reduction was 7 days (IQR, 6-10) in the INSTI group vs 11 days (IQR, 10-14) in the non-INSTI group (P < .01). ART that includes INSTIs appears to induce more rapid viral suppression than other ART regimens in pregnancy. Inclusion of an INSTI may play a role in optimal reduction

  14. Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Johnson, Dawn M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Kadeba, Myriam T.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article. PMID:25738795

  15. HIV Rapid Testing in a VA Emergency Department Setting: Cost Analysis at 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee

    2015-07-01

    To conduct a comprehensive cost-minimization analysis to comprehend the financial attributes of the first 5 years of an implementation wherein emergency department (ED) registered nurses administered HIV oral rapid tests to patients. A health science research implementation team coordinated with ED stakeholders and staff to provide training, implementation guidelines, and support to launch ED registered nurse-administered HIV oral rapid testing. Deidentified quantitative data were gathered from the electronic medical records detailing quarterly HIV rapid test rates in the ED setting spanning the first 5 years. Comprehensive cost analyses were conducted to evaluate the financial impact of this implementation. At 5 years, a total of 2,620 tests were conducted with a quarterly mean of 131 ± 81. Despite quarterly variability in testing rates, regression analysis revealed an average increase of 3.58 tests per quarter. Over the course of this implementation, Veterans Health Administration policy transitioned from written to verbal consent for HIV testing, serving to reduce the time and cost(s) associated with the testing process. Our data indicated salient health outcome benefits for patients with respect to the potential for earlier detection, and associated long-run cost savings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Fabrication of functional superhydrophobic engineering materials via an extremely rapid and simple route.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Yu, Shen; Li, Jing; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-04-18

    As important and irreplaceable engineering materials, metals are widely used in our daily life. Therefore, fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on metal materials is of great significance, and applicable methods for industrial production are in urgent need. In this work, we provide a rapid and easy route for fabricating superhydrophobic films on metal materials through simple displacement deposition. This method includes two simple steps with each step being as short as one second. The obtained superhydrophobic surfaces are homogeneous and easy to repair. A miniature boat and a miniature box were used to test the buoyancy-increasing and oil absorption properties, respectively. This method is feasible for massive production of superhydrophobic metal materials applied to water transportation and oil spill clean-up areas.

  17. A rapid, simple, and accurate plaque assay for human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Ah Ra; Piao, Ying; Lee, Ju-Hie; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2017-03-31

    Plaque assays of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are time-consuming, requiring 4 to 7 days for plaque formation and several hours for dye staining. Here, we describe a simple method by which RSV plaques can be visualized and counted with the naked eye only 2 days after infection of HEp-2 cells. In this assay, the infected cells are stained with monoclonal antibodies and the plaques are developed using diaminobenzidine (DAB). We tested the accuracy of this new plaque assay by comparing the results obtained on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 post-infection. The whole procedure is significantly simpler than the traditional method, with an immunostaining process of around 1.5h. Our method is rapid, accurate, and simple; thus, it has the potential to significantly contribute to studies related to RSV disease.

  18. Rapidly progressive intravascular primary effusion lymphoma in an HIV-positive renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cain, Owen; Yoong, Adrian; Lipkin, Graham; Huengsberg, Mia; Murray, Jim; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Vydianath, Bindu

    2017-08-16

    We describe the clinical and post-mortem findings of a case of rapidly progressive, ultimately fatal primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) arising in an HIV-positive man two years after renal transplantation. Disseminated multi-organ involvement associated with a peculiar intravascular pattern of growth, as seen in this case, has only been reported once previously. This is also, to our knowledge, the first detailed description of a lymphoma arising post-transplant in an HIV-positive patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple and rapid method for purification of triamcinolone acetonide suspension for intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Hernaez-Ortega, Maria C; Soto-Pedre, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Purification of triamcinolone acetonide suspension is important to avoid the potential toxic effects of the vehicle. The aim of this article is to describe a simple and rapid technique to remove the vehicle, instead of the long procedure described in the literature. Triamcinolone acetonide suspension was sedimented by density gradient centrifugation. In a few minutes, this new technique yielded a clear supernatant that was easily replaced by a nontoxic sterile solution. More prolonged procedures may not be convenient for unplanned treatments and may also contribute to a greater chance for contamination of the triamcinolone acetonide suspension.

  20. Simple, Rapid, and Selective Isolation of 2S Albumins from Allergenic Seeds and Nuts.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Höper, Tessa; Westkamp, Imke; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-07-08

    The 2S albumins belong to the group of seed storage proteins present in different seeds and nuts. Due to their pronounced allergenic potential, which is often associated with severe allergic reactions, this protein family is of special interest in the field of allergen research. Here we present a simple, rapid, and selective method for the purification of 2S albumins directly from allergenic seeds and nuts. We systematically optimized the parameters "buffer system", "extraction temperature", "buffer molarity", and "pH " and were able to achieve 2S albumin purities of about 99% without further purification and demonstrate transferability of this method to nine different allergenic food matrices. Compared to conventional isolation routines, significant reduction of hands-on time and required laboratory equipment is achieved, but nonetheless higher protein yields are obtained. The presented method allows for the rapid purification of different 2S albumins including the corresponding isoforms from natural material.

  1. Radial immunodiffusion: a simple and rapid method for detection of Marek's disease antigen(s).

    PubMed

    Marquardt, W W

    1972-05-01

    A qualitative radial immunodiffusion technique is described which detects antigen(s) in feathers from live or dead chickens infected with Marek's disease herpesvirus. Antiserum, which is incorporated into a support medium, reacts with antigen(s) in the feather tip producing a radial precipitin ring. Antigen(s) was detected in 93.3% of experimentally inoculated chickens 21 days postinoculation and in 100% of infected birds subsequently tested through 6 weeks. No antigen was detectable in the feathers of uninoculated control chickens. The technique is simple and rapid to perform. Positive tests could be detected after 1 to 2 hours of incubation. Antigen detection by the radial immunodiffusion test correlated well with other criteria of infection. This technique should have application as a laboratory research tool and as an adjunct for a rapid flock diagnosis of Marek's disease.

  2. Development of a novel, simple and rapid molecular identification system for clinical Candida species.

    PubMed

    Deák, R; Bodai, L; Aarts, H J M; Maráz, A

    2004-08-01

    Identification of clinical yeast isolates causing candidiasis is routinely performed by commercial yeast identification systems based on biochemical, morphological and physiological tests. These systems require 3-5 days and the proportion of identifications that are incorrect is high. Our novel and rapid molecular identification system for clinical Candida species is based on the analysis of restriction patterns obtained from PCR-generated ribosomal DNA sequences using five restriction enzymes. A software package (CandID) was designed to include a database of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns for 29 Candida species. For 'in-house' validation, 122 clinical isolates that had previously identified in clinical laboratories were typed by this system. These clinical isolates were also independently re-identified by the API 20C AUX system. The ribosomal DNA RFLP database in the context of supporting analytical software allowed simple and rapid (1 work day) identification.

  3. A simple, low-cost staining method for rapid-throughput analysis of tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Eckerdt, Frank; Alvarez, Angel; Bell, Jonathan; Arvanitis, Constadina; Iqbal, Asneha; Arslan, Ahmet D; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Goldman, Stewart; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2016-01-01

    Tumor spheroids are becoming an important tool for the investigation of cancer stem cell (CSC) function in tumors; thus, low-cost and high-throughput methods for drug screening of tumor spheroids are needed. Using neurospheres as non-adherent three-dimensional (3-D) cultures, we developed a simple, low-cost acridine orange (AO)-based method that allows for rapid analysis of live neurospheres by fluorescence microscopy in a 96-well format. This assay measures the cross-section area of a spheroid, which corresponds to cell viability. Our novel method allows rapid screening of a panel of anti-proliferative drugs to assess inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer stem cells in 3-D cultures.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care rapid combination syphilis-HIV-HCV tests.

    PubMed

    Hess, Kristen L; Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L

    2014-01-01

    New rapid point-of-care (POC) tests are being developed that would offer the opportunity to increase screening and treatment of several infections, including syphilis. This study evaluated three of these new rapid POC tests at a site in Southern California. Participants were recruited from a testing center in Long Beach, California. A whole blood specimen was used to evaluate the performance of the Dual Path Platform (DPP) Syphilis Screen & Confirm, DPP HIV-Syphilis, and DPP HIV-HCV-Syphilis rapid tests. The gold-standard comparisons were Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination (TPPA), rapid plasma reagin (RPR), HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and HIV-1/2 EIA. A total of 948 whole blood specimens were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of the HIV tests ranged from 95.7-100% and the specificity was 99.7-100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the HCV test were 91.8% and 99.3%, respectively. The treponemal-test sensitivity when compared to TPPA ranged from 44.0-52.7% and specificity was 98.7-99.6%. The non-treponemal test sensitivity and specificity when compared to RPR was 47.8% and 98.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Screen & Confirm test improved to 90.0% when cases who were both treponemal and nontreponemal positive were compared to TPPA+/RPR ≥ 1 ∶ 8. The HIV and HCV on the multi-infection tests showed good performance, but the treponemal and nontreponemal tests had low sensitivity. These results could be due to a low prevalence of active syphilis in the sample population because the sensitivity improved when the gold standard was limited to those more likely to be active cases. Further evaluation of the new syphilis POC tests is required before implementation into testing programs.

  5. A simple method to detect and estimate heterogeneity: application to Huntington disease, diabetes, and HIV seroconversion.

    PubMed Central

    Payami, H

    1989-01-01

    The traditional method for calculating risk in prospective and retrospective studies is based on the assumption that the study population is homogeneous. Risk is therefore estimated as an overall average for the entire population, when in fact some individuals may be at high risk and others at little or no risk. This paper introduces an alternate approach to risk estimation. The calculations are equally simple and utilize the same data. Yet, the new approach allows for heterogeneity and can detect it when it exists. The new method was applied to HIV seroconversion data from a follow-up study, age-at-onset distribution for Huntington disease, and age-specific prevalence of insulin-treated diabetes. These analyses were intended to demonstrate both applicability of the method to different types of data and the accuracy of the estimates when compared with the known parameters. The HIV analysis predicted a high-risk subgroup constituting about 17% of the cohort. This estimate closely approximates the actual 16% who reportedly engaged in high-risk activities and had a 15-fold higher seroconversion rate than the rest of the cohort. There is no evidence from genetic linkage studies for heterogeneity in Huntington disease. The present results, however, suggested that 14%-18% of individuals who are susceptible to the disease have a much lower risk than others. Diabetes data was chosen because the model is clearly too simplistic for this disease, and the analysis did reveal lack of fit of the model. PMID:2521197

  6. HIV testing histories and risk factors among migrants and recent immigrants who received rapid HIV testing from three community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Schulden, Jeffrey D; Painter, Thomas M; Song, Binwei; Valverde, Eduardo; Borman, Mary Ann; Monroe-Spencer, Kyle; Bautista, Greg; Saleheen, Hassan; Voetsch, Andrew C; Heffelfinger, James D

    2014-10-01

    Migrants and recent immigrants in the US constitute a large population that is vulnerable to HIV. From March 2005 to February 2007, three community-based organizations conducted rapid HIV testing among migrants in five states. Participants were asked to complete a survey on sociodemographics, HIV-risk behaviors, and HIV-testing histories with the aim of understanding factors associated with HIV testing. Among 5,247 persons tested, 6 (0.1 %) were HIV-positive. Among 3,135 persons who completed surveys, more than half had never been tested for HIV previously (59 %). Participants reported high levels of HIV-risk behaviors in the past year, including 2 or more sex partners (45 %), sex while high/drunk (30 %), and transactional sex (29 %). Multivariate analysis identified several factors independently associated with decreased likelihood of prior HIV testing, including poor spoken English. Continued efforts are needed to ensure that migrant populations have improved access to HIV testing and prevention services. Understanding factors associated with migrants' lack of previous HIV testing may help focus these efforts.

  7. Factors Associated with Willingness to Accept Oral Fluid HIV Rapid Testing among Most-at-Risk Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Huanmiao; Kang, Dianmin; Huang, Tao; Qian, Yuesheng; Li, Xiufang; Wilson, Erin C.; Yang, Shan; Jiang, Zhenxia; Gong, Cuihua; Tao, Xiaorun; Zhang, Xijiang; Wang, Guoyong; Song, Yapei; Xu, Zhijian; Marley, Gifty; Huai, Pengcheng; Ma, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing provides an approach that may have the potential to expand HIV testing in China, especially among most-a-risk populations. There are few investigations about the acceptability of oral fluid HIV testing among most-at-risk populations in China. Method A cross-sectional study with men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW) and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients was conducted in three cities of Shandong province, China from 2011 to 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face questionnaire. Results About 71% of participants were willing to accept the oral fluid HIV rapid testing, and home HIV testing was independently associated with acceptability of the new testing method among MSM, FSW and VCT clients (AOR of 4.46, 3.19 and 5.74, respectively). Independent predictors of oral fluid HIV rapid testing acceptability among MSM were having ever taken an oral fluid HIV rapid test (AOR= 15.25), having ever taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.07), and education level (AOR= 1.74). Engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors (AOR= 1.68) was an independent predictor of acceptability for FSW. Having taken an HIV test (AOR= 2.85) was an independent predictor of acceptability for VCT clients. The primary concern about the oral fluid HIV testing was accuracy. The median price they would pay for the testing ranged from 4.8 to 8.1 U.S. dollars. Conclusion High acceptability of oral fluid HIV rapid testing was shown among most-at-risk populations. Findings provide support for oral rapid HIV testing as another HIV prevention tool, and provide a backdrop for the implementation of HIV home testing in the near future. Appropriate pricing and increased public education through awareness campaigns that address concerns about the accuracy and safety of the oral fluid HIV rapid testing may help increase acceptability and use among most-at-risk populations in China. PMID:24260432

  8. Implementation of rapid HIV and HCV testing within harm reduction programmes for people who inject drugs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-López, Laura; Folch, Cinta; Majó, Xavier; Gasulla, Laia; Casabona, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Including HCV and HIV rapid tests in harm reduction programmes (HRP) for people who inject drugs (PWID) can increase detection of these infections in high-risk populations who do not seek conventional health care. To assess acceptability and feasibility of rapid HIV and HCV tests in HRP; to identify HIV and HCV prevalence rates in HRP; to identify the percentage of PWID with a reactive test that attend hospital for confirmation and follow-up. Rapid oral tests for HCV and HIV were offered to users of 13 HRP from both mobile units and facility-based centres. A total of 172 HCV and 198 HIV tests were performed, with a refusal rate of 1.7% and 10.4%, respectively. Injectors made up 64.9% of all drug users and 35.1% did not inject drugs. Overall, 20.3% of HCV tests and 2.5% of HIV test were reactive. Only 24 of the 35 reactive HCV could be confirmed (68.6%) and one was false-negative. Of the five HIV reactive cases, only two could be confirmed (40%) with 1 false-positive case. Acceptability of rapid HIV and HCV tests among HRP users was high. The usefulness of oral rapid tests in HRP has been demonstrated, especially in mobile HRP.

  9. A Simple Model to Identify Risk of Sarcopenia and Physical Disability in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Farinatti, Paulo; Paes, Lorena; Harris, Elizabeth A; Lopes, Gabriella O; Borges, Juliana P

    2017-09-01

    Farinatti, P, Paes, L, Harris, EA, Lopes, GO, and Borges, JP. A simple model to identify risk of sarcopenia and physical disability in HIV-infected patients. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2542-2551, 2017-Early detection of sarcopenia might help preventing muscle loss and disability in HIV-infected patients. This study proposed a model for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) to calculate indices to identify "sarcopenia" (SA) and "risk for disability due to sarcopenia" (RSA) in patients with HIV. An equation to estimate ASM was developed in 56 patients (47.2 ± 6.9 years), with a cross-validation sample of 24 patients (48.1 ± 6.6 years). The model validity was determined by calculating, in both samples: (a) Concordance between actual vs. estimated ASM; (b) Correlations between actual/estimated ASM vs. peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) during isokinetic knee extension/flexion; (c) Agreement of patients classified with SA and RSA. The predictive equation was ASM (kg) = 7.77 (sex; F = 0/M = 1) + 0.26 (arm circumference; cm) + 0.38 (thigh circumference; cm) + 0.03 (Body Mass Index; kg·m) - 8.94 (R = 0.74; Radj = 0.72; SEE = 3.13 kg). Agreement between actual vs. estimated ASM was confirmed in validation (t = 0.081/p = 0.94; R = 0.86/p < 0.0001) and cross-validation (t = 0.12/p = 0.92; R = 0.87/p < 0.0001) samples. Regression characteristics in cross-validation sample (Radj = 0.80; SEE = 3.65) and PRESS (RPRESS = 0.69; SEEPRESS = 3.35) were compatible with the original model. Percent agreements for the classification of SA and RSA from indices calculated using actual and estimated ASM were of 87.5% and 77.2% (gamma correlations 0.72-1.0; p < 0.04) in validation, and 95.8% and 75.0% (gamma correlations 0.98-0.97; p < 0.001) in cross-validation sample, respectively. Correlations between actual/estimated ASM vs. PT (range 0.50-0.73, p ≤ 0.05) and TW (range 0.59-0.74, p ≤ 0.05) were similar in both samples. In conclusion, our model correctly estimated ASM

  10. A novel and rapid assay for HIV-1 protease detection using magnetic bead mediation.

    PubMed

    Esseghaier, Chiheb; Ng, Andy; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-03-15

    A simple sensing assay was established for label-free detection of HIV-1 protease. HIV-1 protease peptide substrate conjugated to magnetic beads via its N-terminus is directly fixed onto the sensor gold surface through the sulphur atom of cysteine. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study the peptide substrate cleavage efficiency of the protease with magnetic beads of different sizes (1 μm and 30 nm). Cyclic voltammetry and faradic impedance spectroscopy were employed in order to characterize the functionalized gold electrode. It was found that the nano-sized beads are a more efficient sensing probe for the protease. Electrochemical biosensing showed a gradual decrease in charge transfer resistance after injection of the HIV-1 protease. The experimental data established a detection limit of 10 pg/ml, as well as demonstrated a drug screening assay. This HIV-1 protease biosensor represents a new detection approach which will lead to low-cost point-of-care devices for sensitive HIV-1 diagnosis, as well as high-throughput drug screening platforms.

  11. [Introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care in Colombia: qualitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Manjarrés, María Teresa; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Berta; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    Interpret perceptions of Colombian health professionals concerning factors that obstruct and facilitate the introduction of rapid syphilis and HIV testing in prenatal care services. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews was carried out. A convenience sample was selected with 37 participants, who included health professionals involved in prenatal care services, programs for pregnant women, clinical laboratories, and directors of health care units or centers, as well as representatives from regional departments and the Ministry of Health. Colombia does not do widespread screening with rapid syphilis and HIV tests in prenatal care. The professionals interviewed stated they did not have prior experience in the use of rapid tests-except for laboratory staff-or in the course of action in response to a positive result. The insurance system hinders access to timely diagnosis and treatment. Health authorities perceive a need to review existing standards, strengthen the first level of care, and promote comprehensive prenatal care starting with contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers. Participants recommended staff training and integration between health-policymaking and academic entities for updating training programs. The market approach and the characteristics of the Colombian health system constitute the main barriers to implementation of rapid testing as a strategy for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and HIV. Measures identified include making changes in contracts between insurers and health service institutional providers, adapting the timing and duration of prenatal care procedures, and training physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care.

  12. Correlation between rapid HIV testing and fourth-generation ELISA results for HIV detection among pregnant patients in the delivery room.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Alejandro G; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Sánchez-López, Luis A; Palau-Dávila, Laura A; Padilla-Orozco, Magaly; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the usefulness of rapid HIV testing in pregnant patients in the delivery room. This prospective study compared a rapid test and a fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for HIV screening among pregnant patients admitted in labor with an unknown HIV status at a university hospital in Mexico between July 2015 and February 2016. Pearson correlation analysis was performed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the two tests was assessed with HIV RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. Overall, 534 patients were included. With a signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) value of 1.0 or more as a diagnostic criterion, 6 (1.1%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a negative rapid test and three had a positive test (r=0.705). With an S/CO value of 2.0 or more as cutoff, 4 (0.7%) patients had a positive ELISA result. Three had a positive rapid test and one had a negative test (r=0.865). Only three of six patients with an S/CO of 1.0 or more were confirmed to have HIV by RNA PCR. The rapid test showed a strong correlation with the fourth-generation ELISA. Therefore, rapid testing is a useful tool in the delivery room for patients with unknown HIV status. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Simple and rapid detection of Tilletia horrida causing rice kernel smut in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Xue; Yao, Jian; Kyaw, Ei Phyu; Zhang, Ai-Fang; Li, Yun-Fei; Gu, Chun-Yan; Zang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Tong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the detection of Tilletia horrida, the causal agent of rice kernel smut, in rice seeds is developed based on specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To design the specific primers for the detection of T. horrida, partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region of T. horrida, T. controversa, T. walkeri, T. ehrhartae, T. indica and T. caries were analyzed and compared. A 503-bp fragment was amplified with the designed primers from the T. horrida genomic DNA. However, no PCR product was obtained from the DNA of other five Tilletia species and 22 fungal plant pathogens tested in the present work indicating the specificity of the primers for the detection of T. horrida. The PCR was performed by directly using the spores, isolated from the 21 different rice seed samples, as template DNA. The T. horrida was detected in 6 of the samples, indicating that 28.6% of the rice samples were contaminated with the kernel smut pathogen. This simple PCR based diagnostic assay can be applied for the direct and rapid detection and identification of T. horrida to screen large numbers of rice seed samples. PMID:27624858

  14. Simple and rapid detection of Tilletia horrida causing rice kernel smut in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Xue; Yao, Jian; Kyaw, Ei Phyu; Zhang, Ai-Fang; Li, Yun-Fei; Gu, Chun-Yan; Zang, Hao-Yu; Gao, Tong-Chun

    2016-09-14

    A simple and rapid method for the detection of Tilletia horrida, the causal agent of rice kernel smut, in rice seeds is developed based on specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To design the specific primers for the detection of T. horrida, partial sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region of T. horrida, T. controversa, T. walkeri, T. ehrhartae, T. indica and T. caries were analyzed and compared. A 503-bp fragment was amplified with the designed primers from the T. horrida genomic DNA. However, no PCR product was obtained from the DNA of other five Tilletia species and 22 fungal plant pathogens tested in the present work indicating the specificity of the primers for the detection of T. horrida. The PCR was performed by directly using the spores, isolated from the 21 different rice seed samples, as template DNA. The T. horrida was detected in 6 of the samples, indicating that 28.6% of the rice samples were contaminated with the kernel smut pathogen. This simple PCR based diagnostic assay can be applied for the direct and rapid detection and identification of T. horrida to screen large numbers of rice seed samples.

  15. Development of a rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine total antioxidative capacity of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Mirčeski, Valentin; Mitrev, Saša

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on a new, rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the edible oils. The method explores the ABTS radical (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay as a redox probe and it relays on measuring catalytic voltammetric currents. The electrocatalysis comprises redox regeneration of the electrochemically created ABTS(+) radical either by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid) or by antioxidants present in studied oils. The detection limit of the method is determined to be 0.5 mg/L of Trolox equivalent, being a slightly lower than the corresponding UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. Applying the proposed voltammetric method the total antioxidant capacity of three types of commercially available cold-pressed edible oils are determined, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement with those obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The reported voltammetric method is cheap, rapid and simple, and it can be used as a sustainable alternative to the UV-VIS methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacitance of oils and other liquid lipophilic nutrients. Potent antioxidant capacity of studied oils was also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of superoxide anion produced by macrophages.

  16. Rapid and simple colorimetric method for the quantification of AI-2 produced from Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wattanavanitchakorn, Siriluck; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Thamyongkit, Patchanita

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Fe(III) ion reduction for the simple and rapid quantification of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) produced from bacteria using Salmonella Typhimurium as a model. Since the molecular structure of AI-2 is somewhat similar to ascorbic acid it was expected that AI-2 would also act as a reducing agent and reduce Fe(III) ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to form the colored [(o-phen)3 Fe(II)]SO4 ferroin complex that could be quantified colorimetrically. In support of this, colony rinses and cell free supernatants from cultures of all tested AI-2 producing strains, but not the AI-2 negative Sinorhizobium meliloti, formed a colored complex with a λmax of 510nm. The OD510 values of these culture supernatants or colony rinses were in broad agreement with the % activity observed in the same samples using the standard Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence assay for AI-2 detection, and with previously reported results. This methodology could potentially be developed as an alternative method for the simple and rapid quantification of AI-2 levels produced in bacterial cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid decline in HIV viral load when introducing raltegravir-containing antiretroviral treatment late in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Westling, Katarina; Pettersson, Karin; Kaldma, Anneli; Navér, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Antenatal screening program for HIV has been in use in Sweden since 1987 with a 95-98% acceptance rate. Screening is performed during gestational week 10-12 and antiretroviral treatment (ART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is initiated at gestational week 14-18. However, some women present with HIV in late pregnancy and additional treatment are wanted to achieve viral suppression before delivery. The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and a capacity to rapidly decrease the viral load (VL). We describe four women presenting as HIV positive late in pregnancy, their ART, and outcome for the mother and child. Four women were discovered as HIV positive late in pregnancy, of 7 discovered in the antenatal screening programme in Stockholm County Council during 2011. Raltegravir was added to standard ART. The mean VL at presentation was 217,000 copies per milliliter (range, 65,000-637,000). A rapid decline of HIV RNA was observed in all cases, one woman treated with ART for only 8 days prior to delivery. The mean VL decline per week was 1.12 log (range, 0.94-1.22), which is estimated to occur (based on literature) after 1-2 months with standard ART. No side effects due to raltegravir were observed in mothers or infants. Caesarean section was performed in all cases, and the women did not breastfeed. No infant was infected. This report suggests that raltegravir added to standard antiretroviral treatment would be an option for women presenting with HIV in late pregnancy.

  18. Tool for rapid annotation of microbial SNPs (TRAMS): a simple program for rapid annotation of genomic variation in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Reumerman, Richard A; Tucker, Nicholas P; Herron, Paul R; Hoskisson, Paul A; Sangal, Vartul

    2013-09-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used to study genomic variation in a variety of prokaryotes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulting from genomic comparisons need to be annotated for their functional impact on the coding sequences. We have developed a program, TRAMS, for functional annotation of genomic SNPs which is available to download as a single file executable for WINDOWS users with limited computational experience and as a Python script for Mac OS and Linux users. TRAMS needs a tab delimited text file containing SNP locations, reference nucleotide and SNPs in variant strains along with a reference genome sequence in GenBank or EMBL format. SNPs are annotated as synonymous, nonsynonymous or nonsense. Nonsynonymous SNPs in start and stop codons are separated as non-start and non-stop SNPs, respectively. SNPs in multiple overlapping features are annotated separately for each feature and multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within a codon are combined before annotation. We have also developed a workflow for Galaxy, a highly used tool for analysing NGS data, to map short reads to a reference genome and extract and annotate the SNPs. TRAMS is a simple program for rapid and accurate annotation of SNPs that will be very useful for microbiologists in analysing genomic diversity in microbial populations.

  19. Orexin A but not orexin B rapidly enters brain from blood by simple diffusion.

    PubMed

    Kastin, A J; Akerstrom, V

    1999-04-01

    We determined the ability of orexin A and orexin B, recently discovered endogenous appetite enhancers, to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of mice. Multiple time-regression analysis showed that an i.v. bolus of 125I-orexin A rapidly entered the brain from the blood, with an influx rate (Ki = 2.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(-4) ml/g.min) many times faster than that of the 99mTc-albumin control. This relatively rapid rate of entry was not reduced by administration of excess orexin A (or leptin) or by fasting for 22 h, even when penetration into only the hypothalamus was measured. Lack of saturability also was shown by perfusion in blood-free buffer. HPLC revealed that most of the injected 125I-orexin A reached the brain as intact peptide. Capillary depletion studies showed that the administered peptide did not remain bound to the endothelial cells comprising the BBB but reached the brain parenchyma. Efflux of 125I-orexin A from the brain occurred at the same rate as 99mTc-albumin. The octanol/buffer partition coefficient of 0.232 showed that orexin A was highly lipophilic, whereas the value for orexin B was only 0.030. Orexin B, moreover, was rapidly degraded in blood, so no 125I-orexin B could be detected in intact form in brain when injected peripherally. Thus, although orexin B is rapidly metabolized in blood and has low lipophilicity, orexin A rapidly crosses the BBB from blood to reach brain tissue by the process of simple diffusion.

  20. Extracellular ATP induces the rapid release of HIV-1 from virus containing compartments of human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Francesca; Desdouits, Marion; Garzetti, Livia; Podini, Paola; Alfano, Massimo; Rubartelli, Anna; Furlan, Roberto; Benaroch, Philippe; Poli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4+ T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are believed to act as “Trojan horses” carrying infectious particles to be released on cell necrosis or functional stimulation. Here we explored the hypothesis that extracellular ATP (eATP) could represent a microenvironmental signal potentially affecting virion release from VCC of infected macrophages. Indeed, eATP triggered the rapid release of infectious HIV-1 from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) acutely infected with the CCR5-dependent HIV-1 strain. A similar phenomenon was observed in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells (D-U1) by costimulation with phorbol esters and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Worthy of note, eATP did not cause necrotic, apoptotic, or pyroptotic cell death, and its effect on HIV-1 release was suppressed by Imipramine (an antidepressant agent known to inhibit microvesicle formation by interfering with membrane-associated acid sphingomyelinase). Virion release was not triggered by oxidized ATP, whereas the effect of eATP was inhibited by a specific inhibitor of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Thus, eATP triggered the discharge of virions actively accumulating in VCC of infected macrophages via interaction with the P2X7R in the absence of significant cytopathicity. These findings suggest that the microvesicle pathway and P2X7R could represent exploitable targets for interfering with the VCC-associated reservoir of infectious HIV-1 virions in tissue macrophages. PMID:26056317

  1. A successful model for rapid triage of symptomatic patients at an HIV testing site in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Esperance, Morgan C; Koenig, Serena P; Guiteau, Colette; Homeus, Fabienne; Devieux, Jessy; Edouard, Jenny; Bertrand, Rachel; Joseph, Patrice; Bellot, Clovy; Decome, Diessy; Pape, Jean W; Severe, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    Attrition from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is high. Strengthening linkages in care from testing to treatment may reduce attrition. This study addresses the question: can social workers accurately identify symptomatic patients during HIV testing and fast-track them for rapid provision of services? This study took place at the Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We compared symptoms reported by social workers at HIV testing using a checklist to diagnoses made by physicians on an intake exam to determine if social workers could accurately identify symptomatic patients. Among the 437 HIV-positive patients included in the study, social workers reported stage-associated symptoms in 100% of patients diagnosed with WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions and in 87% of patients with WHO stage 1 or 2 conditions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of social worker-reported symptoms for the diagnosis of a WHO stage 3 or 4 condition was 100%, 47%, 31%, and 100%, respectively. Social workers can identify symptomatic patients at HIV testing and refer them for fast-tracked services. This strategy may increase the rate of ART initiation among eligible patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reliability of the INSTI® rapid test for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants.

    PubMed

    Goupil de Bouillé, Jeanne; Le Moal, Gwénaël; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Guigon, Aurélie; Plainchamp, David; Giraudeau, Geneviève; Theillay, Aurélie; Languille, Anne; Bélec, Laurent; Prazuck, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of Rapid HIV tests (RHTs) in detecting non-B subtype HIV-1 are limited. We evaluated the sensitivity of the INSTI® test for the detection of HIV-1 antibodies for the diagnosis of HIV-1 non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. We identified adults with HIV-1 infection due to non-B subtypes and recombinant variants. The participants were re-tested with INSTI® test. We included 258 patients. Overall, the INSTI® test sensitivity was 98.4% (95%CI: 96.9-99.9%). For the major CRF_02AG subtype, the sensitivity was 99.0% (95%CI: 97.1-100%). The HIV INSTI® test is reliable for the detection of various non-B HIV-1 antibodies.

  3. Simple, rapid, sensitive, and versatile SWNT-paper sensor for environmental toxin detection competitive with ELISA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Dinghua; Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Yingyue; Sun, Fengxia; Liu, Liqiang; Peng, Chifang; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-12-01

    Safety of water was for a long time and still is one of the most pressing needs for many countries and different communities. Despite the fact that there are potentially many methods to evaluate water safety, finding a simple, rapid, versatile, and inexpensive method for detection of toxins in everyday items is still a great challenge. In this study, we extend the concept of composites, impregnated porous fibrous materials, such as fabrics and papers, by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), toward very simple but high-performance biosensors. They utilize the strong dependence of electrical conductivity through nanotubes percolation network on the width of nanotube-nanotube tunneling gap and can potentially satisfy all the requirements outlined above for the routine toxin monitoring. An antibody to the microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the common culprits in mass poisonings, was dispersed together with SWNTs. This dispersion was used to dip-coat the paper rendering it conductive. The change in conductivity of the paper was used to sense the MC-LR in the water rapidly and accurately. The method has the linear detection range up to 10 nmol/L and nonlinear detection up to 40 nmol/L. The limit of detection was found to be 0.6 nmol/L (0.6 ng/mL), which satisfies the strictest World Health Organization standard for MC-LR content in drinking water (1 ng/mL) and is comparable to the detection limit of the traditional ELISA method of MC-LR detection, while drastically reducing the time of analysis by more than an order of magnitude, which is one of the major hurdles in practical applications. Similar technology of sensor preparation can also be used for a variety of other rapid environmental sensors.

  4. Multisite Laboratory Evaluation of a Dual Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Syphilis Point-of-Care Rapid Test for Simultaneous Detection of HIV and Syphilis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Claire C.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ondondo, Raphael O.; Bukusi, Elizabeth Anne; Dagnra, Claver Anoumou; Oo, Khin Yi; Pe, Eh Htoo; Khamsay, Chanthavysouk; Houng, Le Thi; Campuzano, Roberto Vázquez; Estes, Jason; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Recently, test developers have created rapid point-of-care tests that can simultaneously detect multiple infections within the same specimen using a single device. The SD BIOLINE Duo HIV/Syphilis rapid point-of-care test uses a solid-phase immunochromatographic assay to detect immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antigens (HIV-1 gp41, sub O, HIV-2 gp36) and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigen (17 kDa) in human serum. This study was a multisite laboratory-based evaluation of the performance of SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test using previously characterized sera in 6 countries. Methods.  Laboratories in Ghana, Mexico, Laos, Togo, Kenya, and Myanmar participated in the evaluation during 2012–2013. Each site characterized sera using T pallidum particle agglutination assay or T pallidum hemagglutination assay and HIV enzyme immunoassay, Western blot, and/or HIV antibody rapid tests. Those gold standard test results were compared with SD BIOLINE Duo test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of test performance and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results.  The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody test component (n = 2336) were estimated at 99.91% (95% CI, 99.51% and 100%) and 99.67% (95% CI, 99.16% and 99.91%), respectively. For the T pallidum test component (n = 2059), the sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 99.67% (95% CI, 98.82% and 99.96%) and 99.72% (95% CI, 99.29% and 99.92%), respectively. Conclusions.  The sensitivity and specificity of the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test were consistently high across sera specimens from 6 countries around the world. Dual rapid tests should be considered for improved HIV and syphilis screening coverage. PMID:25734088

  5. Multisite Laboratory Evaluation of a Dual Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Syphilis Point-of-Care Rapid Test for Simultaneous Detection of HIV and Syphilis Infection.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Claire C; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ondondo, Raphael O; Bukusi, Elizabeth Anne; Dagnra, Claver Anoumou; Oo, Khin Yi; Pe, Eh Htoo; Khamsay, Chanthavysouk; Houng, Le Thi; Campuzano, Roberto Vázquez; Estes, Jason; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-03-01

    Recently, test developers have created rapid point-of-care tests that can simultaneously detect multiple infections within the same specimen using a single device. The SD BIOLINE Duo HIV/Syphilis rapid point-of-care test uses a solid-phase immunochromatographic assay to detect immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antigens (HIV-1 gp41, sub O, HIV-2 gp36) and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigen (17 kDa) in human serum. This study was a multisite laboratory-based evaluation of the performance of SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test using previously characterized sera in 6 countries. Laboratories in Ghana, Mexico, Laos, Togo, Kenya, and Myanmar participated in the evaluation during 2012-2013. Each site characterized sera using T pallidum particle agglutination assay or T pallidum hemagglutination assay and HIV enzyme immunoassay, Western blot, and/or HIV antibody rapid tests. Those gold standard test results were compared with SD BIOLINE Duo test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of test performance and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody test component (n = 2336) were estimated at 99.91% (95% CI, 99.51% and 100%) and 99.67% (95% CI, 99.16% and 99.91%), respectively. For the T pallidum test component (n = 2059), the sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 99.67% (95% CI, 98.82% and 99.96%) and 99.72% (95% CI, 99.29% and 99.92%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test were consistently high across sera specimens from 6 countries around the world. Dual rapid tests should be considered for improved HIV and syphilis screening coverage.

  6. Rapid and simple G-quadruplex DNA aptasensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sandy; Park, Lucienne; Chong, Richard; Kim, Young Teck; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2014-02-15

    Cost-effective and sensitive aptasensor with guanine chemiluminescence detection capable of simply quantifying thrombin in human serum was developed using thrombin aptamer (TBA), one of the G-quadruplex DNA aptamers, without expensive nanoparticles and complicated procedures. Guanines of G-quadruplex TBA-conjugated carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) bound with thrombin do not react with 3,4,5-trimethoxylphenylglyoxal (TMPG) in the presence of tetra-n-propylammonium hydroxide (TPA), whereas guanines of free TBA- and TBA-conjugated 6-FAM immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide rapidly react with TMPG to emit light. Thus, guanine chemiluminescence in 5% human serum with thrombin was lower than that without thrombin when TBA-conjugated 6-FAM was added in two samples and incubated for 20 min. In other words, the brightness of guanine chemiluminescence was quenched due to the formation of G-quadruplex TBA-conjugated 6-FAM bound with thrombin in a sample. High-energy intermediate, capable of emitting dim light by itself, formed from the reaction between guanines of TBA and TMPG in the presence of TPA, transfers energy to 6-FAM to emit bright light based on the principle of chemiluminescence energy transfer (CRET). G-quadruplex TBA aptasensor devised using the rapid interaction between TBA-conjugated 6-FAM and thrombin quantified trace levels of thrombin without complicated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD = background + 3 × standard deviation) of G-quadruplex TBA aptasensor with good linear calibration curve, accuracy, precision, and recovery was as low as 12.3 nM in 5% human serum. Using the technology reported in this research, we expect that various types of G-quadruplex DNA aptasensors capable of specifically sensing a target molecule such as ATP, HIV, ochratoxin, potassium ions, and thrombin can be developed.

  7. A Simple Paper-Based Colorimetric Device for Rapid Mercury(II) Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Fang, Xueen; Li, Hua; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by mercury(II) ions (Hg2+) poses a serious threat to human health and ecosystems. Up to now, many reported Hg2+ sensors require complex procedures, long measurement times and sophisticated instrumentation. We have developed a simple, rapid, low cost and naked-eye quantitative method for Hg2+ environmental analysis using a paper-based colorimetric device (PCD). The sample solution to which platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been added is dispensed to the detection zone on the PCD, where the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate has been pre-loaded. The PtNPs effect a rapid oxidization of TMB, inducing blue colorization on the PCD. However, Hg2+ in the solution rapidly interact with the PtNPs, suppressing the oxidation capacity and hence causing a decrease in blue intensity, which can be observed directly by the naked eye. Moreover, Hg2+ at concentrations as low as 0.01 uM, can be successfully monitored using a fiber optic device, which gives a digital readout proportional to the intensity of the blue color change. This paper-based colorimetric device (PCD) shows great potential for field measurement of Hg2+. PMID:27554633

  8. A simple recipe for rapid all-optical formation of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Chun-Chia; Sun, Li-An; Liao, Guan-Bo; Wu, Keng-Shuo; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chang, Ming-Shien

    2017-08-01

    We present a simple recipe for the rapid formation of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb atoms in a three-beam crossed optical dipole trap (ODT). Two laser Gaussian beams were crossed at a small angle to form an effective single potential in the intersection region with an independent and widely tunable trap volume and aspect ratio, for both efficient atom loading and number density enhancement. A third Gaussian beam was then introduced to create a potential dimple at the trap center to further increase the atom number density and collision rate, which enabled rapid evaporation to a Bose condensation. In this configuration, 2× {10}6 atoms were loaded into the three-beam crossed trap from a vapor cell magneto-optical trap, and condensates of 3× {10}4{--}4.5× {10}4 atoms were created after 3-5 s of rapid evaporation. The demonstration of efficient and robust BEC production in this ODT suggests the applicability of this trapping geometry to lasers with any far off-resonant wavelengths. To prepare the spinor condensates with a wide tunability of spin population, control of the magnetic fields was first employed during evaporation to polarize the spin states, and the tuning mechanism is discussed. Spinor condensates with an arbitrary spin population were then created via multiple microwave pulses driving the ground hyperfine transitions.

  9. Increasing use of rapid HIV testing in labor and delivery among women with no prenatal care: a local initiative.

    PubMed

    Levison, Judy; Williams, Lena T; Moore, Anna; McFarlane, Jenny; Davila, Jessica A

    2011-08-01

    Pregnant women who do not receive prenatal care and may not be aware of their HIV status are at greatest risk of transmitting HIV to their newborn. A multi-component intervention was designed and implemented to increase the use of rapid HIV testing among pregnant women with no prenatal care at labor and delivery in two county hospitals in Houston/Harris County, Texas. The intervention involved establishing a local task force including representatives from each hospital, assessing each hospital's readiness to implement rapid testing, providing educational presentations and materials, and offering individualized follow-up. Outcomes data were obtained and included the number of patients presenting with no prenatal care who received rapid HIV testing on admission. Before the intervention, both hospitals had rapid test kits available but were not using them consistently. Following the intervention, we observed a significant increase in the use of rapid HIV testing at both institutions (P < 0.001). In the 3 months immediately following the intervention, use of rapid testing at Hospital 1 increased from 7.4 to 35.3% and at Hospital 2 from 27.4 to 41.5%. At 1 year, almost 100% of women with no prenatal care at both hospitals received rapid testing. Educating staff and clinicians and implementing system-wide changes may facilitate behavior change regarding prenatal HIV testing.

  10. Impact of the introduction of rapid HIV testing in the Voluntary Counselling and Testing sites network of Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Lopez, L; Rifà, B; Pujol, F; Becerra, J; Pérez, M; Meroño, M; Zaragoza, K; Rafel, A; Díaz, O; Avellaneda, A; Casado, M J; Giménez, A; Casabona, J

    2010-06-01

    Rapid HIV antibody tests, which provide results within 15-60 minutes, can help reduce the number of unrecognized infections by improving access to testing facilities and increase the number of people tested who know their results. After an acceptability study, rapid HIV testing was first implemented in Catalonia in 2007 within the community-based Voluntary Counselling and Testing sites network. One year after implementation, an increase of 102.9% has been observed in the number of tests performed, ranging from 8.4% to 328.3% according to the site. Despite the important immediate impact of rapid HIV testing on the number of tests performed, there was no significant change in the proportion of tests that were positive. Rapid HIV testing can help increase access to testing, but it should be complemented with specific outreach programmes targeting the most vulnerable subgroups.

