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Sample records for simple theoretical analysis

  1. Two 27 MHz Simple Inductive Loops, as Hyperthermia Treatment Applicators: Theoretical Analysis and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Karanasiou, Irene; Koutsoupidou, Maria; Matsopoulos, George; Kouvaris, John; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Deep heating is still the main subject for research in hyperthermia treatment. Aim. The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze a simple loop as a heating applicator. Methods. The performance of two 27 MHz inductive loop antennas as potential applicators in hyperthermia treatment was studied theoretically as well as experimentally in phantoms. Two inductive loop antennas with radii 7 cm and 9 cm were designed, simulated, and constructed. The theoretical analysis was performed by using Green's function and Bessel's function technique. Experiments were performed with phantoms radiated by the aforementioned loop antennas. Results. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions were estimated from the respective local phantom temperature measurements. Comparisons of the theoretical, simulation, and experimental studies showed satisfying agreement. The penetration depth was measured theoretically and experimentally in the range of 2–3.5 cm. Conclusion. The theoretical and experimental analysis showed that current loops are efficient in the case where the peripheral heating of spherical tumor formation located at 2–3.5 cm depth is required. PMID:26649070

  2. A theoretical analysis of steady-state photocurrents in simple silicon diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, L.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical analysis solves for the steady-state photocurrents produced by a given photo-generation rate function with negligible recombination in simple silicon diodes, consisting of a uniformly doped quasi-neutral region (called 'substrate' below) adjacent to a p-n junction depletion region (DR). Special attention is given to conditions that produce 'funneling' (a term used by the single-eventeffects community) under steady-state conditions. Funneling occurs when carriers are generated so fast that the DR becomes flooded and partially or completely collapses. Some or nearly all of the applied voltage, plus built-in potential normally across the DR, is now across the substrate. This substrate voltage drop affects substrate currents. The steady-state problem can provide some qualitative insights into the more difficult transient problem. First, it was found that funneling can be induced from a distance, i.e., from carriers generated at locations outside of the DR. Secondly, it was found that the substrate can divide into two subregions, with one controlling substrate resistance and the other characterized by ambipolar diffusion. Finally, funneling was found to be more difficult to induce in the p(sup +)/n diode than in the n(sup +)/p diode. The carrier density exceeding the doping density in the substrate and at the DR boundary is not a sufficient condition to collapse a DR.

  3. Nonideal effects in electroacoustics of solutions of charged particles: combined experimental and theoretical analysis from simple electrolytes to small nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pusset, R; Gourdin-Bertin, S; Dubois, E; Chevalet, J; Mériguet, G; Bernard, O; Dahirel, V; Jardat, M; Jacob, D

    2015-05-01

    The electric signal induced by an ultrasonic wave in aqueous solutions of charged species is measured and analyzed. A device is developed which measures the raw induced electric signal for small sample volumes (few milliliters) and without any preceding calibration. The potential difference generated between two identical electrodes, called the ionic vibration potential (IVP), is thus easily deduced. In parallel, a theory for the IVP is built based on a robust analytical theory already used successfully to account for other transport coefficients in electrolyte solutions. From the analysis of the IVP measured for several aqueous electrolyte solutions, which are well-defined model systems for this technique, we explain and validate the different contributions to the signal. In particular, the non-ideal effects at high concentrations are thoroughly understood. A first step towards colloidal systems is presented by the analysis of the signal in solutions of a polyoxometallate salt, opening the possibility of determinations of reliable electrophoretic mobilities in dispersions of nanoobjects.

  4. Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.

  5. Dimensional analysis made simple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, Ignacio

    2013-11-01

    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  6. A Simple Plant Growth Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxlade, E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the analysis of dandelion peduncle growth based on peduncle length, epidermal cell dimensions, and fresh/dry mass. Methods are simple and require no special apparatus or materials. Suggests that limited practical work in this area may contribute to students' lack of knowledge on plant growth. (Author/DH)

  7. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Ken-ichi Takahashi, Ohgi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρ{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρ{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  8. The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: a theoretical analysis for simple liquids.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Fukuma, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-12-14

    The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(ρDS) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ρDS. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

  9. Simple theoretical model for ion cooperativity in aqueous solutions of simple inorganic salts and its effect on water surface tension.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi Qin

    2011-11-01

    Careful analysis of experimental data showed that the salt aqueous solution/air surface tension depends on a rather complicated manner of salt composition and points to the importance of ion cooperativity. In this short article, we include the selective binding of anions over cations at interfaces (as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations, spectroscopic measurements, and Record's analysis of the surface tension data) and the anion-cation association (based on the observation of matching water affinity) in a simple theoretical model to understand salt effects on surface tension. The introduction of the surface effect and ion association provides a qualitative explanation of the experimental data, in particular, the strong anion dependence of the cations' rank according to their ability of increasing water surface tension. We hope that the physical insight provided by this study can be used to point to new directions for more detailed studies. PMID:21958050

  10. Simple Numerical Analysis of Longboard Speedometer Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Simple numerical data analysis is described, using a standard spreadsheet program, to determine distance, velocity (speed) and acceleration from voltage data generated by a skateboard/longboard speedometer (Hare 2012 "Phys. Educ." 47 409-17). This simple analysis is an introduction to data processing including scaling data as well as…

  11. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  12. Pure shear and simple shear calcite textures. Comparison of experimental, theoretical and natural data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenk, H.-R.; Takeshita, T.; Bechler, E.; Erskine, B.G.; Matthies, S.