  11. Sensitivity of the STAT-VIEW rapid self-test and implications for use during acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Boukli, Narjis; Boyd, Anders; Wendremaire, Noémie; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Bottero, Julie; Morand-Joubert, Laurence

    2017-08-23

    HIV testing is an important step towards diminishing incident infections. Rapid self-tests whose use is becoming more common in France could help increase access to testing, yet could fail to diagnose HIV during acute HIV infection (AHI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate HIV-detection sensitivity of a commonly used rapid self-test (STAT-VIEW HIV1/2), compared with another point-of-care rapid test (INSTI), among patients presenting with AHI. Individuals tested at Saint-Antoine Hospital (Paris, France) with negative or indeterminate western blot (WB) results and detectable HIV-RNA were included. Rapid tests were performed retrospectively on stored serum. Patients with and without reactive rapid tests were compared, while probability of having a reactive test was modelled across infection duration using logistic regression. Of the 40 patients with AHI, 23 (57.5%) had a reactive STAT-VIEW rapid test. Patients with non-reactive versus reactive tests had a significantly shorter median time since infection (p=0.01), time since onset of symptoms (p=0.009), higher proportion with Fiebig stage III versus IV (p=0.003), negative WB results (p=0.007), higher HIV-RNA levels (p=0.001) and lower CD4+ and CD8+ cell count (p=0.03, p<0.001, respectively). When examining sensitivity over the course of AHI duration, the probability of HIV detection was 75.5% at 5 weeks from HIV transmission. The INSTI provided similar results with respect to proportion of reactive tests (62.5%), determinants for non-reactive test and probability of HIV detection at 5 weeks of infection (85.0%). Over half of AHI patients had reactive serology using the STAT-VIEW rapid self-test when performed on serum samples. Considering that detection sensitivity increased substantially over infection time, individuals should not rely on a negative result to accurately exclude HIV infection within at least 5 weeks of potential HIV exposure. Notwithstanding strong recommendations against rapid test

  12. Implementing a novel citywide rapid HIV testing campaign in Washington, D.C.: findings and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Castel, Amanda D; Magnus, Manya; Peterson, James; Anand, Karishma; Wu, Charles; Martin, Marsha; Sansone, Marie; Rocha, Nestor; Jolaosho, Titilola; West, Tiffany; Hader, Shannon; Greenberg, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the District of Columbia (DC) Department of Health launched a citywide rapid HIV screening campaign. Goals included raising HIV awareness, routinizing rapid HIV screening, identifying previously unrecognized infections, and linking positives to care. We describe findings from this seminal campaign and identify lessons learned. We applied a mixed-methods approach using quantitative analysis of client data forms (CDFs) and qualitative evaluation of focus groups with DC residents. We measured characteristics and factors associated with client demographics, test results, and community perceptions regarding the campaign. Data were available on 38,586 participants tested from July 2006 to September 2007. Of those, 68% had previously tested for HIV (44% within the last 12 months) and 23% would not have sought testing had it not been offered. Overall, 662 (1.7%) participants screened positive on the OraQuick® Advance™ rapid HIV test, with non-Hispanic black people, transgenders, and first-time testers being significantly more likely to screen positive for HIV than white people, males, and those tested within the last year, respectively. Of those screening positive for HIV, 47% had documented referrals for HIV care and treatment services. Focus groups reported continued stigma regarding HIV and minimal community saturation of the campaign. This widespread campaign tested thousands of people and identified hundreds of HIV-infected individuals; however, referrals to care were lower than anticipated, and awareness of the campaign was limited. Lessons learned through this scale-up of population-based HIV screening resulted in establishing citywide HIV testing processes that laid the foundation for the implementation of test-and-treat activities in DC.

  13. Assessing patients' attitudes to opt-out HIV rapid screening in community dental clinics: a cross-sectional Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario; Chang, Steve; Donnelly, Leeann

    2016-05-10

    As a public health initiative, provided-initiated HIV screening test in dental settings has long been available in the U.S.; it was only in 2011 that such setting was used in Canada. The objective of this paper was to assess patients' response to, and attitudes towards, an opt-out rapid HIV screening test in a dental setting in Vancouver, Canada. A cross-sectional evaluation design using a self-complete survey questionnaire on self-perceived values and benefits of an opt-out rapid HIV screening was employed. An anonymous 10-item questionnaire was developed to explore reasons for accepting or declining the HIV rapid screening test, and barriers and facilitators for the HIV screening in dental settings. Eligible participants were male and female older than 19 years attending community dental clinics and who were offered the HIV screening test between June 2010 and February 2015. From the 1552 age-eligible patients, 519 completed the survey and 155 (10 %) accepted the HIV screening due to its convenience, and/or free cost, and/or instant results. From the 458 respondents who did not accept the screening, 362 (79 %) were between the ages of 25 and 45 years; 246 (53.7 %) had identifiable risk factors for contracting HIV; and 189 (41.3 %) reported having been tested within the last 3 months. Those tested in less than 3 months had 3.5 times higher odds to decline the HIV screening compared to those who have been tested between 3 months and 1 year. Convenience, cost-free and readily available results are factors influencing rapid HIV screening uptake. Although dental settings remain an alternative venue for HIV screening from the patients' perspectives, dental hygiene settings might offer a better option.

  14. Implementing Rapid HIV Testing With or Without Risk-Reduction Counseling in Drug Treatment Centers: Results of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Mandler, Raul N.; Haynes, Louise; Tross, Susan; Kyle, Tiffany; Gallup, Dianne; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Douaihy, Antoine; Schackman, Bruce R.; Das, Moupali; Lindblad, Robert; Erickson, Sarah; Korthuis, P. Todd; Martino, Steve; Sorensen, James L.; Szapocznik, José; Walensky, Rochelle; Branson, Bernard; Colfax, Grant N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of risk reduction counseling and the role of on-site HIV testing in drug treatment. Methods. Between January and May 2009, we randomized 1281 HIV-negative (or status unknown) adults who reported no past-year HIV testing to (1) referral for off-site HIV testing, (2) HIV risk-reduction counseling with on-site rapid HIV testing, or (3) verbal information about testing only with on-site rapid HIV testing. Results. We defined 2 primary self-reported outcomes a priori: receipt of HIV test results and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse episodes at 6-month follow-up. The combined on-site rapid testing participants received more HIV test results than off-site testing referral participants (P < .001; Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio = 4.52; 97.5% confidence interval [CI] = 3.57, 5.72). At 6 months, there were no significant differences in unprotected intercourse episodes between the combined on-site testing arms and the referral arm (P = .39; incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.04; 97.5% CI = 0.95, 1.14) or the 2 on-site testing arms (P = .81; IRR = 1.03; 97.5% CI = 0.84, 1.26). Conclusions. This study demonstrated on-site rapid HIV testing’s value in drug treatment centers and found no additional benefit from HIV sexual risk-reduction counseling. PMID:22515871

  15. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanoparticle-based energy transfer for rapid and simple detection of protein glycosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Eunkeu; Lee, Dohoon; Kim, Young-Pil; Cha, Seung YOUP; Oh, Doo BEYONG; Kim, Jungbae; Kang, Hyun AH; Kim, Hak SUNG

    2006-12-04

    Glycan moiety of glycoproteins plays an essential role in its biological activity in vivo, and the analysis of glycosylation is of great importance in the development of protein therapeutics. In this study, we report a rapid and simple detection of protein glycosylation based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between concanavalin A-conjugated gold nanoparticles (ConA-AuNPs) and dextran-conjugated quantum dots (Dex-QDs). The increased photoluminescence (PL) signals of Dex-QDs due to the competitive inhibition of glycoproteins were well correlated with the glycosylation chain length of glucose oxidases as well as the mannosylation degree of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The parallel analysis of the diversely mannosylated BSAs using an image analyzer further demonstrated the potential of this new technique in high-throughput screening of glycoprotein and carbohydrate therapeutics.

  17. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Ryo; Murase, Kenya; Takata, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments. PMID:23629669

  18. A simple rapid procedure for obtaining axenic cultures from monoxenic cultures of myxomycete plasmodia.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Sujatha, A; Kalyanasundaram, I

    1999-10-01

    Axenic culture of myxomycete plasmodia has been attempted from time to time by various authors, but with very little success. From over 500 known species of myxomycetes, fewer than 20 species have been reported in axenic culture to date, including axenic myxamoebal cultures. In these cultures, the plasmodia required either complex media, or a killed bacterial supplement for growth. Furthermore, the time required for attaining the axenic state varied from several months to years. In the present study, a simple, rapid procedure has been developed to render monoxenic plasmodial cultures axenic. This procedure is based on our discovery that plasmodia have certain unusual substrate preferences that are inhibitory to the associated bacteria using Physarella oblonga as a model. The presence or absence of the bacteria could be ascertained through incubation in four different bacteriological media and by the use of a differential staining technique.

  19. A Simple, Rapid, and Convenient Luminex™-Compatible Method of Tissue Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Derek; Zamora, Ruben; Torres, Andres; Namas, Rajaie; Steed, David; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are associated with changes in multiple protein biomarkers, and these changes can be assessed using xMAP™ beads and the Luminex™ platform. Although this platform is most commonly utilized in the analysis of biomarkers in serum, plasma, or urine, it is often desirable to measure these analytes in tissues (e.g., biopsy specimens). We have developed a simple, rapid method of tissue isolation in which excised tissues are permeabilized in RNAlater ™ at 4°C overnight, followed by Luminex™ analysis for inflammatory biomarkers (cytokines). This method was compared with flash-freezing in both mouse liver and human debrided wound specimens, and may be of utility in other clinical settings. PMID:18623112

  20. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

    PubMed

    Martins, Polyana Kelly; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Cunha, Bárbara Andrade Dias Brito da; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Harmon, Frank G; Kobayashi, Adilson Kenji; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa

    2015-06-01

    Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements) that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5-2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  1. A simple and rapid preparation of M13 sequencing templates for manual and automated dideoxy sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, T; Voss, H; Ansorge, W

    1987-01-01

    A simple and rapid procedure for the preparation of M13 single stranded DNA sequencing templates which does not involve phenol extractions and alcohol precipitations is described. Bacteriophages are precipitated from media supernatants with acetic acid and recovered on glass fiber filters. Subsequent dissociation of the phages and removal of contaminants is performed while the DNA is bound to the glass. Finally, the purified DNA is eluted in a small volume of low-salt buffer. The yield is higher than that obtained by standard methods. The simplified procedure takes less than 30 minutes and does not demand special skills or equipment; the sequence resolution is as good as that obtained by standard procedures both with the Klenow fragment and T7 DNA polymerase, with radioactive labelling as well as in automated sequencing with a fluorescent label. Images PMID:3615197

  2. Simple and rapid method for the analysis of phenolic compounds in beverages and grains.

    PubMed

    Medina, Marjorie B

    2011-03-09

    A new method for the detection of phenolics in food systems was developed. This method is based on interactions of phenolics with Fast Blue BB diazonium salt in alkali pH, forming azo complexes, with the absorbance measured at 420 nm after 60 min. The linear regression correlations (R(2)) of gallic acid calibration standards were >0.99. The phenolic content (gallic acid equivalent) of samples analyzed yielded higher ratios (1.7-6.6) of the total phenolics by Fast Blue BB to Folin-Ciocalteu methods in most beverages and grain samples, but in flaxseed and some juice blends, the ratios were <1. The lower ratios suggest the presence of non-phenolic reducing constituents measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu method as "total phenolics". This method is simple and inexpensive and can be used to rapidly assess the total phenolics of foods and beverages.

  3. Development of a novel and simple method to evaluate disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel and simple method for evaluating the disintegration time of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) in vitro, since the conventional disintegration test described in the pharmacopoeia produces poor results due to the difference of its environmental conditions from those of an actual oral cavity. Six RDTs prepared in our laboratory and 5 types of commercial RDTs were used as model formulations. Using our original apparatus, a good correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro disintegration times by adjusting the height from which the solution was dropped to 8 cm and the weight of the load to 10 or 20 g. Properties of RDTs, such as the pattern of their disintegrating process, can be assessed by verifying the load. These findings confirmed that our proposed method for an in vitro disintegration test apparatus is an excellent one for estimating disintegration time and the disintegration profile of RDTs.

  4. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Irarrazábal, Lisette Paola; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Reed, Reiley; Levy, Judith; Pérez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT) to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants’ perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. Methods A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. Results The ELISA reported 184 (37%) of the 497 participants as being “positive” for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4%) as being “reactive” for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%–99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval) and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001). Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. Conclusions The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. PMID:23939368

  5. A rapid and simple method for constructing stable mutants of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug-resistant bacterium responsible for nosocomial infections in hospitals worldwide. Study of mutant phenotypes is fundamental for understanding gene function. The methodologies developed to inactivate A. baumannii genes are complicated and time-consuming; sometimes result in unstable mutants, and do not enable construction of double (or more) gene knockout mutant strains of A. baumannii. Results We describe here a rapid and simple method of obtaining A. baumannii mutants by gene replacement via double crossover recombination, by use of a PCR product that carries an antibiotic resistance cassette flanked by regions homologous to the target locus. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the approach, we produced mutants of three different chromosomal genes (omp33, oxyR, and soxR) by this method. In addition, we disrupted one of these genes (omp33) by integration of a plasmid into the chromosome by single crossover recombination, the most widely used method of obtaining A. baumannii mutants. Comparison of the different techniques revealed absolute stability when the gene was replaced by a double recombination event, whereas up to 40% of the population reverted to wild-type when the plasmid was disrupting the target gene after 10 passages in broth without selective pressure. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combination of both gene disruption and gene replacement techniques is an easy and useful procedure for obtaining double gene knockout mutants in A. baumannii. Conclusions This study provides a rapid and simple method of obtaining stable mutants of A. baumannii free of foreign plasmidic DNA, which does not require cloning steps, and enables construction of multiple gene knockout mutants. PMID:21062436

  6. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Massart, Julie; Zierath, Juleen R; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2014-06-24

    Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fast method to characterize lipid profiles in skeletal muscle using thin layer chromatography. The described method was specifically developed to assess lipid utilization in cultured and intact skeletal muscle. We determined the effect of a pan-diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) class I inhibitor (R59949) on lipid metabolism to validate the method. In human skeletal muscle cells, DGK inhibition impaired diacylglycerol (DAG) conversion to phosphatidic acid and increased triglyceride synthesis. In intact glycolytic mouse skeletal muscle, DGK inhibition triggered the accumulation of DAG species. Conversely, the DGK inhibitor did not affect DAG content in oxidative muscle. This simple assay detects rapid changes in the lipid species composition of skeletal muscle with high sensitivity and specificity. Determination of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle may further elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes or obesity.

  7. A simple and rapid method to characterize lipid fate in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated fatty acids contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and affect skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Since elevated intramuscular lipids and insulin resistance is strongly correlated, aberrant lipid storage or lipid intermediates may be involved in diabetes pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to develop a method to determine the dynamic metabolic fate of lipids in primary human skeletal muscle cells and in intact mouse skeletal muscle. We report a simple and fast method to characterize lipid profiles in skeletal muscle using thin layer chromatography. Findings The described method was specifically developed to assess lipid utilization in cultured and intact skeletal muscle. We determined the effect of a pan-diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) class I inhibitor (R59949) on lipid metabolism to validate the method. In human skeletal muscle cells, DGK inhibition impaired diacylglycerol (DAG) conversion to phosphatidic acid and increased triglyceride synthesis. In intact glycolytic mouse skeletal muscle, DGK inhibition triggered the accumulation of DAG species. Conversely, the DGK inhibitor did not affect DAG content in oxidative muscle. Conclusion This simple assay detects rapid changes in the lipid species composition of skeletal muscle with high sensitivity and specificity. Determination of lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle may further elucidate the mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes or obesity. PMID:24962347

  8. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. MagaZorb: a simple tool for rapid isolation of viral nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Nargessi, Dokhi; Ou, Chin-Yih

    2010-04-15

    Effective isolation of nucleic acids from samples containing viral materials is an essential step for accurate diagnosis of viral infections. The necessity of this critical step before analytical identification and diagnosis of viral infections is paramount to screening programs and to identifying and monitoring epidemics and pandemics. With molecular assays rapidly evolving into routine practice, clinical laboratories face several challenges, including presence of small amounts of viral nucleic acids in abundant levels of genomic DNA and total RNA, processing of various sample types, and carry-over of polymerase chain reaction inhibitors, which could significantly affect polymerase chain reaction and microarray results. MagaZorb nucleic acid isolation technology overcomes these challenges and offers a simple and reliable method for isolation of high-quality and high-yield nucleic acids. Although the MagaZorb technology is readily adaptable to automated platforms, it is also well suited to laboratories in remote areas of resource-poor countries, because a simple magnet is the only device required to perform the procedure manually. Performance characteristics and clinical application of the MagaZorb technology are briefly described here.

  10. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, Saif U.; Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Methods Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. Results The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), 100% (CI: 99.1–100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4–98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1–100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Conclusion Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh. PMID:26945143

  11. Operational feasibility of using whole blood in the rapid HIV testing algorithm of a resource-limited settings like Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Saif U; Oyewale, Tajudeen O; Begum, Shahnaz; Uddin, Ziya; Tabassum, Shahina

    2016-03-01

    Serum-based rapid HIV testing algorithm in Bangladesh constitutes operational challenge to scaleup HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in the country. This study explored the operational feasibility of using whole blood as alternative to serum for rapid HIV testing in Bangladesh. Whole blood specimens were collected from two study groups. The groups included HIV-positive patients (n = 200) and HIV-negative individuals (n = 200) presenting at the reference laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The specimens were subjected to rapid HIV tests using the national algorithm with A1 = Alere Determine (United States), A2 = Uni-Gold (Ireland), and A3 = First Response (India). The sensitivity and specificity of the test results, and the operational cost were compared with current serum-based testing. The sensitivities [95% of confidence interval (CI)] for A1, A2, and A3 tests using whole blood were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), 100% (CI: 99.1-100%), and 97% (CI: 96.4-98.2%), respectively, and specificities of all test kits were 100% (CI: 99.1-100%). Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the cost of establishing HTC centre and consumables by 94 and 61%, respectively, were observed. The cost of administration and external quality assurance reduced by 39 and 43%, respectively. Overall, there was a 36% cost reduction in total operational cost of rapid HIV testing with blood when compared with serum. Considering the similar sensitivity and specificity of the two specimens, and significant cost reduction, rapid HIV testing with whole blood is feasible. A review of the national HIV rapid testing algorithm with whole blood will contribute toward improving HTC coverage in Bangladesh.

  12. [Principle of LAMP method--a simple and rapid gene amplification method].

    PubMed

    Ushikubo, Hiroshi

    2004-06-01

    So far nucleic acid test (NAT) has been employed in various fields, including infectious disease diagnoses. However, due to its complicated procedures and relatively high cost, it has not been widely utilized in many actual diagnostic applications. We have therefore developed a simple and rapid gene amplification technology, Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method, which has shown prominent results of surpassing the performance of the conventional gene amplification methods. LAMP method acquires three main features: (1) all reaction can be carried out under isothermal conditions; (2) the amplification efficiency is extremely high and tremendous amount of amplification products can be obtained; and (3) the reaction is highly specific. Furthermore, developed from the standard LAMP method, a rapid LAMP method, by adding in the loop primers, can reduce the amplification time from the previous 1 hour to less than 30 minutes. Enormous amount of white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate is produced as a by-product of the amplification, therefore, direct visual detection is possible without using any reaction indicators and detection equipments. We believe LAMP technology, with the integration of these features, can rightly apply to clinical genetic testing, food and environmental analysis, as well as NAT in different fields.

  13. Simple and Portable Magnetic Immunoassay for Rapid Detection and Sensitive Quantification of Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rettcher, Stefanie; Jungk, Felicitas; Kühn, Christoph; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Nölke, Greta; Commandeur, Ulrich; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens cause major economic losses in the agricultural industry because late detection delays the implementation of measures that can prevent their dissemination. Sensitive and robust procedures for the rapid detection of plant pathogens are therefore required to reduce yield losses and the use of expensive, environmentally damaging chemicals. Here we describe a simple and portable system for the rapid detection of viral pathogens in infected plants based on immunofiltration, subsequent magnetic detection, and the quantification of magnetically labeled virus particles. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) was chosen as a model pathogen. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the GFLV capsid protein were immobilized onto immunofiltration columns, and the same antibodies were linked to magnetic nanoparticles. GFLV was quantified by immunofiltration with magnetic labeling in a double-antibody sandwich configuration. A magnetic frequency mixing technique, in which a two-frequency magnetic excitation field was used to induce a sum frequency signal in the resonant detection coil, corresponding to the virus concentration within the immunofiltration column, was used for high-sensitivity quantification. We were able to measure GFLV concentrations in the range of 6 ng/ml to 20 μg/ml in less than 30 min. The magnetic immunoassay could also be adapted to detect other plant viruses, including Potato virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus, with detection limits of 2 to 60 ng/ml. PMID:25710366

  14. An inexpensive thread-based system for simple and rapid blood grouping.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, David R; Li, Xu; Shen, Wei

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the use of thread as a flexible and low-cost substrate for the rapid grouping of blood. The use of a capillary substrate such as thread for blood grouping utilises the sensitivity of the flow resistance of large particles in narrow capillary channels to separate agglutinated red blood cells (RBCs) from plasma. Large and discrete particles formed in a continuous liquid phase do not provide capillary wicking driving force and fall behind the capillary wicking front, leading to their separation from the wicking liquid. The capillary substrate therefore provides a very promising but different mechanism for the separation of the agglutinated RBCs and the blood serum phase compared to most existing blood grouping methods. The principle of chromatographic separation is also exploited in this study via the use of suitable dyes to enhance the visual detection of the agglutinated RBCs and the serum phase; surprising and encouraging outcomes are obtained. Using a thread-based device, the ABO and Rh groups can be successfully determined with only 2 μL of whole blood from a pricked finger tip within 1 min and without pre-treatment of the blood sample. It is hoped that a new, inexpensive, rapid and simple method may provide an easy-to-use blood grouping platform well suited to those in developing or remote regions of the world.

  15. p24 antigen rapid test for diagnosis of acute pediatric HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Zaheer A; Elghanian, Robert; Nabatiyan, Arman; Hardie, Diana R; Kelso, David M

    2010-12-01

    Currently, the majority of HIV-infected infants are found within limited-resource settings, where inadequate screening for HIV due to the lack of access to simple and affordable point-of-care tests impedes implementation of antiretroviral therapy. Here we report development of a low-cost dipstick p24 antigen assay using a visual readout format that can facilitate the diagnosis of HIV for infants in resource-poor conditions. A heat shock methodology was developed to optimize disruption of immune complexes present in the plasma of infected infants. The analytical sensitivity of the assay using recombinant p24 antigen is 50 pg/mL (2 pM) with whole virus detection as low as 42.5k RNA copies per milliliter plasma. In a blinded study comprising 51 archived infant samples from the Women and Infants Transmission Study, our assay demonstrated an overall sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 100%, respectively. In field evaluations of 389 fresh samples from South African infants, a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 99% was achieved. The assay is simple to perform, requires minimal plasma volume (25 μL), and yields a result in less than 40 minutes making it ideal for implementation in resource-limited settings.

  16. A Simple and Rapid Identification Method for Mycobacterium bovis BCG with Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kouzaki, Yuji; Maeda, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Tamura, Shinsuke; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Yuki, Atsushi; Sato, Akinori; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used as a live attenuated vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is an agent for standard prophylaxis against the recurrence of bladder cancer. Unfortunately, it can cause severe infectious diseases, especially in immunocompromised patients, and the ability to immediately distinguish BCG from other M. tuberculosis complexes is therefore important. In this study, we developed a simple and easy-to-perform identification procedure using loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) to detect deletions within the region of difference, which is deleted specifically in all M. bovis BCG strains. Reactions were performed at 64°C for 30 min and successful targeted gene amplifications were detected by real-time turbidity using a turbidimeter and visual inspection of color change. The assay had an equivalent detection limit of 1.0 pg of genomic DNA using a turbidimeter whereas it was 10 pg with visual inspection, and it showed specificity against 49 strains of 44 pathogens, including M. tuberculosis complex. The expected LAMP products were confirmed through identical melting curves in real-time LAMP procedures. We employed the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction (PURE) kit to isolate mycobacterial DNA and found that the highest sensitivity limit with a minimum total cell count of mycobacterium (including DNA purification with PURE) was up to 1 × 103 cells/reaction, based on color changes under natural light with FDA reagents. The detection limit of this procedure when applied to artificial serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was also about 1 × 103 cells/reaction. Therefore, this substitute method using conventional culture or clinical specimens followed by LAMP combined with PURE could be a powerful tool to enable the rapid identification of M. bovis BCG as point-of-care testing. It is suitable for practical use not only in resource-limited situations, but also in any clinical situation

  17. A comparison of patient acceptance of fingerstick whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV screening in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas A E; Scribner, Alicia N; Huang, Jennifer V

    2009-09-01

    Although whole blood rapid HIV testing has a greater sensitivity and specificity compared with oral fluid (OF) testing, patients prefer HIV testing using OF specimen collection. Whether patient preference for noninvasive collection methods affects acceptance of HIV screening in clinical practice, however, is unknown. To determine whether patient acceptance of fingerstick whole blood (FWB) and OF rapid HIV screening differs in an emergency department setting. From May 1 to June 30, 2007, triage-based testers offered rapid HIV screening to patients. OF and FWB tests were available on alternate days. Eligible patients were medically stable, > or =15 years of age, and not known to be HIV infected. : Two thousand two hundred one patients were referred for HIV screening: 1089 on OF days and 1112 on FWB screening days. Screening rates with OF and FWB were similar (61.9% vs. 59.1%, P = 0.18). Although most reasons why patients declined screening were similar for the groups, the specimen collection method was the primary reason for refusal by 25 patients who declined FWB screening compared with none of the patients who declined OF screening. Among emergency department patients, the preference for 1 rapid test collection modality over another has a minimal effect on actual screening rates.

  18. The fourth generation Alere(TM) HIV Combo rapid test improves detection of acute infection in MTN-003 (VOICE) samples.

    PubMed

    Livant, Edward; Heaps, Amy; Kelly, Cliff; Maharaj, Rashika; Samsunder, Natasha; Nhlangulela, Lindiwe; Karugaba, Patrick; Panchia, Ravindre; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Chirenje, Zvavahera Mike; Parikh, Urvi M

    2017-09-01

    Early and accurate detection of HIV is crucial when using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention to avoid PrEP initiation in acutely infected individuals and to minimize the risk of drug resistance in individuals with breakthrough infection. To determine if fourth-generation antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) would have detected HIV infection earlier than the third-generation RDT used in MTN-003 (VOICE). 5029 VOICE participants were evaluated with third-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2, OraQuick ADVANCE(®) Rapid HIV-1/2, Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV-1/2 and Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/2+O EIA; and fourth-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo, Conformité Européene (CE)-Marked Alere™ HIV Combo and Bio-Rad HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA. Multispot(®), GS HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) and Geenius™ (Bio-Rad) were also evaluated. Of 57 antibody-negative pre-seroconversion plasma samples with HIV RNA >20 copies/mL identified, 16 (28%) were reactive by CE-Marked Alere™ HIV Combo (1 Ab; 9 Ag; 6 Ag/Ab reactive) and 4 (7%) by Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo (2 Ab; 2 Ag; 0 Ag/Ab reactive) (p=0.0005). Multispot(®) confirmed only 1 of 16 acute infections while WB and Geenius™ confirmed none. GS HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA identified 27 of 57 (47%) pre-seroconversion RNA-positive samples. In VOICE, 28% of infections missed by current third-generation RDT would have been identified with the use of CE-Marked Alere™ HIV Combo. Geenius™, Multispot(®) and WB were all insensitive (<10%) in confirming infections detected by fourth-generation assays. An improved diagnostic algorithm that includes a fourth-generation RDT with HIV RNA testing will be essential for efficiently identifying seroconverters on PrEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV DNA Set Point is Rapidly Established in Acute HIV Infection and Dramatically Reduced by Early ART.

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chomont, Nicolas; Eller, Leigh Ann; Kroon, Eugene; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Bose, Meera; Nau, Martin; Fletcher, James L K; Tipsuk, Somporn; Vandergeeten, Claire; O'Connell, Robert J; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Michael, Nelson; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Robb, Merlin L

    2016-09-01

    HIV DNA is a marker of HIV persistence that predicts HIV progression and remission, but its kinetics in early acute HIV infection (AHI) is poorly understood. We longitudinally measured the frequency of peripheral blood mononuclear cells harboring total and integrated HIV DNA in 19 untreated and 71 treated AHI participants, for whom 50 were in the earliest Fiebig I/II (HIV IgM-) stage, that is ≤2weeks from infection. Without antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV DNA peaked at 2weeks after enrollment, reaching a set-point 2weeks later with little change thereafter. There was a marked divergence of HIV DNA values between the untreated and treated groups that occurred within the first 2weeks of ART and increased with time. ART reduced total HIV DNA levels by 20-fold after 2weeks and 316-fold after 3years. Therefore, very early ART offers the opportunity to significantly reduce the frequency of cells harboring HIV DNA.

  20. Characteristics of patients who accept and decline ED rapid HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Schechter-Perkins, Elissa M; Koppelman, Elisa; Mitchell, Patricia M; Morgan, Jake R; Kutzen, Randie; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2014-09-01

    Understanding differences between patients who accept and decline HIV testing is important for developing methods to reduce decliner rates among patients at risk for undiagnosed HIV. The objectives of this study were to determine the rates of acceptance and reasons for declining, and to determine if differences exist in patient or visit characteristics between those who accept and decline testing. This was a retrospective medical record review of all patients offered an emergency department (ED) HIV test from 11/1/11 to 10/31/12. Patient demographic characteristics, health characteristics, and ED visit characteristics were compared to assess differences between those who accept and those who decline testing. Of 4510 ED patients offered an HIV test, 3470 accepted for an acceptance rate of 77%. The most common reasons for declining were "no perceived risk" and "tested in the last 3 months." Those who accepted testing were more likely to be unmarried, less than age 35, Hispanic or African American, Spanish speaking, foreign born, have no primary care provider, report no pain at triage, have a daytime ED visit, and be discharged from the ED compared to admitted. Sex, employment status, and ED length of stay did not affect whether patients accepted testing. Acceptance of ED-based rapid HIV testing is not universal, and there are both patient and visit characteristics consistently associated with declining testing. This detracts from the goal of using the ED to screen a large number of at-risk patients who do not have access to testing elsewhere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acceptability of rapid oral fluid HIV testing among male injection drug users in Taiwan, 1997 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Twu, Shiing-Jer; Peng, Eugene Yu-Chang; Malow, Robert M

    2011-04-01

    Rapid oral fluid HIV testing (rapid oral testing) is in the process of being adapted in Taiwan and elsewhere given its advantages over prior HIV testing methods. To guide this process, we examined the acceptability of rapid oral testing at two time points (i.e., 1997 and 2007) among one of the highest risk populations, male injection drug users (IDUs). For this purpose, an anonymous self-administered survey was completed by HIV-negative IDUs involved in the criminal justice system in 1997 (N (1)=137 parolees) and 2007 (N (2)=106 prisoners). A social marketing model helped guide the design of our questionnaire to assess the acceptability of rapid oral testing. This included assessing a new product, across four marketing dimensions: product, price, promotion, and place. Results revealed that in both 1997 and 2007, over 90% indicated that rapid oral testing would be highly acceptable, particularly if the cost was under US$6, and that a pharmacy would be the most appropriate and accessible venue for selling the rapid oral testing kits. The vast majority of survey respondents believed that the cost of rapid oral testing should be federally subsidized and that television and newspaper advertisements would be the most effective media to advertise for rapid oral testing. Both the 1997 and 2007 surveys suggested that rapid oral HIV testing would be particularly accepted in Taiwan by IDUs after release from the criminal justice system.

  2. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10(-3) for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10(-)2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL.

  3. A Novel and Simple Method for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Porcine Adenoviral Vectors for Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Wang, Wenbin; Zhang, Lu; Tikoo, Suresh K.; Yang, Zengqi

    2015-01-01

    Many human (different serotypes) and nonhuman adenovirus vectors are being used for gene delivery. However, the current system for isolating recombinant adenoviral vectors is either time-consuming or expensive, especially for the generation of recombinant non-human adenoviral vectors. We herein report a new and simple cloning approach for the rapid generation of a porcine adenovirus (PAdV-3) vector which shows promise for gene transfer to human cells and evasion of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) immunity. Based on the final cloning plasmid, pFPAV3-CcdB-Cm, and our modified SLiCE strategy (SLiCE cloning and lethal CcdB screening), the process for generating recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids required only one step in 3 days, with a cloning efficiency as high as 620±49.56 clones/ng and zero background (100% accuracy). The recombinant PAdV-3 plasmids could be successfully rescued in porcine retinal pigment epithelium cells (VR1BL), which constitutively express the HAdV-5 E1 and PAdV-3 E1B 55k genes, and the foreign genes were highly expressed at 24 h after transduction into swine testicle (ST) cells. In conclusion, this strategy for generating recombinant PAdV-3 vectors based on our modified SLiCE cloning system was rapid and cost-efficient, which could be used as universal cloning method for modification the other regions of PAdV-3 genome as well as other adenoviral genomes. PMID:26011074

  4. Simple, rapid and accurate molecular diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia by loop mediated amplification technology

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Orietta; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rigo, Francesca; Zanghì, Pamela; D'Agostini, Elena; Amicarelli, Giulia; Colotta, Francesco; Divona, Mariadomenica; Ciardi, Claudia; Coco, Francesco Lo; Minnucci, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) includes the cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and/or the PML-RARA chimeric transcript by RQ-PCR or RT-PCR. This latter assays provide suitable results in 3-6 hours. We describe here two new, rapid and specific assays that detect PML-RARA transcripts, based on the RT-QLAMP (Reverse Transcription-Quenching Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification) technology in which RNA retrotranscription and cDNA amplification are carried out in a single tube with one enzyme at one temperature, in fluorescence and real time format. A single tube triplex assay detects bcr1 and bcr3 PML-RARA transcripts along with GUS housekeeping gene. A single tube duplex assay detects bcr2 and GUSB. In 73 APL cases, these assays detected in 16 minutes bcr1, bcr2 and bcr3 transcripts. All 81 non-APL samples were negative by RT-QLAMP for chimeric transcripts whereas GUSB was detectable. In 11 APL patients in which RT-PCR yielded equivocal breakpoint type results, RT-QLAMP assays unequivocally and accurately defined the breakpoint type (as confirmed by sequencing). Furthermore, RT-QLAMP could amplify two bcr2 transcripts with particularly extended PML exon 6 deletions not amplified by RQ-PCR. RT-QLAMP reproducible sensitivity is 10−3 for bcr1 and bcr3 and 10−2 for bcr2 thus making this assay particularly attractive at diagnosis and leaving RQ-PCR for the molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease during the follow up. In conclusion, PML-RARA RT-QLAMP compared to RT-PCR or RQ-PCR is a valid improvement to perform rapid, simple and accurate molecular diagnosis of APL. PMID:25815362

  5. A simple and rapid assay for specific identification of bovine derived products in biocomplex materials.

    PubMed

    Khairalla, Khairalla M S; Aradaib, Imadeldin E; Bakhiet, Amel O; Hassan, Tigani; Hago, Badr E; Saeed, Abdel-Rahman

    2007-04-15

    A simple and rapid method for specific identification of beef or bovine-derived products in processed food and in animal feed concentrates was developed and evaluated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The mitochondrial cytochrome-b (mtcyt-b) gene was used as a target DNA for PCR amplification. Three primers derived from a highly conserved region of bovine mtcyt-b gene were used. The outer pair of primers (RSL1 and CSR2) produced a 365 base pair (bp) PCR ampilicon from bovine DNA, while the internal semi-nested pair of primers (CSL1 and CSR2) were used to amplify a 284 bp PCR ampilicon, internal to the annealing sites of primers (RSL1 and CSR2). Both ampilicons were identified easily after visualization on agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. The specificity studies indicated that the primary or the semi-nested PCR products were not amplified from DNA extracted from different ruminant species including, sheep, goat and ghazals; or from non-ruminant animals including camels, horses and pigs. Also was found very sensitive because could detect 0.001% (W/V) of bovine mtcyt-b gene. The semi-nested amplification was necessary to increase the sensitivity of the PCR assay and to confirm the identity of the primary PCR ampilicons. The described PCR assay detected the primary and the semi-nested PCR ampilicons from different animal feed concentrates containing bovine-derived product including, canned food, poultry and dairy feed concentrates. The described PCR assay should facilitate rapid detection of beef and bovine-derived products in processed food and in animal feed concentrates.

  6. Simple, rapid and effective preservation and reactivation of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacterium "Candidatus Brocadia sinica".

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Oshiki, Mamoru; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-06-15

    It is still the biggest challenge to secure enough seeding biomass for rapid start-up of full-scale (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) anammox processes due to slow growth. Preservation of active anammox biomass could be one of the solutions. In this study, biomass of anammox bacterium, "Candidatus Brocadia sinica", immersed in various nutrient media were preserved at -80 °C, 4 °C and room temperature. After 45, 90 and 150 days of preservation, specific anammox activity (SAA) of the preserved anammox biomass was determined by measuring (29)N2 production rate and transcription levels of hzsA gene encoding hydrazine synthase alpha subunit. Storage in nutrient medium containing 3 mM of molybdate at room temperature with periodical (every 45 days) supply of NH4(+) and NO2(-) was proved to be the most effective storage technique for "Ca. Brocadia sinica" biomass. Using this preservation condition, 96, 92 and 65% of the initial SAA was sustained after 45, 90 and 150 days of storage, respectively. Transcription levels of hzsA gene in biomass correlated with the SAA (R(2) = 0.83), indicating it can be used as a genetic marker to evaluate the anammox activity of preserved biomass. Furthermore, the 90-day-stored biomass was successfully reactivated by immobilizing in polyvinyl alcohol (6%, w/v) and sodium alginate (2%, w/v) gel and then inoculated to up-flow column reactors. Total nitrogen removal rates rapidly increased to 7 kg-N m(-3) d(-1) within 35 days of operation. Based on these results, the room temperature preservation with molybdate addition is simple, cost-effective and feasible at a practical scale, which will accelerate the practical use of anammox process for wastewater treatment.

  7. Factors associated with false-positive results from fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Samara B; Owens, Lauren E; Greenwald, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Identify factors associated with false-positive rapid HIV antibody tests. This retrospective cohort study with nested case-controls involved patients tested for HIV by Boston Medical Center (BMC) affiliates. Cases had a reactive fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test and a negative Western blot. Controls had nonreactive rapid tests. We compared the prevalence of HIV risk factors between cases and the total nonreactive population and the prevalence of other clinical factors between cases and controls. Of the 15 094 tests, 14 937 (98.9%) were negative and 11 (0.07%) were false positives (specificity of 99.9%). Cases were more likely to have had an HIV-infected sex partner and to be tested at certain sites compared to true negatives. More cases than controls had O-negative blood type. O-negative blood type and sex with an HIV-infected person may increase false-positive HIV fingerstick results. More targeted studies should examine these risk factors.

  8. Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Jail: How Testing at Exit With Linkage to Community Care Can Address Perceived Barriers.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Kari A; Shaikh, Raees A; Earley, Mary; Foxall, Mark; Boyle, Cole; Islam, K M; Younger, Heather; Sandkovsky, Uriel; Berthold, Elizabeth; Margalit, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Despite recommendations from the CDC, only 36 % of jails offer routine HIV screening to inmates. Our purpose was to explore the feasibility of rapid HIV testing at release from an urban jail, and to identify potential barriers to this process. This project was incorporated into an established partnership between the jail, local academic medical center, and local public health department. We offered rapid HIV testing at the time of release to 507 jail inmates over a 7 week period of 2013. Three hundred and two (60 %) inmates elected testing. All participating inmates received individual test counseling, HIV prevention education, and linkage to care in the community prior to release. All tested inmates received results before release; one inmate screened positive for HIV and was linked to care. Previous HIV testing was the most frequently cited reason given (60 %) among the 205 inmates who declined at the time of the study. Utilizing the partnership between the jail, public health, and an academic medical center, we found that rapid HIV testing at exit was feasible and acceptable in this urban jail setting and could provide immediate linkage to care for those in need.

  9. Performance of the Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo Rapid Test with specimens from HIV-1 seroconverters from the US and HIV-2 infected individuals from Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Masciotra, Silvina; Luo, Wei; Youngpairoj, Ae S; Kennedy, M Susan; Wells, Susan; Ambrose, Krystin; Sprinkle, Patrick; Owen, S Michele

    2013-12-01

    FDA-approved HIV Antigen/Antibody combo (4th generation) immunoassays (IAs) can identify HIV-1 infections before the Western blot (WB) becomes positive. In the US, increased detection of acute HIV infections has been facilitated by using 4th generation IAs, but there is no FDA-approved 4th generation rapid test (RT). The Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo (Determine Combo) RT detects and distinguishes HIV p24 Antigen (Ag) from Antibody (Ab) to HIV-1+HIV-2 and thus has the potential to improve diagnosis of acute HIV infection. To evaluate the ability of Determine Combo RT to detect acute/early HIV-1 infections and HIV-2 antibody in well-characterized plasma specimens. In HIV-1 seroconverters from the US, Determine Combo reactivity was evaluated by performing the 50% cumulative frequency analysis and by comparing with 3rd and 4th generation IAs' reactivity. HIV-2 plasma specimens from Ivory Coast were tested with Determine Combo. The 50% cumulative frequency analysis in 17 seroconverters placed Determine Combo (Ag+/Ab-, Ag+Ab+, Ag-/Ab+) and Ab-component reactivity at 15.5 and 7 days before WB positivity, respectively. In 26 seroconverters, Determine Combo was reactive in 99.0% and 92.5% of 3rd and 4th generation IAs-reactive specimens, respectively. All HIV-2 plasma specimens were Ab-reactive/Ag-non-reactive by Determine Combo. Based on previous results with the same seroconversion panels, combined Ag/Ab reactivity of the Determine Combo appears between FDA-approved 4th and 3rd generation laboratory IAs. These data indicate that this RT could detect HIV-1 infection earlier than other RTs and it performs well in HIV-2 specimens. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of single and dual rapid diagnostic tests for syphilis and HIV in antenatal care services in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando Guillermo; Newman, Lori; Laverty, Maura; Habib, Ndema Abu; González-Gordon, Lina María; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Abella, Catleya; Barros, Esther Cristina; Rincón, Carlos; Caicedo, Sidia; Gómez, Bertha; Pérez, Freddy

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a dual rapid test compared to a single rapid test for syphilis and HIV screening. A cluster-randomized open-label clinical trial was performed in 12 public antenatal care (ANC) centers in the cities of Bogotá and Cali, Colombia. Pregnant women who were over 14 years of age at their first antenatal visit and who had not been previously tested for HIV and syphilis during the current pregnancy were included. Pregnant women were randomized to single HIV and single syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm A) or to dual HIV and syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (Arm B). The four main outcomes measured were: (1) acceptability of the test, (2) uptake in testing, (3) treatment on the same day (that is, timely treatment), and (4) treatment at any time for positive rapid test cases. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were calculated to adjust for the clustering effect and the period. A total of 1 048 patients were analyzed in Arm A, and 1 166 in Arm B. Acceptability of the rapid tests was 99.8% in Arm A and 99.6% in Arm B. The prevalence of positive rapid tests was 2.21% for syphilis and 0.36% for HIV. Timely treatment was provided to 20 of 29 patients (69%) in Arm A and 16 of 20 patients (80%) in Arm B (relative risk (RR), 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.00 -1.20). Treatment at any time was given to 24 of 29 patients (83%) in Arm A and to 20 of 20 (100%) in Arm B (RR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01-1.22). There were no differences in patient acceptability, testing and timely treatment between dual rapid tests and single rapid tests for HIV and syphilis screening in the ANC centers. Same-day treatment depends also on the interpretation of and confidence in the results by the health providers.

  11. Extraction of DNA from forensic-type sexual assault specimens using simple, rapid sonication procedures.

    PubMed

    Crouse, C A; Ban, J D; D'Alessio, J K

    1993-10-01

    Sonication procedures for the extraction of DNA from forensic-type semen specimens have been developed, which, when compared to currently utilized sperm DNA extraction techniques, are simple, rapid and result in comparable DNA yields. Sperm DNA extraction by sonication was performed on whole semen, seminal stains, buccal swabs and post-coital specimens. Ultrasound disruption of sperm cells and their ultimate release of cellular DNA has been conducted in the presence of sperm wash buffers followed by organic extraction or Chelex 100 with little or no compromise to DNA quality, quantity or amplifiability. Two advantages of sonication over currently used forensic techniques to extract sperm DNA include 1) sperm DNA extraction that occurs within five minutes of sonication compared with an hour or greater for water bath incubations in classic enzyme digestion DNA extractions and 2) one less preparatory step with the Chelex/sonication protocol and three less steps with the sonication/organic protocol compared with other procedures thus eliminating potential sample-to-sample cross-contamination. Sperm DNA extracted by optimum sonication procedures was used for forensic HLA DQ alpha typing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms analysis without any adverse effects on typing results.

  12. Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

  13. A simple and rapid method for optical visualization and quantification of bacteria on textiles

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Philipp; Schneider, Jana; Amberg, Caroline; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To prevent bacterial contamination on textiles and the associated undesired effects different biocidal coatings have been investigated and applied. However, due to health and environmental concerns anti-adhesive coatings preventing the binding of bacteria would be favored. To develop such anti-adhesive coatings simple assays for reliable and fast screening are beneficial. Here an easy-to-handle, robust and rapid assay to assess bacteria on textiles utilizing a tetrazolium salt was reported. The assay allowed direct eye visualization of the color change of the textiles containing bacteria, facilitating fast screening. Quantification of the adhered bacteria could be done by generating standard curves which correlate the staining intensity to cell numbers. An additional advantage of the described assay is that with the same detection method anti-adhesive and biocidal effects can be investigated. The method was applied to different coatings, using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as model organisms. The detection limit was found to be between 2.5 * 106 and 9.4 * 108 for P. aeruginosa and between 1 * 106 and 3.3 * 108 for S. aureus. The anti-adhesive coating PLUMA was demonstrated to reduce bacterial adhesion without killing them, whereas the biocidal coating TH22-27 caused a clear reduction in the number of viable cells. PMID:28004762

  14. A rapid, simple method for determining formaldehyde in drinking water using colorimetric-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Hill, April A; Lipert, Robert J; Fritz, James S; Porter, Marc D

    2009-02-15

    Formaldehyde has been detected in drinking water supplies across the globe and on board NASA spacecraft. A rapid, simple, microgravity-compatible technique for measuring this contaminant in water supplies using colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is described. This method involves collecting a water sample into a syringe by passage through a cartridge that contains sodium hydroxide, to adjust pH, and Purpald, which is a well-established colorimetric reagent for aldehydes. After completing the reaction in the syringe by agitating for 2 min on a shaker at 400 rpm, the 1.0-mL alkaline sample is passed through an extraction disk that retains the purple product. The amount of concentrated product is then measured on-disk using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and compared to a calibration plot generated from Kubelka-Munk transformations of the reflectance data at 700 nm to determine the formaldehyde concentration. This method is capable of determining formaldehyde concentrations from 0.08 to 20 ppm with a total work-up time of less than 3 min using only 1-mL samples.

  15. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Booijink, Carien CGM; Troost, Freddy J; Bork, Peer; Wels, Michiel; de Vos, Willem M; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) harbors a complex community of microbes. The microbiota composition varies between different locations in the GI tract, but most studies focus on the fecal microbiota, and that inhabiting the colonic mucosa. Consequently, little is known about the microbiota at other parts of the GI tract, which is especially true for the small intestine because of its limited accessibility. Here we deduce an ecological model of the microbiota composition and function in the small intestine, using complementing culture-independent approaches. Phylogenetic microarray analyses demonstrated that microbiota compositions that are typically found in effluent samples from ileostomists (subjects without a colon) can also be encountered in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Phylogenetic mapping of small intestinal metagenome of three different ileostomy effluent samples from a single individual indicated that Streptococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium sp. and high G+C organisms are most abundant in the small intestine. The compositions of these populations fluctuated in time and correlated to the short-chain fatty acids profiles that were determined in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine. PMID:22258098

  16. A Simple Electrochemical Method for the Rapid Estimation of Antioxidant Potentials of Some Selected Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. Cyclic Voltammetry of methanolic extracts of seven medicinal plants: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  17. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants.

  18. Hydrodynamic Voltammetry as a Rapid and Simple Method for Evaluating Soil Enzyme Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Soil enzymes play essential roles in catalyzing reactions necessary for nutrient cycling in the biosphere. They are also sensitive indicators of ecosystem stress, therefore their evaluation is very important in assessing soil health and quality. The standard soil enzyme assay method based on spectroscopic detection is a complicated operation that requires the removal of soil particles. The purpose of this study was to develop a new soil enzyme assay based on hydrodynamic electrochemical detection using a rotating disk electrode in a microliter droplet. The activities of enzymes were determined by measuring the electrochemical oxidation of p-aminophenol (PAP), following the enzymatic conversion of substrate-conjugated PAP. The calibration curves of β-galactosidase (β-gal), β-glucosidase (β-glu) and acid phosphatase (AcP) showed good linear correlation after being spiked in soils using chronoamperometry. We also performed electrochemical detection using real soils. Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry can be used to assess the AcP in soils, with a detection time of only 90 s. Linear sweep voltammetry was used to measure the amount of PAP released from β-gal and β-glu by enzymatic reaction after 60 min. For the assessment of soil enzymes, the results of hydrodynamic voltammetry assay compared favorably to those using a standard assay procedure, but this new procedure is more user-friendly, rapid and simple. PMID:25746097

  19. Development of a simple, rapid, and robust intrathecal catheterization method in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Curt; Fitzsimmons, Bethany; Kamme, Fredrik; Nichols, Brandon; Powers, Berit; Wancewicz, Ed

    2017-03-15

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) is an impediment to the development of large and highly charged molecules as therapeutics for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are large (6000-8000MW) and highly charged and therefore do not cross the BBB. A method of circumventing the blood brain barrier to test ASOs, and other non-BBB penetrant molecules, as CNS therapeutics is the direct administration of these molecules to the CNS tissue or cerebral spinal fluid. We developed a rapid, simple and robust method for the intrathecal catheterization of rats to test putatively therapeutic antisense oligonucleotides. This method utilizes 23-gauge needles, simply constructed ½in. long 19-gauge guide cannulas and 8cm long plastic PE-10 sized catheters. Unlike the cisterna magna approach, this method uses a lumbar approach for intrathecal catheterization with the catheter residing entirely in the cauda equina space minimizing spinal cord compression. Readily available materials and only a few specialized pieces of equipment, which are easily manufactured, are used for this intrathecal catheterization method. This method is easy to learn and has been taught to multiple in house surgeons, collaborators and contract laboratories. Greater than 90% catheterization success is routinely achieved with this method and as many as 100 catheters can be placed and test substance administered in one 6-h period. This method has allowed the pre-clinical testing of hundreds of ASOs as therapeutics for CNS indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Simple and rapid fabrication of pencil-on-paper triboelectric nanogenerators with enhanced electrical performance.

    PubMed

    Jang, Shin; Kim, Hyounjin; Oh, Je Hoon

    2017-09-14

    Paper and pencil have many advantages in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) in terms of low-cost, light weight, and environment friendliness. In this work, a pencil-on-paper triboelectric nanogenerator (PP-TENG) with highly enhanced performance was introduced. In order to use paper as a friction layer and improve its triboelectric performance, a simple and rapid paper-coating process was utilized with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyvinyledenedifluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions. The fabrication process of the PP-TENG was completed within 10 minutes via pencil drawing of an electrode followed by a solution coating. With an optimized electrode shape, the PP-TENG showed a maximum power density of 64 mW m(-2), which is more than 19 times higher than that of the uncoated paper TENG. The electrical performance of the PP-TENG was sufficient to drive a few hundred LEDs and charge various capacitors. It was maintained after the paper was folded or even crumpled. The proposed PP-TENG is expected to be utilized with other wearable electronic devices.

  1. Simple, Rapid, and Highly Sensitive Detection of Diphosgene and Triphosgene by Spectrophotometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Abraham; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Kohn, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the detection and estimation of diphosgene and triphosgene are described. These compounds are widely used phosgene precursors which produce an intensely colored purple pentamethine oxonol dye when reacted with 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid (DBA) and pyridine (or a pyridine derivative). Two quantitative methods are described, based on either UV absorbance or fluorescence of the oxonol dye. Detection limits are ~ 4 µmol/L by UV and <0.4 µmol/L by fluorescence. The third method is a test strip for the simple and rapid detection and semi-quantitative estimation of diphosgene and triphosgene, using a filter paper embedded with dimethylbarbituric acid and poly(4-vinylpyridine). Addition of a test solution to the paper causes a color change from white to light blue at low concentrations and to pink at higher concentrations of triphosgene. The test strip is useful for quick on-site detection of triphosgene and diphosgene in reaction mixtures. The test strip is easy to perform and provides clear signal readouts indicative of the presence of phosgene precursors. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the qualitative determination of residual triphosgene during the production of poly(Bisphenol A carbonate). PMID:19782219

  2. A rapid and simple assay for growth hormone-binding protein activity in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Baumann, G; Shaw, M A; Amburn, K

    1988-12-01

    The newly discovered circulating growth hormone binding proteins dictate a re-evaluation of the state of GH in plasma in health and disease as the binding proteins are known to affect GH metabolism and action. We describe a rapid and simple GH-binding assay that allows determination of free and complexed plasma GH, as well as GH-binding protein activity as an index of GH-binding protein levels, with relative ease. The method is based on incubation of plasma with 125I-GH and separation of bound from free GH on small DEAE-cellulose columns; it can be used on a large scale for routine determinations. The results obtained by this method are comparable to those obtained with the previously used slow and more cumbersome gel filtration technique. Initial data obtained in normal subjects and certain disease states show that the bound fraction of plasma GH is similar in men, women and children, is unaffected by pregnancy or acute infection, but is marginally decreased in liver cirrhosis. In acromegaly, binding protein activity also appears normal when allowance is made for partial saturation of the binding proteins by the high prevailing GH levels. The technique we describe should facilitate investigations of normal and abnormal regulation of the GH binding proteins.

  3. Simple and rapid chemiluminescence aptasensor for Hg(2+) in contaminated samples: A new signal amplification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yingying; Xiu, Fu-Rong; Yu, Gending; Huang, Lili; Li, Baoxin

    2017-01-15

    Detection of ultralow concentration of heavy metal ion Hg(2+) is important for human health protection and environment monitoring because of the gradual accumulation in environmental and biological fields. Herein, we report a convenient chemiluminescence (CL) biosensing platform for ultrasensitive Hg(2+) detection by signal amplification mechanism from positively charged gold nanoparticles ((+)AuNPs). It is based on (+)AuNPs charge effect and aptamer conformation change induced by target to stimulate the generation of CL in the presence of H2O2 and luminol without high salt medium. Notably particularly, the typical problem of the high salt medium from (-) AuNPs system, like influencing aptamers' bind with target and hindering CL reaction can be effectively addressed through the direct introduction of (+)AuNPs. Therefore, the proposed biosensing exhibits a high sensitivity toward target Hg(2+) with a detection limit of 16 pM, which is far below the limit (10nM) defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in drinkable water, and is about 10-fold lower than the previously reported aptamer-based assays for Hg(2+). This sensing platform provides a simple, rapid, and cost-effective approach for label-free sensitive detection of Hg(2+). Moreover, it is universal for the detection of other targets. Undoubtedly, such a direct utilizing of (+)AuNPs' charge effect will provide a new signal amplification way for label-free aptamer-based CL analysis.

  4. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Krinsky, Nitzan; Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40-150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins.

  5. A simple, rapid and sensitive plate assay for detection of microbial hyaluronidase activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandip; Chaudhari, Bhushan

    2017-04-01

    Hyaluronidase (hyase) is a glycosidase enzyme that predominantly degrades hyaluronic acid (HA) having important applications in many biotechnological processes and therapeutics. Several assay methods have been proposed to screen hyase producing microorganisms; however, they rely on unique reagents and sophisticated instruments, which are expensive and could be unavailable in general laboratories. In the present studies, a rapid, simple, sensitive, highly reproducible, and cost-effective qualitative plate assay has been developed for the screening of hyase producing microorganisms. The routinely used plate assay method of Richman and Baer requires a special chemical cetylpyridinium chloride and long incubation period of 20 h; but still, the zones of clearance are not very clear and distinct. While, the present method requires an incubation period of only 1 h and the distinct zones of clearance appear with Gram's iodine within 1 min of time. This method does not require any special medium, unlike previously reported methods. Moreover, use of commonly available Gram's iodine makes this method suitable for many researchers. The results of the assay method were validated by TLC, zymographic analysis and determining the growth of isolates in minimal medium containing HA as a sole carbon source. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  7. [Simple and rapid detection of HLA-DRB polymorphism from forensic samples].

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Nata, M; Hashiyada, M; Funayama, M; Sagisaka, K

    1998-08-01

    Simple and rapid detection of HLA-DRB polymorphism has been performed using AMPLICOR HLA-DRB Typing Kit. We tried to apply this kit to various forensic samples. When DNA was extracted from the forensic samples using conventional phenol-chloroform method, addition of 7.5 mM MgCl2 was required to PCR amplification. HLA-DRB types were detected from DNA more than 0.1 ng by PCR amplification. Typing of unrelated 50 Japanese showed 38 different patterns, of which 30 patterns occurred once in the group. A total of 16 serotypes were deduced from the HLA-DRB DNA types. Out of them, high frequency serotypes were DR4 (24%), DR9 (18%) and DR15/16 (14%). This kit was very useful in forensic cases such as rape and in paternity cases. When we tried to detect HLA-DRB types from a single hair shaft of 3 cm in length, we were successful in detection from only one of five persons.

  8. Rapid and simple UPLC-MS/MS method for precise phytochelatin quantification in alga extracts.

    PubMed

    Bräutigam, Anja; Wesenberg, Dirk; Preud'homme, Hugues; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative phytochelatin (PC) analysis is, due to oxidation sensitivity of the PCs, matrix effects, and time consuming sample preparation, still a challenging analytical task. In this study, a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for precise determination of native PCs in crude extracts of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed. Algae were exposed 48 h to 70 μM Cd. Coupling of ultra performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multi-reaction mode transitions for detection permitted the required short-time, high-resolution separation and detection specificity. Thus, under optimized chromatographic conditions, 10 thiol peptides were baseline-separated within 7 min. Relative detection limits in the nanomolar range in microliter sample volumes were achieved (corresponding to absolute detection limits at femtomole level). Next to glutathione (GSH), the most abundant cadmium-induced PCs in C. reinhardtii, namely CysGSH, PC(2), PC(3), CysPC(2), and CysPC(3), were quantified with high reproducibility at concentrations between 15 and 198 nmol g(-1) fresh weight. The biological variation of PC synthesis of nine independently grown alga cultures was determined to be on average 13.7%.

  9. A rapid and simple method for preparing an insoluble substrate for screening of microbial xylanase.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Han, Yunjon; Shin, Bong Seok; Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Jae Jun

    2012-06-01

    Several types of enzymes, including cellulases and xylanases, are required to degrade hemicelluloses and cellulose, which are major components of lignocellulosic biomass. Such degradative processes can be used to produce various useful industrial biomaterials. Screening methods for detecting polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms include the use of dye-labeled substrates in growth medium and culture plate staining techniques. However, the preparation of screening plates, which typically involves chemical cross-linking to synthesize a dye-labeled substrate, is a complicated and time-consuming process. Moreover, such commercial substrates are very expensive, costing tenfold more than the natural xylan. Staining methods are also problematic because they may damage relevant microorganisms and are associated with contamination of colonies of desirable organisms with adjacent unwanted bacteria. In the present study, we describe a sonication method for the simple and rapid preparation of an insoluble substrate that can be used to screen for xylanase-expressing bacteria in microbial populations. Using this new method, we have successfully isolated a novel xylanase gene from a xylolytic microorganism termed Xyl02-KBRB and Xyl14-KBRB in the bovine rumen.

  10. Accuracy in HIV Rapid Testing among Laboratory and Non-laboratory Personnel in Zambia: Observations from the National HIV Proficiency Testing System

    PubMed Central

    Mwangala, Sheila; Musonda, Kunda G.; Monze, Mwaka; Musukwa, Katoba K.; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite rapid task-shifting and scale-up of HIV testing services in high HIV prevalence countries, studies evaluating accuracy remain limited. This study aimed to assess overall accuracy level and factors associated with accuracy in HIV rapid testing in Zambia. Methods Accuracy was investigated among rural and urban HIV testing sites participating in two annual national HIV proficiency testing (PT) exercises conducted in 2009 (n = 282 sites) and 2010 (n = 488 sites). Testers included lay counselors, nurses, laboratory personnel and others. PT panels of five dry tube specimens (DTS) were issued to testing sites by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Site accuracy level was assessed by comparison of reported results to the expected results. Non-parametric rank tests and multiple linear regression models were used to assess variation in accuracy between PT cycles and between tester groups, and to examine factors associated with accuracy respectively. Results Overall accuracy level was 93.1% (95% CI: 91.2–94.9) in 2009 and 96.9% (95% CI: 96.1–97.8) in 2010. Differences in accuracy were seen between the tester groups in 2009 with laboratory personnel being more accurate than non-laboratory personnel, while in 2010 no differences were seen. In both PT exercises, lay counselors and nurses had more difficulties interpreting results, with more occurrences of false-negative, false-positive and indeterminate results. Having received the standard HIV rapid testing training and adherence to the national HIV testing algorithm were positively associated with accuracy. Conclusion The study showed an improvement in tester group and overall accuracy from the first PT exercise to the next. Average number of incorrect test results per 1000 tests performed was reduced from 69 to 31. Further improvement is needed, however, and the national HIV proficiency testing system seems to be an important tool in this regard, which should be continued and needs to be urgently

  11. Costs of Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Emergency Department and a Nearby County Jail in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Anne C.; MacGowan, Robin J.; Copeland, Brittney; Shrestha, Ram K.; Bowden, Chava J.; Kim, Min J.; Margolis, Andrew; Mustaafaa, Genetha; Reid, Laurie C.; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Shah, Bijal B.

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments and jails provide medical services to persons at risk for HIV infection and are recommended venues for HIV screening. Our main objective in this study was to analyze the cost per new HIV diagnosis associated with the HIV screening program in these two venues. The emergency department’s parallel testing program was conducted at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia starting in 2008; the jail’s integrated testing program began at the Fulton County (GA) Jail in 2011. The two sites, four miles apart from one another, employed the same rapid HIV test. Ascertainment that cases were new differed by site; only the jail systematically checked identities against health department HIV registries. The program in the emergency department used dedicated HIV test counselors and made 242 diagnoses over a 40-month period at a cost of $2,981 per diagnosis. The jail program used staff nurses, and found 41 new HIV cases over 10.5 months at a cost of $6,688 per new diagnosis. Differences in methods for ascertainment of new diagnoses, previously undiagnosed HIV sero-positivity, and methodologies used for assessing program costs prevent concluding that one program was more economical than the other. Nonetheless, our findings show that testing in both venues yielded many new diagnoses, with the costs within the range reported in the literature. PMID:26053140

  12. Costs of Rapid HIV Screening in an Urban Emergency Department and a Nearby County Jail in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Anne C; MacGowan, Robin J; Copeland, Brittney; Shrestha, Ram K; Bowden, Chava J; Kim, Min J; Margolis, Andrew; Mustaafaa, Genetha; Reid, Laurie C; Heilpern, Katherine L; Shah, Bijal B

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments and jails provide medical services to persons at risk for HIV infection and are recommended venues for HIV screening. Our main objective in this study was to analyze the cost per new HIV diagnosis associated with the HIV screening program in these two venues. The emergency department's parallel testing program was conducted at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia starting in 2008; the jail's integrated testing program began at the Fulton County (GA) Jail in 2011. The two sites, four miles apart from one another, employed the same rapid HIV test. Ascertainment that cases were new differed by site; only the jail systematically checked identities against health department HIV registries. The program in the emergency department used dedicated HIV test counselors and made 242 diagnoses over a 40-month period at a cost of $2,981 per diagnosis. The jail program used staff nurses, and found 41 new HIV cases over 10.5 months at a cost of $6,688 per new diagnosis. Differences in methods for ascertainment of new diagnoses, previously undiagnosed HIV sero-positivity, and methodologies used for assessing program costs prevent concluding that one program was more economical than the other. Nonetheless, our findings show that testing in both venues yielded many new diagnoses, with the costs within the range reported in the literature.

  13. Simple PCR Assays Improve the Sensitivity of HIV-1 Subtype B Drug Resistance Testing and Allow Linking of Resistance Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Jin-Fen; Wei, Xierong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Bennett, Diane; Brant, Ashley; Cong, Mian-er; Spira, Thomas; Shafer, Robert W.; Heneine, Walid

    2007-01-01

    Background The success of antiretroviral therapy is known to be compromised by drug-resistant HIV-1 at frequencies detectable by conventional bulk sequencing. Currently, there is a need to assess the clinical consequences of low-frequency drug resistant variants occurring below the detection limit of conventional genotyping. Sensitive detection of drug-resistant subpopulations, however, requires simple and practical methods for routine testing. Methodology We developed highly-sensitive and simple real-time PCR assays for nine key drug resistance mutations and show that these tests overcome substantial sequence heterogeneity in HIV-1 clinical specimens. We specifically used early wildtype virus samples from the pre-antiretroviral drug era to measure background reactivity and were able to define highly-specific screening cut-offs that are up to 67-fold more sensitive than conventional genotyping. We also demonstrate that sequencing the mutation-specific PCR products provided a direct and novel strategy to further detect and link associated resistance mutations, allowing easy identification of multi-drug-resistant variants. Resistance mutation associations revealed in mutation-specific amplicon sequences were verified by clonal sequencing. Significance Combined, sensitive real-time PCR testing and mutation-specific amplicon sequencing provides a powerful and simple approach that allows for improved detection and evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. PMID:17653265

  14. Implementation science in the real world: a case study of HIV rapid testing.

    PubMed

    Knapp, H; Anaya, H D

    2013-01-01

    Implementation science theories offer technical principles for carrying out activities designed to create or improve systems; however, such theories tend not to provide pragmatic or streamlined guidance when it comes to executing the actual implementation. We assembled a streamlined and comprehensive six-step theory-based implementation science model (ADAPTS - Assessment, Deliverables, Activate, Pretraining, Training, Sustainability) derived from the methods we have used to successfully execute multiple self-sustaining implementation efforts within the Veteran's Affairs Healthcare System. This paper provides a case study of our ADAPTS implementation science model, using a complex multisite HIV rapid testing implementation project as an exemplar.

  15. Rapid Decline in HIV Incidence Among Persons Who Inject Drugs During a Fast-Track Combination Prevention Program After an HIV Outbreak in Athens.

    PubMed

    Sypsa, Vana; Psichogiou, Mina; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Micha, Katerina; Malliori, Meni; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; Donoghoe, Martin; Friedman, Samuel; Jarlais, Don Des; Daikos, Georgios; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2017-05-15

    A "seek-test-treat" intervention (ARISTOTLE) was implemented in response to an outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Athens. We assess trends in HIV incidence, prevalence, risk behaviors and access to prevention/treatment. Methods included behavioral data collection, provision of injection equipment, HIV testing, linkage to opioid substitution treatment (OST) programs and HIV care during 5 rounds of respondent-driven sampling (2012-2013). HIV incidence was estimated from observed seroconversions. Estimated coverage of the target population was 88% (71%-100%; 7113 questionnaires/blood samples from 3320 PWID). The prevalence of HIV infection was 16.5%. The incidence per 100 person-years decreased from 7.8 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-13.1) (2012) to 1.7 (0.55-5.31) (2013; P for trend = .001). Risk factors for seroconversion were frequency of injection, homelessness, and history of imprisonment. Injection at least once daily declined from 45.2% to 18.8% (P < .001) and from 36.8% to 26.0% (P = .007) for sharing syringes, and the proportion of undiagnosed HIV infection declined from 84.3% to 15.0% (P < .001). Current OST increased from 12.2% to 27.7% (P < .001), and 48.4% of unlinked seropositive participants were linked to HIV care through 2013. Repeat participants reported higher rates of adequate syringe coverage, linkage to HIV care and OST. Multiple evidence-based interventions delivered through rapid recruitment in a large proportion of the population of PWID are likely to have helped mitigate this HIV outbreak.

  16. Features of whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Y F; Sgarbieri, V C; da Silva, M N; Toro, A A D C; Vilela, M M S

    2006-02-01

    HIV infection is associated with subnormal GSH levels. An increase in glutathione levels has been observed in HIV-infected adults under oral whey protein supplementation. We studied the features associated with a whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive AIDS. A prospective double-blind clinical trial was carried out for 4 months with 18 vertically HIV-infected children (1.98-6.37 years), under antiretroviral therapy, who had received whey protein, maltodextrin (placebo) or none. Erythrocyte glutathione concentration, T lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+) and occurrence of associated co-infections were evaluated. Wilcoxon's and Fischer's Exact tests were used to assess differences between whey protein-supplemented and control (placebo and non-supplemented) groups. A significant median increase of 16.14 mg/dl (p = 0.018) in erythrocyte glutathione levels was observed in the whey protein-supplemented group; the TCD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio showed a non significant increase and lower occurrence of associated co-infections was also observed. In conclusion, whey protein concentrate supplementation can stimulate glutathione synthesis and, possibly, decrease the occurrence of associated co-infections.

  17. Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships.

  18. Evaluating the implementation of nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing in three Veterans Health Administration substance use disorder clinics.

    PubMed

    Conners, E E; Hagedorn, H J; Butler, J N; Felmet, K; Hoang, T; Wilson, P; Klima, G; Sudzina, E; Anaya, H D

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are at higher risk of HIV infection, yet recent studies show rates of HIV testing are low among this population. We implemented and evaluated a nurse-initiated HIV oral rapid testing (NRT) strategy at three Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics. Implementation of NRT includes streamlined nurse training and a computerized clinical reminder. The evaluation employed qualitative interviews with staff and a quantitative evaluation of HIV testing rates. Barriers to testing included lack of laboratory support and SUD nursing resistance to performing medical procedures. Facilitators included the ease of NRT integration into workflow, engaged management and an existing culture of disease prevention. Six-months post intervention, rapid testing rates at SUD clinics in sites 1, 2, and 3 were 5.0%, 1.1% and 24.0%, respectively. Findings indicate that NRT can be successfully incorporated into some types of SUD subclinics with minimal perceived impact on workflow and time.

  19. A rapid, simple questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal symptoms after oral ferrous sulphate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Dora I A; Couto Irving, Susana S; Lomer, Miranda C E; Powell, Jonathan J

    2014-06-04

    Oral iron supplementation is often associated with rapid onset of gastrointestinal side-effects. The aim of this study was to develop and trial a short, simple questionnaire to capture these early side-effects and to determine which symptoms are more discriminating. The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized parallel trial with one week treatment followed by one week wash-out. Subjects were randomized into two treatment groups (n = 10/group) to receive either ferrous sulphate (200 mg capsules containing 65 mg of iron) or placebo, both to be taken at mealtimes twice daily during the treatment period. Subjects completed the questionnaires daily for 14 days. The questionnaire included gastrointestinal symptoms commonly reported to be associated with the oral intake of ferrous iron salts (i.e. nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and constipation). Seventy five per cent of participants reporting the presence of one or more symptoms in the first week of the study were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the second week of the study (i.e. wash-out), 67% of the participants reporting one or more symptom(s) were in the ferrous sulphate group. In the first week of the study (treatment) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (mean ± SEM = 6.7 ± 1.7) was significantly higher than that for participants in the placebo group (1.2 ± 0.5) (p = 0.01). In the second week of the study (wash-out) the number of symptoms reported by participants in the ferrous sulphate group (4.6 ± 2.0) appeared higher than for participants in the placebo group (1.0 ± 0.7) although this did not reach significance (p = 0.12). Events for which the gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire was most discriminatory between ferrous sulphate and placebo groups were: heartburn, abdominal pain and the presence of black stools (all p ≤ 0.03). A tool for the detection of commonly-occurring side

  20. Rapid, efficient, and simple motor neuron differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Daisuke; Onodera, Kazunari; Doi-Torii, Yukiko; Ishihara, Yasuharu; Hattori, Chinatsu; Miwa, Yukino; Tanaka, Satoshi; Okada, Rina; Ohyama, Manabu; Shoji, Masanobu; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Doyu, Manabu; Okano, Hideyuki; Okada, Yohei

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are being applied in regenerative medicine and for the in vitro modeling of human intractable disorders. In particular, neural cells derived from disease-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) established from patients with neurological disorders have been used as in vitro disease models to recapitulate in vivo pathogenesis because neural cells cannot be usually obtained from patients themselves. In this study, we established a rapid, efficient, and simple method for efficiently deriving motor neurons from hPSCs that is useful for pathophysiological analysis and the development of drugs to treat motor neuron diseases. Treatment with GSK3β inhibitors during the initial phase of differentiation in combination with dual SMAD inhibition was sufficient to induce PAX6 (+) and SOX1 (+) neural progenitors within 1 week, and subsequent treatment with retinoic acid (RA) and purmorphamine, which activates sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, resulted in the highly efficient induction of HB9(+) and ISL-1(+) motor neurons within 2 weeks. After 4 weeks of monolayer differentiation in motor neuron maturation medium, hPSC-derived motor neurons were shown to mature, displaying larger somas and clearer staining for the mature motor neuron marker choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Moreover, hPSC-derived motor neurons were able to form neuromuscular junctions with human myotubes in vitro and induced acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering, as detected by Alexa 555-conjugated α-Bungarotoxin (α-BTX), suggesting that these hPSC-derived motor neurons formed functional contacts with skeletal muscles. This differentiation system is simple and is reproducible in several hiPSC clones, thereby minimizing clonal variation among hPSC clones. We also established a system for visualizing motor neurons with a lentiviral reporter for HB9 (HB9 (e438) ::Venus). The specificity of this reporter was confirmed through immunocytochemistry and

  1. Rapid, simple and efficient method for detection of viral genomes on raspberries.

    PubMed

    Perrin, A; Loutreul, J; Boudaud, N; Bertrand, I; Gantzer, C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, foodborne viruses, especially human noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), have been increasingly reported as the causes of foodborne disease outbreaks. Soft red fruits, especially raspberries, have a high incidence among the types of food concerned. Due to low infectious doses and low concentrations of enteric viruses in food samples, it is necessary to have an efficient and rapid detection method to implement prevention measures. A standard method for virus detection and quantification in food, including raspberries (XP CEN ISO/TS 15216-1 and -2, 2013) is currently available. This method proposes a consensus detection approach by RT-real time PCR (RT-qPCR) but also a virus extraction procedure based on the elution-concentration principle. In this study, an alternative method of extraction in which RNAs are directly extracted from food matrices (based on direct RNA extraction) has been optimized. First, each step was improved to make it a highly rapid, specific and simple method. Second, the standard virus concentration method was compared with the optimized direct RNA extraction one. Human enteric viral surrogates, Murine Norovirus (MNV) and F-specific RNA bacteriophage GA, were selected according to their adhesion properties and resistance to pH close to our main targets (NoV and HAV). Raspberries were artificially contaminated using two different techniques (immersion and spotting) in order to define a recovery rate and the amounts of virus recovered. Results showed that the direct RNA extraction method revealed significantly higher viral extraction efficiency (46.2%) than the elution-concentration method (20.3%), with similar proportions of inhibitors for both. In the same way with inoculation by spotting, the best recovery rate of GA phage (39.7% against 0.7%) and MNV (42.8% against 0.5%) was observed by direct RNA extraction. For the lowest concentrations of phage and virus in the immersion bath, only the direct RNA extraction method

  2. A rapid expansion of HIV-1 CRF63_02A1 among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in the Tomsk Region, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gashnikova, Natalya M; Bogachev, Vladislav V; Baryshev, Pavel B; Totmenin, Alexei V; Gashnikova, Maria P; Kazachinskaya, Anastasia G; Ismailova, Tatiana N; Stepanova, Svetlana A; Chernov, Alexander S; Mikheev, Valery N

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection in different Russian regions is nonuniform. In the Tomsk region (TR), 2020 HIV new infection cases were recorded in 2013, the morbidity having increased 5.9-fold as compared to 2012. In total, 64 blood plasma samples from primary HIV cases have been examined. HIV-specific fragments of the pol gene have been obtained for 61 samples (of protease for 58 and of integrase for 23) and of the env gene V3 region for 40 samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the determined HIV-1 sequences has detected CRF63_02A1 in 55 (90.2%) cases, whereas HIV subtype A1, characteristic of Russia, has been observed in only three (4.9%) patients. Three (4.9%) cases contain CRF63_02A1/A recombinant variants. This article demonstrates that a drastic activation of the epidemic in the Tomsk region is accompanied by a rapid spreading of the recently described HIV-1 CRF63_02A1, which we detected in the Novosibirsk region outbreak of 2008.

  3. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.

  4. Rapid Disease Progression in HIV-1 Subtype C–Infected South African Women

    PubMed Central

    Mlisana, Koleka; Werner, Lise; Garrett, Nigel J.; McKinnon, Lyle R.; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Gray, Clive M.; Morris, Lynn; Williamson, Carolyn; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype B–infected individuals generally progress to AIDS within 8–10 years, limited data exist for other clades, especially from Africa. We investigated rates of HIV disease progression of clade C–infected South African women. Methods. Prospective seroincidence cohorts in KwaZulu-Natal were assessed for acute HIV infection monthly (n = 245) or every 3 months (n = 594) for up to 4 years. Rapid disease progression was defined as CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL by 2 years postinfection. Serial clinical and laboratory assessments were compared using survival analysis and logistic regression models. Results. Sixty-two women were identified at a median of 42 days postinfection (interquartile range, 34–59), contributing 282 person-years of follow-up. Mean CD4 count dropped by 39.6% at 3 months and 46.7% at 6 months postinfection in women with preinfection measurements. CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL occurred in 31%, 44%, and 55% of women at 1, 2, and 3 years postinfection, respectively, and to <500 cells/µL in 69%, 79%, and 81% at equivalent timepoints. Predictors of rapid progression were CD4 count at 3 months postinfection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–3.28; P = .002), setpoint viral load (HR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.51–9.67; P = .005), and hepatitis B coinfection (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.31–15.69; P = .017). Conversely, presence of any of HLAB*1302, B*27, B*57, B*5801, or B*8101 alleles predicted non–rapid progression (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, .05–.74; P = .016). Conclusions. Nearly half of subtype C–infected women progressed to a CD4 count <350 cells/µL within 2 years of infection. Implementing 2013 World Health Organization treatment guidelines (CD4 count <500 cells/µL) would require most individuals to start antiretroviral therapy within 1 year of HIV infection. PMID:25038116

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of a Dual-Path Platform Assay for Rapid Point-of-Care HIV and Syphilis Testing.

    PubMed

    Leon, S R; Ramos, L B; Vargas, S K; Kojima, N; Perez, D G; Caceres, C F; Klausner, J D

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the laboratory performance of the Chembio dual-path platform HIV-syphilis rapid immunodiagnostic test and electronic reader for detection of HIV and Treponema pallidum antibodies in 450 previously characterized serum specimens. For visual or electronic reader HIV antibody detection, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 98.7%. For visual T. pallidum antibody detection, the test sensitivity was 94.7% and the specificity was 100.0%; with the electronic reader, the sensitivity was 94.7% and the specificity was 99.7%. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Salma

    2005-01-01

    Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the

  7. Evidence for rapid topographic evolution and crater degradation on Mercury from simple crater morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassett, Caleb I.; Crowley, Malinda C.; Leight, Clarissa; Dyar, M. Darby; Minton, David A.; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Thomson, Bradley J.; Watters, Wesley A.

    2017-06-01

    Examining the topography of impact craters and their evolution with time is useful for assessing how fast planetary surfaces evolve. Here, new measurements of depth/diameter (d/D) ratios for 204 craters of 2.5 to 5 km in diameter superposed on Mercury's smooth plains are reported. The median d/D is 0.13, much lower than expected for newly formed simple craters ( 0.21). In comparison, lunar craters that postdate the maria are much less modified, and the median crater in the same size range has a d/D ratio that is nearly indistinguishable from the fresh value. This difference in crater degradation is remarkable given that Mercury's smooth plains and the lunar maria likely have ages that are comparable, if not identical. Applying a topographic diffusion model, these results imply that crater degradation is faster by a factor of approximately two on Mercury than on the Moon, suggesting more rapid landform evolution on Mercury at all scales.Plain Language SummaryMercury and the Moon are both airless bodies that have experienced numerous impact events over billions of years. These impacts form craters in a geologic instant. The question examined in this manuscript is how fast these craters erode after their formation. To simplify the problem, we examined craters of a particular size (2.5 to 5 km in diameter) on a particular geologic terrain type (volcanic smooth plains) on both the Moon and Mercury. We then measured the topography of hundreds of craters on both bodies that met these criteria. Our results suggest that craters on Mercury become shallower much more quickly than craters on the Moon. We estimate that Mercury's topography erodes at a rate at least a factor of two faster than the Moon's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822105','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822105"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> in vitro assay for detecting human thyroid peroxidase disruption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jomaa, Barae; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> luminometric assay for the detection of chemical inhibitors of human thyroid peroxidase (hTPO) activity was developed and validated with 10 model compounds. hTPO was derived from the human thyroid follicular cell line Nthy-ori 3-1 and its activity was quantified by measuring the oxidation of luminol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which results in the emission of light at 428 nm. In this assay,hTPO activity was shown to be inhibited by 5 known TPO inhibitors and not inhibited by 5 non-inhibitors. Similar results were obtained with porcine TPO (pTPO).The inhibition of hTPO by the model compounds was also tested with guaiacol and Ampliflu Red as alternative indicator substrates. While all substrates allowed the detection of pTPO activity and its inhibition, only the Ampliflu Red and luminol-based methods were sensitive enough to allow the quantification of hTPO activity from Nthy-ori 3-1 cell lysates. Moreover, luminol gave results with a narrower 95% confidence interval and therefore more reliable data.Whole extracts of fast-growing Nthy-ori 3-1 cells circumvent the need for animal-derived thyroid organs,thereby reducing costs, eliminating potential contamination and providing the possibility to study human instead of porcine TPO. Overall, the application of luminol and Nthy-ori 3-1 cell lysate for the detection of the disruption of hTPO activity was found to represent a valuable in vitro alternative and a possible candidate for inclusion within a high throughput integrated testing strategy for the detection of compounds that potentially interfere with normal thyroid function in vivo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25864949"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> construction of electrochemical liver microsomal bioreactor for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> drug metabolism and inhibition assays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walgama, Charuksha; Nerimetla, Rajasekhara; Materer, Nicholas F; Schildkraut, Deniz; Elman, James F; Krishnan, Sadagopan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In order to design a green microsomal bioreactor on suitably identified carbon electrodes, it is important to understand the direct electrochemical properties at the interfaces between various carbon electrode materials and human liver microsomes (HLM). The novelty of this work is on the investigation of directly adsorbed HLM on different carbon electrodes with the goal to develop a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and new bioanalytical platform of HLM useful for drug metabolism and inhibition assays. These novel biointerfaces are designed in this study by a one step adsorption of HLM directly onto polished basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPG), edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG), glassy carbon (GC), or high-purity graphite (HPG) electrodes. The estimated direct electron transfer (ET) rate constant of HLM on the smooth GC surface was significantly greater than that of the other electrodes. On the other hand, the electroactive surface coverage and stability of microsomal films were greater on highly surface defective, rough EPG and HPG electrodes compared to the smooth GC and less defective hydrophobic BPG surfaces. The presence of significantly higher oxygen functionalities and flatness of the GC surface is attributed to favoring faster ET rates of the coated layer of thin HLM film compared to other electrodes. The cytochrome P450 (CYP)-specific bioactivity of the liver microsomal film on the catalytically superior, stable HPG surface was confirmed by monitoring the electrocatalytic conversion of testosterone to 6β-hydroxytestosterone and its inhibition by the CYP-specific ketoconazole inhibitor. The identification of optimal HPG and EPG electrodes to design biologically active interfaces with liver microsomes is suggested to have immense significance in the design of one-step, green bioreactors for stereoselective drug metabolite synthesis and drug metabolism and inhibition assays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...150..192C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...150..192C"><span>Nanocrystalline materials obtained by using a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for rechargeable lithium batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caballero, Alvaro; Cruz, Manuel; Hernán, Lourdes; Melero, Monserrat; Morales, Julian; Castellón, Enrique Rodríguez</p> <p></p> <p>Nanocrystalline oxides with either spinel (s.g. Fd3 m) or layered (s.g. R3 m) structures suitable as cathodic materials for lithium cells were prepared by using a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method based on the thermal decomposition of mixed nanocrystalline oxalates formed by grinding hydrated salts and oxalic acid. Their structural and textural properties were determined by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and N 2 adsorption measurements. Well-crystallized spinels of formulae viz. LiMn 2O 4 and LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 with a thin sheet-like morphology and average particle size at ca. 30 nm were obtained by heating at temperatures as low as 400 °C for a short time. On the other hand, pure layered oxides (LiCoO 2 and LiNi 0.5Co 0.5O 2) required higher temperatures (800 °C), which resulted in greater particle sizes (average size ca. 100 nm). The electrochemical properties of these materials in lithium cells were studied from cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic measurements. Cells made from the spinels exhibited good rate performance and the delivered capacities changed little over the charge-discharge rate range from C/4 to 4 C ( C is defined as the theoretical capacity delivered in 1 h). By contrast, the capacity values for the cells made from the layered oxides are strongly affected by the charge-discharge rates. Their increased particle size may be the origin of the poorer cell performance observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4603388','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4603388"><span><span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing as a key strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Veloso, Valdiléa G; Bastos, Francisco I; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; João, Esau Custodio; da Silva Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Araújo, Ana Beatriz Busch; Santos, Breno Riegel; da Fonseca, Rosana Campos; Kreitchmann, Regis; Derrico, Monica; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Cunha, Cynthia B; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Saines, Karin Nielsen; Bryson, Yvonne J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing for pregnant women at maternity hospital admission and of subsequent interventions to reduce perinatal <span class="hlt">HIV</span> transmission. METHODS Study based on a convenience sample of women unaware of their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> serostatus when they were admitted to delivery in public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2000 and April 2002. Women were counseled and tested using the Determine <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Test. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection was confirmed using the Brazilian algorithm for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection diagnosis. In utero transmission of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> was determined using HIVDNA-PCR. There were performed descriptive analyses of sociodemographic data, number of previous pregnancies and abortions, number of prenatal care visits, timing of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test result, neonatal and mother-to-child transmission interventions, by city studied. RESULTS <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence in women was 6.5% (N=1,439) in Porto Alegre and 1.3% (N=3.778) in Rio de Janeiro. In Porto Alegre most of women were tested during labor (88.7%), while in Rio de Janeiro most were tested in the postpartum (67.5%). One hundred and forty-four infants were born to 143 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected women. All newborns but one in each city received at least prophylaxis with oral zidovudine. It was possible to completely avoid newborn exposure to breast milk in 96.8% and 51.1% of the cases in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Injectable intravenous zidovudine was administered during labor to 68.8% and 27.7% newborns in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Among those from whom blood samples were collected within 48 hours of birth, in utero transmission of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> was confirmed in 4 cases in Rio de Janeiro (4/47) and 6 cases in Porto Alegre (6/79). CONCLUSIONS The strategy proved feasible in maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre. Efforts must be taken to maximize <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing during labor. There is a need of strong social support to provide this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14670168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14670168"><span>The challenges of informed consent for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in labor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jamieson, Denise J; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Maupin, Robert; Cohen, Mardge; Webber, Mayris P; Nesheim, Steven; Lampe, Margaret; Garcia, Patricia; Lindsay, Michael; Bulterys, Marc</p> <p>2003-11-01</p> <p>Although increasing attention has been focused on the adequacy of the informed consent process for participation in research studies, there has been little systematic evaluation of the process, particularly when consent is obtained in the labor and delivery setting. The Mother Infant <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Intervention at Delivery (MIRIAD) study is an ongoing multisite study initiated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed to evaluate the feasibility of offering 24-hour counseling and voluntary <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and antriretroviral therapy when indicated to women with unknown <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status who are in labor. To address concerns about obtaining informed consent from women in labor, we have completed focus groups, conducted a pilot of the informed consent process among women in labor, developed flip-charts to enhance comprehension, and plan an ongoing evaluation of the informed consent process throughout the course of the MIRIAD study. In the pilot study, approximately 70% of women were able to state in their own words the purpose and benefits of the research study. Substantially fewer women (25%) were able to state one or more risks of the study. We hope that the MIRIAD study will make a valuable contribution by defining best approaches for informed consent and will provide guidance when it is necessary to obtain consent from laboring women for crucial interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26852','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26852"><span>Development of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system for the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Nicklas Samils; Malin Elfstrand; Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Jan Fahleson; Ake Olson; Christina Dixelius; Jan Stenlid</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Heterobasidion annosum causes root and butt-rot in trees and is the most serious forest pathogen in the northern hemisphere. We developed a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> Agrobacterium-mediated method of gene delivery into H. annosum to be used in functional studies of candidate genes and for visualization of mycelial interactions. Heterobasidion annosum TC 32-1 was cocultivated at...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538723','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27538723"><span>Providing <span class="hlt">HIV</span> results via SMS one day after testing: more popular than <span class="hlt">rapid</span> point-of-care tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davies, Stephen C; Koh, Andrew; Lindsay, Heather E; Fulton, Richard B; Fernando, Suran L</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>An inner Sydney sexual health service introduced the option to gay and bisexual men of receiving a negative <span class="hlt">HIV</span> result by SMS to mobile phone one business day after venipuncture (<span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS). Men could also choose one of the other options: a point-of-care-test (POCT), by phone, or in-person (clinicians could also require in-person). We followed-up patients choosing the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS method to ascertain their satisfaction. During 12 months, 473 men had 591 <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests. Of these tests, 5.4% were POCTs, 9.1% were in-person, 24% were by phone, and 62% were <span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> POCTs declined from being 22% of result methods in the pre-study period to 5.4% during the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS intervention period (odds ratio 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.32, P < 0.0001). Phone/in-person results declined from 78% to 33% (odds ratio 0.14, 95% CI 0.10-0.20, P < 0.0001). SMS was sent by the next business day in 95% of cases; 96% of men were satisfied; and 95% would choose this method for their next test. Of 77 men who previously had an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> POCT, 56 (73%) elected a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS result rather than having another POCT. The higher accuracy of conventional serology was commonly expressed as the reason for choosing <span class="hlt">rapid</span> SMS for results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28764562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28764562"><span>Does <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing result in an early diagnosis and reduce the waiting time for patients to receive medical care?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melo, Magaly Carvalho Vieira de; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Falcão, Ilka Veras; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The implementation of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in Brazil began in 2006 for specific groups, and from 2009 was extended to the Counseling and Testing Centers (CTC) in certain Brazilian capitals. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of individuals: those diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection by conventional testing and those diagnosed with <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing, with respect to: the waiting time before receiving medical care, the time of the first laboratory tests and the virological, immune and clinical status. This is a cross-sectional study to compare a group with individuals diagnosed by conventional testing (2006-2008) and another with those diagnosed by <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing (2010-2011).The median time between blood collection and diagnosis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> in the conventional test group was 76 days, while in the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test group 94.2% of the subjects received their results on the same day of blood collection (p < 0.001). In the conventional test group, the median period of time before the first consultation with an infectious disease specialist was 99 days, and for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test group the time was 14 days (p < 0.001). The median time between the first blood sample and the first results of the CD4 count and viral load was approximately 2.5 times lower in the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test group (p < 0.001 for both). The median CD4 count in the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test group (472) was higher than in the conventional test group (397) (p = 0.01). The introduction of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing as a diagnostic strategy has reduced the waiting times for medical care and laboratory tests and also allowed earlier diagnosis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection than with the conventional test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3606348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3606348"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> High-Level Production of Functional <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Passive immunotherapy using anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing <span class="hlt">HIV</span> mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> produce high levels of an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound <span class="hlt">HIV</span> envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant <span class="hlt">HIV</span> neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25687598"><span>A modified <span class="hlt">simple</span> triage and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> treatment algorithm from the New York City (USA) Fire Department.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arshad, Faizan H; Williams, Alan; Asaeda, Glenn; Isaacs, Douglas; Kaufman, Bradley; Ben-Eli, David; Gonzalez, Dario; Freese, John P; Hillgardner, Joan; Weakley, Jessica; Hall, Charles B; Webber, Mayris P; Prezant, David J</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to determine if modification of the <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Triage and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Treatment (START) system by the addition of an Orange category, intermediate between the most critically injured (Red) and the non-critical, non-ambulatory injured (Yellow), would reduce over- and under-triage rates in a simulated mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercise. A computer-simulation exercise of identical presentations of an MCI scenario involving a 2-train collision, with 28 case scenarios, was provided for triaging to two groups: the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY; n=1,347) using modified START, and the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers from the Eagles 2012 EMS conference (Lafayette, Louisiana USA; n=110) using unmodified START. Percent correct by triage category was calculated for each group. Performance was then compared between the two EMS groups on the five cases where Orange was the correct answer under the modified START system. Overall, FDNY-EMS providers correctly triaged 91.2% of cases using FDNY-START whereas non-FDNY-Eagles providers correctly triaged 87.1% of cases using unmodified START. In analysis of the five Orange cases (chest pain or dyspnea without obvious trauma), FDNY-EMS performed significantly better using FDNY-START, correctly triaging 86.3% of cases (over-triage 1.5%; under-triage 12.2%), whereas the non-FDNY-Eagles group using unmodified START correctly triaged 81.5% of cases (over-triage 17.3%; under-triage 1.3%), a difference of 4.9% (95% CI, 1.5-8.2). The FDNY-START system may allow providers to prioritize casualties using an intermediate category (Orange) more properly aligned to meet patient needs, and as such, may reduce the rates of over-triage compared with START. The FDNY-START system decreases the variability in patient sorting while maintaining high field utility without needing computer assistance or extensive retraining. Comparison of triage algorithms at actual MCIs is needed; however, initial feedback</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036465"><span>Factors Influencing Uptake of <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV Screening Interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merchant, Roland C; DeLong, Allison K; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p < 0.04). Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending <30 or ≥90 min in the study. In the BI arm, screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV knowledge, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV risk behaviors, or need for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600425"><span>Factors Influencing Uptake of <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and Hepatitis C Screening Among Drug Misusing Adult Emergency Department Patients: Implications for Future <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV Screening Interventions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this randomized, controlled trial among 957 English- or Spanish-speaking drug misusing adult emergency department (ED) patients, we determined if a tailored brief intervention (BI) increased uptake of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/ HCV screening, and identified factors associated with greater screening uptake. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV screening uptake was greater in the control than the BI arm (45 vs. 38 %; p < 0.04). Screening uptake depended on elapsed study time and which research staff member offered testing. In the control arm, uptake was lowest for those spending <30 or ≥90 min in the study. In the BI arm, screening uptake generally increased over time. Tailored BI content specifically addressing participant <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV knowledge, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV risk behaviors, or need for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/ HCV screening was not associated with greater screening uptake. These study findings suggested factors that should be considered when designing future ED-based screening initiatives, such as elapsed study time, who offers testing, and the content of interventions. PMID:26036465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18242881"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> assessment of drug-related <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risk among men who have sex with men in three South African cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parry, Charles; Petersen, Petal; Dewing, Sarah; Carney, Tara; Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Treger, Latasha</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The current assessment was undertaken to examine the link between drug use and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) in locations known to have high prevalence rates of drug use and sexual risk behavior in Cape Town, Durban and Pretoria, South Africa. Street intercepts and purposive snowball sampling were used to recruit drug-using MSM. A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> assessment was undertaken which included observation, mapping, key informant interviews and focus group interviews with MSM. Drug using key informants were tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. The use of drugs like crack cocaine, cannabis and methamphetamine to specifically facilitate sexual encounters was evident. Drugs led to inconsistent condom use and other high-risk sexual activities despite <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risk knowledge being high. Many injecting drug-using MSM shared needles and reused equipment. Among MSM who agreed to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, one-third tested positive. Views about drug and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> treatment and preventive services and their efficacy were mixed. Various barriers to accessing services were highlighted including homosexual stigmatization and availability of drugs in treatment facilities. Recommendations include addressing the gap between <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-risk knowledge and practice, extending VCT services for MSM, increasing the visibility of drug abuse services within communities, addressing concerns about drug availability in treatment centers as well as reintegration issues and the need for after-care services, reducing stigmatization in drug and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> services for MSM and finally, strengthening the link between drug treatment services and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention by integrating <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/drug-related risks into <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention efforts and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risks into drug use prevention efforts.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/960875"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Korber, Bette Tina Marie</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very <span class="hlt">rapid</span> selection of multiple <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3043227"><span>Enhancement of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Infectivity by <span class="hlt">Simple</span>, Self-Assembling Modular Peptides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Easterhoff, David; DiMaio, John T.M.; Doran, Todd M.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Nilsson, Bradley L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), an amyloid fibril formed from a cationic peptide fragment of prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP), dramatically enhances the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1). Insoluble, sedimentable fibrils contribute to SEVI-mediated enhancement of virus infection. However, the SEVI-forming PAP(248–286) peptide is able to produce infection-enhancing structures much more quickly than it forms amyloid fibrils. This suggests that soluble supramolecular assemblies may enhance <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection. To address this question, non-SEVI amyloid-like fibrils were derived from general amphipathic peptides of sequence Ac-Kn(XKXE)2-NH2. These cationic peptides efficiently self-assembled to form soluble, fibril-like structures that were, in some cases, able to enhance <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection even more efficiently than SEVI. Experiments were also performed to determine whether agents that efficiently shield the charged surface of SEVI fibrils block SEVI-mediated infection-enhancement. To do this, we generated self-assembling anionic peptides of sequence Ac-En(XKXE)2-NH2. One of these peptides completely abrogated SEVI-mediated enhancement of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection, without altering <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infectivity in the absence of SEVI. Collectively, these data suggest that soluble SEVI assemblies may mediate infection-enhancement, and that anionic peptide supramolecular assemblies have the potential to act as anti-SEVI microbicides. PMID:21354406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436777','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436777"><span>Feasibility of implementing <span class="hlt">rapid</span> oral fluid <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in an urban University Dental Clinic: a qualitative study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background More than 1 million individuals in the U.S. are infected with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>; approximately 20% of whom do not know they are infected. Early diagnosis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection results in earlier access to treatment and reductions in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> transmission. In 2006, the CDC recommended that health care providers offer routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening to all adolescent and adult patients, regardless of community seroprevalence or patient lifestyle. Dental providers are uniquely positioned to implement these recommendations using <span class="hlt">rapid</span> oral fluid <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening technology. However, thus far, uptake into dental practice has been very limited. Methods The study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach with convenience samples of dental faculty and students. Six in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with dental faculty and three focus groups were conducted with fifteen dental students. Results Results were fairly consistent and indicated relatively high levels of acceptability. Barriers and facilitators of oral fluid <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening were identified in four primary areas: scope of practice/practice enhancement, skills/knowledge/training, patient service/patient reactions and logistical issues. Conclusions Oral fluid <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening was described as having benefits for patients, dental practitioners and the public good. Many of the barriers to implementation that were identified in the study could be addressed through training and interdisciplinary collaborations. PMID:22571324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1381740','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1381740"><span>Counseling and testing for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Farnham, P G; Gorsky, R D; Holtgrave, D R; Jones, W K; Guinan, M E</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">rapid</span> human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) antibody tests permit many individuals to receive test results and appropriate counseling at one clinic visit. Because currently used tests require significant time for processing, all individuals must return for a second visit for test results and counseling. Since return rates for the second visit are low, the more <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests present an opportunity to improve the efficiency of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> counseling and testing. The authors compared the costs and effectiveness of the currently used counseling and testing procedure and a streamlined procedure made possible by the new, more <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening tests. When test-positive clients are given preliminary screening test results, the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> procedure is more cost-effective than the current procedure. Since over 90% of the clients in most clinics will test negative, the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> counseling and testing procedure allows the vast majority of clients to be counseled and tested and to receive their results and posttest counseling in one visit. However, in the case where the goal of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> counseling and testing is to focus only on infected individuals, if information regarding a positive result from the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening test is not given to clients at the initial visit before a confirmatory test is performed, then the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> counseling and testing procedure is not more cost-effective than the current procedure. PMID:8610190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3069085','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3069085"><span>Photographed <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Test Results Pilot Novel Quality Assessment and Training Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chiu, Yu-Ho C.; Ong, Joanna; Walker, Sandy; Kumalawati, July; Gartinah, Tintin; McPhee, Dale A.; Dax, Elizabeth M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now used widely in non-laboratory settings by non-laboratory-trained operators. Quality assurance programmes are essential in ensuring the quality of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> RDT outcomes. However, there is no cost-effective means of supplying the many operators of RDTs with suitable quality assurance schemes. Therefore, it was examined whether photograph-based RDT results could be used and correctly interpreted in the non-laboratory setting. Further it was investigated if a single training session improved the interpretation skills of RDT operators. The photographs were interpreted, a 10-minute tutorial given and then a second interpretation session was held. It was established that the results could be read with accuracy. The participants (n = 75) with a range of skills interpreted results (>80% concordance with reference results) from a panel of 10 samples (three negative and seven positive) using four RDTs. Differences in accuracy of interpretation before and after the tutorial were marked in some cases. Training was more effective for improving the accurate interpretation of more complex results, e.g. results with faint test lines or for multiple test lines, and especially for improving interpretation skills of inexperienced participants. It was demonstrated that interpretation of RDTs was improved using photographed results allied to a 10-minute training session. It is anticipated that this method could be used for training but also for quality assessment of RDT operators without access to conventional quality assurance or training schemes requiring wet samples. PMID:21483842</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=synthetic+AND+material&pg=6&id=EJ351378','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=synthetic+AND+material&pg=6&id=EJ351378"><span>Microscale Organic Laboratory: IV. A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Procedure for Carrying Out Wittig Reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pike, R. M.; And Others</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes two examples where synthetic salt-base mixtures are used in a microscale organic laboratory program as a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and quick procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions. Both experimental procedures are outlined and discussed. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemistry+AND+quick&pg=4&id=EJ351378','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chemistry+AND+quick&pg=4&id=EJ351378"><span>Microscale Organic Laboratory: IV. A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Procedure for Carrying Out Wittig Reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pike, R. M.; And Others</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes two examples where synthetic salt-base mixtures are used in a microscale organic laboratory program as a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and quick procedure for carrying out Wittig reactions. Both experimental procedures are outlined and discussed. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684410"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in a southeastern emergency department serving a semiurban-semirural adolescent and adult population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sattin, Richard W; Wilde, James A; Freeman, Arin E; Miller, Kelly M; Dias, James K</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We determine the feasibility and yield of universal opt-out <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening among adolescents and adults in a southeastern emergency department (ED) serving a semiurban-semirural population. Individuals aged 13 to 64 years who visited the ED during specified hours received the OraQuick <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> test (administered by trained counselors) if they did not opt out. Western blot was used to confirm reactive results. Patients were excluded if they had a history of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, had been tested within the past year, were physically or mentally incapacitated, did not understand their right to opt out, or did not speak English or Spanish. Basic demographic information was analyzed by using standard descriptive statistics. Measures of diagnostic test performance were calculated for all valid tests. From March 2008 through August 2009, 91% (n=8,493) of eligible patients accepted testing, and results were valid. Of 41 reactive results, 35 were confirmed <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive, 2 were indeterminate by Western blot, and 4 were false positive. Blacks accounted for the largest percentage (0.65%) of newly detected infections, and the percentage among black men (1%) was more than twice the percentage among black women (0.42%). <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>-test specificity was estimated at 99.95% (95% confidence interval 99.88% to 99.98%). Nearly 75% of patients confirmed as <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive kept their first <span class="hlt">HIV</span> clinic appointment. High rates of acceptance of testing in an ED and linkage to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> care for adolescents and adults with newly detected infection can be achieved by using opt-out testing and trained <span class="hlt">HIV</span> counselors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032261"><span>Automated pipeline for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> production and screening of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17850670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17850670"><span>Comparison of patient comprehension of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; Degruttola, Victor G</p> <p>2007-09-12</p> <p>Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing with OraQuick. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p < or = 0.0001). In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p < or = 0.33). The video "Do you know about <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing with OraQuick. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients to receive no pre-test information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24913168"><span>Electrospun solid dispersions of Maraviroc for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> intravaginal preexposure prophylaxis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ball, Cameron; Woodrow, Kim A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The development of topical anti-human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) microbicides may provide women with strategies to protect themselves against sexual <span class="hlt">HIV</span> transmission. Pericoital drug delivery systems intended for use immediately before sex, such as microbicide gels, must deliver high drug doses for maximal effectiveness. The goal of achieving a high antiretroviral dose is complicated by the need to simultaneously retain the dose and quickly release drug compounds into the tissue. For drugs with limited solubility in vaginal gels, increasing the gel volume to increase the dose can result in leakage. While solid dosage forms like films and tablets increase retention, they often require more than 15 min to fully dissolve, potentially increasing the risk of inducing epithelial abrasions during sex. Here, we demonstrate that water-soluble electrospun fibers, with their high surface area-to-volume ratio and ability to disperse antiretrovirals, can serve as an alternative solid dosage form for microbicides requiring both high drug loading and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> hydration. We formulated maraviroc at up to 28 wt% into electrospun solid dispersions made from either polyvinylpyrrolidone or poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibers or microfibers and investigated the role of drug loading, distribution, and crystallinity in determining drug release rates into aqueous media. We show here that water-soluble electrospun materials can <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> release maraviroc upon contact with moisture and that drug delivery is faster (less than 6 min under sink conditions) when maraviroc is electrospun in polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers containing an excipient wetting agent. These materials offer an alternative dosage form to current pericoital microbicides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136019','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136019"><span>Electrospun Solid Dispersions of Maraviroc for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Intravaginal Preexposure Prophylaxis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ball, Cameron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The development of topical anti-human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) microbicides may provide women with strategies to protect themselves against sexual <span class="hlt">HIV</span> transmission. Pericoital drug delivery systems intended for use immediately before sex, such as microbicide gels, must deliver high drug doses for maximal effectiveness. The goal of achieving a high antiretroviral dose is complicated by the need to simultaneously retain the dose and quickly release drug compounds into the tissue. For drugs with limited solubility in vaginal gels, increasing the gel volume to increase the dose can result in leakage. While solid dosage forms like films and tablets increase retention, they often require more than 15 min to fully dissolve, potentially increasing the risk of inducing epithelial abrasions during sex. Here, we demonstrate that water-soluble electrospun fibers, with their high surface area-to-volume ratio and ability to disperse antiretrovirals, can serve as an alternative solid dosage form for microbicides requiring both high drug loading and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> hydration. We formulated maraviroc at up to 28 wt% into electrospun solid dispersions made from either polyvinylpyrrolidone or poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibers or microfibers and investigated the role of drug loading, distribution, and crystallinity in determining drug release rates into aqueous media. We show here that water-soluble electrospun materials can <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> release maraviroc upon contact with moisture and that drug delivery is faster (less than 6 min under sink conditions) when maraviroc is electrospun in polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers containing an excipient wetting agent. These materials offer an alternative dosage form to current pericoital microbicides. PMID:24913168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=253784','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=253784"><span>Resazurin Microtiter Assay Plate Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibilities to Second-Line Drugs: <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">Simple</span>, and Inexpensive Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martin, Anandi; Camacho, Mirtha; Portaels, Françoise; Palomino, Juan Carlos</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis calls for new, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> drug susceptibility tests. We have tested 150 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates against the second-line drugs ethionamide, kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and para-aminosalicylic acid by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method. By visual reading, MICs were obtained after 8 days. A very good correlation between results by the colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay and the proportion method was obtained. The colorimetric resazurin microtiter assay is inexpensive, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and <span class="hlt">simple</span> to perform, and implementation of the assay is feasible for low-resource countries. PMID:14576129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840744','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840744"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Immunocytochemistry with <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Heat-Induced Antigen Retrieval Technique for Improvement in the Quality of Cytological Diagnosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Harada, Kunihiko; Kawai, Kenji; Kuwao, Sadahito; Sawabe, Motoji</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> immunocytochemistry (ICC) can improve the accuracy of intraoperative cytological diagnoses; however, it is usually applied without heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIAR). We established a HIAR method for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ICC and evaluated its efficacy and reliability. <span class="hlt">Rapidly</span> fixed smear samples were immunostained using 35 antibodies. We compared the results of HIAR by boiling in a pot or heating in an electric kettle. The smears were incubated for 3 min with each primary antibody and immuno-enzyme polymer reagent, and for 1 min with diaminobenzidine solution. HIAR for 1 min using the kettle method yielded the best cellular integrity. For 32 out of the 35 antibodies, results achieved using <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ICC within 11 min were comparable to that achieved using standard ICC. HIAR was essential for 13 antibodies. For two of the antibodies, HIAR was not required when standard ICC was applied, but consistent staining with <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ICC was obtained only with HIAR. In conclusion, we established a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ICC procedure using a <span class="hlt">simple</span> HIAR method, which allowed efficient immunostaining of a panel of antigens, including nuclear antigens, within only 11 min. The combined use of this <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ICC technique with other staining techniques could be useful for improving intraoperative cytological diagnoses. PMID:24004858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512774"><span>Calypte AWARE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 OMT antibody test using oral fluid: special challenges of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in the developing world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gottfried, Toby D; Mink, Ronald W; Phanuphak, Praphan</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The testing and counseling of persons at risk for infection with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and their subsequent treatment remains the primary tool to curb worldwide transmission of the virus. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests address the need in the developing world for accurate, easy-to-use tests that do not require laboratory equipment or highly trained professionals for implementation or refrigeration for storage. Calypte Biomedical has recently developed the Calypte AWARE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 OMT antibody test using oral fluid samples. This test has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for specimens collected in target areas where increased testing is needed. The inexpensive dipstick format in combination with the use of an alternative fluid to blood provides an improved testing procedure for areas with limited resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936623"><span>On-site bundled <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV testing in substance use disorder treatment programs: study protocol for a hybrid design randomized controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frimpong, Jemima A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Perlman, David C; Strauss, Shiela M; Mallow, Alissa; Hernandez, Diana; Schackman, Bruce R; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R</p> <p>2016-03-03</p> <p>More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>), and 3.2 million are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). An estimated 25 % of persons living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> also have HCV. It is therefore of great public health importance to ensure the prompt diagnosis of both <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and HCV in populations that have the highest prevalence of both infections, including individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). In this theory-driven, efficacy-effectiveness-implementation hybrid study, we will develop and test an on-site bundled <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV testing intervention for SUD treatment programs. Its aim is to increase the receipt of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and HCV test results among SUD treatment patients. Using a rigorous process involving patients, providers, and program managers, we will incorporate <span class="hlt">rapid</span> HCV testing into evidence-based <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and linkage to care interventions. We will then test, in a randomized controlled trial, the extent to which this bundled <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV testing approach increases receipt of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and HCV test results. Lastly, we will conduct formative research to understand the barriers to, and facilitators of, the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the bundled <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing strategy in SUD treatment programs. Novel approaches that effectively integrate on-site <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> HCV testing are needed to address both the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and HCV epidemics. If feasible and efficacious, bundled <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/HCV testing may offer a scalable, potentially cost-effective approach to testing high-risk populations, such as patients of SUD treatment programs. It may ultimately lead to improved linkage to care and progress through the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and HCV care and treatment cascades. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02355080 . (30 January 2015).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2648154','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2648154"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> Adhesive-Tape-Based Sampling of Tomato Surfaces Combined with <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Salmonella Detection▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bisha, Bledar; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> adhesive-tape-based method for sampling of tomato surfaces was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> culture-independent detection of Salmonella strains. Tapes could also be placed face-down on selective agar for on-tape enrichment of captured Salmonella cells. Overlay of cell-charged tapes with small volumes of liquid enrichment media enabled subsequent detection of tape-captured Salmonella via flow cytometry. PMID:19124588</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25972188"><span>Dilution testing using <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests in a <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnostic algorithm: a novel alternative for confirmation testing in resource limited settings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Abebe, Almaz; Piriou, Erwan; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Masiga, Johnson; Muluneh, Libsework; Wazome, Joseph; Ritmeijer, Koert; Klarkowski, Derryck</p> <p>2015-05-14</p> <p>Current WHO testing guidelines for resource limited settings diagnose <span class="hlt">HIV</span> on the basis of screening tests without a confirmation test due to cost constraints. This leads to a potential risk of false positive <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnosis. In this paper, we evaluate the dilution test, a novel method for confirmation testing, which is <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and low cost. The principle of the dilution test is to alter the sensitivity of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test (RDT) by dilution of the sample, in order to screen out the cross reacting antibodies responsible for falsely positive RDT results. Participants were recruited from two testing centres in Ethiopia where a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 different RDTs in series is used to diagnose <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. All samples positive on the initial screening RDT and every 10th negative sample underwent testing with the gold standard and dilution test. Dilution testing was performed using Determine™ <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test at 6 different dilutions. Results were compared to the gold standard of Western Blot; where Western Blot was indeterminate, PCR testing determined the final result. 2895 samples were recruited to the study. 247 were positive for a prevalence of 8.5 % (247/2895). A total of 495 samples underwent dilution testing. The RDT diagnostic algorithm misclassified 18 samples as positive. Dilution at the level of 1/160 was able to correctly identify all these 18 false positives, but at a cost of a single false negative result (sensitivity 99.6 %, 95 % CI 97.8-100; specificity 100 %, 95 % CI: 98.5-100). Concordance between the gold standard and the 1/160 dilution strength was 99.8 %. This study provides proof of concept for a new, low cost method of confirming <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnosis in resource-limited settings. It has potential for use as a supplementary test in a confirmatory algorithm, whereby double positive RDT results undergo dilution testing, with positive results confirming <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection. Negative results require nucleic acid testing to rule out false</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755678"><span>Establishment of a <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Gene Delivery System for Cucurbits by Using Engineered of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hoseong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The infectious full-length cDNA clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) isolate PA (pZYMV-PA), which was isolated from pumpkin, was constructed by utilizing viral transcription and processing signals to produce infectious in vivo transcripts. <span class="hlt">Simple</span> rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of pZYMV-PA was successful to cause infection of zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). We further engineered this infectious cDNA clone of ZYMV as a viral vector for systemic expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits. We successfully expressed two reporter genes including gfp and bar in zucchini plants by <span class="hlt">simple</span> rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of the ZYMV-based expression constructs. Our method of the ZYMV-based viral vector in association with the <span class="hlt">simple</span> rub-inoculation provides an easy and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> approach for introduction and evaluation of heterologous genes in cucurbits. PMID:26889118</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26889118"><span>Establishment of a <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Gene Delivery System for Cucurbits by Using Engineered of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Minji; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hoseong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The infectious full-length cDNA clone of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) isolate PA (pZYMV-PA), which was isolated from pumpkin, was constructed by utilizing viral transcription and processing signals to produce infectious in vivo transcripts. <span class="hlt">Simple</span> rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of pZYMV-PA was successful to cause infection of zucchini plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). We further engineered this infectious cDNA clone of ZYMV as a viral vector for systemic expression of heterologous proteins in cucurbits. We successfully expressed two reporter genes including gfp and bar in zucchini plants by <span class="hlt">simple</span> rub-inoculation of plasmid DNAs of the ZYMV-based expression constructs. Our method of the ZYMV-based viral vector in association with the <span class="hlt">simple</span> rub-inoculation provides an easy and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> approach for introduction and evaluation of heterologous genes in cucurbits.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=92316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=92316"><span>Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An early warning system using a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DNA+AND+forensics&pg=2&id=EJ762019','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DNA+AND+forensics&pg=2&id=EJ762019"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> & <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Generation of Complex DNA Profiles for the Undergraduate Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kass, David H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles can be generated by a variety of techniques incorporating different types of DNA markers. <span class="hlt">Simple</span> methods are commonly utilized in the undergraduate laboratory, but with certain drawbacks. In this article, the author presents an advancement of the "Alu" dimorphism technique involving two tetraplex polymerase…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymerase+AND+chain+AND+reaction+AND+pcr&pg=3&id=EJ762019','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=polymerase+AND+chain+AND+reaction+AND+pcr&pg=3&id=EJ762019"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> & <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Generation of Complex DNA Profiles for the Undergraduate Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kass, David H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles can be generated by a variety of techniques incorporating different types of DNA markers. <span class="hlt">Simple</span> methods are commonly utilized in the undergraduate laboratory, but with certain drawbacks. In this article, the author presents an advancement of the "Alu" dimorphism technique involving two tetraplex polymerase…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB260563','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADB260563"><span>A <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Integrated Extraction Amplification and Detection Device for Y. pestis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>strumented technologies of DNA microarrays and related - microfluidics . 3- 5 By contrast, our company is focusing on the development of relatively <span class="hlt">simple</span>... radioactive labels into the Ed.. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Cold Spring Harbor. amplification reactions for the detection of nucleic acids is N.Y</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5411386','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5411386"><span>Liver test abnormalities in patients with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> mono-infection: assessment with <span class="hlt">simple</span> noninvasive fibrosis markers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lombardi, Rosa; Lever, Robert; Smith, Colette; Marshall, Neal; Rodger, Alison; Bhagani, Sanjay; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Patients with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> mono-infection may develop chronic liver disease due to a number of factors including hepatic steatosis. We estimated the prevalence and predictors of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a cohort of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-mono-infected patients with persistently deranged liver function tests. Methods Of 2398 consecutive patients at one UK clinical center, 156 (6.5%) had persistently abnormal transaminases in at least two measurements six months apart. We used APRI and FIB4 scores to determine the presence of significant and/or advanced fibrosis in this group as well as its potential associations. Results Mean age was 47.5±8.5 years and 91% (142/156) were males. Diabetes mellitus was present in 11% of patients; hypertension in 18%; and dyslipidemia in 52%. Almost all were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (97%) and most were virologically suppressed (94%). Steatosis was detected by ultrasound in 71% of patients. The prevalence of FIB4≤1.45, 1.46-3.24 and >3.25 was 67%, 29% and 4%, respectively, and that of APRI≤0.5, 0.51-1.49 and >1.5 was 52%, 45% and 3% respectively. In multivariate analysis, only cumulative ART exposure was associated with FIB4>1.45 (odds ratio [OR] 1.008, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.000-1.016), while APRI>0.5 was associated with higher alanine aminotransferase levels (OR 1.033, 95%CI 1.015-1.510). Twenty patients had a liver biopsy, of whom 13 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Conclusions Elevated transaminases are often present in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-mono-infected patients and this may be associated with NAFLD and/or ART. Non-invasive screening for the presence of NAFLD and fibrosis in all <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-mono-infected patients as part of their routine clinical management should be further explored. PMID:28469366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20556065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20556065"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> setup for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing of third-order nonlinear optical materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horan, P; Blau, W; Byrne, H; Berglund, P</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A relatively inexpensive and versatile degenerate four-wave mixing setup is described utilizing a nitrogen laser pumped dye laser. Samples can be screened <span class="hlt">rapidly</span>, which is demonstrated with the example of a semiconductor doped glass having a nonlinear susceptibility x((3)) ~ 10(-11)-10(-10) esu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/422848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/422848"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, inexpensive assay for toxic chemicals using a bacterial indicator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Botsford, J.L.; Hillaker, T.; Robertson, B.; Gonzales, M.; Benavidez, M.; Jones, B.; Baker, R.; Steen, W.; Pacheco, F.; Homer, V.; Lucero, O.; Matthews, M.; Koehler, V.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> test for toxic chemicals has been developed. Rhizobium meliloti is combined with the toxic chemical. A tetrazolium dye, MTT (3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) is added. The bacterium reduces this dye, causing the optical absorbance to increase dramatically. The increase can be determined with a <span class="hlt">simple</span> spectrophotometer. Toxic chemicals and minerals inhibit the reduction of the dye. Presumably the dye serves as a terminal electron acceptor for electron transport. Toxic substances presumably damage the electron transport system. The results compare favorably with published results of tests using the Microtox{trademark} assay and with the Polytox{trademark} assay. This assay is simpler and requires no specialized equipment. It should be possible to use this assay in a third world situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24838665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24838665"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> detection of Salmonella by direct PCR amplification of gene fimW.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiang-ying; Dong, Li-wei; Ren, Qian; Wang, Xiao-zhou; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Wen; Zhu, Chun-hong; Meng, Xia; Zhu, Guo-qiang</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>This study established a <span class="hlt">simple</span> method of specifically detecting Salmonella species by amplifying fimW gene, which was involved in regulating Salmonella type I fimbriae expression. A pair of primers was designed to target and discriminate the 68 Salmonella strains of 23 Salmonella serovars available to us from 12 non-Salmonella strains of five different kinds of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results showed that specific DNA fragment with an expected size of 477 bp was successfully amplified from all Salmonella serovars, while no target band was detected in non-Salmonella species. The sensitivity of this PCR-amplifying system reached to 1 pg DNA chromosome and 10(2) cfu of Salmonella enteritis strain CMCC(B) 50336. The above results demonstrated the method as a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, sensitive, and specific way for Salmonella detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19571026"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> determination of ciprofloxacin resistance in clinical strains of Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, María; Fernández, José Luis; del Carmen Fernández, María; Molina, Francisca; Villanueva, Rosa; Gosálvez, Jaime; Bou, Germán</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>We recently reported a <span class="hlt">simple</span> new in situ diffusion assay, developed as a kit, to visualize DNA fragmentation in single bacterial cells. Use of this assay in a collection of 95 genetically unrelated Escherichia coli clinical strains resulted in correct identification of all of the isolates as resistant or susceptible to ciprofloxacin, consistent with the MIC results. This relevant information is obtained in 80 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6011753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6011753"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> methods for labeling white blood cells and platelets with indium-111-oxine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steffel, F.G.; Rao, S.A.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Simple</span> procedures in a kit form for labeling white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets with commercially available indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-oxine have been developed for the convenience of small community hospitals. The time required for the labeling procedure is less than 2 hr. The resulting scintigrams from the clinical studies in both WBCs and platelets showed that the /sup 111/In-labeled cells have a high degree of viability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768831','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768831"><span>A <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, Self-confirming Assay for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>: Simultaneous Detection of Anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> Antibodies and Viral RNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Zongyuan; Zhu, Hui; Malamud, Daniel; Barber, Cheryl; Ongagna, Yhombi Yvon Serge; Yasmin, Rubina; Modak, Sayli; Janal, Malvin N.; Abrams, William R.; Montagna, Richard A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective We developed a microfluidic system to simultaneously detect host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA in the same specimen in order to satisfy two important diagnostic criteria, especially within resource-limited settings. First, the system can detect acute <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection and allow immediate confirmation of a seropositive screening result by detection of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> RNA. It also addresses the well-known "seroconversion window" during early <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection when antibodies are not yet detectable and viral loads are at their highest. Methods We first developed and optimized two separate manual assays for the detection of host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA and then converted them to the microfluidic system. We optimized a commercially available serologic assay to run within the microfluidic device while we incorporated the isothermal LAMP assay to detect the presence of viral RNA. The microfluidic device and instrumentation were developed to simultaneously perform both assays without any user intervention. Results The finalized system consists of a disposable injection molded and film-laminated microfluidic CARD disposable device and a portable, software controlled instrument, which together can automatically perform all steps of both assays without any user intervention after the initial loading of samples and reagents. The microfluidic CARD cartridge has multiple microchannels, valves, pumps and reservoirs, which perform the immunoassay, isolates viral RNA for detection by magnetic bead based purification, and Reverse Transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The microfluidic system was able to detect host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA in either a blood or saliva sample. Conclusion The ability to detect antibodies and simultaneously confirm a seropositive <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-RNA result provides healthcare workers with a complete and accurate appraisal of a patient's infection status in the earliest stages of the disease and represents an important tool for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925300"><span>A <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, Self-confirming Assay for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>: Simultaneous Detection of Anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> Antibodies and Viral RNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zongyuan; Zhu, Hui; Malamud, Daniel; Barber, Cheryl; Ongagna, Yhombi Yvon Serge; Yasmin, Rubina; Modak, Sayli; Janal, Malvin N; Abrams, William R; Montagna, Richard A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We developed a microfluidic system to simultaneously detect host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA in the same specimen in order to satisfy two important diagnostic criteria, especially within resource-limited settings. First, the system can detect acute <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection and allow immediate confirmation of a seropositive screening result by detection of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> RNA. It also addresses the well-known "seroconversion window" during early <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection when antibodies are not yet detectable and viral loads are at their highest. We first developed and optimized two separate manual assays for the detection of host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA and then converted them to the microfluidic system. We optimized a commercially available serologic assay to run within the microfluidic device while we incorporated the isothermal LAMP assay to detect the presence of viral RNA. The microfluidic device and instrumentation were developed to simultaneously perform both assays without any user intervention. The finalized system consists of a disposable injection molded and film-laminated microfluidic CARD disposable device and a portable, software controlled instrument, which together can automatically perform all steps of both assays without any user intervention after the initial loading of samples and reagents. The microfluidic CARD cartridge has multiple microchannels, valves, pumps and reservoirs, which perform the immunoassay, isolates viral RNA for detection by magnetic bead based purification, and Reverse Transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The microfluidic system was able to detect host anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> antibodies and viral RNA in either a blood or saliva sample. The ability to detect antibodies and simultaneously confirm a seropositive <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-RNA result provides healthcare workers with a complete and accurate appraisal of a patient's infection status in the earliest stages of the disease and represents an important tool for the "Test and Treat" and "Treatment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3830054','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3830054"><span>Quality of home-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing by community lay counsellors in a rural district of South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jackson, Debra; Naik, Reshma; Tabana, Hanani; Pillay, Mogiluxmi; Madurai, Savathee; Zembe, Wanga; Doherty, Tanya</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Lack of universal, annual testing for human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) in health facilities suggests that expansion of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counselling (HTC) to non-clinical settings is critical to the achievement of national goals for prevention, care and treatment. Consideration should be given to the ability of lay counsellors to perform home-based HTC in community settings. Methods We implemented a community cluster randomized controlled trial of home-based HTC in Sisonke District, South Africa. Trained lay counsellors conducted door-to-door <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing using the same <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests used by the local health department at the time of the study (SD Bioline and Sensa). To monitor testing quality and counsellor skill, additional dry blood spots were taken and sent for laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the laboratory result as the gold standard. Results and discussion From 3986 samples, the counsellor and laboratory results matched in all but 23 cases. In 18 cases, the counsellor judged the result as indeterminate, whereas the laboratory judged 10 positive, eight negative and three indeterminate, indicating that the counsellor may have erred on the side of caution. Sensitivity was 98.0% (95% CI: 96.3–98.9%), and specificity 99.6% (95% CI: 99.4–99.7%), for the lay counsellor field-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests. Both measures are high, and the lower confidence bound for specificity meets the international standard for assessing <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests. Conclusions These findings indicate that adequately trained lay counsellors are capable of safely conducting high-quality <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests and interpreting the results as per the kit guidelines. These findings are important given the likely expansion of community and home-based testing models and the shortage of clinically trained professional staff. PMID:24241957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192872"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> CD4 testing based on large-field imaging system composed of microcavity array and two-dimensional photosensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saeki, Tatsuya; Sugamura, Yuriko; Hosokawa, Masahito; Yoshino, Tomoko; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>This study presents a novel method for CD4 testing based on one-shot large-field imaging. The large-field imaging system was fabricated by a microcavity array and a two-dimensional (2D) photosensor within the desk-top-sized instrument. The microcavity array was employed to separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size of leukocytes and other blood cells. The large-field imaging system with lower side irradiation enabled acquisition of cell signatures with high signal-to-noise ratio, because the metallic substrate of the microcavity array obstructed excessive excitation light. In this setting, dual-color imaging of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was achieved within the entire image area (64 mm(2)) in 2s. The practical performance of the large-field imaging system was demonstrated by determining the CD4/CD8 ratio in a few microliter of control whole blood as small as those obtained by a finger prick. The CD4/CD8 ratios measured using the large-field imaging system correlated well with those measured by microscopic analysis. These results indicate that our proposed system provides a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> CD4 testing for the application of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/AIDS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494171','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3494171"><span>Feasibility and acceptability of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in a labour ward in Togo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ekouevi, Didier K; Kariyiare, Benjamin G; Coffie, Patrick A; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Akpadza, Koffi; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Tatagan, Albert; Dabis, François; Sibe, Mathieu; Pitche, Vincent P; Becquet, Renaud; David, Mireille</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in a labour ward is the last opportunity to initiate an antiretroviral prophylaxis among pregnant women living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> to prevent mother-to-child <span class="hlt">HIV</span> transmission. Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening during labour in West Africa. Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the labour ward at the Tokoin Teaching Hospital in Lomé (Togo) between May and August 2010. Pregnant women admitted for labour were randomly selected to enter the study and were interviewed on the knowledge of their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status. Clinical and biological data were collected from the individual maternal health chart. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing or re-testing was systematically proposed to all pregnant women. Among 1530 pregnant women admitted for labour, 508 (32.2%) were included in the study. Information on <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening was available in the charts of 359 women (71%). Overall, 467 women accepted <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in the labour ward (92%). The <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence was 8.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.4 to 11.7%). Among the 41 women diagnosed as living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> during labour, 34% had not been tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> during pregnancy and were missed opportunities. Antiretroviral prophylaxis had been initiated antenatally for 24 women living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and 17 in the labour room. Conclusions This study is the first to show in West Africa that <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in a labour room is feasible and well accepted by pregnant women. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in labour rooms needs to be routinely implemented to reduce missed opportunities for intervention aimed at <span class="hlt">HIV</span> care and prevention, especially PMTCT. PMID:22905362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26997474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26997474"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on <span class="hlt">simple</span> surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin</p> <p>2016-03-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4800312','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4800312"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on <span class="hlt">simple</span> surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology. PMID:26997474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623375L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...623375L"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test based on <span class="hlt">simple</span> surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chia-Ying; Han, Yin-Yi; Shih, Po-Han; Lian, Wei-Nan; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> bacterial antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurement are important to help reduce the widespread misuse of antibiotics and alleviate the growing drug-resistance problem. We discovered that, when a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli is exposed to an antibiotic, the intensity of specific biomarkers in its surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra drops evidently in two hours. The discovery has been exploited for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> AST and MIC determination of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and wild-type E. coli as well as clinical isolates. The results obtained by this SERS-AST method were consistent with that by the standard incubation-based method, indicating its high potential to supplement or replace existing time-consuming methods and help mitigate the challenge of drug resistance in clinical microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472024"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> determination of homozygous transgenic mice via in vivo fluorescence imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Xiaolin; Jia, Junshuang; Qin, Yujuan; Lin, Xia; Li, Wei; Xiao, Gaofang; Li, Yanqing; Xie, Raoying; Huang, Hailu; Zhong, Lin; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Huang, Wenhua; Yao, Kaitai; Xiao, Dong; Sun, Yan</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Setting up breeding programs for transgenic mouse strains require to distinguish homozygous from the heterozygous transgenic animals. The combinational use of the fluorescence reporter transgene and small animal in-vivo imaging system might allow us to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and visually determine the transgenic mice homozygous for transgene(s) by the in vivo fluorescence imaging. RLG, RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice ubiquitously express red fluorescent protein (RFP). To identify homozygous RLG transgenic mice, whole-body fluorescence imaging for all of newborn F2-generation littermates produced by mating of RFP-positive heterozygous transgenic mice (F1-generation) derived from the same transgenic founder was performed. Subsequently, the immediate data analysis of the in vivo fluorescence imaging was carried out, which greatly facilitated us to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and readily distinguish RLG transgenic individual(s) with strong fluorescence from the rest of F2-generation littermates, followed by further determining this/these RLG individual(s) showing strong fluorescence to be homozygous, as strongly confirmed by mouse mating. Additionally, homozygous RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice were also <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and precisely distinguished by the above-mentioned optical approach. This approach allowed us within the shortest time period to obtain 10, 8 and 2 transgenic mice homozygous for RLG, RCLG and Rm17LG transgene, respectively, as verified by mouse mating, indicating the practicality and reliability of this optical method. Taken together, our findings fully demonstrate that the in vivo fluorescence imaging offers a visual, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and reliable alternative method to the traditional approaches (i.e., mouse mating and real-time quantitative PCR) in identifying homozygous transgenic mice harboring fluorescence reporter transgene under the control of a ubiquitous promoter in the situation mentioned in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4766372','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4766372"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> determination of homozygous transgenic mice via in vivo fluorescence imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Wei; Xiao, Gaofang; Li, Yanqing; Xie, Raoying; Huang, Hailu; Zhong, Lin; Wu, Qinghong; Wang, Wanshan; Huang, Wenhua; Yao, Kaitai; Xiao, Dong; Sun, Yan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Setting up breeding programs for transgenic mouse strains require to distinguish homozygous from the heterozygous transgenic animals. The combinational use of the fluorescence reporter transgene and small animal in-vivo imaging system might allow us to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and visually determine the transgenic mice homozygous for transgene(s) by the in vivo fluorescence imaging. RLG, RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice ubiquitously express red fluorescent protein (RFP). To identify homozygous RLG transgenic mice, whole-body fluorescence imaging for all of newborn F2-generation littermates produced by mating of RFP-positive heterozygous transgenic mice (F1-generation) derived from the same transgenic founder was performed. Subsequently, the immediate data analysis of the in vivo fluorescence imaging was carried out, which greatly facilitated us to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and readily distinguish RLG transgenic individual(s) with strong fluorescence from the rest of F2-generation littermates, followed by further determining this/these RLG individual(s) showing strong fluorescence to be homozygous, as strongly confirmed by mouse mating. Additionally, homozygous RCLG or Rm17LG transgenic mice were also <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and precisely distinguished by the above-mentioned optical approach. This approach allowed us within the shortest time period to obtain 10, 8 and 2 transgenic mice homozygous for RLG, RCLG and Rm17LG transgene, respectively, as verified by mouse mating, indicating the practicality and reliability of this optical method. Taken together, our findings fully demonstrate that the in vivo fluorescence imaging offers a visual, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and reliable alternative method to the traditional approaches (i.e., mouse mating and real-time quantitative PCR) in identifying homozygous transgenic mice harboring fluorescence reporter transgene under the control of a ubiquitous promoter in the situation mentioned in this study. PMID:26472024</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5611542','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5611542"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> bioassay for detecting effects of pollutants on bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bauer, N.J.; Seidler, R.J.; Knittel, M.D.</p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>A screening bioassay needs to be <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and sensitive. The bioassay is described which is accurate, inexpensive, and which utilizes bacteria as the toxicity predictor. The basis of the test involves measuring the kinetics of dissolved oxygen depletion by a mixed microbial population following exposure to a pollutant and allows results to be obtained in as little as 40 min. Pollutants tested were cadmium, copper, nickel, sulfate, diuron, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, tricholoracetic acid, dimethylformamide, and diazinon. (JMT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098298"><span>A novel and <span class="hlt">simple</span> method for generation of human dendritic cells from unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells within 2 days: its application for induction of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the hu-PBL SCID mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kodama, Akira; Tanaka, Reiko; Saito, Mineki; Ansari, Aftab A; Tanaka, Yuetsu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the regulation of adaptive immune responses, they have been ideal candidates for cell-based immunotherapy of cancers and infections in humans. Generally, monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) were generated from purified monocytes by multiple steps of time-consuming physical manipulations for an extended period cultivation. In this study, we developed a novel, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for the generation of type-1 helper T cell (Th1)-stimulating human DCs directly from bulk peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were cultivated in the presence of 20 ng/ml of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, 20 ng/ml of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and 1,000 U/ml of interferon-β for 24 h followed by 24 h maturation with a cytokine cocktail containing 10 ng/ml of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 10 ng/ml of IL-1β and 1 μg/ml of prostaglandin E2. The phenotype and biological activity of these new DCs for induction of allogeneic T cell proliferation and cytokine production were comparable to those of the MDDCs. Importantly, these new DCs pulsed with inactivated <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 could generated <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1-reactive CD4(+) T cell responses in humanized mice reconstituted with autologous PBMCs from <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1-negative donors. This <span class="hlt">simple</span> and quick method for generation of functional DCs will be useful for future studies on DC-mediated immunotherapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22754356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22754356"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> molecular techniques for identification of amylose levels in rice varieties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Acga; Ismail, Ismanizan; Osman, Mohamad; Hashim, Habibuddin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The polymorphisms of Waxy (Wx) microsatellite and G-T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the Wx gene region were analyzed using simplified techniques in fifteen rice varieties. A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and reliable electrophoresis method, MetaPhor agarose gel electrophoresis (MAGE), was effectively employed as an alternative to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for separating Wx microsatellite alleles. The amplified products containing the Wx microsatellite ranged from 100 to 130 bp in length. Five Wx microsatellite alleles, namely (CT)(10), (CT)(11), (CT)(16), (CT)(17), and (CT)(18) were identified. Of these, (CT)(11) and (CT)(17) were the predominant classes among the tested varieties. All varieties with an apparent amylose content higher than 24% were associated with the shorter repeat alleles; (CT)(10) and (CT)(11), while varieties with 24% or less amylose were associated with the longer repeat alleles. All varieties with intermediate and high amylose content had the sequence AGGTATA at the 5'-leader intron splice site, while varieties with low amylose content had the sequence AGTTATA. The G-T polymorphism was further verified by the PCR-AccI cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) method, in which only genotypes containing the AGGTATA sequence were cleaved by AccI. Hence, varieties with desirable amylose levels can be developed <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> using the Wx microsatellite and G-T SNP, along with MAGE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..571W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..528..571W"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> hydrologic model for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> prediction of runoff from ungauged coastal catchments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wan, Yongshan; Konyha, Kenneth</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We developed a lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff model for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> prediction of runoff generated in the unique hydrological setting with flat terrain, sandy soils, high groundwater table, and a dense drainage canal network in south Florida. The model is conceptualized as rainfall and evapotranspiration filling and emptying the root zone and excess rainfall recharging three storage zones. Outflows from these storage zones, routed with parallel arrangement of three linear reservoirs, represent different flow components of catchment runoff, i.e., slow drainage (shallow subsurface flow), medium drainage (interflow and saturation excess overland flow), and fast drainage (direct runoff from impervious urban areas or from water table management in agricultural land). The model is parsimonious with eight model parameters along with two optional water management parameters. A regionalization study was conducted through model parameterization to achieve target hydrological behavior of typical land uses, which are the most significant basin descriptor affecting catchment hydrology in south Florida. Cross validation with 16 gauged basins dominated by urban, agricultural, and natural lands, respectively, indicated that the model provides an effective tool for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> prediction of runoff in ungauged basins using the regionalized model parameters. A case study is presented, involving application of the model to support real-time adaptive management to hydrological operations for protection of estuarine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2906506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2906506"><span>Sensitivity of Five <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Tests on Oral Fluid or Finger-Stick Whole Blood: A Real-Time Comparison in a Healthcare Setting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pavie, Juliette; Rachline, Anne; Loze, Bénédicte; Niedbalski, Laurence; Delaugerre, Constance; Laforgerie, Eric; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Rozenbaum, Willy; Chevret, Sylvie; Molina, Jean-Michel; Simon, François</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Health authorities in several countries recently recommended the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) antibody testing, including the use of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests. Several <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests are now licensed in Europe but their sensitivity on total blood and/or oral fluid in routine healthcare settings is not known. Methods and Findings 200 adults with documented <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 (n = 194) or <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 infection (n = 6) were prospectively screened with five <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests using either oral fluid (OF) or finger-stick whole blood (FSB). The OraQuick Advance <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2® was first applied to OF and then to FSB, while the other tests were applied to FSB, in the following order: Vikia <span class="hlt">HIV</span> 1/2®, Determine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> 1–2®, Determine® <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo® and INSTI <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2®. Tests negative on FSB were repeated on paired serum samples. Twenty randomly selected <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-seronegative subjects served as controls, and the results were read blindly. Most patients had <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 subtype B infection (63.3%) and most were on antiretroviral therapy (68.5%). Sensitivity was 86.5%, 94.5%, 98.5%, 94.9%, 95.8% and 99% respectively, with OraQuick OF, OraQuick FSB, Vikia, Determine, Determine Ag/Ab Combo and INSTI (p<0.0001). OraQuick was less sensitive on OF than on FSB (p = 0.008). Among the six patients with three or more negative tests, two had recent <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection and four patients on antiretroviral therapy had undetectable plasma viral load. When patients positive in all the tests were compared with patients who had at least one negative test, only a plasma <span class="hlt">HIV</span> RNA level <200 cp/ml was significantly associated with a false-negative result (p = 0.009). When the 33 <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests negative on FSB were repeated on serum, all but six (5 negative with OraQuick, 1 with INSTI) were positive. The sensitivity of OraQuick, Determine and Determine Ag/Ab Combo was significantly better on serum than on FSB (97.5%, p = 0.04; 100%, p = 0.004; and 100%, p = 0.02, respectively</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133307','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133307"><span>A Multisite Study of the Prevalence of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> With <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Testing in Mental Health Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blank, Michael B.; Himelhoch, Seth S.; Balaji, Alexandra B.; Metzger, David S.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Rose, Charles E.; Oraka, Emeka; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Thompson, William W.; Heffelfinger, James D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We estimated <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence and risk factors among persons receiving mental health treatment in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, January 2009 to August 2011. Methods. We used a multisite, cross-sectional design stratified by clinical setting. We tested 1061 individuals for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> in university-based inpatient psychiatric units (n = 287), intensive case-management programs (n = 273), and community mental health centers (n = 501). Results. Fifty-one individuals (4.8%) were <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected. Confirmed positive <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.7%, 9.4%) for inpatient units, 5.1% (95% CI = 3.1%, 8.5%) for intensive case-management programs, and 4.0% (95% CI = 2.6%, 6.1%) for community mental health centers. Characteristics associated with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> included Black race, homosexual or bisexual identity, and HCV infection. Conclusions. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence for individuals receiving mental health services was about 4 times as high as in the general population. We found a positive association between psychiatric symptom severity and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection, indicating that engaging persons with mental illness in appropriate mental health treatment may be important to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention. These findings reinforce recommendations for routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in all clinical settings to ensure that <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected persons receiving mental health services are identified and referred to timely infectious disease care. PMID:24524493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21544889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21544889"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> noniterative principal component technique for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> noise reduction in parallel MR images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Anand S; Duan, Qi; Robson, Philip M; McKenzie, Charles A; Sodickson, Daniel K</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The utilization of parallel imaging permits increased MR acquisition speed and efficiency; however, parallel MRI usually leads to a deterioration in the signal-to-noise ratio when compared with otherwise equivalent unaccelerated acquisitions. At high accelerations, the parallel image reconstruction matrix tends to become dominated by one principal component. This has been utilized to enable substantial reductions in g-factor-related noise. A previously published technique achieved noise reductions via a computationally intensive search for multiples of the dominant singular vector which, when subtracted from the image, minimized joint entropy between the accelerated image and a reference image. We describe a <span class="hlt">simple</span> algorithm that can accomplish similar results without a time-consuming search. Significant reductions in g-factor-related noise were achieved using this new algorithm with in vivo acquisitions at 1.5 T with an eight-element array. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3087603','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3087603"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> intrapartum or postpartum <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing at a midwife obstetric unit and a district hospital in South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Theron, Gerhard B.; Shapiro, David E.; Van Dyke, Russell; Cababasay, Mae P.; Louw, Jeanne; Watts, D. Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Bulterys, Marc; Maupin, Robert</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective To compare the prepartum and postpartum feasibility and acceptance of voluntary counseling and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing (VCT) among women with unknown <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status in South Africa. Methods Eligible women were randomized according to the calendar week of presentation to receive VCT either while in labor or after delivery. Results Of 7238 women approached, 542 (7.5%) were eligible, 343 (63%) were enrolled, and 45 (13%) were found to be <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infected. The proportions of eligible women who accepted VCT were 66.8% (161 of 241) in the intrapartum arm and 60.5% (182 of 301) in the postpartum arm, and the difference of 6.3% (95% CI, −1.8% to 14.5%) was not significant. The median times (44 and 45 minutes) required to conduct VCT were also similar in the 2 arms. In the intrapartum arm, all women in true labor received their test results before delivery and all those found to be <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive accepted prophylaxis with nevirapine before delivery. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> testing in labor wards for women with an unknown <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status is feasible and well accepted, and allows for a more timely antiretroviral prophylaxis than postpartum testing. PMID:21251654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251654','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251654"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> intrapartum or postpartum <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing at a midwife obstetric unit and a district hospital in South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Theron, Gerhard B; Shapiro, David E; Van Dyke, Russell; Cababasay, Mae P; Louw, Jeanne; Watts, D Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Bulterys, Marc; Maupin, Robert</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>To compare the prepartum and postpartum feasibility and acceptance of voluntary counseling and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing (VCT) among women with unknown <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status in South Africa. Eligible women were randomized according to the calendar week of presentation to receive VCT either while in labor or after delivery. Of 7238 women approached, 542 (7.5%) were eligible, 343 (63%) were enrolled, and 45 (13%) were found to be <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infected. The proportions of eligible women who accepted VCT were 66.8% (161 of 241) in the intrapartum arm and 60.5% (182 of 301) in the postpartum arm, and the difference of 6.3% (95% CI, -1.8% to 14.5%) was not significant. The median times (44 and 45 minutes) required to conduct VCT were also similar in the 2 arms. In the intrapartum arm, all women in true labor received their test results before delivery and all those found to be <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive accepted prophylaxis with nevirapine before delivery. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> testing in labor wards for women with an unknown <span class="hlt">HIV</span> status is feasible and well accepted, and allows for a more timely antiretroviral prophylaxis than postpartum testing. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16109637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16109637"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> procedure for homogenizing leaf tissues suitable for mini-midi-scale DNA extraction in rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yi, Gihwan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hee; Jeong, Unggi; Nam, Min-Hee; Yun, Doh-Won; Eun, Moo-Young</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We describe a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> procedure for homogenizing leaf samples suitable for mini/midi-scale DNA preparation in rice. The methods used tungsten carbide beads and general vortexer for homogenizing leaf samples. In general, two samples can be ground completely within 11.3+/-1.5 sec at one time. Up to 20 samples can be ground at a time using a vortexer attachment. The yields of the DNA ranged from 2.2 to 7.6 microg from 25-150 mg of young fresh leaf tissue. The quality and quantity of DNA was compatible for most of PCR work and RFLP analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16772677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16772677"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> determination of hydrogen peroxide using phosphine-based fluorescent reagents with sodium tungstate dihydrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onoda, Maki; Uchiyama, Takefumi; Mawatari, Ken-Ichi; Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nakagomi, Kazuya</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> batch method for the fluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide using phosphine-based fluorescent reagents has been developed. A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, mild and selective derivatization reaction was achieved by adding sodium tungstate dihydrate to the reaction mixture of hydrogen peroxide and a phosphine-based fluorescent reagent. When 4-diphenylphosphino-7-methylthio-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole was used as a reagent, the derivatization reaction was completed after 2 min at room temperature. The calibration curve was linear between 12.5 and 500 ng hydrogen peroxide in a 10 microL sample solution. This method is accurate and has potential for on-line applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5612563','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5612563"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for evaluating the survival of xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoid lines after irradiation with ultraviolet light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moshell, A.N.; Tarone, R.E.; Newfield, S.A.; Andrews, A.D.; Robbins, J.H.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and reproducible test has been developed to measure the viability of cells after irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV). Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoid lines, derived from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), were irradiated with UV, and the post-UV viability of the lymphoid lines was determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion method. The relative post-UV survival of the patients' lymphoid lines was similar to the relative post-UV survival of the patients' fibroblast strains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178028"><span>A case study in collaborating with Atlanta-based African-American churches: a promising means for reaching inner-city substance users with <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Whiters, David L; Santibanez, Scott; Dennison, David; Clark, H Westley</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This case study examined programmatic data from a federally funded faith-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing initiative. In 2004, Recovery Consultants of Atlanta, Inc. (RCA, Inc.) began providing <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in collaboration with six Atlanta-based African-American churches. Of the 1,947 persons tested from January 2004 to July 2005, 1,872 (96.1%) were African-American, 1,247 (64%) were male, and 1,612 (82.8%) were between the age of 26 and 56. A total of 85 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected individuals were identified and 72 were identified as previously undiagnosed cases (positivity rate of 3.7%). This case study highlights and promotes <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing offered in partnership with African American churches as a strategy for raising <span class="hlt">HIV</span> awareness among inner-city substance users.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537462','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537462"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> immunocytochemical technique for detection of cytokeratin, vimentin, and S-100 protein in veterinary diagnostic cytology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawa, Mariko; Yabuki, Akira; Miyoshi, Noriaki; Arai, Kou; Yamato, Osamu</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to establish a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> immunocytochemical technique that can be used in veterinary diagnostic cytology. Air-dried impression smears were collected from canine tumors. Samples of epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and melanomas were used for detection of cytokeratin, vimentin, and S-100 protein, respectively. The labeled streptavidin-biotin system was used in the present study. Optimal fixation was determined using standard immunocytochemical procedures, and acetone fixation was found to be the most effective. Optimal concentrations of primary and secondary antibodies were determined at a preset 5-min incubation. Omission of H2O2 treatment, shortening the time for blocking and labeled-streptavidin incubation, and simplifying washing did not decrease immunopositive intensities or enhance false-positive reactions. The described <span class="hlt">rapid</span> protocol requires approximately 45 min without the use of any special equipment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239857','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=239857"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> method of detection of Blepharisma japonicum using PCR and immobilisation on FTA paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hide, Geoff; Hughes, Jacqueline M; McNuff, Robert</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Background The <span class="hlt">rapid</span> expansion in the availability of genome and DNA sequence information has opened up new possibilities for the development of methods for detecting free-living protozoa in environmental samples. The protozoan Blepharisma japonicum was used to investigate a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> detection system based on polymerase chain reaction amplification (PCR) from organisms immobilised on FTA paper. Results Using primers designed from the α-tubulin genes of Blepharisma, specific and sensitive detection to the equivalent of a single Blepharisma cell could be achieved. Similar detection levels were found using water samples, containing Blepharisma, which were dried onto Whatman FTA paper. Conclusion This system has potential as a sensitive convenient detection system for Blepharisma and could be applied to other protozoan organisms. PMID:14516472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994146"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> purification of lysozyme from the egg shell membrane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kozuka, Miyuki; Murao, Sato; Yamane, Takuya; Inoue, Tsutomu; Ohkubo, Iwao; Ariga, Hiroyoshi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) is a hydrolytic enzyme that cleaves the β-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the food industry, lysozyme is used as an additive mainly in the production of wine and beer. Lysozyme was found to be localized in the egg shell membrane. In this study, we found that lysozyme was easily purified from the egg shell membrane and that the enzyme also had antibacterial activity. Furthermore, we found that the antibacterial activity of purified lysozyme from the egg shell membrane was lower than that of purified lysozyme from the egg white at alkaline pH. The method for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> purification of lysozyme developed in this study should contribute to the food industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463407"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> quantification of microalgal lipids in aqueous medium by a <span class="hlt">simple</span> colorimetric method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mishra, Sanjiv K; Suh, William I; Farooq, Wasif; Moon, Myounghoon; Shrivastav, Anupama; Park, Min S; Yang, Ji-Won</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Identification of novel microalgal strains with high lipid productivity is one of the most important research topics in renewable biofuel research. However, the major bottleneck in the strain screening process is that currently known methods for the estimation of microalgal lipid are laborious and time-consuming. The present study successfully employed sulpho-phospho-vanillin (SPV) colorimetric method for direct quantitative measurement of lipids within liquid microalgal culture. The SPV reacts with lipids to produce a distinct pink color, and its intensity can be quantified using spectrophotometric methods by measuring absorbance at 530nm. This method was employed for a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> quantification of intracellular lipid contents within Chlorella sp., Monoraphidium sp., Ettlia sp. and Nannochloropsis sp., all of which were found to have lipid contents ranging in between 10% and 30%. Subsequent analysis of the biomass using gas chromatography confirmed that our protocol is highly accurate (R(2)=0.99).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24952121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24952121"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a <span class="hlt">simple</span> questionnaire and urine reagent strips.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030179"><span>[Protein biomarker measurement and <span class="hlt">simple/rapid</span> diagnostics with supersensitive and multiplex assay, MUSTag technology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shibasaki, Futoshi; Morizane, Yoshihito; Makisaka, Noriko</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Recently, we face the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progression of an aging population, and so the importance of preventive medicine is growing. We would all like to pursue a healthy life during old age through effective treatment on the basis of the early detection of diseases. In this situation, we have developed MUSTag (Multiple Simultaneous Tag) assay technology through an innovative modification of the immuno-PCR method for the super-sensitive and multiplex detection of target biomarkers. In MUSTag technology, each different oligo-tag simultaneously detects multiplex protein targets with extremely high-level sensitivity (more than 10 fg(10(-15) g)/ml) in a dose-dependent manner by qRT-PCR (maximum: 3 plexes). Herein we report our recent results of multiple cytokine assays or disease-specific biomarker assays using MUSTag technology, and, further, clinical results from patients with cancer, ischemic brain, or heart attack, who need a prompt and predictive diagnosis for adequate treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9986863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9986863"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> methods for identifying enterococci intrinsically resistant to vancomycin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanson, K L; Cartwright, C P</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>Three different methodologies, reduction of litmus milk (LM) and acidification of arabinose (ARA), acidification of methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MGP), and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> motility (RM), for differentiating isolates of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum (intrinsically vancomycin-resistant enterococci [IVRE]) from Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were evaluated. All 33 isolates of E. faecalis tested reduced LM within 4 h and were negative in all other tests, while the 53 isolates of E. faecium were ARA positive only. In contrast, 45 of 46 (98%) IVRE isolates examined (26 E. casseliflavus and 20 E. gallinarum isolates) acidified MGP, 41 of 46 (89%) were LM and ARA positive, and 45 of 46 (98%) were RM positive. Acidification of MGP was therefore the single most useful test for differentiating IVRE from vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis; however, a combination of LM-ARA and RM testing enabled the correct designation of organisms without the need for overnight incubation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11806143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11806143"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> fixation-staining technique of fresh frozen cryostat sections for SIMS microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, H; Okabe, M; Yoshida, T; Takaya, K</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Before observing freeze-dried cryosections by ion microscopy, it is necessary to perform localization of the analysis site by light microscopy. The present study reports a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> fixation-staining method for preparing freeze-dried or air-dried cryosections, wherein cryosections are observed after immersion in Carnoy-Lebrun fixative for 30 s and staining in undiluted Giemsa solution for 30 s. Cryostat sections of goldfish intestine and kidney tissue on the silicon wafer substratum were subsequently examined by SIMS. Positive cesium ion images showed a general histology of the intestinal villi with goblet cells. Their granules contained large amounts of sodium, magnesium, potassium and calcium on ion images. By contrast, iron, copper and CsFe ion images showed diffuse distribution throughout the sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615722"><span>A novel, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> route to the synthesis of boron cabonitride nanosheets: combustive gaseous unfolding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jalaly, Maisam; José Gotor, Francisco; Semnan, Masih; Jesús Sayagués, María</p> <p>2017-06-14</p> <p>The ternary compound boron carbonitride (BCN) was synthesized in the form of few-layer nanosheets through a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR). Magnesium was used to reduce boron trioxide in the presence of melamine in a combustive manner. The process to form the nanostructured material was very <span class="hlt">rapid</span> (less than 40 min). The prepared powder was investigated by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), Micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The thermal stability and the optical behavior of the BCN nanosheets were also studied by thermal analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The formation mechanism of the nanosheet morphology was described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23822746"><span>Raman spectroscopy as a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, nondestructive screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Triplett, Jeremy S; Hatfield, Jennifer A; Kaeff, Tracy L; Ramsey, Christopher R; Robinson, Susan D; Standifer, Allison F</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Raman spectroscopy has found increased use in the forensic controlled substances laboratory in recent years due to its <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and nondestructive analysis capabilities. Here, Raman spectroscopy as a screening test for methamphetamine in clandestine laboratory liquid samples is discussed as a way to improve the efficiency of a laboratory by identifying the most probative samples for further workup among multiple samples submitted for analysis. Solutions of methamphetamine in ethanol, diethyl ether, and Coleman fuel were prepared in concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 10% w/v, and Raman spectra of each were collected. A concentration-dependent Raman peak was observed at 1003 per cm in each solution in 4% w/v and greater solutions. Case samples were analyzed and also found to reliably contain this diagnostic peak when methamphetamine was present. The use of this diagnostic indicator can save the forensic controlled substances laboratory time and materials when analyzing clandestine laboratory liquid submissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11433278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11433278"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 promoter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Isalan, M; Klug, A; Choo, Y</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) promoter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2677679','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2677679"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, generally applicable method to engineer zinc fingers illustrated by targeting the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 promoter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Isalan, Mark; Klug, Aaron; Choo, Yen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>DNA-binding domains with predetermined sequence specificity are engineered by selection of zinc finger modules using phage display, allowing the construction of customized transcription factors. Despite remarkable progress in this field, the available protein-engineering methods are deficient in many respects, thus hampering the applicability of the technique. Here we present a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and convenient method that can be used to design zinc finger proteins against a variety of DNA-binding sites. This is based on a pair of pre-made zinc finger phage-display libraries, which are used in parallel to select two DNA-binding domains each of which recognizes given 5 base pair sequences, and whose products are recombined to produce a single protein that recognizes a composite (9 base pair) site of predefined sequence. Engineering using this system can be completed in less than two weeks and yields proteins that bind sequence-specifically to DNA with Kd values in the nanomolar range. To illustrate the technique, we have selected seven different proteins to bind various regions of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) promoter. PMID:11433278</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10571885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10571885"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and quantitative method for preparing Arabidopsis protein extracts for immunoblot analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martínez-García, J F; Monte, E; Quail, P H</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Although Arabidopsis has numerous well documented advantages for genetic and molecular analyses, its small size can be a limitation for biochemical and immunochemical assays requiring protein extraction. We have developed a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method to extract total protein from small amounts of Arabidopsis tissue that can be used for quantitative immunoblot analysis. The procedure involves direct extraction of tissue into SDS-containing buffer under conditions permitting immediate protein quantification in the extract, using commercially available kits without prior fractionation. This approach provides maximal extraction and quantitative recovery of total cellular protein, together with accurate evaluation of target protein levels as a proportion of the total. We have examined the utility and sensitivity of the procedure using monoclonal antibodies to phytochromes A and C (phyA and phyC), which are high- and low-abundance members, respectively, of the phytochrome family in Arabidopsis. Both phytochromes could be <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and readily quantified in the tissues examined, with phyC being detectable in extracts representing as few as five dark-grown seedlings, two light-grown seedlings, or half a single leaf from 3-week-old adult plants. The data indicate that the procedure may have broad utility for the detection and quantitative analysis of many proteins, including those of low abundance, in a variety of applications in Arabidopsis. In one such application, we used transgenic Arabidopsis phyC-overexpressor seedlings to demonstrate that the procedure can be used to detect transgene-encoded protein early at the segregating T2 generation, thereby offering the capacity for accelerated screening and selection of lines engineered to overexpress target proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1932791','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1932791"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> F+ Coliphage Culture, Latex Agglutination, and Typing Assay To Detect and Source Track Fecal Contamination▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Love, David C.; Sobsey, Mark D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and reliable fecal indicator tests are needed to better monitor and manage ambient waters and treated waters and wastes. Antibody-coated polymeric bead agglutination assays can fulfill these needs and are inexpensive and portable for nonlaboratory settings, and their reagents can be stored at ambient temperatures for months. The goal of this study was to develop, optimize, and validate a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> microbial water quality monitoring assay using F+ coliphage culture, latex agglutination, and typing (CLAT) to detect F+ coliphage groups with antibody-coated particles. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> (180 min) F+ coliphage culture gave comparable results to those with the 16- to 24-h culture time used in EPA method 1601 and was amenable to CLAT assay detection. CLAT was performed on a cardboard card by mixing a drop of coliphage enrichment culture with a drop of antibody-coated polymeric beads as the detection reagent. Visual agglutination or clumping of positive samples occurred in <60 seconds. The CLAT assay had sensitivities of 96.4% (185/192 samples) and 98.2% (161/164 samples) and specificities of 100% (34/34 samples) and 97.7% (129/132 samples) for F+ RNA and DNA coliphages, respectively. CLAT successfully classified F+ RNA coliphages into serogroups typically obtained from human (groups II and III) and animal (groups I and IV) fecal sources, in similar proportions to those obtained with a nucleic acid hybridization assay. This novel group-specific antibody-based particle agglutination technique for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> detection and grouping of F+ coliphages provides a new and improved tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of drinking, recreational, shellfishing, and other waters. PMID:17483282</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMagR.270....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMagR.270....1M"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> determination of T1 relaxation times in time-domain NMR by Continuous Wave Free Precession sequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moraes, Tiago Bueno; Monaretto, Tatiana; Colnago, Luiz Alberto</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times have been widely used in time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) to determine several physicochemical properties of petroleum, polymers, and food products. The measurement of T2 through the CPMG pulse sequence has been used in most of these applications because it denotes a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, robust method. On the other hand, T1 has been occasionally used in TD-NMR due to the long measurement time required to collect multiple points along the T1 relaxation curve. Recently, several <span class="hlt">rapid</span> methods to measure T1 have been proposed. Those methods based upon single shot, known as Continuous Wave Free Precession (CWFP) pulse sequences, have been employed in the simultaneous measurement of T1 and T2 in a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> fashion. However, these sequences can be used exclusively in instrument featuring short dead time because the magnitude of the signal at thermal equilibrium is required. In this paper, we demonstrate that a special CWFP sequence with a low flip angle can be a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method to measure T1 regardless of instruments dead time. Experimental results confirmed that the method called CWFP-T1 may be used to measure both single T1 value and T1 distribution in heterogeneous samples. Therefore, CWFP-T1 sequence can be a feasible alternative to CPMG in the determination of physicochemical properties, particularly in processes where fast protocols are requested such as industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24036074"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> techniques for the enrichment of viruses prior to metagenomic virus discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, Richard J; Wang, Jing; Todd, Angela K; Bissielo, Ange B; Yen, Seiha; Strydom, Hugo; Moore, Nicole E; Ren, Xiaoyun; Huang, Q Sue; Carter, Philip E; Peacey, Matthew</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of new or divergent viruses using metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing has become more commonplace. The preparation of a sample is known to have an effect on the representation of virus sequences within the metagenomic dataset yet comparatively little attention has been given to this. Physical enrichment techniques are often applied to samples to increase the number of viral sequences and therefore enhance the probability of detection. With the exception of virus ecology studies, there is a paucity of information available to researchers on the type of sample preparation required for a viral metagenomic study that seeks to identify an aetiological virus in an animal or human diagnostic sample. A review of published virus discovery studies revealed the most commonly used enrichment methods, that were usually quick and <span class="hlt">simple</span> to implement, namely low-speed centrifugation, filtration, nuclease-treatment (or combinations of these) which have been routinely used but often without justification. These were applied to a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and well-characterised artificial sample composed of bacterial and human cells, as well as DNA (adenovirus) and RNA viruses (influenza A and human enterovirus), being either non-enveloped capsid or enveloped viruses. The effect of the enrichment method was assessed by both quantitative real-time PCR and metagenomic analysis that incorporated an amplification step. Reductions in the absolute quantities of bacteria and human cells were observed for each method as determined by qPCR, but the relative abundance of viral sequences in the metagenomic dataset remained largely unchanged. A 3-step method of centrifugation, filtration and nuclease-treatment showed the greatest increase in the proportion of viral sequences. This study provides a starting point for the selection of a purification method in future virus discovery studies, and highlights the need for more data to validate the effect of enrichment methods on different sample</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4217289"><span>A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Protocol for Measuring Neutral Lipids in Algal Cells Using Fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Storms, Zachary J.; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay. PMID:24961928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3745529','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3745529"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> multiplexed genotyping of <span class="hlt">simple</span> tandem repeats using capture and high-throughput sequencing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guilmatre, Audrey; Highnam, Gareth; Borel, Christelle; Mittelman, David; Sharp, Andrew J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">simple</span> tandem repeats (STRs) comprise ~2% of the human genome and represent an important source of polymorphism, this class of variation remains understudied. We have developed a cost-effective strategy for performing targeted enrichment of STR regions that utilizes capture probes targeting the flanking sequences of STR loci, enabling specific capture of DNA fragments containing STRs for subsequent high-throughput sequencing. Utilizing a capture design targeting 6,243 STR loci <94bp and multiplexing eight individuals in a single Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing lane we were able to call genotypes in at least one individual for 67.5% of the targeted STRs. We observed a strong relationship between (G+C) content and genotyping rate. STRs with moderate (G+C) content were recovered with >90% success rate, while only 12% of STRs with ≥80% (G+C) were genotyped in our assay. Analysis of a parent-offspring trio, complete hydatidiform mole samples, repeat analyses of the same individual, and Sanger sequencing-based validation indicated genotyping error rates between 7.6–12.4%. The majority of such errors were a single repeat unit at mono- or dinucleotide repeats. Altogether, our STR capture assay represents a cost-effective method that enables multiplexed genotyping of thousands of STR loci suitable for large scale population studies. PMID:23696428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2683859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2683859"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> microplate assay for glycoprotein-processing glycosidases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, M S; Zwolshen, J H; Harry, B S; Sunkara, P S</p> <p>1989-08-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and convenient microplate assay for glycosidases involved in the glycoprotein-processing reactions is described. The assay is based on specific binding of high-mannose-type oligosaccharide substrates to concanavalin A-Sepharose, while monosaccharides liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis do not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. By the use of radiolabeled substrates [( 3H]glucose for glucosidases and [3H]mannose for mannosidases), the radioactivity in the liberated monosaccharides can be determined as a measure of the enzymatic activity. This principle was employed earlier for developing assays for glycosidases previously reported (B. Saunier et al. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 14155-14161; T. Szumilo and A. D. Elbein (1985) Anal. Biochem. 151, 32-40). These authors have reported the separation of substrate from the product by concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography. This procedure is handicapped by the fact that it cannot be used for a large number of samples and is time consuming. We have simplified this procedure and adapted it to the use of a microplate (96-well plate). This would help in processing a large number of samples in a short time. In this report we show that the assay is comparable to the column assay previously reported. It is linear with time and enzyme concentration and shows expected kinetics with castanospermine, a known inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5026928','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5026928"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> microplate assay for glycoprotein-processing glycosidases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kang, M.S.; Zwolshen, J.H.; Harry, B.S.; Sunkara, P.S. )</p> <p>1989-08-15</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and convenient microplate assay for glycosidases involved in the glycoprotein-processing reactions is described. The assay is based on specific binding of high-mannose-type oligosaccharide substrates to concanavalin A-Sepharose, while monosaccharides liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis do not bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose. By the use of radiolabeled substrates (( 3H)glucose for glucosidases and (3H)mannose for mannosidases), the radioactivity in the liberated monosaccharides can be determined as a measure of the enzymatic activity. This principle was employed earlier for developing assays for glycosidases previously reported. These authors have reported the separation of substrate from the product by concanavalin A-Sepharose column chromatography. This procedure is handicapped by the fact that it cannot be used for a large number of samples and is time consuming. We have simplified this procedure and adapted it to the use of a microplate (96-well plate). This would help in processing a large number of samples in a short time. In this report we show that the assay is comparable to the column assay previously reported. It is linear with time and enzyme concentration and shows expected kinetics with castanospermine, a known inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase I.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897458"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> method for in vivo ex utero development of mouse embryo explants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gonçalves, André B; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Deries, Marianne</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The in utero development of mammals drastically reduces the accessibility of the mammalian embryo and therefore limits the range of experimental manipulation that can be done to study functions of genes or signaling pathways during embryo development. Over the past decades, tissue and organ-like culture methods have been developed with the intention of reproducing in vivo situations. Developing accessible and <span class="hlt">simple</span> techniques to study and manipulate embryos is an everlasting challenge. Herein, we describe a reliable and quick technique to culture mid-gestation explanted mouse embryos on top of a floating membrane filter in a defined medium. Viability of the cultured tissues was assessed by apoptosis and proliferation analysis showing that cell proliferation is normal and there is only a slight increase in apoptosis after 12h of culture compared to embryos developing in utero. Moreover, differentiation and morphogenesis proceed normally as assessed by 3D imaging of the transformation of the myotome into deep back muscles. Not only does muscle cell differentiation occur as expected, but so do extracellular matrix organization and the characteristic splitting of the myotome into the three epaxial muscle groups. Our culture method allows for the culture and manipulation of mammalian embryo explants in a very efficient way, and it permits the manipulation of in vivo developmental events in a controlled environment. Explants grown under these ex utero conditions simulate real developmental events that occur in utero. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420167','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420167"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Omichi, Masaaki; Choi, Wookjin; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Seki, Shu; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>Prompt determination of spatial points of single-ion tracks plays a key role in high-energy particle induced-cancer therapy and gene/plant mutations. In this study, a <span class="hlt">simple</span> method for the high-resolution visualization of single-ion tracks without etching was developed through the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-N, N’-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAAm) blend films. One of the steps of the proposed method includes exposure of the irradiated films to water vapor for several minutes. Water vapor was found to promote the cross-linking reaction of PAA and MBAAm to form a bulky cross-linked structure; the ion-track scars were detectable at a nanometer scale by atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrated that each scar is easily distinguishable, and the amount of generated radicals of the ion tracks can be estimated by measuring the height of the scars, even in highly dense ion tracks. This method is suitable for the visualization of the penumbra region in a single-ion track with a high spatial resolution of 50 nm, which is sufficiently small to confirm that a single ion hits a cell nucleus with a size ranging between 5 and 20 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731307"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> determination of caffeine in teas, coffees and eight beverages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sereshti, Hassan; Samadi, Soheila</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Caffeine was extracted and preconcentrated by the <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast and green method of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and analysed by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD). The influence of main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency investigated and optimised. Under the optimal conditions, the method was successfully applied to determination of caffeine in different real samples including five types of tea (green, black, white, oolong teas and tea bag), two kinds of coffee (Nescafe coffee and coffee), and eight beverages (regular Coca Cola, Coca Cola zero, regular Pepsi, Pepsi max, Sprite, 7up, Red Bull and Hype).The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.05 μg mL(-1), respectively. Linear dynamic range (LDR) was 0.05-500 μg mL(-1) and determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9990. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.2% (n=5, C=1 μg mL(-1)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177461"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> improved desolvation method for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> preparation of albumin nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jahanban-Esfahlan, Ali; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Davaran, Soodabeh</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The current study tried to establish a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and fast method for the preparation of BSA and HSA nanoparticles, based on an improved desolvation procedure under the aspect of a controllable particle size around 100nm for drug delivery applications. The Procedure used for the nanoparticles preparation was simplified by using a designed apparatus for controlling the addition of ethanol and it was used instead of conventional tubing pump which enabled the preparation of nanoparticles under defined conditions. By using EDC as cross-linker instead of glutharaldehyde, the time of nanoparticles preparation procedure was reduced to 3h. Several factors of the preparation process, such as the volume of the albumin solution, desolvating agent volume, the amount of cross-linker, the presence of salts and protein concentration were evaluated. Nanoparticles with smaller size were obtained under experimental conditions without the presence of salts or the use of buffers, 250mg of protein/4ml water, 5mg cross-linker, the addition of 4 and 8ml ethanol by using the designed apparatus to the HSA and BSA solution, respectively. By using this improved method, BSA and HSA nanoparticles of the size around 100nm and polydispersity below 0.2 were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24961928"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> protocol for measuring neutral lipids in algal cells using fluorescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Storms, Zachary J; Cameron, Elliot; de la Hoz Siegler, Hector; McCaffrey, William C</p> <p>2014-05-30</p> <p>Algae are considered excellent candidates for renewable fuel sources due to their natural lipid storage capabilities. Robust monitoring of algal fermentation processes and screening for new oil-rich strains requires a fast and reliable protocol for determination of intracellular lipid content. Current practices rely largely on gravimetric methods to determine oil content, techniques developed decades ago that are time consuming and require large sample volumes. In this paper, Nile Red, a fluorescent dye that has been used to identify the presence of lipid bodies in numerous types of organisms, is incorporated into a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast, and reliable protocol for measuring the neutral lipid content of Auxenochlorella protothecoides, a green alga. The method uses ethanol, a relatively mild solvent, to permeabilize the cell membrane before staining and a 96 well micro-plate to increase sample capacity during fluorescence intensity measurements. It has been designed with the specific application of monitoring bioprocess performance. Previously dried samples or live samples from a growing culture can be used in the assay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592656"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> determination of trace iodide by cathodic stripping voltammetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Lingxi; Zou, Lina; Li, Gaiping; Ye, Baoxian</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>This work establishes a highly sensitive and <span class="hlt">simple</span> stripping voltammetric method for the direct determination of trace iodide. In the presence of abounding bromide and appropriate amount of cetylpyridine bromide (CPB), the iodine was accumulated on the glassy carbon electrode surface as ion association complex (CPBI2Br). After accumulation for a period of time, a linear sweep potential with negative scanning was applied and the I2 in CPBI2Br was reduced again into the solution. Under the optimization conditions, the stripping signals (peak current) were linear relationship with iodide concentration in range of 3.81×10(-3)µg/mL to 0.114 μg/mL and 0.127μg/mL to 2.54μg/mL, with a detection limit of 1.02ng/mL (S/N=3) for a accumulation time of 180s. Determination of trace iodine in pharmaceutical sample, kelp and table salt were performed with high accuracy and satisfactory recovery results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855195','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4855195"><span>Obstetrical, maternal characteristics and outcome of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressor infants at Yaounde: a retrospective study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dongmo, Roger; Touffic Othman, Carole Leïla; Tatah, Sandra; Njiki Kinkela, Mina Ntoto; Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> progressors are exposed to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection at an early stage of life, and the prognosis is poor without treatment. Reducing the proportion of infants who are <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressors, require strengthening strategies to achieve the highest level of performance for the PMTCT program. Methods This was a retrospective study carried out on <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infected infants aged less than 12 months, clinically classified stage 4 (WHO) or having CD4 count <25%. We described maternal and obstetrical characteristics of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressors using univariate and bivariate analysis. Patients’ survival was monitored from the inclusion time to the end of the study. We then estimated their probability of survival with or without anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment from birth using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The characteristics of the mothers of the 150 <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressors infants we included were: low level of education (OR=3.87; P=0.016), CD4 count less than 200/mm3 (OR=43.3; P=0.000), absence of ARV prophylaxis (OR=6.02; P=0.043), or treatment with HAART (OR=5.74; P=0.000) during pregnancy. In the children, the most important findings were lack of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (OR=11.61; P=0.000) and antiretroviral prophylaxis (OR=2.70; P=0.0344). The survival rate was 84.3% in infants who were receiving HAART as opposed to 43.3% in those who were not (P<0.05). Conclusions <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infected women who are eligible should start antiretroviral treatment prior to a pregnancy, in order to improve their immunological status. This measure associated to cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and ART could improve their survival. PMID:27186521</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23469281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23469281"><span>Viral hepatitis and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected patients in rural Tanzania.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franzeck, Fabian C; Ngwale, Ramadhani; Msongole, Bernadeta; Hamisi, Marian; Abdul, Omary; Henning, Lars; Letang, Emilio; Mwaigomole, Geoffrey; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Tanner, Marcel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly prevalent in people living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test device Determine HBsAg in an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> cohort in rural Tanzania. Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO) in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47), 169/272 (63%) subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439). HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0%) subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28%) were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6%) and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%). Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4%) of patients. This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061359','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061359"><span>A <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Method for Microscopy-Based Stomata Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eisele, Jochen F.; Fäßler, Florian; Bürgel, Patrick F.; Chaban, Christina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There are two major methodical approaches with which changes of status in stomatal pores are addressed: indirectly by measurement of leaf transpiration, and directly by measurement of stomatal apertures. Application of the former method requires special equipment, whereas microscopic images are utilized for the direct measurements. Due to obscure visualization of cell boundaries in intact leaves, a certain degree of invasive leaf manipulation is often required. Our aim was to develop a protocol based on the minimization of leaf manipulation and the reduction of analysis completion time, while still producing consistent results. We applied rhodamine 6G staining of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves for stomata visualization, which greatly simplifies the measurement of stomatal apertures. By using this staining protocol, we successfully conducted analyses of stomatal responses in Arabidopsis leaves to both closure and opening stimuli. We performed long-term monitoring of living stomata and were able to document the same leaf before and after treatment. Moreover, we developed a protocol for <span class="hlt">rapid</span>-fixation of epidermal peels, which enables high throughput data analysis. The described method allows analysis of stomatal apertures with minimal leaf manipulation and usage of the same leaf for sequential measurements, and will facilitate the analysis of several lines in parallel. PMID:27732636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976811','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976811"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test of physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Albarrati, Ali Mufraih; Gale, Nichola S; Enright, Stephanie; Munnery, Margaret M; Cockcroft, John R; Shale, Dennis J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Impaired physical performance is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its assessment can be difficult in routine clinical practice. We compared the timed up and go (TUG) test and other easily applied assessments of physical performance with the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). In a longitudinal study of comorbidities in COPD, submaximal physical performance was determined in 520 patients and 150 controls using the TUG test and 6MWD. Spirometry, body composition, handgrip strength, the COPD assessment test, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale were also determined. Patients and controls were similar in age, body mass index, and sex proportions. The TUG in the patients was greater than that in the control group, P=0.001, and was inversely related to 6MWD (r=−0.71, P<0.001) and forced expiratory volume in one second predicted (r=−0.19, P<0.01) and was directly related to the SGRQ activity (r=0.39, P<0.001), SGRQ total (r=0.37, P<0.001), and total COPD assessment test scores (r=0.37, P<0.001). The TUG identified the difference in physical performance between patients and controls. The TUG test and validated questionnaires provide a measure of physical performance, which is <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and could be used in clinical practice. PMID:27536090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11712969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11712969"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pong-Wong, R; George, A W; Woolliams, J A; Haley, C S</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present paper with a stochastic method (LOKI) for precision in estimating IBD probabilities and performance in the task of QTL detection with the variance component approach. This comparison was made in a variety of situations by varying family size and degree of polymorphism among marker loci. The following were observed for the deterministic method relative to MCMC: (i) it was an order of magnitude faster; (ii) its estimates of IBD probabilities were found to agree closely, even though it does not extract information when haplotypes are not known with certainty; (iii) the shape of the profile for the QTL test statistic as a function of location was similar, although the magnitude of the test statistic was slightly smaller; and (iv) the estimates of QTL variance was similar. It was concluded that the method proposed provided a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> means of calculating the IBD matrix with only a small loss in precision, making it an attractive alternative to the use of stochastic MCMC methods. Furthermore, developments in marker technology providing denser maps would enhance the relative advantage of this method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2705399','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2705399"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pong-Wong, Ricardo; George, Andrew Winston; Woolliams, John Arthur; Haley, Chris Simon</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A fast, partly recursive deterministic method for calculating Identity-by-Descent (IBD) probabilities was developed with the objective of using IBD in Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping. The method combined a recursive method for a single marker locus with a method to estimate IBD between sibs using multiple markers. Simulated data was used to compare the deterministic method developed in the present paper with a stochastic method (LOKI) for precision in estimating IBD probabilities and performance in the task of QTL detection with the variance component approach. This comparison was made in a variety of situations by varying family size and degree of polymorphism among marker loci. The following were observed for the deterministic method relative to MCMC: (i) it was an order of magnitude faster; (ii) its estimates of IBD probabilities were found to agree closely, even though it does not extract information when haplotypes are not known with certainty; (iii) the shape of the profile for the QTL test statistic as a function of location was similar, although the magnitude of the test statistic was slightly smaller; and (iv) the estimates of QTL variance was similar. It was concluded that the method proposed provided a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> means of calculating the IBD matrix with only a small loss in precision, making it an attractive alternative to the use of stochastic MCMC methods. Furthermore, developments in marker technology providing denser maps would enhance the relative advantage of this method. PMID:11712969</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044368','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70044368"><span>Finite-fault source inversion using teleseismic P waves: <span class="hlt">Simple</span> parameterization and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We examine the ability of teleseismic P waves to provide a timely image of the rupture history for large earthquakes using a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, 2D finite‐fault source parameterization. We analyze the broadband displacement waveforms recorded for the 2010 Mw∼7 Darfield (New Zealand) and El Mayor‐Cucapah (Baja California) earthquakes using a single planar fault with a fixed rake. Both of these earthquakes were observed to have complicated fault geometries following detailed source studies conducted by other investigators using various data types. Our kinematic, finite‐fault analysis of the events yields rupture models that similarly identify the principal areas of large coseismic slip along the fault. The results also indicate that the amount of stabilization required to spatially smooth the slip across the fault and minimize the seismic moment is related to the amplitudes of the observed P waveforms and can be estimated from the absolute values of the elements of the coefficient matrix. This empirical relationship persists for earthquakes of different magnitudes and is consistent with the stabilization constraint obtained from the L‐curve in Tikhonov regularization. We use the relation to estimate the smoothing parameters for the 2011 Mw 7.1 East Turkey, 2012 Mw 8.6 Northern Sumatra, and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes and invert the teleseismic P waves in a single step to recover timely, preliminary slip models that identify the principal source features observed in finite‐fault solutions obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) from the analysis of body‐ and surface‐wave data. These results indicate that smoothing constraints can be estimated a priori to derive a preliminary, first‐order image of the coseismic slip using teleseismic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AtmEn..32.2497M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998AtmEn..32.2497M"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected on polyurethane foam adsorbent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Kado, Norman Y.</p> <p></p> <p>A single-pass flow through extraction (FTE) method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been collected on poly-ether type polyurethane foam (PUF) is described and demonstrated. The method is based on the principles of trace enrichment and solid-phase extraction where the analyte of interest is collected or concentrated on the expanded PUF matrix. Following collection, the PUF is compressed to reduce the solvent requirement and a single-pass gravity fed mobile-phase extraction is used to remove the analyte. Two extraction mobile phases were tested (dichloromethane, DCM and a 10% (V:V) mixture of acetone in hexane, AH). We obtained quantitative recoveries of 18 PAHs from 115 cm 3 PUF plugs with less than 4 ml of DCM or 6 ml of AH. Average standard recoveries of 18 spiked PAHs were 97% and 104% for the DCM and the AH extractions, respectively. The semi-volatile fraction of PAHs in an environmental sample of a complex mixture (diesel exhaust) were also quantitatively extracted using the FTE method. Finally, the FTE method was used to extract samples collected from an exposure chamber that was designed to measure the transfer of semi-volatile atmospheric pollutants into vegetation. Total variance reported as percent relative standard deviation in the measured steady-state atmospheric concentrations of pyrene, fluoranthene, anthracene and phenanthrene were 3.4, 10.5, 8.5 and 4.4%, respectively, thus demonstrating the excellent precision of the method. The FTE method is <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast and effective for extracting PAH that has been collected on PUF adsorbent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4187967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4187967"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Method To Determine Antimycobacterial Potency of Compounds by Using Autoluminescent Mycobacterium tuberculosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Sreevalli; Gelman, Ekaterina; Narayan, Chandan; Bhattacharjee, Deepa; Achar, Vijayashree; Humnabadkar, Vaishali; Balasubramanian, V.; Ramachandran, Vasanthi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A major obstacle in the process of discovery of drugs against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is its extremely slow growth rate and long generation time (∼20 to 24 h). Consequently, determination of MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of potential drug candidates using current methods requires 7 days (resazurin-based MIC assay [REMA]) and 1 month (CFU enumeration), respectively. We employed a synthetic luciferase operon optimized for expression in high-GC-content bacteria and adapted it for use in mycobacteria. Using luminescence-based readouts, we were able to determine the MICs and bactericidal activities of approved tuberculosis (TB) drugs, which correlated well with currently used methods. Although luminescence-based readouts have been used previously to determine the MICs and bactericidal activities of approved TB drugs, in this study we adapted this assay to carry out a pilot screen using a library of 1,114 compounds belonging to diverse chemical scaffolds. We found that MICs derived from a 3-day luminescence assay matched well with REMA-based MIC values. To determine the bactericidal potencies of compounds, a 1:10 dilution of the cultures from the MIC plate was carried out on day 7, and the bactericidal concentrations determined based on time to positivity in 2 weeks were found to be comparable with MBC values determined by the conventional CFU approach. Thus, the luminescent mycobacterium-based approach not only is very <span class="hlt">simple</span> and inexpensive but also allowed us to generate the information in half the time required by conventional methods. PMID:25049243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNR....16.2253B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JNR....16.2253B"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and sensitive biosensor for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> detection of nanoparticles in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhomkar, Prasanna; Goss, Greg; Wishart, David S.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Advances in nanoscience have led to a greater use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in numerous applications. Due to their small size and unique surface properties, ENPs have many desirable features. However, they also interact with living cells in potentially undesirable manners highlighting the need to develop improved detection systems to manage risks associated with their accidental occupational exposure or environmental release. However, the routine detection of ENPs has not yet been demonstrated, especially for aquatic environments. Using standard protein engineering techniques, we generated a protein-based biosensor that can sensitively detect negatively charged ENPs in aquatic matrices. In particular, we genetically engineered a green fluorescent protein with a poly-lysine tag (His-GFP-LYS) to facilitate its electrostatic interaction with commercially available negatively charged NPs. These 5-6-nm-sized NPs have metallic cores comprising gold, iron oxide, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide and are stabilized via poly-acrylic acid (PAA) coating. The interaction between the recombinant positively charged GFP and the PAA coating of the negatively charged NPs resulted in visually observable turbidity changes that were quantified using a portable spectrophotometer (NANODROP). These interactions were confirmed using dynamic light scattering and visualized using agarose native gel electrophoresis. This <span class="hlt">simple</span> and portable system could detect ENPs resuspended in pure aqueous buffer (0.08 mg/L) and those resuspended in environmental matrices, such as pond water (0.6 mg/L). This detection system also sensed ENPs in the presence of moderate concentrations of natural organic matter that is ubiquitously present in surface waters. These results suggest that this biosensor system could be used for the routine, portable, and affordable detection of negatively-charged ENPs under environmentally relevant aquatic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23208697"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> immunochemical screening combined with hand-shaking extraction for thiamethoxam residue in agricultural products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Eiki; Kobara, Yuso; Miyake, Shiro</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>With the aim of expanding the applicability of a kit-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam, the ELISA was newly applied to three kinds of agricultural samples (green pepper, eggplant and spinach). To offer the ELISA as a screening analysis for thiamethoxam residues, a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> method of extraction by hand-shaking was used, and speed-up and simplification of the sample treatment before the ELISA analysis were examined. Finally, the validity of the ELISA combined with the proposed extraction method was verified against a reference high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using real-world agricultural samples. There were no marked matrix effects derived from green pepper and eggplant extracts. On the other hand, although the effect due to a pigment in spinach extract on the assay performance was significant, it was effectively avoided by increasing the dilution level of the spinach extract. For thiamethoxam-spiked samples, acceptable recoveries of 97.9-109.1% and coefficients of variation of 0.3-11.5% were obtained. Inspection of the validity of the ELISA by comparison with the reference HPLC method showed that the two analytical results were very similar, and a high correlation was found between them (r>0.997). The evaluated ELISA combined with hand-shaking extraction provided a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> screening analysis that was quantitative and reliable for the detection of thiamethoxam in complex agricultural products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635879','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19635879"><span>Results from nationwide hepatitis B serosurvey in Cambodia using <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> laboratory test: implications for National Immunization Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soeung, Sann Chan; Rani, Manju; Huong, Vu; Sarath, Savay; Kimly, Chea; Kohei, Toda</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Chronic liver infection and cancer in the western Pacific region is disproportionate to the population globally. This study provides the first nationwide estimates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence in Cambodia among children five year of age. Using a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test for HBsAg and multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design, we estimated HBsAg seroprevalence to be 3.5% (95% confidence interval = 2.4-4.8%) among five-year old children. Triangulating the results with other studies, we demonstrate the importance of interrupting perinatal transmission and one-time catch-up vaccination of older children born before nationwide introduction of vaccination for effective hepatitis B control in Cambodia and for reaching the disease control goal of less than 2% chronic infection rates among children > or = 5 years of age. The results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting nationwide serosurveys using <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests to evaluate the impact of hepatitis B vaccination programs in lieu of standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21923795"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> GC-MS method for determination of psychotropic phenylalkylamine derivatives in nails using micro-pulverized extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Jin Young; Cheong, Jae Chul; Lee, Jae Il; Son, Ju Hee; In, Moon Kyo</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of five psychotropic phenylalkylamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and norketamine) in toenails. After external decontamination, nail clippings were mechanically pulverized with a bead mill and then incubated in methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C for 1 h. The resulting solutions were evaporated to dryness, derivatized, and analyzed by GC-MS. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 10.7% and 13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were -4.2% to 5.0% and -2.4% to 8.4%, respectively. Limits of detection and quantification for each analyte were lower than 0.024 and 0.08 ng/mg, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 80.6-87.5%. The results indicated that the proposed method is a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, accurate, and precise for quantification of five phenylalkylamines in nails. The method was successfully applied to the simultaneous detection and quantification of phenylalkylamines in nail samples of possible drug abusers. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26996943"><span>Assessment of the Accuracy of Whole Blood/Serum <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Point-of-Care <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Three Dot Test for Oral Fluid Specimens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rakesh, N; Shetty, Shakilla; Sujatha, S; Sharma, Shivani; Saxena, Ankit</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Saliva <span class="hlt">rapid</span> point of care <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests have proven advantages over blood-based <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests in terms of quality, <span class="hlt">rapidity</span> and convenience. To assess the sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility of saliva samples using the serum/ whole blood <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test and to compare it with serum specimens. 52 seropositive and 52 seronegative patients were included in the study. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected and tested using the serum/ whole blood signal <span class="hlt">HIV</span> THREE DOT <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test (span diagnostics). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test was found to be 100% for saliva samples. Saliva samples can be used as a substitute to serum/whole blood for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing. It can be done using the serum/whole blood kits which are cheaper and readily available thus broadening the reach of testing programs in resource limited settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4354420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4354420"><span>Convergent Polishing: A <span class="hlt">Simple</span>, <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more <span class="hlt">rapidly</span>, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23643115"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and reliable detection of Escherichia coli O26 using immunochromatography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yonekita, Taro; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 has been increasingly associated with diarrheal disease all over the world. We developed an immunochromatographic (ic) strip for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> detection of E. coli O26 in food samples. To determine the specificity of the IC strip, pure cultures of 67 E. coli and 22 non-E. coli strains were tested with the IC strip. The IC strip could detect all (18 of 18) E. coli O26 strains tested and did not react with strains of any other E. coli serogroup or non-E. coli strains tested (0 of 71). The minimum detection limits for E. coli O26 were 2.2 × 10(3) to 1.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml. To evaluate the ability of the IC strip to detect E. coli O26 in food, 25-g food samples (ground beef, beef liver, ground chicken, alfalfa sprout, radish sprout, spinach, natural cheese, and apple juice) were spiked with E. coli O26. The IC strip was able to detect E. coli O26 at very low levels (approximately 1 cfu/25 g of food samples) after an 18-h enrichment, and the IC strip results were in 100% agreement with the results of the culture method and pcr assay. When 115 meat samples purchased from supermarkets were tested, 5 were positive for E. coli O26 with the IC strip; these results were confirmed with a pcr assay. These results suggest that the IC strip is a useful tool for detecting E. coli O26 in food samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511606"><span>Fluorescent protein-tagged Vpr dissociates from <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 core after viral fusion and <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> enters the cell nucleus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Sood, Chetan; Shi, Jiong; Nawaz, Fatima; Aiken, Christopher; Melikyan, Gregory B</p> <p>2015-10-29</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Vpr is recruited into virions during assembly and appears to remain associated with the viral core after the reverse transcription and uncoating steps of entry. This feature has prompted the use of fluorescently labeled Vpr to visualize viral particles and to follow trafficking of post-fusion <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 cores in the cytoplasm. Here, we tracked single pseudovirus entry and fusion and observed that fluorescently tagged Vpr gradually dissociates from post-fusion viral cores over the course of several minutes and accumulates in the nucleus. Kinetics measurements showed that fluorescent Vpr released from the cores very <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> entered the cell nucleus. More than 10,000 Vpr molecules can be delivered into the cell nucleus within 45 min of infection by <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 particles pseudotyped with the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein. The fraction of Vpr from cell-bound viruses that accumulated in the nucleus was proportional to the extent of virus-cell fusion and was fully blocked by viral fusion inhibitors. Entry of virus-derived Vpr into the nucleus occurred independently of envelope glycoproteins or target cells. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy revealed two forms of nuclear Vpr-monomers and very large complexes, likely involving host factors. The kinetics of viral Vpr entering the nucleus after fusion was not affected by point mutations in the capsid protein that alter the stability of the viral core. The independence of Vpr shedding of capsid stability and its relatively <span class="hlt">rapid</span> dissociation from post-fusion cores suggest that this process may precede capsid uncoating, which appears to occur on a slower time scale. Our results thus demonstrate that a bulk of fluorescently labeled Vpr incorporated into <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 particles is released shortly after fusion. Future studies will address the question whether the quick and efficient nuclear delivery of Vpr derived from incoming viruses can regulate subsequent steps of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3483907','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3483907"><span>Payer Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Acceptance of Free Routine Opt-Out <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Screening Among Emergency Department Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Emily; Sasson, Comilla; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Bender, Brooke; Haukoos, Jason S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We estimated associations between payer status, race/ethnicity, and acceptance of nontargeted opt-out <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We analyzed data from a prospective clinical trial between 2007 and 2009 at Denver Health. Patients in the ED were offered free <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing. Patient demographics and payer status were collected, and we used multivariable logistic regression to estimate associations with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing acceptance. Results. A total of 31 525 patients made 44 765 unique visits: 40% were White, 37% Hispanic, 14% Black, 1% Asian, and 7% unknown race/ethnicity. Of all visits, 10 237 (23%) agreed to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing; 27% were self-pay, 23% state-sponsored, 18% Medicaid, 13% commercial insurance, 12% Medicare, and 8% another payer source. Compared with commercial insurance patients, self-pay patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51, 1.75), state-sponsored patients (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.52, 1.77), and Medicaid patients (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.14, 1.34) had increased odds of accepting testing. Compared with White patients, Black (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.21, 1.38) and Hispanic (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.23) patients had increased odds of accepting testing. Conclusions. Many ED patients are uninsured or subsidized through government programs and are more likely to consent to free <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing. PMID:22420816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Substance+AND+abuse&pg=7&id=EJ928844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Substance+AND+abuse&pg=7&id=EJ928844"><span><span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lessons+AND+learned+AND+program&pg=7&id=EJ928844','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lessons+AND+learned+AND+program&pg=7&id=EJ928844"><span><span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138394"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, sensitive, <span class="hlt">simple</span> plate assay for detection of microbial alginate lyase activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawant, Shailesh S; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Kim, Beom Soo</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p> worked well for screening and identification of alginate lyase producers and non-producers from environmental samples on common laboratory media. They did this by clearly showing the presence or absence of clearance zones around the microbial colonies grown. This new method is <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, efficient, and could easily be performed for screening a large number of microbial cultures. This is the first report on the use of Gram's iodine for the detection of alginate lyase production by microorganisms using plate assay.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26922986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26922986"><span>Early diagnosis and retention in care of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected patients through <span class="hlt">rapid</span> salivary testing: a test-and-treat fast track pilot study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Negri, Silvia; Vidoni, Gian Marino; Gianotti, Nicola; Nozza, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the retention-in-care of individuals diagnosed during six years of salivary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing (EASY-test project). Among those linked-to-care at the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy), the proportion of patients engaged, retained in care and virologically suppressed after the antiretroviral treatment was 96%, 100% and 95.2%, respectively. Results from our study suggest that salivary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing may help bring to light cases of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection otherwise undiagnosed, and thus favour a more <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and wider reduction of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection burden at the population level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12092941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12092941"><span><span class="hlt">Rapidly</span> changing conditions in the brothels of Bangladesh: impact on <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/STD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jenkins, Carol; Rahman, Habibur</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Bangladesh is a low <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence country with several well-documented at-risk groups, the most prominent of which is brothel-based sex workers. Using two waves of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> behavioral surveillance data for a national sample of all operating registered brothels supplemented by historical and observational accounts, this article presents a case study of the changing conditions in the brothels. Between the two waves of surveillance, several brothels were forcibly closed; the number of sex workers dropped; the average number of clients per woman rose; and overall safety, both in terms of violence and protected sex, did not improve. Only treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted diseases was positively changed. Continued surveillance of the possible negative impact of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention programs is under way. Protective policies are needed to facilitate improved <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention and safety of sex workers, a key to controlling the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> epidemic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20386037"><span>Effect of an education kiosk on patient knowledge about <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Benjamin C; Knapp, Herschel; Shamouelian, Albert; Golden, Joya; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Asch, Steven M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Patient education is an important part of routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening. In a pilot study, we assessed the effect of a computer kiosk education module on patient knowledge about routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening. A systematic sample of walk-in clinic patients completed a questionnaire before and after using the education module. The primary outcome was a composite nine-point knowledge score. Secondary outcomes included willingness to undergo <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening and patient satisfaction. Of 185 patients who were eligible to participate, 100 completed the study. The median duration of kiosk interaction was 3.9 min. The median knowledge score increased from 7 to 8 (P < 0.0001) after viewing the module. There was no significant change in the proportion of patients who were interested in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening. The majority of patients expressed excellent (38%) or very good (39%) satisfaction with the kiosk module. The results suggest that a computer kiosk can deliver brief and targeted education to improve knowledge about <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566310"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and reliable protocol to localize hydrogen peroxide in large plant organs by DAB-mediated tissue printing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yong-Hua; Offler, Christina E; Ruan, Yong-Ling</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, its localization in large and thick plant organs (e.g., stem, roots, and fruits), other than leaves, has proven to be challenging due to the difficulties for the commonly used H2O2-specific chemicals, such as 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), cerium chloride (CeCl3), and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA), to penetrate those organs. Theoretically, the reaction of endogenous H2O2 with these chemicals could be facilitated by using thin organ sections. However, the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> production of wound-induced H2O2 associated with this procedure inevitably disturbs the original distribution of H2O2 in vivo. Here, by employing tomato seedling stems and fruits as testing materials, we report a novel, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> protocol to localize H2O2 in those organs using DAB-mediated tissue printing. The <span class="hlt">rapidity</span> of the protocol (within 15 s) completely avoided the interference of wound-induced H2O2 during experimentation. Moreover, the H2O2 signal on the printing was stable for at least 1 h with no or little background produced. We conclude that DAB-mediated tissue printing developed here provide a new feasible and reliable method to localize H2O2 in large plant organs, hence should have broad applications in studying ROS biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2579580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2579580"><span><span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat Activates Neuronal Ryanodine Receptors with <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Induction of the Unfolded Protein Response and Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Norman, John P.; Perry, Seth W.; Reynolds, Holly M.; Kiebala, Michelle; De Mesy Bentley, Karen L.; Trejo, Margarita; Volsky, David J.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Masliah, Eliezer; Gelbard, Harris A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS), and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces <span class="hlt">rapid</span> loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR), followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in brain tissue of patients with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 in the CNS. PMID:19009018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23549916"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> detection of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 proviral DNA for early infant diagnosis using recombinase polymerase amplification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyle, David S; Lehman, Dara A; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie</p> <p>2013-04-02</p> <p>Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 global subtypes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5332537','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5332537"><span>Dendritic Cells from the Human Female Reproductive Tract <span class="hlt">Rapidly</span> Capture and respond to <span class="hlt">HIV</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodriguez-Garcia, M; Shen, Zheng; Barr, Fiona D.; Boesch, Austin W.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Wira, Charles R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dendritic cells (DCs) throughout the female reproductive tract (FRT) were examined for phenotype, <span class="hlt">HIV</span> capture ability and innate anti-<span class="hlt">HIV</span> responses. Two main CD11c+ DC subsets were identified: CD11b+ and CD11blow DCs. CD11b+CD14+ DCs were the most abundant throughout the tract.A majority of CD11c+CD14+ cells corresponded to CD1c+ myeloid DCs while the rest lacked CD1c and CD163 expression (macrophage marker) and may represent monocyte-derived cells. Additionally we identified CD103+ DCs, located exclusively in the endometrium, while DC-SIGN+ DCs were broadly distributed throughout the FRT. Following exposure to GFP-labeled <span class="hlt">HIV</span> particles, CD14+ DC-SIGN+ as well as CD14+ DC-SIGN- cells captured virus, with approximately 30% of these cells representing CD1c+ myeloid DCs. CD103+ DCs lacked <span class="hlt">HIV</span> capture ability. Exposure of FRT DCs to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> induced secretion of CCL2, CCR5 ligands, IL-8, elafin and SLPI within 3h of exposure, while classical pro-inflammatory molecules did not change and IFNα2 and IL10 were undetectable. Furthermore, elafin and SLPI up-regulation, but not CCL5, were suppressed by estradiol pretreatment. Our results suggest that specific DC subsets in the FRT have the potential for capture and dissemination of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, exert antiviral responses and likely contribute to the recruitment of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-target cells through the secretion of innate immune molecules. PMID:27579858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3622927','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3622927"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Detection of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Proviral DNA for Early Infant Diagnosis Using Recombinase Polymerase Amplification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boyle, David S.; Lehman, Dara A.; Lillis, Lorraine; Peterson, Dylan; Singhal, Mitra; Armes, Niall; Parker, Mathew; Piepenburg, Olaf; Overbaugh, Julie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Early diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) infection in infants can greatly reduce mortality rates. However, current infant <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 diagnostics cannot reliably be performed at the point of care, often delaying treatment and compromising its efficacy. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel technology that is ideal for an <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 diagnostic, as it amplifies target DNA in <20 min at a constant temperature, without the need for complex thermocycling equipment. Here we tested 63 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1-specific primer and probe combinations and identified two RPA assays that target distinct regions of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 genome (long terminal repeat [LTR] and pol) and can reliably detect 3 copies of proviral DNA by the use of fluorescence detection and lateral-flow strip detection. These pol and LTR primers amplified 98.6% and 93%, respectively, of the diverse <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 variants tested. This is the first example of an isothermal assay that consistently detects all of the major <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 global subtypes. PMID:23549916</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26862233"><span>Scaling Up <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Testing in an Academic Emergency Department: An Integrated Testing Model with <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Fourth-Generation and Point-of-Care Testing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Signer, Danielle; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Haider, Somiya; Saheed, Mustapha; Neira, Paula; Wicken, Cassie; Rothman, Richard E</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated two approaches for implementing routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in an inner-city, academic emergency department (ED). These approaches differed by staffing model and type of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing technology used. The programmatic outcomes assessed included the total number of tests performed, proportion of newly identified <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive patients, and proportion of newly diagnosed individuals who were linked to care. This study examined specific outcomes for two distinct, successive approaches to implementing <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in an inner-city, academic ED, from July 2012 through June 2013 (Program One), and from August 2013 through July 2014 (Program Two). Program One used a supplementary staff-only <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing model with point-of-care (POC) oral testing. Program Two used a triage-integrated, nurse-driven <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing model with fourth-generation blood and POC testing, and an expedited linkage-to-care process. During Program One, 6,832 eligible patients were tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> with a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> POC oral <span class="hlt">HIV</span> test. Sixteen patients (0.2%) were newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, of whom 13 were successfully linked to care. During Program Two, 8,233 eligible patients were tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, of whom 3,124 (38.0%) received a blood test and 5,109 (62.0%) received a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> POC test. Of all patients tested in Program Two, 29 (0.4%) were newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, four of whom had acute infections and 27 of whom were successfully linked to care. We found a statistically significant difference in the proportion of the eligible population tested-8,233 of 49,697 (16.6%) in Program Two and 6,832 of 46,818 (14.6%) in Program One. These differences from Program One to Program Two corresponded to increases in testing volume (n=1,401 tests), number of patients newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> (n=13), and proportion of patients successfully linked to care (from 81.0% to 93.0%). Integrating <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening into the standard triage workflow resulted in a higher proportion of ED patients being tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> as compared with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720609','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720609"><span>Scaling Up <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Testing in an Academic Emergency Department: An Integrated Testing Model with <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Fourth-Generation and Point-of-Care Testing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Signer, Danielle; Peterson, Stephen; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Haider, Somiya; Saheed, Mustapha; Neira, Paula; Wicken, Cassie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective We evaluated two approaches for implementing routine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in an inner-city, academic emergency department (ED). These approaches differed by staffing model and type of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing technology used. The programmatic outcomes assessed included the total number of tests performed, proportion of newly identified <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive patients, and proportion of newly diagnosed individuals who were linked to care. Methods This study examined specific outcomes for two distinct, successive approaches to implementing <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening in an inner-city, academic ED, from July 2012 through June 2013 (Program One), and from August 2013 through July 2014 (Program Two). Program One used a supplementary staff-only <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing model with point-of-care (POC) oral testing. Program Two used a triage-integrated, nurse-driven <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing model with fourth-generation blood and POC testing, and an expedited linkage-to-care process. Results During Program One, 6,832 eligible patients were tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> with a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> POC oral <span class="hlt">HIV</span> test. Sixteen patients (0.2%) were newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, of whom 13 were successfully linked to care. During Program Two, 8,233 eligible patients were tested for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, of whom 3,124 (38.0%) received a blood test and 5,109 (62.0%) received a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> POC test. Of all patients tested in Program Two, 29 (0.4%) were newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>, four of whom had acute infections and 27 of whom were successfully linked to care. We found a statistically significant difference in the proportion of the eligible population tested—8,233 of 49,697 (16.6%) in Program Two and 6,832 of 46,818 (14.6%) in Program One. These differences from Program One to Program Two corresponded to increases in testing volume (n=1,401 tests), number of patients newly diagnosed with <span class="hlt">HIV</span> (n=13), and proportion of patients successfully linked to care (from 81.0% to 93.0%). Conclusion Integrating <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening into the standard triage workflow resulted in a higher proportion of ED patients being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=271954','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=271954"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span> method of preparing rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid for analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M; Saif, L J; Redman, D R; Bohl, E H; Hancock, D D; Kohler, E M; Moorhead, P D</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A procedure for extracting rotaviral double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) directly from fecal and intestinal specimens collected from calves and pigs is described. This procedure provides a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, reproducible method of obtaining rotaviral double-stranded RNA preparations suitable for electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide-agarose composite gels. The rotaviral genome electrophoretic migration pattern produced by double-stranded RNA extracted directly from a specimen by this procedure was qualitatively identical to the electrophoretic migration pattern obtained with double-stranded RNA extracted from purified rotavirus derived from the same specimen. Direct extraction of specimens containing porcine rotavirus-like virus by this procedure gave preparations that had electrophoretic migration patterns similar, but not identical, to the characteristic electrophoretic migration pattern of the rotaviral genome. Sufficient rotaviral double-stranded RNA could be extracted from 6 ml of fecal or intestinal specimen by this procedure to permit 15 or more electrophoretic assays. Images PMID:6270190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10872599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10872599"><span>Determination of grepafloxacin in plasma and urine by a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> high-performance liquid chromatographic method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamberi, M; Kamberi, P; Nakano, S</p> <p>2000-05-12</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, specific, sensitive and economical method has been developed and validated for the determination of grepafloxacin in human plasma and urine. The assay consisted of reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection. Plasma proteins were removed by a fast and efficient procedure that has eliminated the need for costly extraction and evaporation. For the urine samples, the only required sample preparation was dilution. Separation was achieved on a reversed-phase TSK gel column with an isocratic mobile system. The method had a quantification limit of 0.05 microg/ml in plasma and 0.5 microg/ml in urine. The coefficients of variation (C.V.) were less than 4% for within- and between-day analyses. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study, and was proved to be <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast and reproducible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCrGr.406...12A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JCrGr.406...12A"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> green synthesis of micrometer scale single crystalline gold nanoplates using chitosan as the reducing agent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alex, Saji; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Siegel, Gene; Tiwari, Ashutosh</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and green chemical method for the synthesis of single crystalline gold nanoplates of several micrometeres in size has been demonstrated. The synthesis involved the reduction of HAuCl4 in aqueous solution using low molecular weight chitosan at boiling temperature for 25 min. The [Au3+]:[chitosan] molar ratio plays an important role in the formation of gold nanoplates and found that an optimized molar ratio in the range of 80 to 125 was suitable for the formation of nanoplates. The size and morphology of the nanoplates can be tuned by adjusting the molar ratio. In this process, the chitosan functions both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent and no other special agents were added to induce the nanoplate formation. The obtained nanoplates were single crystals with (1 1 1) planes as the basal planes with shapes of hexagonal, triangular, or truncated triangular plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325196"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and low-cost staining method for gel-electrophoresis separated phosphoproteins via the fluorescent purpurin dye.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cong, Weitao; Shen, Jiayi; Xuan, Yuanhu; Zhu, Xinliang; Ni, Maowei; Zhu, Zhongxin; Hong, Guoying; Lu, Xianghong; Jin, Litai</p> <p>2014-12-07</p> <p>A novel fluorescence detection method for phosphoproteins in 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE by using purpurin is developed in this study. Phosphoproteins as low as 4-8 ng could be specifically detected by purpurin within 60 min, and the detection limit is similar to or better than that of Pro-Q Diamond staining. Only 2 steps (staining and destaining) are needed for purpurin staining without requiring excessive fixing and washing steps, and for single use, $0.8 is enough for purpurin staining. By comprehensively comparing with Pro-Q Diamond staining, it is concluded that purpurin staining is a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and low-cost staining method for a broad application to the research of phosphoproteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2461708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2461708"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for the preparation of homologous DNA oligonucleotide hybridization probes from heterologous gene sequences and probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maxwell, E S; Sarge, K D</p> <p>1988-11-30</p> <p>We describe a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for the preparation of homologous DNA oligonucleotide probes for hybridization analysis and/or cDNA/genomic library screening. With this method, a synthetic DNA oligonucleotide derived from a known heterologous DNA/RNA/protein sequence is annealed to an RNA preparation containing the gene transcript of interest. Any unpaired 3'-terminal oligonucleotides of the heterologous DNA primer are then removed using the 3' exonuclease activity of the DNA Polymerase I Klenow fragment before primer extension/dideoxynucleotide sequencing of the annealed RNA species with AMV reverse transcriptase. From the determined RNA sequence, a completely homologous DNA oligonucleotide probe is then prepared. This approach has been used to prepare a homologous DNA oligonucleotide probe for the successful library screening of the yeast hybRNA gene starting with a heterologous mouse hybRNA DNA oligonucleotide probe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124776"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> structure-based model for the prediction of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 co-receptor tropism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 enters host cells through interaction of its V3 loop (which is part of the gp120 protein) with the host cell receptor CD4 and one of two co-receptors, namely CCR5 or CXCR4. Entry inhibitors binding the CCR5 co-receptor can prevent viral entry. As these drugs are only available for CCR5-using viruses, accurate prediction of this so-called co-receptor tropism is important in order to ensure an effective personalized therapy. With the development of next-generation sequencing technologies, it is now possible to sequence representative subpopulations of the viral quasispecies. Results Here we present T-CUP 2.0, a model for predicting co-receptor tropism. Based on our recently published T-CUP model, we developed a more accurate and even faster solution. Similarly to its predecessor, T-CUP 2.0 models co-receptor tropism using information of the electrostatic potential and hydrophobicity of V3-loops. However, extracting this information from a simplified structural vacuum-model leads to more accurate and faster predictions. The area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) achieved with T-CUP 2.0 on the training set is 0.968±0.005 in a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. When applied to an independent dataset, T-CUP 2.0 has an improved prediction accuracy of around 3% when compared to the original T-CUP. Conclusions We found that it is possible to model co-receptor tropism in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 based on a simplified structure-based model of the V3 loop. In this way, genotypic prediction of co-receptor tropism is very accurate, fast and can be applied to large datasets derived from next-generation sequencing technologies. The reduced complexity of the electrostatic modeling makes T-CUP 2.0 independent from third-party software, making it easy to install and use. PMID:25120583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21790914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21790914"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> PCR method for identifying isolates of the genus Azospirillum within populations of rhizosphere bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shime-Hattori, A; Kobayashi, S; Ikeda, S; Asano, R; Shime, H; Shinano, T</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>To develop a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detecting and identifying isolates of the genus Azospirillum which is well-recognized as plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium. Nine pairs of PCR primers were designed based on the Azospirillum 16S rRNA, ipdC, nifA and nifH genes to assess their genus specificity by testing against 12 Azospirillum (from seven species) and 15 non-Azospirillum reference strains, as compared with the fAZO/rAZO pair reported by Baudoin et al. (J Appl Microbiol, 108, 2010, 25). Among the primer pairs assessed, the Az16S-A pair designed on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed the highest genus specificity: it successfully yielded a single amplicon of the expected size in all the 12 Azospirillum strains and for a close relative, Rhodocista centenaria. The PCR with the Az16S-A primers generated a detectable amount of the amplicon from ≥10³ CFU ml⁻¹ of Azospirillum cell suspensions even in the presence of contaminants and accurately discriminated Azospirillum and non-Azospirillum species in both 35 Azospirillum-like and 70 unknown isolates from plant roots and rhizosphere soils. We developed a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> PCR method for detecting and identifying Azospirillum isolates within populations of rhizosphere bacteria. The method developed would serve as a useful tool for isolating a variety of indigenous Azospirillum bacteria from agricultural samples. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25976069"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening procedure for 143 new psychoactive substances by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In recent years, many new psychoactive substances (NPS) from several drug classes have appeared on the drug market. These substances, also known as 'legal highs', belong to different chemical classes. Despite the increasing number of NPS, there are few comprehensive screening methods for their detection in biological specimens. In this context, the purpose of this study was to develop a fast and <span class="hlt">simple</span> liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening procedure for NPS in blood. The elaborated method allows the simultaneous screening of 143 compounds from different groups (number of compounds): cathinones (36), phenethylamines (26), tryptamines (18), piperazines (9), piperidines (2), synthetic cannabinoids (34), arylalkylamines (7), arylcyclohexylamines (3), aminoindanes (2), and other drugs (6). Blood samples (0.2 mL) were precipitated with acetonitrile (0.6 mL). The separation was achieved with gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water in 14 min. Detection of all compounds was based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions. The total number of transitions monitored in dynamic mode was 432. The whole procedure was <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span>. The limits of detection (LODs) estimated for 104 compounds were in the range 0.01-3.09 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries determined for 32 compounds were from 1.8 to 133%. The procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of forensic blood samples in routine casework. The developed method should have wide applicability for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening of new drugs of abuse in forensic or clinical samples. The procedure can be easily expanded for more substances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3859048"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Determination of Ferulic Acid Levels in Food and Cosmetic Samples Using Paper-Based Platforms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples. PMID:24077320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061028','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061028"><span>Robust Polypropylene Fabrics Super-Repelling Various Liquids: A <span class="hlt">Simple</span>, <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and Scalable Fabrication Method by Solvent Swelling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Duan, Chunting; Zhai, Shuai; Liang, Songmiao; Jin, Yan; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> (10 s) and scalable method to fabricate superhydrophobic polypropylene (PP) fabrics is developed by swelling the fabrics in cyclohexane/heptane mixture at 80 °C. The recrystallization of the swollen macromolecules on the fiber surface contributes to the formation of submicron protuberances, which increase the surface roughness dramatically and result in superhydrophobic behavior. The superhydrophobic PP fabrics possess excellent repellency to blood, urine, milk, coffee, and other common liquids, and show good durability and robustness, such as remarkable resistances to water penetration, abrasion, acidic/alkaline solution, and boiling water. The excellent comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic PP fabrics indicates their potential applications as oil/water separation materials, protective garments, diaper pads, or other medical and health supplies. This <span class="hlt">simple</span>, fast and low cost method operating at a relatively low temperature is superior to other reported techniques for fabricating superhydrophobic PP materials as far as large scale manufacturing is considered. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable for preparing superhydrophobic PP films and sheets as well.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24077320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24077320"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> determination of ferulic acid levels in food and cosmetic samples using paper-based platforms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tee-ngam, Prinjaporn; Nunant, Namthip; Rattanarat, Poomrat; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon</p> <p>2013-09-26</p> <p>Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28243289','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28243289"><span>A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Protocol for Producing Yeast Extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suitable for Preparing Bacterial Culture Media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zarei, Omid; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Yeasts, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are one of the oldest organisms with broad spectrum of applications, owing to their unique genetics and physiology. Yeast extract, i.e. the product of yeast cells, is extensively used as nutritional resource in bacterial culture media. The aim of this study was to develop a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and cost benefit process to produce the yeast extract. In this procedure mechanical methods such as high temperature and pressure were utilized to produce the yeast extract. The growth of the bacteria feed with the produced yeast extract was monitored in order to assess the quality of the product. The results showed that the quality of the produced yeast extract was very promising concluded from the growth pattern of bacterial cells in media prepared from this product and was comparable with that of the three commercial yeast extracts in terms of bacterial growth properties. One of the main advantages of the current method was that no chemicals and enzymes were used, leading to the reduced production cost. The method is very <span class="hlt">simple</span> and cost effective, and can be performed in a reasonable time making it suitable for being adopted by research laboratories. Furthermore, it can be scaled up to produce large quantities for industrial applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24874362"><span>A highly <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawatsu, Kentaro; Kanki, Masashi; Harada, Tetsuya; Kumeda, Yuko</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Using a streptavidin-coated well plate, a biotin-labelled anti-gonyautoxin 2/3 monoclonal antibody GT-13A, and a decarbamoyl saxitoxin-peroxidase conjugate, a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PSP-ELISA) was developed for monitoring paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in shellfish. This assay is <span class="hlt">simple</span> to perform and can be completed in approximately 20 min. The PSP-ELISA was compared to the mouse bioassay (MBA) for the detection of PSP toxins in shellfish samples (n=83) collected from the coast of Osaka Prefecture, Japan. When positive and negative results were indicated based on the regulatory limit for PSP toxins (4 mouse unit(MU)/g of shellfish meat), the PSP-ELISA results showed a sensitivity of 100% (25 of 25) and a specificity of 89.7% (52 of 58 samples) compared to the MBA results. These results suggest that the PSP-ELISA could be used as a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> screening method prior to the MBA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5316271','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5316271"><span>A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Protocol for Producing Yeast Extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suitable for Preparing Bacterial Culture Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zarei, Omid; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Yeasts, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are one of the oldest organisms with broad spectrum of applications, owing to their unique genetics and physiology. Yeast extract, i.e. the product of yeast cells, is extensively used as nutritional resource in bacterial culture media. The aim of this study was to develop a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and cost benefit process to produce the yeast extract. In this procedure mechanical methods such as high temperature and pressure were utilized to produce the yeast extract. The growth of the bacteria feed with the produced yeast extract was monitored in order to assess the quality of the product. The results showed that the quality of the produced yeast extract was very promising concluded from the growth pattern of bacterial cells in media prepared from this product and was comparable with that of the three commercial yeast extracts in terms of bacterial growth properties. One of the main advantages of the current method was that no chemicals and enzymes were used, leading to the reduced production cost. The method is very <span class="hlt">simple</span> and cost effective, and can be performed in a reasonable time making it suitable for being adopted by research laboratories. Furthermore, it can be scaled up to produce large quantities for industrial applications. PMID:28243289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4038111','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4038111"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> inflammasome activation in microglia contributes to brain disease in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/AIDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1(<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1) infects and activates innate immune cells in the brain resulting in inflammation and neuronal death with accompanying neurological deficits. Induction of inflammasomes causes cleavage and release of IL-1β and IL-18, representing pathogenic processes that underlie inflammatory diseases although their contribution <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-associated brain disease is unknown. Results Investigation of inflammasome-associated genes revealed that IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 were induced in brains of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected persons and detected in brain microglial cells. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection induced pro-IL-1β in human microglia at 4 hr post-infection with peak IL-1β release at 24 hr, which was accompanied by intracellular ASC translocation and caspase-1 activation. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-dependent release of IL-1β from a human macrophage cell line, THP-1, was inhibited by NLRP3 deficiency and high extracellular [K+]. Exposure of microglia to <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 gp120 caused IL-1β production and similarly, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 envelope pseudotyped viral particles induced IL-1β release, unlike VSV-G pseudotyped particles. Infection of cultured feline macrophages by the related lentivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), also resulted in the prompt induction of IL-1β. In vivo FIV infection activated multiple inflammasome-associated genes in microglia, which was accompanied by neuronal loss in cerebral cortex and neurological deficits. Multivariate analyses of data from FIV-infected and uninfected animals disclosed that IL-1β, NLRP3 and caspase-1 expression in cerebral cortex represented key molecular determinants of neurological deficits. Conclusions NLRP3 inflammasome activation was an early and integral aspect of lentivirus infection of microglia, which was associated with lentivirus-induced brain disease. Inflammasome activation in the brain might represent a potential target for therapeutic interventions in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/AIDS. PMID:24886384</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28672037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28672037"><span>High acceptability of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing among a diverse sample of MSM from Buenos Aires, Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pando, Maria A; Dolezal, Curtis; Marone, Rubén O; Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, Maria M; Balán, Ivan C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing (RHST) among men who have sex with men (MSM). During 2006-2009, a sample of 500 MSM was recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling for an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence/incidence study. Attitude toward RHST was explored among <span class="hlt">HIV</span> negative MSM. Data were weighted prior to analyses. Participants reported they were likely to buy RHST (74%), test themselves more frequently than they currently do (77%), and that the procedure would simplify testing (70%). Furthermore, 71% reported they would probably use it alone, 66% would use it with a steady partner, and 56% with a friend/partner. While a majority acknowledged that RHST use would deprive them of receiving counseling (61%), 74% declared they would go for help if they tested positive; 57% would use an RHST in order to avoid condoms. Probability of use surpassed 70% among gay and non-gay identified MSM as well as those with and without a previous <span class="hlt">HIV</span> test. Those likely to buy RHST were older (p = 0.025) and more likely to identify as gay (p = 0.036). A total of 17% said they would think about killing themselves and 9% would attempt suicide if they tested positive. These MSM were more likely to be younger (p<0.001), with lower mood level (p<0.001) and greater feelings of loneliness (p = 0.026). The high acceptability of RHST found among MSM should encourage the authorities to consider the possibility of offering it for self-testing, as it can improve early diagnosis and prevention of future transmissions. However, further research is needed to understand how to best disseminate RHST among MSM who wish to use it and to offer support and linkage to care for those who test <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5175433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5175433"><span>Humoral Antibody Responses to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Viral Proteins and to CD4 Among <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Controllers, <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and Typical Progressors in an <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-Positive Patient Cohort</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fink, Elizabeth; Fuller, Katherine; Agan, Brian; Berger, Edward A.; Saphire, Andrew; Quinnan, Gerald V.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess humoral antibody responses as a function of disease progression (DP) in a well-defined <span class="hlt">HIV</span>+ cohort. We quantified antibodies to <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 gp120, Gag, and CD4 receptor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from a cohort of 97 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>+ subjects at defined stages of DP. We also measured antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a function of the clinical status of the patients. We purified antibodies to CD4 and gp120 and assessed them for specificity, ability to block gp120 binding to target cells, ability to block virus infection, and ability to facilitate ADCC. All of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>+ patient samples were positive for antibodies to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> gp120 and p24 and 80% showed evidence of hypergammaglobulinemia. Approximately 10% of cohort members were positive for antibodies to CD4, but we noted no significant correlation relevant to DP. There were statistically significant differences between the groups concerning the level of humoral response to gp120 and Gag. However, we observed no distinction in ability of anti-gp120 antibodies purified from each group to neutralize infection. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ADCC, with elite controllers exhibiting significantly lower levels of ADCC than the other five groups. We detected IgA anti-gp120 antibodies, but did not correlate their presence with either DP or ADCC levels. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the humoral antibody response to the antigens assessed here represents a signature of the level of viremia but does not correlate with clinical status of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection. PMID:27771962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133735','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4133735"><span>Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnosis of tuberculosis in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected individuals in Uganda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shah, Maunank; Dowdy, David; Joloba, Moses; Ssengooba, Willy; Manabe, Yukari C.; Ellner, Jerrold; Dorman, Susan E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Xpert MTB/RIF (‘Xpert’) and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people living with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a comparative study of LF-LAM and Xpert, with a target population of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected individuals with signs/symptoms of TB in Uganda. Methods A decision-analysis model compared multiple strategies for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> TB diagnosis:sputum smear-microscopy; sputum Xpert; smear-microscopy combined with LF-LAM; and Xpert combined with LF-LAM. Primary outcomes were the costs and DALY’s averted for each algorithm. Cost-effectiveness was represented using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Results Compared with an algorithm of Xpert testing alone, the combination of Xpert with LF-LAM was considered highly cost-effective (ICER $57/DALY-averted) at a willingness to pay threshold of Ugandan GDP per capita. Addition of urine LF-LAM testing to smear-microscopy was a less effective strategy than Xpert replacement of smear-microscopy, but was less costly and also considered highly cost-effective (ICER $33 per DALY-averted) compared with continued usage of smear-microscopy alone. Cost-effectiveness of the Xpert plus LF-LAM algorithm was most influenced by <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/ART costs and life-expectancy of patients after TB treatment. Conclusion The addition of urinary LF-LAM to TB diagnostic algorithms for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected individuals is highly cost-effective compared with usage of either sputum smear-microscopy or Xpert alone. PMID:25119690</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27795333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27795333"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Detection of Common <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Drug Resistance Mutations by Use of High-Resolution Melting Analysis and Unlabeled Probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sacks, David; Ledwaba, Johanna; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian M</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> accumulates resistance mutations following exposure to subtherapeutic concentrations of antiretroviral drugs that reduces treatment efficacy. High-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) has been used to successfully identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to genotype viral and bacterial species. Here, we tested the ability of HRMA incorporating short unlabeled probes to accurately assign drug susceptibilities at the 103, 181, and 184 codons of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 reverse transcriptase gene. The analytical sensitivities of the HRMA assays were 5% of mixed species for K103N and Y181C and 20% for M184V. When applied to 153 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 patient specimens previously genotyped by Sanger population sequencing, HRMA correctly assigned drug sensitivity or resistance profiles to 80% of the samples at codon 103 (K103K/N) (Cohen's kappa coefficient [κ] > 0.6; P < 0.05), 90% at 181 (Y181Y/C) (κ > 0.74, P < 0.05), and 80% at 184 (M184M/V) (κ > 0.62; P < 0.05). The frequency of incorrect genotypes was very low (≤1 to 2%) for each assay, which in most cases was due to the higher sensitivity of the HRMA assay. Specimens for which drug resistance profiles could not be assigned (9 to 20%) often had polymorphisms in probe binding regions. Thus, HRMA is a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, inexpensive, and sensitive method for the determination of drug sensitivities caused by major <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 drug resistance mutations and, after further development to minimize the melting effects of nontargeted polymorphisms, may be suitable for surveillance purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25538453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25538453"><span>Resazurin tube method: <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, and inexpensive method for detection of drug resistance in the clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patil, Santosh S; Mohite, Shivajirao T; Kulkarni, Sunanda A; Udgaonkar, Usha S</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious public health problem worldwide. The emergence of drug resistance and multidrug resistance (MDR) has become the main threat to TB treatment and control programs. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> detection is critical for the effective treatment of patients. In recent times, a new method using the colorimetric indicator resazurin has been proposed for drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, the resazurin reduction assay was adapted to screw cap tubes. Using the Resazurin Tube Method (RTM), a total of 100 clinical isolates were tested against Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazide (INH). By visual reading, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained after eight days. The results obtained were compared with the gold standard proportion method. Excellent results were obtained for RTM with a sensitivity of 100% for both RIF and INH, with a specificity of 98.7 and 95.3%, respectively. Kappa is the measure of agreement between the RTM and proportion method (PM) for RIF and INH, which was found to be 0.972 and 0.935 for RIF and INH, respectively. The RTM appears to be a reliable method for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and simultaneous detection of MDR-TB and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis. It is <span class="hlt">simple</span>, inexpensive, and with no biohazard risk involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19726619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19726619"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> lateral-flow assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oem, Jae Ku; Ferris, Nigel P; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Joo, Yi-Seok; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Park, Jong-Hyeon</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> lateral-flow assay (LFA) based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb 70-17) was developed for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under nonlaboratory conditions. The LFA was evaluated with epithelial suspensions (n = 704) prepared from current and historical field samples which had been submitted to the Pirbright Laboratory (United Kingdom) and from negative samples (n = 100) collected from naïve animals in Korea. Four FMDV serotypes (type O, A, Asia 1, and C) were detected in the LFA, but not the remaining three FMDV serotypes (SAT 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3). The diagnostic sensitivity of the LFA for FMDV types O, A, C, and Asia 1 was similar, at approximately 87.3%, to that of 87.7% obtained with antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA). The diagnostic specificity of the LFA was 98.8%, compared to 100% for the Ag-ELISA. These results demonstrate that the LFA using the FMDV MAb 70-17 to detect FMDV is a supportive method for taking <span class="hlt">rapid</span> measurements at the site of a suspected foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in Asia before diagnosing the disease in the laboratory, thereby offering the possibility of implementing control procedures more <span class="hlt">rapidly</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663531','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4663531"><span>A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Procedure for the Detection of Genes Encoding Shiga Toxins and Other Specific DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A novel procedure for the detection of specific DNA sequences has been developed. This procedure is based on the already known method employing PCR with appropriate primers and a sequence-specific DNA probe labeled with the fluorescent agent 6-carboxylfluorescein (FAM) at the 5′ end and the fluorescence quencher BHQ-1 (black hole quencher) at the 3′ end. However, instead of the detection of the fluorescence signal with the use of real-time PCR cyclers, fluorescence/luminescence spectrometers or fluorescence polarization readers, as in all previously-reported procedures, we propose visual observation of the fluorescence under UV light directly in the reaction tube. An example for the specific detection of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, by detecting Shiga toxin genes, is demonstrated. This method appears to be specific, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and cost effective. It may be suitable for use in research laboratories, as well as in diagnostic units of medical institutions, even those equipped only with a thermocycler and a UV transilluminator, particularly if <span class="hlt">rapid</span> identification of a pathogen is required. PMID:26580652</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26580652"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> procedure for the detection of genes encoding Shiga toxins and other specific DNA sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz</p> <p>2015-11-13</p> <p>A novel procedure for the detection of specific DNA sequences has been developed. This procedure is based on the already known method employing PCR with appropriate primers and a sequence-specific DNA probe labeled with the fluorescent agent 6-carboxylfluorescein (FAM) at the 5' end and the fluorescence quencher BHQ-1 (black hole quencher) at the 3' end. However, instead of the detection of the fluorescence signal with the use of real-time PCR cyclers, fluorescence/luminescence spectrometers or fluorescence polarization readers, as in all previously-reported procedures, we propose visual observation of the fluorescence under UV light directly in the reaction tube. An example for the specific detection of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains, by detecting Shiga toxin genes, is demonstrated. This method appears to be specific, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and cost effective. It may be suitable for use in research laboratories, as well as in diagnostic units of medical institutions, even those equipped only with a thermocycler and a UV transilluminator, particularly if <span class="hlt">rapid</span> identification of a pathogen is required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4279136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4279136"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Rapidly</span> Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Prevention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24947913"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of Salmonella in environmental and pecan samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dobhal, S; Zhang, G; Rohla, C; Smith, M W; Ma, L M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>PCR is widely used in the routine detection of foodborne human pathogens; however, challenges remain in overcoming PCR inhibitors present in some sample matrices. The objective of this study was to develop a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, sensitive, cost-effective and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for processing large numbers of environmental and pecan samples for Salmonella detection. This study was also aimed at validation of a new protocol for the detection of Salmonella from in-shell pecans. Different DNA template preparation methods, including direct boiling, prespin, multiple washing and commercial DNA extraction kits, were evaluated with pure cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium and with enriched soil, cattle feces and in-shell pecan each spiked individually with Salmonella Typhimurium. PCR detection of Salmonella was conducted using invA and 16S rRNA gene (internal amplification control) specific primers. The effect of amplification facilitators, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gelatin on PCR sensitivity, was also evaluated. Conducting a prespin of sample matrices in combination with the addition of 0·4% (w/v) BSA and 1% (w/v) PVP in PCR mix was the simplest, most <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, cost-effective and sensitive method for PCR detection of Salmonella, with up to 40 CFU Salmonella per reaction detectable in the presence of over 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) of background micro-organisms from enriched feces soil or pecan samples. The developed method is <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, cost-effective and sensitive for detection of Salmonella from different matrices. This study provides a method with broad applicability for PCR detection of Salmonella in complex sample matrices. This method has a potential for its application in different research arenas and diagnostic laboratories. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4273611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4273611"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and reliable protocol to localize hydrogen peroxide in large plant organs by DAB-mediated tissue printing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yong-Hua; Offler, Christina E.; Ruan, Yong-Ling</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, its localization in large and thick plant organs (e.g., stem, roots, and fruits), other than leaves, has proven to be challenging due to the difficulties for the commonly used H2O2-specific chemicals, such as 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB), cerium chloride (CeCl3), and 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA), to penetrate those organs. Theoretically, the reaction of endogenous H2O2 with these chemicals could be facilitated by using thin organ sections. However, the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> production of wound-induced H2O2 associated with this procedure inevitably disturbs the original distribution of H2O2 in vivo. Here, by employing tomato seedling stems and fruits as testing materials, we report a novel, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> protocol to localize H2O2 in those organs using DAB-mediated tissue printing. The <span class="hlt">rapidity</span> of the protocol (within 15 s) completely avoided the interference of wound-induced H2O2 during experimentation. Moreover, the H2O2 signal on the printing was stable for at least 1 h with no or little background produced. We conclude that DAB-mediated tissue printing developed here provide a new feasible and reliable method to localize H2O2 in large plant organs, hence should have broad applications in studying ROS biology. PMID:25566310</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457549','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457549"><span>Effect of different levels of <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> degradable carbohydrates calculated by a <span class="hlt">simple</span> rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a <span class="hlt">simple</span> rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (<span class="hlt">rapidly</span> degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877004','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877004"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Medeiros, Rúbia M.; Valverde-Villegas, Jacqueline M.; Junqueira, Dennis M.; Gräf, Tiago; Lindenau, Juliana D.; de Mello, Marineide G.; Vianna, Priscila; Almeida, Sabrina E. M.; Chies, Jose Artur B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs) and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> (RPs) progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93–136.5 months for SPs and 7.5–16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals—subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months—and those receiving HAART). The plasma cytokine levels of 16 <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-seronegative controls, and in <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or <span class="hlt">rapid</span> progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected individuals. PMID:27214135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28359394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28359394"><span>Preferences for oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing among social media-using young black, Hispanic, and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM): implications for future interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merchant, R C; Clark, M A; Liu, T; Rosenberger, J G; Romanoff, J; Bauermeister, J; Mayer, K H</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We assessed preferences of social media-using young black, Hispanic and white men-who-have-sex-with-men (YMSM) for oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing, as compared to other currently available <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing options. We also identified aspects of the oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-test that might influence preferences for using this test instead of other <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing options and determined if consideration of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing costs and the potential future availability of fingerstick <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing change <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing preferences. Anonymous online survey. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-uninfected YMSM across the United States recruited from multiple social media platforms completed an online survey about willingness to use, opinions about and their preferences for using oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing and five other currently available <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing options. In a pre/post questionnaire format design, participants first indicated their preferences for using the six <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing options (pre) before answering questions that asked their experience with and opinions about <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing. Although not revealed to participants and not apparent in the phrasing of the questions or responses, the opinion questions concerned aspects of oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing (e.g. its possible advantages/disadvantages, merits/demerits, and barriers/facilitators). Afterward, participants were queried again about their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing preferences (post). After completing these questions, participants were asked to re-indicate their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing preferences when considering they had to pay for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and if fingerstick blood sample <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing were an additional testing option. Aspects about the oral fluid <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-test associated with increased preference for using the test (post-assessment vs pre-assessment of opinion topics) were identified through multivariable regression models that adjusted for participant characteristics. Of the 1975 YMSM participants, the median age was 22 years (IQR 20-23); 19</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18979044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18979044"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> assessment of drug use and sexual <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risk patterns among vulnerable drug-using populations in Cape Town, Durban and Pretoria, South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parry, Charles; Petersen, Petal; Carney, Tara; Dewing, Sarah; Needle, Richard</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>This exploratory study examines the links between drug use and high-risk sexual practices and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> in vulnerable drug-using populations in South Africa, including commercial sex workers (CSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users who are not CSWs or MSM (NIDUs). A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> assessment ethnographic study was undertaken using observation, mapping, key informant interviews and focus groups in known 'hotspots' for drug use and sexual risk in Cape Town, Durban and Pretoria. Key informant (KI) and focus group interviews involved drug users and service providers. Purposeful snowball sampling and street intercepts were used to recruit drug users. Outcome measures included drug-related sexual <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risk behaviour, and risk behaviour related to injection drug use, as well as issues related to service use. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing of drug-using KIs was conducted using the SmartCheck <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Antibody Test. Non-injection drug use (mainly cannabis, methaqualone, crack cocaine and crystal methamphetamine) and injection drug use (mainly heroin) was occurring in these cities. Drug users report selling sex for money to buy drugs, and CSWs used drugs before, during and after sex. Most (70%) of the drug-using KIs offered <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing accepted and 28% were positive, with rates highest among CSWs and MSM. IDUs reported engaging in needle sharing and needle disposal practices that put them and others at risk for contracting <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. There was a widespread lack of awareness about where to access <span class="hlt">HIV</span> treatment and preventive services, and numerous barriers to accessing appropriate <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and drug-intervention services were reported. Multiple risk behaviours of vulnerable populations and lack of access to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention services could accelerate the diffusion of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. Targeted interventions could play an important role in limiting the spread of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> in and through these under-reached and vulnerable populations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26384948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26384948"><span>Ability of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing site to attract and test vulnerable populations: a cross-sectional study on Actuel sur Rue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engler, Kim; Rollet, Kathleen; Lessard, David; Thomas, Réjean; Lebouché, Bertrand</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Quebec's <span class="hlt">HIV</span> epidemic persists, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and in Montreal. Increasing access to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing is necessary and community-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing offers one strategy. This paper examines the clienteles and activities of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing site in Montreal, the pilot project Actuel sur Rue. Comparative analyses were conducted with 1357 MSM, 147 heterosexual men and 64 women who visited Actuel sur Rue between July 2012 and November 2013 on socio-demographics, health, drug use, sexual practices/infection and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing/prevention. Significant group differences were observed in each category. Actuel sur Rue received 1901 clients, conducted 1417 <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests and tested 77 never-tested individuals. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> testing produced a high reactive rate (2%). Only 1/28 of those with reactive tests had no previous <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, and 36% had used post-exposure prophylaxis, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention. Findings highlight diverse client vulnerability profiles and the relevance of checkpoints and further prevention efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342484"><span>Comparative evaluation of the Bio-Rad Geenius <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 Confirmatory Assay and the Bio-Rad Multispot <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Test as an alternative differentiation assay for CLSI M53 algorithm-I.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malloch, L; Kadivar, K; Putz, J; Levett, P N; Tang, J; Hatchette, T F; Kadkhoda, K; Ng, D; Ho, J; Kim, J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The CLSI-M53-A, Criteria for Laboratory Testing and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) Infection; Approved Guideline includes an algorithm in which samples that are reactive on a 4th generation EIA screen proceed to a supplemental assay that is able to confirm and differentiate between antibodies to <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2. The recently CE-marked Bio-Rad Geenius <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 Confirmatory Assay was evaluated as an alternative to the FDA-approved Bio-Rad Multispot <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Test which has been previously validated for use in this new algorithm. This study used reference samples submitted to the Canadian - NLHRS and samples from commercial sources. Data was tabulated in 2×2 tables for statistical analysis; sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, kappa and likelihood ratios. The overall performance of the Geenius and Multispot was very high; sensitivity (100%, 100%), specificity (96.3%, 99.1%), positive (45.3, 181) and negative (0, 0) likelihood ratios respectively, high kappa (0.96) and low bias index (0.0068). The ability to differentiate <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 (99.2%, 100%) and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 (98.1%, 98.1%) Ab was also very high. The Bio-Rad Geenius <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 Confirmatory Assay is a suitable alternative to the validated Multispot for use in the second stage of CLSI M53 algorithm-I. The Geenius has additional features including traceability and sample and cassette barcoding that improve the quality management/assurance of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing. It is anticipated that the CLSI M53 guideline and assays such as the Geenius will reduce the number of indeterminate test results previously associated with the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 WB and improve the ability to differentiate <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 infections. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410125','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4410125"><span>The diagnostic performance evaluation of the SD BIOLINE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/syphilis Duo <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shimelis, Techalew; Tadesse, Endale</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To determine the diagnostic performance of the SD BIOLINE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/syphilis Duo <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test. Design A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting This evaluation was conducted at one of the largest hospitals in southern Ethiopia. Participants Serum samples obtained from clients attending the antiretroviral therapy and voluntary counselling and testing centres were used. Sera were originally collected for the purpose of investigating syphilis epidemiology. The performance of the test to detect <span class="hlt">HIV</span> was evaluated using 400 sera (200 <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positives and 200 <span class="hlt">HIV</span> negatives). Also, its performance to detect syphilis was evaluated using 85 syphilis positive and 100 syphilis negative serum samples. Individuals <15 years of age or syphilis treated or those with ≤50 cells/µL CD4 cell count were originally excluded. Outcome measures <span class="hlt">HIV</span> screening was carried out according to the national <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic testing (RDT) algorithm: Shenghai Kehua Bioengineering (KHB) test kit as a screening test, followed by the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 STAT-PAK assay if positive. Where the result of the STAT-PAK is discordant with KHB, Unigold <span class="hlt">HIV</span> is used as a tiebreaker to determine the result. We also used ELISA to resolve discordant <span class="hlt">HIV</span> results. Syphilis serostatus was determined using the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). Results The respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the SD BIOLINE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/syphilis Duo test were 100, 99.5, 99.5 and 100% for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> and 97.6, 96, 95.4 and 98% for syphilis testing, respectively. In reference to TPHA, the test kit reported 4 false positives and 2 false negative results for syphilis. The κ values were 0.99 for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and 0.94 for syphilis testing. Conclusions The excellent performance of the SD BIOLINE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/syphilis Duo test to detect <span class="hlt">HIV</span> as well as syphilis facilitates the integration of syphilis testing and treatment to the already established <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention programme, ultimately contributing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22831816"><span>Bioluminescence-based identification of nisin producers - a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> screening method for nisinogenic bacteria in food samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Virolainen, Nina; Guglielmetti, Simone; Arioli, Stefania; Karp, Matti</p> <p>2012-08-17</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for screening nisin producers that directly identifies nisinogenic bacteria by induction of bioluminescence within the Lactococcus lactis NZ9800lux biosensor strain (Immonen and Karp, 2007, Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22, 1982-7). An overlay of putative nisinogenic colonies with the biosensor strain gives identification results within 1h. Functionality and specificity of the method were verified by screening nisin producers among 144 raw milk colonies and a panel of 91 lactococcal strains. Studies performed on strains and colonies that did not induce bioluminescence but inhibited growth of the biosensor demonstrated that only nisinogenic bacteria can cause induction. Bacteria known to produce bacteriocins other than nisin failed to induce bioluminescence, further verifying the specificity of the assay. We discovered a non-inducing but inhibitory lactococcal strain harboring a modified nisin Z gene, and demonstrated that the source of the inhibitory action is not a non-inducing variant of nisin, but a bacteriocin of lower molecular weight. The concentration of nisin producers in a raw milk sample was 1.3 × 10(2)CFU/ml. We identified from raw milk a total of seven nisin Z producing L. lactis subsp. lactis colonies, which were shown by genetic fingerprinting to belong to three different groups. Among the panel of 91 lactococci, four strains were nisin A producers, and one strain harbored the modified nisin Z gene. The method presented here is robust, cost-effective and <span class="hlt">simple</span> to perform, and avoids the pitfalls of traditional screening methods by directly specifying the identity of the inhibitory substance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27336161"><span>Initial Accuracy of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choko, Augustine T; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S; Kumwenda, Moses K; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D; Webb, Emily L; Corbett, Elizabeth L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing programmes. A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine <span class="hlt">HIV</span> 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing with two of each of the three <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Erroneous results observed during <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> self-testing programmes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237484','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4237484"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tatebe, Chiye; Zhong, Xining; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine basic colorants such as pararosaniline (PA), auramine O (AO), and rhodamine B (RB) in various processed foods was developed. Linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 50 μg/mL for PA and 0.05–100 μg/mL for AO and RB. The detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) of the basic colorants, which were evaluated as signal-to-noise ratios of 3 for LOD and 10 for LOQ, ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 and 0.025 to 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviations of three basic colorants in six processed foods, namely, chili sauce, curry paste, gochujang (hot pepper paste), tandoori chicken (roasted chicken prepared with yogurt and spices), powder soup, and shrimp powder ranged from 70.2% to 102.8% and 0.8% to 8.0%, respectively. The intraday precision of the recovery test ranged from 1.7% to 4.5%, whereas the interday precision ranged from 3.7% to 7.7%. The reported method has been successfully applied to basic colorant determination in various processed foods such as fat-based food matrices (curry paste and tandoori chicken), chili products (gochujang and chili sauce), and protein-based products (shrimp powder and powder soup). Thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for the determination of basic colorants in processed foods were also developed for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> analysis and identification, respectively. These methods are very useful for monitoring unauthorized basic colorants in inspection centers or quarantine laboratories in many countries. PMID:25473512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2725184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2725184"><span>Morphine Causes <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Increases in Glial Activation and Neuronal Injury in the Striatum of Inducible <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat Transgenic Mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Turchan-Cholewo, Jadwiga; Smart, Eric J.; Geurin, Theresa; Chauhan, Ashok; Reid, Rollie; Xu, Ruqiang; Nath, Avindra; Knapp, Pamela E.; Hauser, Kurt F.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span> encephalitis (HIVE) is accompanied by brain inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and glial activation, and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> patients who abuse opiates are more likely to develop HIVE. To better understand how opiates could alter <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-related brain inflammation, the expression of astrocyte (GFAP immunoreactivity) and macrophage/microglial (F4/80 or Mac1 immunoreactivity) markers in the striatum, and the percentage of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) positive macrophages/microglia, was determined following a 2 day exposure to morphine (5 mg/kg/day via time-release, subcutaneous implant) and doxycycline in GFAP-driven, doxycycline-inducible <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat transgenic mice. Data show that both morphine and Tat induction via doxycycline increased astrocyte activation, with significant additive increases achieved with combined morphine and doxycycline exposure. By contrast, combined Tat induction and morphine exposure, but neither manipulation alone, significantly increased the proportion of macrophages/microglia present in the striatum of transgenic mice, although morphine exposure was necessary to elevate 3-NT co-detection in Mac1-positive macrophages/microglia. Finally, Tat induction increased the percentage of neurons expressing active caspase-3, and this was even more significantly elevated by co-administration of morphine. In spite of elevations in caspase-3, neuronal TUNEL reactivity was unchanged in all groups, even after 10 days of Tat induction. Importantly, co-administration of naltrexone completely antagonized the effects of morphine. These findings indicate that morphine <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and significantly increases the activation of astrocytes and macrophages/microglia in the brains of inducible Tat transgenic mice, supporting the theory that early inflammatory changes in glia could underlie the development of HIVE in opiate-abusing AIDS patients. PMID:18551626</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18551626','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18551626"><span>Morphine causes <span class="hlt">rapid</span> increases in glial activation and neuronal injury in the striatum of inducible <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat transgenic mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Turchan-Cholewo, Jadwiga; Smart, Eric J; Geurin, Theresa; Chauhan, Ashok; Reid, Rollie; Xu, Ruqiang; Nath, Avindra; Knapp, Pamela E; Hauser, Kurt F</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span> encephalitis (HIVE) is accompanied by brain inflammation, leukocyte infiltration, and glial activation, and <span class="hlt">HIV</span> patients who abuse opiates are more likely to develop HIVE. To better understand how opiates could alter <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-related brain inflammation, the expression of astrocyte (GFAP immunoreactivity) and macrophage/microglial (F4/80 or Mac1 immunoreactivity) markers in the striatum, and the percentage of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) positive macrophages/microglia, was determined following a 2-day exposure to morphine (5 mg/kg/day via time-release, subcutaneous implant) and doxycycline in GFAP-driven, doxycycline-inducible <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Tat transgenic mice. Data show that both morphine and Tat induction via doxycycline increased astrocyte activation, with significant additive increases achieved with combined morphine and doxycycline exposure. By contrast, combined Tat induction and morphine exposure, but neither manipulation alone, significantly increased the proportion of macrophages/microglia present in the striatum of transgenic mice, although morphine exposure was necessary to elevate 3-NT co-detection in Mac1-positive macrophages/microglia. Finally, Tat induction increased the percentage of neurons expressing active caspase-3, and this was even more significantly elevated by co-administration of morphine. In spite of elevations in caspase-3, neuronal TUNEL reactivity was unchanged in all groups, even after 10 days of Tat induction. Importantly, co-administration of naltrexone completely antagonized the effects of morphine. These findings indicate that morphine <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and significantly increases the activation of astrocytes and macrophages/microglia in the brains of inducible Tat transgenic mice, supporting the theory that early inflammatory changes in glia could underlie the development of HIVE in opiate-abusing AIDS patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17933262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17933262"><span>[<span class="hlt">Rapid</span> development of anemia in a <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive patient with alpha-thalassemia after zidovudine therapy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Altinbaş, Akif; Ozkaya, Gülşen; Büyükaşik, Yahya; Unal, Serhat</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Anemia, which may develop due to direct effect of the virus or indirect effect of zidovudine a widely used antiviral agent for the treatment, is not an uncommon complication in human immundeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) infections. In this report, a 26 years old male <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive patient who developed <span class="hlt">rapid</span> anemia in the HAART (Highly active anti-retroviral therapy) protocol including zidovudine, was presented. The patient has been followed since May 2003 without anti-retroviral therapy. He was diagnosed as alpha-thalassemia trait, because of the low mean red blood cell volume (MCV), high red blood cell count and living in an Mediterranian country. However, no treatment for thalassemia had been given in this period, since the other laboratory findings [hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell distribution width index (RDWI), iron and iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels] were normal. During the follow-up of patient, HAART protocol with zidovudine, lamivudine and indinavir, was started depending on the findings of low CD4+ T-cell count (443/mm3) and high <span class="hlt">HIV</span> serum load (1,330,000 copies/ml). In the second month of the therapy the hemoglobin level decreased to 12.9 gr/dL, and then to 9.9 gr/dL in the fourth month, while it was 14.5 gr/dL before anti-retroviral therapy. Although the patient had no hemolysis findings, and his serum folic acid level was normal, folbiol treatment was initiated with the possibility of the presence of folic acid deficiency at cellular level. Anemia resolved with folic acid replacement without discontinuation of zidovudine or a reduction in dosage. It was thought that the presence of alpha-thalassemia co-morbidity has facilitated the development of anti-retroviral-induced anemia in this patient. As a result, it is concluded that thalassemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of anemia in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive patients, especially for the ones from Mediterranian countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627688L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627688L"><span>The BUME method: a new <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this study we present a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20544732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20544732"><span>Proteolysis approach without chemical modification for a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> analysis of disulfide bonds using thermostable protease-immobilized microreactors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya; Maeda, Hideaki</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Disulfide bonds in proteins are important not only for the conformational stability of the protein but also for the regulation of oxidation-reduction in signal transduction. The conventional method for the assignment of disulfide bond by chemical cleavage and/or proteolysis is a time-consuming multi-step procedure. In this study, we report a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> analysis of disulfide bond from protein digests that were prepared by the thermostable protease-immobilized microreactors. The feasibility and performance of this approach were evaluated by digesting lysozyme and BSA at several temperatures. The proteins which stabilize their conformations by disulfide bonds were thermally denatured during proteolysis and were efficiently digested by the immobilized protease but not by free protease. The digests were directly analyzed by ESI-TOF MS without any purification or concentration step. All four disulfide bonds on lysozyme and 10 of 17 on BSA were assigned from the digests by the trypsin-immobilized microreactor at 50 degrees C. The procedure for proteolysis and the assignment were achieved within 2 h without any reduction and alkylation procedure. From the present results, the proteolysis approach by the thermostable protease-immobilized microreactor provides a strategy for the high-throughput analysis of disulfide bond in proteomics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24388905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24388905"><span>Facile colorimetric method for <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> detection of endotoxin based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yashan; Zhang, Daohong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Zhu, Wenxin; Wang, Jianlong</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>Existence of endotoxin in food and injection products indicates bacterial contaminations and therefore poses threat to human health. Herein, a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> colorimetric method for the effective detection of endotoxin in food and injections based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation is first proposed. By taking advantage of the color change of unmodified gold nanorods resulted from endotoxin mediated gold nanorods aggregation, endotoxin could be detected in the concentration range of 0.01-0.6 μM. Further, we studied the performance of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (2.7 and 3.3) in determination of endotoxin and found that gold nanorods with higher aspect ratio (AR) showed superiority in the sensing sensitivity of endotoxin. A good specificity for endotoxin, a detection limit of 0.0084 μM and recoveries ranging from 84% to 109% in spiked food and injection samples are obtained with the colorimetric method. Results demonstrate that the present method provides a novel and effective approach for on-site screening of endotoxin in common products, which is beneficial for monitoring and reducing the risk of bacterial contaminations in food and injections production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16997981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16997981"><span>New <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> methods for detection of bacteria and determination of their antibiotic susceptibility by using phage mutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ulitzur, Nirit; Ulitzur, Shimon</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Three new methods applying a novel approach for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> detection of specific bacteria, based on plaque formation as the end point of the phage lytic cycle, are described. Different procedures were designed to ensure that the resulting plaques were derived only from infected target bacteria ("infectious centers"). (i) A pair of amber mutants that cannot form plaques at concentrations lower than their reversion rate underwent complementation in the tested bacteria; the number of plaques formed was proportional to the concentration of the bacteria that were coinfected by these phage mutants. (ii) UV-irradiated phages were recovered by photoreactivation and/or SOS repair mediated by target bacteria and plated on a recA uvrA bacterial lawn in the dark to avoid recovery of noninfecting phages. (iii) Pairs of temperature-sensitive mutants were allowed to coinfect their target bacteria at the permissive temperature, followed by incubation of the plates at the restrictive temperature to avoid phage infection of the host cells. This method allowed the omission of centrifuging and washing the infected cells. Only phages that recovered by recombination or complementation were able to form plaques. The detection limit was 1 to 10 living Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157 cells after 3 to 5 h. The antibiotic susceptibility of the target bacteria could also be determined in each of these procedures by preincubating the target bacteria with antibiotic prior to phage infection. Bacteria sensitive to the antibiotic lost the ability to form infectious centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18024047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18024047"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> capillary electrophoresis method for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> separation and determination of intact low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Patel, Rahul P; Narkowicz, Christian; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Jacobson, Glenn A</p> <p>2008-01-07</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, selective and accurate capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> separation and identification of various low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) and unfractionated heparin. Separation and operational parameters were investigated using dalteparin sodium as the test LMWH. The developed method used a 70 cm fused silica capillary (50 microm i.d.) with a detection window 8.5 cm from the distal end. Phosphate electrolyte (pH 3.5; 50 mM), an applied voltage of -30 k V, UV detection at 230 nm and sample injection at 20 mbar for 5s were used. The method performance was assessed in terms of linearity, selectivity, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the European Pharmacopeia LMWH standard, dalteparin sodium, enoxaparin sodium and heparin sodium with a significant reduction in the run time and increased resolution compared with previously reported CE methods. Different CE separation profiles were obtained for various LMWHs and unfractionated heparin showing significant structural diversity. The current methodology was sensitive enough to reveal minor constituent differences between two different batches of enoxaparin sodium. This CE method also clearly showed chemical changes that occurred to LMWHs under different stress conditions. The sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity of the developed method allow its application in research or manufacturing for the identification, stability analysis, characterization and monitoring of batch-to-batch consistency of different low molecular weight and unfractionated heparins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcSpA..79..325B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AcSpA..79..325B"><span>Application of sulphanilamides disazo dyes with Tropaeolin O for <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and sensitive spectrophotometric assay of medicines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boiko, Maria; Vrublevska, Teodoziya; Korkuna, Olha; Teslyar, Grigory</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some sulphanilamides is described. The method is based on the formation of blue coloured disazo dyes by the diazotization of sulphonamides viz. sulphanilamide (SA), sulphamerazine (SMR), sulphamethazine (SMZ), sulphadimethoxine (SDM), sulphamethoxazole (SMX), sulphadiazine (SDA), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulphaguanidine (SGN), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM), sulphamethoxypyridazine (SMP) in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid media at ice bath followed by the azocoupling reaction with acid monoazo dye Tropaeolin O (TrO) at pH = 10.5. Formed products are stable for 10 h at room temperature. Effective molar absorptivities at absorbance maxima 595 nm for disazo dyes were ˜10 4 M -1 cm -1. Stoichiometric ratios of the components of disazo dyes were determined by means of mole ratio and continuous variations methods. Linear ranges for sulphanilamides determination were 0.4-14.0 μg ml -1. The methods were successfully approved at suphanilamides determination in model solutions and commercial pharmaceutical preparations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26581565"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and efficient method for isolating detrusor for the culture of bladder smooth muscle cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Zhi; Xie, Hua; Huang, Yichen; Lv, Yiqing; Yang, Ganggang; Chen, Yan; Sun, Huizhen; Zhou, Junmei; Chen, Fang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>To establish a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method to remove serosa and mucosa from detrusor for the culture of bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group, pure bladder detrusor was directly obtained from bladder wall using novel method characterized by subserous injection of normal saline. In the second group, full thickness bladder wall sample was cut down, and then, mucosa and serosa were trimmed off detrusor ex vivo. Twelve detrusor samples from two groups were manually minced and enzymatically digested, respectively, to form dissociated cells whose livability was detected by trypan blue exclusion. Proliferative ability of primary culture cells was detected by CCK-8 kit, and purity of second-passage SMCs was detected by flow cytometric analyses. Another two detrusor samples from two groups were used for histological examination. Subserous injection of normal saline combined with blunt dissection can remove mucosa and serosa from detrusor layer easily and quickly. Statistical analysis revealed the first group possessed higher cell livability, shorter primary culture cell doubling time, and higher purity of SMCs than the second group (P < 0.05). Histological examination confirmed no serosa and mucosa existed on the surface of detrusor obtained by novel method, while serosa or mucosa residual can be found on the surface of detrusor obtained by traditional method. Pure detrusor can be acquired from bladder wall conveniently using novel method. This novel method brought about significantly higher purity and cell livability as compared to traditional method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044863"><span>A <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Method for Expression and Purification of Functional TNF-α Using GST Fusion System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alizadeh, Ali A; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Farajzadeh, Malak; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A; Dastmalchi, Siavoush</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine, involved in both physiological and pathological pathways. Although there have been various attempts to express and purify human TNF-α, the current work introduces a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and efficient method for its production without loss of biological activity. The protein was expressed based on GST-tagged fusion system in Escherichia coli under optimized condition. The expressed GST fusion protein was applied to glutathione affinity column and then, TNF-α was cleaved off the GST using thrombin protease. The purity of the product was more than 95% and further size exclusion chromatography slightly improved the purity. The purified human TNF-α was tested for its biological activity and structural analysis, using MTT assay (EC(50) of 4.1 ×10E-12 M in L929 cell death assay) and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, respectively. The results showed that the method used in this study enables successful production of highly purified and fully functional TNF-α.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22960954"><span>A novel double antibody sandwich-lateral flow immunoassay for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> detection of hepatitis C virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiang, Tingxiu; Jiang, Zheng; Zheng, Jian; Lo, Chaoyu; Tsou, Harry; Ren, Guosheng; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Ailong; Lai, Guoqi</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to screen for antigens of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) to establish a new double antibody sandwich-lateral flow immunoassay (DAS-LFIA) method for testing the presence of anti-HCV antibodies in human serum or plasma. A series of different recombinant HCV proteins in Escherichia coli cells were constructed, expressed, purified and the new DAS-LFIA strip was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of new the DAS-LFIA strip were evaluated by detecting 23 HCV-positive sera, a set of quality control references for anti-HCV detection that contain known amounts of anti-HCV antibodies, and 8 HCV-negative sera. A total of 300 clinical serum samples was examined by both the new DAS-LFIA strip and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 software. The sensitivity and specificity of the new DAS-LFIA strip were 100%. The lowest test line of the HCV DAS-LFIA strips was 2 NCU/ml. Additionally, the concordance between the new DAS-LFIA strip and ELISA methods was 94.33%. In conclusion, our new testing method is <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, sensitive and specifically detects the presence of anti-HCV antibodies in human serum or plasma. Therefore, it may be used for monitoring HCV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26003440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26003440"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> preparation of red fluorescence and red color S. aureus derived nanobioparticles for pathogen detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In this study, a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method was developed to transform protein A producing Staphylococcus aureus cells into red color and red fluorescent nanobioparticles, which were homogeneous, dispersive and relatively stable with a uniform size of 800 nm. The method consists of reaction with a monotetrazolium redox dye at 25°C for 15 min and heat inactivation at 65°C for 30 min. This method provided the first S. aureus nanobioparticles with the dual property of red color and red fluorescence. Attributed to the IgG binding site known as protein A on their surface, the nanobioparticles could be used as vectors for immunoassays of many bacteria and viruses. Coagglutination test of Escherichia coli O157:H7 observed by naked eyes showed that the detection limitation of the nanobioprobes was 1∗10(6) CFU/ml, which was about 100 times more sensitive than the natural uncolored S. aureus bioprobes. Red fluorescence detection and analysis of the coagglutination product by a microplate reader lowered the detection limit to 2.5∗10(4) CFU/ml.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901324','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901324"><span>The BUME method: a new <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this study we present a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22726635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22726635"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for monitoring dissolved oxygen in water with a submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A submersible microbial fuel cell (SBMFC) was developed as a biosensor for in situ and real time monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in environmental waters. Domestic wastewater was utilized as a sole fuel for powering the sensor. The sensor performance was firstly examined with tap water at varying DO levels. With an external resistance of 1000Ω, the current density produced by the sensor (5.6 ± 0.5-462.2 ± 0.5 mA/m(2)) increased linearly with DO level up to 8.8 ± 0.3mg/L (regression coefficient, R(2)=0.9912), while the maximum response time for each measurement was less than 4 min. The current density showed different response to DO levels when different external resistances were applied, but a linear relationship was always observed. Investigation of the sensor performance at different substrate concentrations indicates that the organic matter contained in the domestic wastewater was sufficient to power the sensing activities. The sensor ability was further explored under different environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity, and alternative electron acceptor), and the results indicated that a calibration would be required before field application. Lastly, the sensor was tested with different environmental waters and the results showed no significant difference (p>0.05) with that measured by DO meter. The <span class="hlt">simple</span>, compact SBMFC sensor showed promising potential for direct, inexpensive and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> DO monitoring in various environmental waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6036900','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6036900"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> solid-phase radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone, using the protein A of Staphylococcus aureus as immunoadsorbent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jungers, J.; Delogne-Desnoeck, J.; Robyn, C.</p> <p>1981-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and inexpensive radioimmunoassay method for serum progesterone is described, which uses a solid-phase technique for separation of antibody-bound from antibody-free progesterone. Rabbit antiprogesterone immunoglobulins are adsorbed on the protein A of formaldehyde- and heat-treated Staphylococcus aureus cells (Pansorbin; Calbiochem-Behring Corp., La Jolla, California). The suspension of antibody-coated Pansorbin retains all its binding activity of 1-2-H(N)-progesterone when kept at + 4/sup 0/ or at -25/sup 0/C for at least 4 months. Dose-response curves obtained with ether-serum extracts and with the progesterone standard do not deviate significantly from parallelism. The progesterone standard gives identical dose-response curves whether diluted in the assay buffer or in a progesterone-free ether-serum extract. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.02 ng/assay tube. The intra-assay variation coefficient is 16%, and the routine interassay variation coefficient is 17%. The mean serum progesterone concentrations were 0.55 ng/ml during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and 12.5 ng/ml during the luteal phase. The average blank value for distilled water was 0.02 ng/assay tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15620517"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> procedure for the determination of cannabinoids in hemp food products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona</p> <p>2005-01-04</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> procedure using liquid-liquid extraction and subsequent gas chromatographic mass-spectrometric detection has been developed for determination of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in different hemp foods. After addition of Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol as internal standard, both solid and liquid specimens were extracted with two volumes of 2 ml of hexane/isopropanol (9:1): Chromatography was performed on a fused silica capillary column and analytes were determined in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was validated in the range 1-50 ng/ml liquid samples or 1-50 ng/g solid samples for THC and CBN, and 2-50 ng/ml or ng/g for CBD. Mean recoveries ranged between 78.8 and 90.2% for the different analytes in solid and liquid samples. The quantification limits were 1 ng/ml or ng/g for THC and CBN and 2 ng/ml or ng/g CBD. The method was applied to analysis of various hemp foods. THC content in different products varied 50-fold, whereas CBN and CBD were absent in some samples and achieved hundreds of ng/ml or ng/g in others. The concentration ratio (THC + CBN)/CBD was used to differentiate between the phenotypes of cannabis plants in different specimens. Products possibly originating from drug-type cannabis plants were found in the majority of analyzed specimens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5032271','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5032271"><span>H sup + -ATP synthase from rat liver mitochondria. A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> purification method of the functional complex and its characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yoshihara, Yutaka; Nagase, Hideki; Yamane, Takeshi; Oka, Hideki; Tani, Isamu; Higuti, Tomihiko )</p> <p>1991-07-16</p> <p>A novel, <span class="hlt">simple</span>, and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> preparative method for purification of rat liver H{sup +}-ATP synthase by anion-exchange HPLC was developed. The H{sup +}-ATP synthase purified had higher ATPase activity in the absence of added phospholipids than any preparation reported previously, and this activity was completely inhibited by oligomycin. When reconstituted into proteoliposomes, the H{sup +}-ATP synthase showed an ATP-dependent 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate response and ATP-P{sub i} exchange activity, both of which were also completely inhibited by oligomycin and an uncoupler, indicating the intactness of the H{sup +}-ATP synthase. An immunochemical study and a labeling experiment with N,N{prime}-({sup 14}C)dicyclohexylcarbondiimide (({sup 14}C)DCCD) demonstrated the presence of chargerin II (a product of mitochondrial A6L DNA) and DCCD-binding protein (subunit c) in the complex. The subunits of the complex were separated into 11 main fractions by reverse-phase HPLC, and 3 of them and the {sigma} subunit in F{sub 1} were partially sequenced. A search for sequence homologies indicated that these components were subunit b, coupling factor 6, subunit {sigma}, and subunit e. This is the first report of the existence of subunit b, factor 6, and chargerin II in K{sup +}-ATP synthase purified from rat liver mitochondria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10029324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10029324"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method of nucleic acid extraction without tissue homogenization for detecting viroids by hybridization and RT-PCR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakahara, K; Hataya, T; Uyeda, I</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method of nucleic acid extraction on a microcentrifuge tube scale for detecting viroids is presented. Five distinct citrus viroids (CVds), chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), hop stunt viroid (HSVd), hop latent viroid (HLVd) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) were detected in their natural host plants by hybridization using cRNA probes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nucleic acids (NA) were liberated from tissues by incubation in a buffer containing potassium ethyl xanthogenate (PEX) without tissue homogenization, and then precipitated with ethanol (NA-PEX). All the viroids except CVd-IV could be detected clearly in NA-PEX by hybridization. HSVd, HLVd and PSTVd could also be detected in NA-PEX by RT-PCR. Although CVds and CSVd could not be detected in NA-PEX by RT-PCR, they were detected after further purification: differential precipitation with 2-butoxyethanol and HCl treatment followed by ethanol-precipitation. In addition, PCR in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride specifically amplified the cDNA of all five distinct CVds under the same temperature and cycle conditions. Since all the viroids could be detected in NA liberated by PEX, the amount of NA extracted by the method described here is sufficient for detecting viroids, enabling the processing of a large number of samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377397"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and, cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) as photoresist master.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Gabriel, Ellen F M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo A; de Souza, Fabrício R; Lopes, Wanderson D; Lima, Renato S; Gobbi, Angelo L; Coltro, Wendell K T</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This study describes a <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion as photoresist master. High-relief microfluidic structures were defined on poly(vinyl acetate) previously deposited on printed circuit boards surfaces without cleanroom facilities and sophisticated instrumentation. After a UV exposure, channels with heights ranging from 30 to 140 μm were obtained by controlling the emulsion mass deposited on the master surface. The developing stage was performed using water rather than the organic solvents that are applied for conventional masks. The surface morphology was characterized by optical imaging, profilometry, and SEM. Based on the achieved results, the proposed method offers suitable reproducibility for the prototyping of electrophoresis microchips in PDMS. The feasibility of the resulting PDMS electrophoresis chips was successfully demonstrated with the separation of major inorganic cations within 100 s using a contactless conductivity detection system. The separation efficiencies ranged from ca. 67 900 to 125 600 plates/m. Due to the satisfactory performance and simplified instrumentation, we believe this fabrication protocol presents potential to be implemented in any chemical, biochemical, or biological laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20450199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20450199"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> micromethod for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters in different foodstuffs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Küsters, Markus; Bimber, Ute; Ossenbrüggen, Alexandra; Reeser, Sebastian; Gallitzendörfer, Rainer; Gerhartz, Michael</p> <p>2010-06-09</p> <p>This paper describes for the first time a micromethod for the simultaneous determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD (3-MCPD esters) in different foodstuffs. 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD esters were isolated from food products using a single extraction step separating hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. An aliquot of the aqueous layer was analyzed for the content of 3-MCPD while a part of the organic layer was analyzed for 3-MCPD esters after cleavage with sodium methoxide. After a <span class="hlt">simple</span> derivatization procedure with phenylboronic acid (PBA), the determination was achieved by isotope dilution GC-MS using isotope-labeled 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD ester as internal standards. The method was validated for various foodstuffs like bakery products, meat and fish products, and soups as well as seasonings with LOD of 1-2 microg/kg (3-MCPD) and 6 microg/kg (3-MCPD esters), respectively. Recoveries ranged within 95 +/- 9% and 96 +/- 10% at spiking levels of 15 and 25 microg/kg in all matrices for 3-MCPD and 84 +/- 9% and 85 +/- 7% at spiking levels of 0.05 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg for 3-MCPD esters. The method avoids tedious and laborious sample preparation and was successfully applied to the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening of samples conforming to the EU performance criteria for methods of analysis for 3-MCPD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21459663"><span>Application of sulphanilamides disazo dyes with Tropaeolin O for <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and sensitive spectrophotometric assay of medicines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boiko, Maria; Vrublevska, Teodoziya; Korkuna, Olha; Teslyar, Grigory</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of some sulphanilamides is described. The method is based on the formation of blue coloured disazo dyes by the diazotization of sulphonamides viz. sulphanilamide (SA), sulphamerazine (SMR), sulphamethazine (SMZ), sulphadimethoxine (SDM), sulphamethoxazole (SMX), sulphadiazine (SDA), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulphaguanidine (SGN), sulphamonomethoxine (SMM), sulphamethoxypyridazine (SMP) in 0.5M hydrochloric acid media at ice bath followed by the azocoupling reaction with acid monoazo dye Tropaeolin O (TrO) at pH=10.5. Formed products are stable for 10h at room temperature. Effective molar absorptivities at absorbance maxima 595nm for disazo dyes were ∼10(4)M(-1)cm(-1). Stoichiometric ratios of the components of disazo dyes were determined by means of mole ratio and continuous variations methods. Linear ranges for sulphanilamides determination were 0.4-14.0μgml(-1). The methods were successfully approved at suphanilamides determination in model solutions and commercial pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552316','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5552316"><span>Rare <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 transmitted/founder lineages identified by deep viral sequencing contribute to <span class="hlt">rapid</span> shifts in dominant quasispecies during acute and early infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sanders-Buell, Eric; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Thomas, Rasmi; Harbolick, Elizabeth A.; Bose, Meera; Pham, Phuc; Oropeza, Celina; Poltavee, Kultida; O’Sullivan, Anne Marie; Costanzo, Margaret C.; Warren, Joanna A.; Slike, Bonnie; Li, Hui; Peachman, Kristina K.; Gao, Feng; Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; O’Connell, Robert J.; Sinei, Samuel; Maganga, Lucas; Rao, Mangala; Marovich, Mary A.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Rolland, Morgane; Shaw, George M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In order to inform the rational design of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection (AHI). Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a) the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b) the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c) an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency. In most participants, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape was first detected at the end of peak viremia downslope, proceeded at higher rates than previously measured in <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection, and usually occurred through the exploration of multiple mutational pathways within an epitope. The <span class="hlt">rapid</span> emergence of CTL escape variants suggests a strong and early CTL response. Minor T/F viral strains can contribute to <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and varied profiles of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 quasispecies evolution during AHI. Overall, our results demonstrate that early, deep, and frequent sampling is needed to investigate viral/host interaction during AHI, which could help identify prerequisites for prevention and cure of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 infection. PMID:28759651</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16078623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16078623"><span>Smart <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>The quick <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing method called "MiraWell <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a <span class="hlt">simple</span> pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This <span class="hlt">HIV</span> test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing kits. Also, the smart <span class="hlt">HIV</span> system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1838923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1838923"><span>Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy, Feasibility and Client Preference for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Oral Fluid-Based Diagnosis of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> Infection in Rural India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pant Pai, Nitika; Joshi, Rajnish; Dogra, Sandeep; Taksande, Bharati; Kalantri, S.P.; Pai, Madhukar; Narang, Pratibha; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Reingold, Arthur L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Background Oral fluid-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests are promising for improving <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnosis and screening. However, recent reports from the United States of false-positive results with the oral OraQuick® ADVANCE <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 test have raised concerns about their performance in routine practice. We report a field evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy, client preference, and feasibility for the oral fluid-based OraQuick® <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 test in a rural hospital in India. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 450 consenting participants with suspected <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection in rural India. The objectives were to evaluate performance, client preference and feasibility of the OraQuick® <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/2 tests. Two Oraquick® <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 tests (oral fluid and finger stick) were administered in parallel with confirmatory ELISA/Western Blot (reference standard). Pre- and post-test counseling and face to face interviews were conducted to determine client preference. Of the 450 participants, 146 were deemed to be <span class="hlt">HIV</span> sero-positive using the reference standard (seropositivity rate of 32% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28%, 37%)). The OraQuick test on oral fluid specimens had better performance with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 99, 100), as compared to the OraQuick test on finger stick specimens with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 98, 100), and a specificity of 99.7% (95% CI 98.4, 99.9). The OraQuick oral fluid-based test was preferred by 87% of the participants for first time testing and 60% of the participants for repeat testing. Conclusion/Significance In a rural Indian hospital setting, the OraQuick® <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>- <span class="hlt">HIV</span>1/2 test was found to be highly accurate. The oral fluid-based test performed marginally better than the finger stick test. The oral OraQuick test was highly preferred by participants. In the context of global efforts to scale-up <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, our data suggest that oral fluid-based <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24471168"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> operation assessment of voluntary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> counselling and testing services in three cities in China, 2009.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, W; Ye, S; Xiao, Y; Jin, C; Li, Y; Zhao, L; Cai, Y; Liu, B; Detels, R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To assess the operation of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services forhuman immunodeficiency virus (<span class="hlt">HIV</span>) in three cities in China. A cross-sectional study using mixed methods, including focus group discussions,in-depth interviews, field assessment, archive checking and structured questionnaire interviews, was conducted to assess different aspects of VCT services. Surveys were undertaken in six counties of three China Global Fund AIDS Program (Round Five) cities, including 11 VCT clinics, 38 counsellors, 83 clients and 332 individuals at risk for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection. All counsellors were trained and approved for providing counselling. As there were adequate numbers of clinics and counsellors, VCT services ran smoothly. Clients were generally satisfied with VCT services and considered service operation to be adequate. Problems with the VCT programme included fewer VCT services in general hospitals, lack of a referral mechanism, and long delays between testing and receipt of results. The operation of VCT services in the three cities was generally adequate, but referral services were poor. More attention needs to be paid to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counselling in general hospitals, and referral networks need to be strengthened.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681195','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681195"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> respirometric biosensor with immobilized cells of Nitrosomonas europaea for detecting inhibitors of ammonia oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Rong; Chung, Wook-Jin; Jahng, Deokjin</p> <p>2005-03-15</p> <p>As obligate chemolithotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) grow very slowly and are known to be extremely sensitive to a wide variety of inhibitors. Since it is generally accepted that inhibition of ammonia oxidation by AOB results in a total failure of nitrogen removal, it is necessary to develop a method to detect inhibitors of ammonia oxidation in wastewater. Since ammonia oxidation accompanies oxygen consumption, ammonia oxidation can be easily evaluated by measuring oxygen consumption rate using a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe. In this study, a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> respirometric biosensor using the pure culture of Nitrosomonas europaea was developed. N. europaea was cultivated in a continuous fermentor operating at the dilution rate of 0.008 h(-1) to obtain physiologically constant cells and was immobilized onto the dialysis membrane through filtration. DO, determined by the biosensor, started to increase 30 s later after ammonia oxidation inhibitor was fed, and a new steady-state DO was obtained in 10-30 min. For this DO profile, steady-state kinetics was applied to evaluate ammonia oxidation efficiency. The concentration of a toxic compound causing 50% decrease of oxygen-consumption activity (EC50) was determined for different chemicals. The EC50 values obtained with the biosensor (0.018 mg l(-1) for allylthiourea, 0.027 mg l(-1) for thioacetamide, 1.10 mg l(-1) for phenol and 0.0 1mg l(-1) for thiourea) indicated that the developed biosensor was highly sensitive to a variety of the inhibitors. It was also shown that the biosensor is applicable for on-line real time monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23603134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23603134"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> optical biosensor for detection of aflatoxin B1 based on competitive dispersion of gold nanorods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Xia; Liu, Xiangjiang; Li, Yanbin; Ying, Yibin</p> <p>2013-09-15</p> <p>This report illustrates a promising one-step and label-free optical biosensor for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that is most commonly found in foods and highly dangerous even at very low concentrations. In this research, gold nanorods (GNRs) were employed as a sensing platform, which showed high stability under high ionic strength conditions without addition of any stabilizing agent. GNR-AFB1-BSA (bovine serum albumin) conjugates aggregated after mixing with free antibodies, resulting in significant changes in absorption intensity. At the same time the existence of AFB1 molecules in samples caused dispersion of nanorods, as a result of competitive immune-reaction with antibodies. By taking advantages of the competitive dispersion of GNRs, the developed method could effectively reduce false results caused by undesirable aggregation, which is a big problem for spherical gold nanoparticles. Absorption intensity of UV-vis spectra served as the sensing indicator, with dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement as another sensing tool. The designed biosensing system could detect AFB1 in a linear range from 0.5 to 20ngmL(-1), with a good correlation coefficient of 0.99. And the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.16ngmL(-1), indicating an excellent sensitivity with absorbance result. The recoveries of the spiked AFB1 in real peanut samples ranged from 94.2% to 117.3%. Therefore the proposed nano-biosensor was demonstrated to be sensitive, selective, and <span class="hlt">simple</span>, providing a viable alternative for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening of toxins in agriculture products and foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26597796"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method for calixarene-based selective extraction of bioactive molecules from natural products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Segneanu, Adina-Elena; Damian, Daniel; Hulka, Iosif; Grozescu, Ioan; Salifoglou, Athanasios</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Natural products derived from medicinal plants have gained an important role in drug discovery due to their complex and abundant composition of secondary metabolites, with their structurally unique molecular components bearing a significant number of stereo-centers exhibiting high specificity linked to biological activity. Usually, the extraction process of natural products involves various techniques targeting separation of a specific class of compounds from a highly complex matrix. Aiding the process entails the use of well-defined and selective molecular extractants with distinctly configured structural attributes. Calixarenes conceivably belong to that class of molecules. They have been studied intensely over the years in an effort to develop new and highly selective receptors for biomolecules. These macrocycles, which display remarkable structural architectures and properties, could help usher a new approach in the efficient separation of specific classes of compounds from complex matrices in natural products. A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> such extraction method is presented herein, based on host-guest interaction(s) between a calixarene synthetic receptor, 4-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene, and natural biomolecular targets (amino acids and peptides) from Helleborus purpurascens and Viscum album. Advanced physicochemical methods (including GC-MS and chip-based nanoESI-MS analysis) suggest that the molecular structure and specifically the calixarene cavity size are closely linked to the nature of compounds separated. Incorporation of biomolecules and modification of the macrocyclic architecture during separation were probed and confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The collective results project calixarene as a promising molecular extractant candidate, facilitating the selective separation of amino acids and peptides from natural products.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24699804"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> changes within dietary subgroups can <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verger, Eric O; Holmes, Bridget A; Huneau, Jean François; Mariotti, François</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Identifying the dietary changes with the greatest potential for improving diet quality is critical to designing efficient nutrition communication campaigns. Our objective was to simulate the effects of different types of dietary substitutions to improve diet quality at the individual level. Starting from the observed diets of 1330 adults participating in the national French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé), we simulated the effects of 3 different types of food and beverage substitutions with graded implementation difficulty for the consumer in a stepwise dietary counseling model based on the improvement in the PANDiet index, which measures diet quality in terms of nutrient adequacy. In scenario 1, substitutions of a food or beverage for its "lighter" version resulted in a modest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +3.3 ± 0.1) and a decrease in energy intake (Δ = -114 ± 2 kcal/d). In scenario 2, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food subgroup resulted in a marked improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +26.4 ± 0.2) with no significant change in energy intake. In this second scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was due to substitutions in many subgroups, with no single subgroup contributing >8% to the increase in the PANDiet score. In scenario 3, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food group resulted in the greatest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +31.8 ± 0.2) but with an increase in energy intake (Δ = +204 ± 9 kcal/d). In this third scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was largely due to substitutions of fish for meat and processed meat (∼30% of the increase in the PANDiet score). This study shows that a strategy based on <span class="hlt">simple</span> substitutions within food subgroups is effective in <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> improving the nutritional adequacy of the diet of French adults and could be used in public health nutrition actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28024585"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol assembled Au substrate and its recognition mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Xian-Qing; Liang, Hai-Qing; Cao, Zhong; Xiao, Qing; Xiao, Zhong-Liang; Song, Liu-Bin; Chen, Dan; Wang, Fu-Liang</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> mercury ion selective electrode based on 1-undecanethiol (1-UDT) assembled Au substrate (Au/1-UDT) has been well constructed. 1-UDT was for the purpose of generating self-assembled monolayer on gold surface to recognize Hg(2+) in aqueous solution, which had a working concentration range of 1.0×10(-8)-1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a Nernst response slope of 28.83±0.4mV/-pC, a detection limit of 4.5×10(-9)molL(-1), and a good selectivity over the other tested cations. Also, the Au/1-UDT possessed good reproducibility, stability, and short response time. The recovery obtained for the determination of mercury ion in practical tremella samples was in the range of 99.8-103.4%. Combined electrochemical analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with quantum chemical computation, the probable recognition mechanism of the electrode for selective recognition of Hg(2+) has been investigated. The covalent bond formed between mercury and sulfur is stronger than the one between gold and sulfur and thus prevents the adsorption of 1-UDT molecules on the gold surface. The quantum chemical computation with density functional theory further demonstrates that the strong interaction between the mercury atom and the sulfur atom on the gold surface leads to the gold sulfur bond ruptured and the gold mercury metallophilic interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26455644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26455644"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is <span class="hlt">simple</span> to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10928229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10928229"><span>Evaluation of diagnostic reliability of DCA 2000 for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> monitoring of HbA1c.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arsie, M P; Marchioro, L; Lapolla, A; Giacchetto, G F; Bordin, M R; Rizzotti, P; Fedele, D</p> <p>2000-03-01</p> <p>The monitoring of diabetic patients by evaluating glycated protein levels is now widely accepted and performed. The microchromatographic version of the high performance liquid chromatography method is the technique most frequently used in clinical practice. The DCA 2000 instrument (Bayer Diagnostics, Milan, Italy), based on an immunochemical technique, has been proposed for the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> evaluation of HbAlc, using even capillary blood. We evaluated 171 subjects including 22 healthy volunteers, 78 type 2 diabetic patients with different degrees of metabolic control, 11 women affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 6 patients with hyperlipemia, 38 patients with chronic renal failure, 13 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure, and 3 patients with hemoglobinopathies. The DCA 2000 model was compared with the Diamat HPLC system. Data from within-run imprecision studies showed excellent precision, for both DCA 2000 and the HPLC system. The correlation between the two different systems, as shown by other statistical evaluations, was good (y = 0.911x + 0.462, r = 0.923). Results from the control group and diabetic patients were used to compare the two methods. Values obtained using the DCA 2000 were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than those obtained with the HPLC system, in both healthy subjects and diabetic patients. To detect possible interferences, selected samples were analyzed from patients with hyperlipemia, diabetes and chronic renal failure, and hemoglobinopathies. While in the case of hyperlipemia, an acceptable correlation coefficient between the two systems was confirmed (y = 1.047x - 1.236, r = 0.876), in the case of chronic renal failure the correlation turned out to be very low (y = 0.254x + 3.456, r = 0.203). Our results indicate that the DCA 2000 gives accurate and reliable results in the clinical field of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2560704','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2560704"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a <span class="hlt">simple</span> school questionnaire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as <span class="hlt">simple</span> school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277956"><span><span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> purification of pediocin PA-1 from Pediococcus pentosaceous NCDC 273 suitable for industrial application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vijay Simha, B; Sood, S K; Kumariya, Rashmi; Garsa, Anita Kumari</p> <p>2012-10-12</p> <p>The use of pediocins as food additives or drugs requires a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method by which large quantities of homogeneous pediocin are produced at industrial level. Two centrifugation steps required during initial stages of purification i.e. separation of cells from fermentation broth and collection of precipitates after ammonium sulphate precipitation are the major bottlenecks for their large scale purification. In the present work, pediocin production by a new a dairy strain, Pediococcus pentosaceous NCDC 273 (identical to pediocin PA-1 at nucleotide sequence level), was found to be optimum at initial pH of 6.0 and 7.0 of basal MRS supplemented with 20 g/l of glucose or lactose at 20 and 24 h, respectively. Immobilization of cells through entrapment in alginate-xanthan gum gel beads with chitosan coating resulted in negligible cell release during fermentation. Thus, the cell free extract was directly collected through decantation, avoiding the need of centrifugation step at this stage. Subsequent ammonium sulphate precipitation at isoelectric point of pediocin PA-1 (8.85), using magnetic stirrer at high speed (approx. 1200 rpm), resulted in forceful deposition of precipitates on the wall of precipitation beaker allowing their collection using a spatula, avoiding centrifugation step at this stage also. Further purification using cation-exchange chromatography resulted in yield of 134.4% with more than 320 fold purification with the specific activity of 19×10⁵ AU/mg. The collection of single peak of pediocin at 41.9min in RP-HPLC, overlapping with standard pediocin PA-1, resulted in yield of 1.15 μg from 20 μl of sample applied. The overlapping of RP-HPLC peak and SDS-PAGE band corresponding to 4.6 kDa, confirmed the purity and identity of pediocin 273 as pediocin PA-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089653"><span>[Evaluation of Basic Performance of "Point Strip ferritin-3000" for <span class="hlt">Simple</span> and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Quantification of Serum Ferritin].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shibusa, Kotoe; Hatayama, Mayumi; Toki, Yasumichi; Yamamoto, Masayo; Ito, Satoshi; Shindo, Motohiro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Tomoda, Yutaka; Kawai, Yuichi; Addo, Lynda; Ikuta, Katsuya</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Serum ferritin is an excellent marker for total iron content in the body and is essential for the diagnosis of iron deficiency or iron overload. Recently, a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> method, which utilizes immunochromatography for the quantification of serum ferritin, was developed. However, the range of measurement in previous reagents was limited (10-500 ng/mL). This range is rather narrow and is not fully helpful for the diagnosis of iron overload which sometimes occurs as a result of prolonged transfusions, or for monitoring iron contents during iron chelation therapy against iron overload. In the present study we evaluated the basic performance of the newly developed "Point Strip ferritin-3000", which can measure serum ferritin in the range of 300-3,000 ng/mL. Coefficient of variation (CV) s of within and inter-day assays were in the ranges of 7.3-11.1% and 2.1-5.2%, respectively. Using 87 serum samples obtained from the patients with written informed consents, the correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.93 compared to the control method. In addition, the quantification of serum ferritin by "Point Strip ferritin-3000" was not influenced by bilirubin, hemoglobin, chyle, rheumatoid factor, or ascorbic acid. From our data, "Point Strip ferritin-3000" is reliable reagent in the range of 300-3,000 ng/mL, and is therefore considered to be useful for the diagnosis of iron overload, as well as for monitoring iron contents during iron chelation therapy. In addition, this quantification method can be easily performed using a small desktop equipment without any special technique, making this system applicable for epidemiological surveys and clinical studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264086','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264086"><span>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization immunoassay for simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and environmental water samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A <span class="hlt">simple</span>, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, and high-throughput fluorescent polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was developed. Three haptens were labeled with a fluorescein probe and used as tracers to develop a homogenous FPIA using a broad-specificity monoclon...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163866&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163866&keyword=gold&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A <span class="hlt">SIMPLE</span> AND <span class="hlt">RAPID</span> MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163866&keyword=laser&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90775252&CFTOKEN=15684302','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163866&keyword=laser&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90775252&CFTOKEN=15684302"><span>A <span class="hlt">SIMPLE</span> AND <span class="hlt">RAPID</span> MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a <span class="hlt">simple</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25393202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25393202"><span>Implementing an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Testing-Linkage-to-Care Project Among Homeless Individuals in Los Angeles County: A Collaborative Effort Between Federal, County, and City Government.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anaya, Henry D; Butler, Jaimi N; Knapp, Herschel; Chan, Kee; Conners, Erin E; Rumanes, Sophia F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We developed and implemented an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing-linkage-to-care initiative between federal and local government. Methods. We used mixed methodology; <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing data were collected on-site, and qualitative data were collected via telephone. We used postintervention stakeholder and staff interviews to evaluate barriers and facilitators to this initiative. Results. We tested 817 individuals. We identified and confirmed 7 preliminary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> positive individuals (0.86% seropositivity), 5 of whom were linked to care. Mean testing cost was $48.95 per client; cost per positive result was $5714. Conclusions. This initiative can be used as a template for other health departments and research teams focusing on homelessness and mitigation of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>/AIDS epidemic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26082868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26082868"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> assessment of post-disclosure experiences of urban <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative school-aged children in Kenya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gachanja, Grace</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There has been limited involvement of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> disclosure studies; most studies conducted on the effects of disclosure on children have been with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive mother-child dyads. Seven <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and five <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children participated in a larger study conducted to understand the lived experiences of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. In this study, the experiences of these 12 children after receiving disclosure of their own and their parents' illnesses respectively are presented. Each child underwent an in-depth qualitative semi-structured digitally recorded interview. The recorded interviews were transcribed and loaded into NVivo8 for phenomenological data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data, indicating that <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and negative children appear to have differing post-disclosure experiences revolving around acceptance of illness, stigma and discrimination, medication consumption, sexual awareness, and use of coping mechanisms. Following disclosure, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children accepted their parents' illnesses within a few hours to a few weeks; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children took weeks to months to accept their own illnesses. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children knew of high levels of stigma and discrimination within the community; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children reported experiencing indirect incidences of stigma and discrimination. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children wanted their parents to take their medications, stay healthy, and pay their school fees so they could have a better life in the future; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children viewed medication consumption as an ordeal necessary to keep them healthy. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children wanted their parents to speak to them about sexual-related matters; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children had lingering questions about relationships, use of condoms, marriage, and childbearing options. All but one preadolescent <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive child had self-identified a person to speak with for social support</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4465943"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> assessment of post-disclosure experiences of urban <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative school-aged children in Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There has been limited involvement of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> disclosure studies; most studies conducted on the effects of disclosure on children have been with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive mother-child dyads. Seven <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and five <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children participated in a larger study conducted to understand the lived experiences of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. In this study, the experiences of these 12 children after receiving disclosure of their own and their parents’ illnesses respectively are presented. Each child underwent an in-depth qualitative semi-structured digitally recorded interview. The recorded interviews were transcribed and loaded into NVivo8 for phenomenological data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data, indicating that <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive and negative children appear to have differing post-disclosure experiences revolving around acceptance of illness, stigma and discrimination, medication consumption, sexual awareness, and use of coping mechanisms. Following disclosure, <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children accepted their parents’ illnesses within a few hours to a few weeks; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children took weeks to months to accept their own illnesses. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children knew of high levels of stigma and discrimination within the community; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children reported experiencing indirect incidences of stigma and discrimination. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children wanted their parents to take their medications, stay healthy, and pay their school fees so they could have a better life in the future; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children viewed medication consumption as an ordeal necessary to keep them healthy. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-negative children wanted their parents to speak to them about sexual-related matters; <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive children had lingering questions about relationships, use of condoms, marriage, and childbearing options. All but one preadolescent <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive child had self-identified a person to speak with for social</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5567898','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5567898"><span>Evaluating quality management systems for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests have improved access to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Material and methods We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests, to assess the quality management system for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing at each clinic. To determine clinic’s compliance to WHO quality standards for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor). A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05. Results Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2%) of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test was performed by <span class="hlt">HIV</span> lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics’ average rating score for compliance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28829801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28829801"><span>Evaluating quality management systems for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span> tests have improved access to <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> tests, to assess the quality management system for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor). A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05. Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2%) of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that <span class="hlt">HIV</span> <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test was performed by <span class="hlt">HIV</span> lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged between 64.4% (CI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932223"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> neurotoxin-based distinction of Chinese and Japanese star anise by direct plant spray mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schrage, Marijn; Shen, Yao; Claassen, Frank W; Zuilhof, Han; Nielen, Michel W F; Chen, Bo; van Beek, Teris A</p> <p>2013-11-22</p> <p>Ingestion of products containing Chinese star anise (Illicium verum) fruits contaminated or adulterated with Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) fruits can cause poisoning due to the neurotoxin anisatin that is present in Japanese star anise. Thus a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, <span class="hlt">simple</span> and unambiguous distinction between the morphologically similar Chinese star anise and toxic Japanese star anise fruits is important for guaranteeing food safety. After adding ~200 μL of methanol to one star anise carpel placed at 7-10mm from the inlet of a mass spectrometer and applying a potential of ~5 kV to the carpel, an electrospray is created. The formation of the electrospray is immediate, robust and stable and lasts for at least a minute. The presence or absence of anisatin could be monitored by orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in negative mode by observing the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327.1074 (C15H19O8) or in positive mode the [M+K](+) ion at m/z 367.079 (C15H20KO8). Several parameters like wetting solvent, voltage, distance and set-up were optimised. The anisatin signal was ~250 times higher in Japanese than in Chinese star anise. An existing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) HRMS for anisatin was used for benchmarking. Alternatively a linear ion trap mass spectrometer could be used in negative selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode albeit with lower selectivity than the HRMS method. The transition of the [M-H](-) ion at m/z 327 to the fragment at m/z 265 was monitored. Direct plant spray and DART ionisation are both robust and provided the same yes/no answer in seconds without any prior sample preparation. Compared with the DART-HRMS procedure, the direct plant spray method is simpler in terms of equipment, yields a more stable signal, does not require heating of the sample but is slightly less selective and requires working with high voltages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032121"><span>Design and baseline findings of a large-scale <span class="hlt">rapid</span> response to an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hatzakis, Angelos; Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Micha, Katerina; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Malliori, Meni; Psichogiou, Mina; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; van de Laar, Marita; Donoghoe, Martin; Heckathorn, Douglas D; Friedman, Samuel R; Des Jarlais, Don C</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>To (i) describe an intervention implemented in response to the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 outbreak among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Greece (ARISTOTLE programme), (ii) assess its success in identifying and testing this population and (iii) describe socio-demographic characteristics, risk behaviours and access to treatment/prevention, estimate <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence and identify risk factors, as assessed at the first participation of PWIDs. A 'seek, test, treat, retain' intervention employing five rounds of respondent-driven sampling. Athens, Greece (2012-13). A total of 3320 individuals who had injected drugs in the past 12 months. ARISTOTLE is an intervention that involves reaching out to high-risk, hard-to-reach PWIDs ('seek'), engaging them in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and providing information and materials to prevent <span class="hlt">HIV</span> ('test') and initiating and maintaining anti-retroviral and opioid substitution treatment for those testing positive ('treat' and 'retain'). Blood samples were collected for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing and personal interviews were conducted. ARISTOTLE recruited 3320 PWIDs during the course of 13.5 months. More than half (54%) participated in multiple rounds, resulting in 7113 visits. <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevalence was 15.1%. At their first contact with the programme, 12.5% were on opioid substitution treatment programmes and the median number of free syringes they had received in the preceding month was 0. In the multivariable analysis, apart from injection-related variables, homelessness was a risk factor for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection in male PWIDs [odds ratio (OR) yes versus no = 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41, 2.52] while, in female PWIDS, the number of sexual partners (OR for > 5 versus one partner in the past year = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.93, 8.77) and history of imprisonment (OR yes versus no = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.43, 5.31) were associated with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>. In Athens, Greece, the ARISTOTLE intervention for identifying <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated <span class="hlt">rapid</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854521','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854521"><span>Design and baseline findings of a large-scale <span class="hlt">rapid</span> response to an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> outbreak in people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece: the ARISTOTLE programme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hatzakis, Angelos; Sypsa, Vana; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chrissa; Micha, Katerina; Panopoulos, Anastasios; Malliori, Meni; Psichogiou, Mina; Pharris, Anastasia; Wiessing, Lucas; van de Laar, Marita; Donoghoe, Martin; Heckathorn, Douglas D.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>-positive people among people who inject drugs (PWID) facilitated <span class="hlt">rapid</span> identification of a hidden population experiencing an outbreak and provided <span class="hlt">HIV</span> testing, counselling and linkage to care. According to ARISTOTLE data, the 2011 <span class="hlt">HIV</span> outbreak in Athens resulted in 15% <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection among PWID. Risk factors for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> among PWID included homelessness in men and history of imprisonment and number of sexual partners in women. PMID:26032121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD..30..471T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JCAMD..30..471T"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> activity prediction of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 integrase inhibitors: harnessing docking energetic components for empirical scoring by chemometric and artificial neural network approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thangsunan, Patcharapong; Kittiwachana, Sila; Meepowpan, Puttinan; Kungwan, Nawee; Prangkio, Panchika; Hannongbua, Supa; Suree, Nuttee</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Improving performance of scoring functions for drug docking simulations is a challenging task in the modern discovery pipeline. Among various ways to enhance the efficiency of scoring function, tuning of energetic component approach is an attractive option that provides better predictions. Herein we present the first development of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and <span class="hlt">simple</span> tuning models for predicting and scoring inhibitory activity of investigated ligands docked into catalytic core domain structures of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 integrase (IN) enzyme. We developed the models using all energetic terms obtained from flexible ligand-rigid receptor dockings by AutoDock4, followed by a data analysis using either partial least squares (PLS) or self-organizing maps (SOMs). The models were established using 66 and 64 ligands of mercaptobenzenesulfonamides for the PLS-based and the SOMs-based inhibitory activity predictions, respectively. The models were then evaluated for their predictability quality using closely related test compounds, as well as five different unrelated inhibitor test sets. Weighting constants for each energy term were also optimized, thus customizing the scoring function for this specific target protein. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) values between the predicted and the experimental inhibitory activities were determined to be <1 (i.e. within a magnitude of a single log scale of actual IC50 values). Hence, we propose that, as a pre-functional assay screening step, AutoDock4 docking in combination with these subsequent <span class="hlt">rapid</span> weighted energy tuning methods via PLS and SOMs analyses is a viable approach to predict the potential inhibitory activity and to discriminate among small drug-like molecules to target a specific protein of interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020756"><span>Sex isn't that <span class="hlt">simple</span>: culture and context in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention interventions for gay and bisexual male adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harper, Gary W</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Gay and bisexual male adolescents and young adults in the United States have been disproportionately impacted by the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> pandemic. Despite the steadily increasing rise in their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection rates, there has not been a commensurate increase in <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention programs targeted to the unique social and sexual lives of these youths. Programs that address cultural and contextual factors that influence sexual risk and protective behaviors need to be developed, implemented, and rigorously evaluated. These interventions should address the potential influences of sexual and gay culture on the <span class="hlt">HIV</span> risk/protective behaviors of gay and bisexual adolescents, as well as the influence of more traditional cultural factors related to ethnicity. The influence of contextual developmental factors should also be addressed. This may include an incorporation into prevention programs of the societal-level influences of heterosexism and masculinity ideology and the individual-level influences of sexual identity and ethnic identity development. Researchers and interventionists need to be creative and innovative in their <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention approaches and ensure that programs are grounded in the lives and realities of gay and bisexual adolescents and young adults. Copyright (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2624574','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2624574"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and Efficient Purification of RNA-Binding Proteins: Application to <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Rev</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marenchino, Marco; Armbruster, David W.; Hennig, Mirko</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Non-specifically bound nucleic acid contaminants are an unwanted feature of recombinant RNA-binding proteins purified from Escherichia coli (E. coli). Removal of these contaminants represents an important step for the proteins’ application in several biological assays and structural studies. The method described in this paper is a one-step protocol which is effective at removing tightly bound nucleic acids from over-expressed tagged <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Rev in E. coli. We combined affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions with subsequent on-column refolding, to prevent self-association of Rev while removing the nucleic acid contaminants from the end product. We compare this purification method with an established, multi-step protocol involving precipitation with polyethyleneimine (PEI). As our tailored protocol requires only one step to simultaneously purify tagged proteins and eliminate bound cellular RNA and DNA, it represents a substantial advantage in time, effort, and expense. PMID:18852051</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342485"><span>The Multispot <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 differentiation assay is comparable with the Western blot and an immunofluorescence assay at confirming <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection in a prospective study in three regions of the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pandori, Mark W; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cindy; Moss, Nicholas; Fu, Jie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Craw, Jason; Hall, Laura; Giancotti, Francesca R; Mak, Mae Ling; Madayag, Carmela; Tsoi, Benjamin; Louie, Brian; Patel, Pragna; Owen, S Michele; Peters, Philip J</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">HIV</span> diagnostic algorithm has been proposed which replaces the use of the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Western blot and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the supplemental test with an <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 antibody differentiation assay. To compare an FDA-approved <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 antibody differentiation test (Multispot) as a confirmatory test with the <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Western blot and IFA. Participants were screened with an <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1/<span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 combination Antigen/Antibody (Ag/Ab) screening assay. Specimens with repeatedly reactive results were tested with Multispot and either Western blot or IFA. Specimens with discordant screening and confirmatory results were resolved with <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 RNA testing. Individuals (37,876) were screened for <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection and 654 (1.7%) had a repeatedly reactive Ag/Ab assay result. On Multispot, 554 (84.7%) were <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 reactive, 0 (0%) were <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 reactive, 1 (0.2%) was reactive for both <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-2 (undifferentiated), 9 (1.4%) were <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 indeterminate, and 90 (13.8%) were non-reactive. <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 RNA was detected in 47/90 Multispot non-reactive (52.2%) specimens. Among specimens confirmed to have <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infection (true positives), Multispot and Western blot detected <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 antibody in a similar proportion of cases (93.7% vs. 94.4% respectively) while Multispot and IFA also detected <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 antibody in a similar proportion of cases (84.5% vs. 83.4% respectively). In this study, Multispot confirmed <span class="hlt">HIV</span> infections at a similar proportion to Western blot and IFA. Multispot, Western blot, and IFA, however, did not confirm all of the reactive Ag/Ab assay results and underscores the importance of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> NAT testing to resolve discordant screening and confirmatory results. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26279387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26279387"><span>Applying qualitative data derived from a <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Assessment and Response (RAR) approach to develop a community-based <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention program for adolescents in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watthayu, Nantiya; Wenzel, Jennifer; Panchareounworakul, Kobkul</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">HIV</span> education programs are needed to address risk-taking behavior for adolescents. The purpose of our study was to use the World Health Organization's <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Assessment and Response (RAR) method to design a community-based, cultural- and age-appropriate <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention program for adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent single-gender-specific focus groups (n = 3; 28 participants) were used to gather reactions/ideas about program topics/approaches. An adult, mixed-gender group was held to review information identified by adolescents. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Themes regarding <span class="hlt">HIV</span> content and the process of implementation emerged from a qualitative content analysis of the data. Community representatives recommended incorporation of <span class="hlt">HIV</span> information and risk-prevention skills. Information delivery suggestions included small group discussions, interactive games/role-playing, program materials/terminology, and <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-infected program facilitators. Community members provided critical input toward an <span class="hlt">HIV</span> prevention program tailored to meet adolescents' unique needs/interests. The RAR model provides opportunities to engage communities in developing health-related interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644729"><span>Detection of <span class="hlt">HIV</span>-1 Minority Variants Containing the K103N Drug-Resistance Mutation Using a <span class="hlt">Simple</span> Method to Amplify RNA Targets (SMART)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="h