    1987-01-01

    The pattern of lattice preferred orientation (texture) in deformed rocks is an expression of the strain path and the acting deformation mechanisms. A first indication about the strain path is given by the symmetry of pole figures: coaxial deformation produces orthorhombic pole figures, while non-coaxial deformation yields monoclinic or triclinic pole figures. More quantitative information about the strain history can be obtained by comparing natural textures with experimental ones and with theoretical models. For this comparison, a representation in the sensitive three-dimensional orientation distribution space is extremely important and efforts are made to explain this concept. We have been investigating differences between pure shear and simple shear deformation incarbonate rocks and have found considerable agreement between textures produced in plane strain experiments and predictions based on the Taylor model. We were able to simulate the observed changes with strain history (coaxial vs non-coaxial) and the profound texture transition which occurs with increasing temperature. Two natural calcite textures were then selected which we interpreted by comparing them with the experimental and theoretical results. A marble from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California displays orthorhombic pole figures with patterns consistent with low temperature deformation in pure shear. A limestone from the Tanque Verde detachment fault in Arizona has a monoclinic fabric from which we can interpret that 60% of the deformation occurred by simple shear. ?? 1987.

  13. Generation of limited-diffraction wave by approximating theoretical X-wave with simple driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaqin; Ding, MingYue; Hua, Shaoyan; Ming, Yuchi

    2012-03-01

    X-wave is a particular case of limited diffracting waves which has great potential applications in the enlargement of the field depth in acoustic imaging systems. In practice, the generation of real time X-wave ultrasonic fields is a complex technology which involves precise and specific voltage for the excitations for each distinct array element. In order to simplify the X-wave generating process, L. Castellanos proposed an approach to approximate the X-wave excitations with rectangular pulses. The results suggested the possibility of achieving limited-diffraction waves with relatively simple driving waveforms, which could be implemented with a moderate cost in analogical electronics. In this work, we attempt to improve L. Castellanos's method by calculating the approximation driving pulse not only from rectangular but also triangular driving pulse. The differences between theoretical X-wave signals and driving pulses, related to their excitation effects, are minimized by L2 curve criterion. The driving pulses with the minimal optimization result we chosen. A tradeoff is obtained between the cost of implementation of classical 0-order X-wave and the precision of approximation with the simple pulsed electrical driving. The good agreement of the driving pulse and the result resulting field distributions, with those obtained from the classical X-wave excitations can be justified by the filtering effects induced by the transducer elements in frequency domain. From the simulation results, we can see that the new approach improve the precise of the approximation, the difference between theoretical X-wave and the new approach is lower 10 percent than the difference between theoretical X-wave and rectangular as the driving pulse in simulation.

  14. A simple Bayesian decision-theoretic design for dose-finding trials.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shenghua Kelly; Lu, Ying; Wang, You-Gan

    2012-12-10

    A flexible and simple Bayesian decision-theoretic design for dose-finding trials is proposed in this paper. In order to reduce the computational burden, we adopt a working model with conjugate priors, which is flexible to fit all monotonic dose-toxicity curves and produces analytic posterior distributions. We also discuss how to use a proper utility function to reflect the interest of the trial. Patients are allocated based on not only the utility function but also the chosen dose selection rule. The most popular dose selection rule is the one-step-look-ahead (OSLA), which selects the best-so-far dose. A more complicated rule, such as the two-step-look-ahead, is theoretically more efficient than the OSLA only when the required distributional assumptions are met, which is, however, often not the case in practice. We carried out extensive simulation studies to evaluate these two dose selection rules and found that OSLA was often more efficient than two-step-look-ahead under the proposed Bayesian structure. Moreover, our simulation results show that the proposed Bayesian method's performance is superior to several popular Bayesian methods and that the negative impact of prior misspecification can be managed in the design stage.

  15. A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of nonideal copper plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2008-04-15

    A simple theoretical approach to calculate the electrical conductivity of partially ionized nonideal copper plasma is introduced. The densities of plasma species are calculated, to machine accuracy, including electronic excitation and allowing for high ionization states up to the atomic number of the element. Depression of ionization energies is taken into account using an interpolation formula that is valid over a wide range of densities. The formula yields the results of the Debye-Hueckel and the ion-sphere models at the limiting boundaries of low and high densities, respectively. The nonideal Coulomb logarithm is represented by an analytic wide-range formula supplemented by a specially tailored cutoff parameter. Effects of excluding excited and high ionization states on the calculation of ionization equilibrium and electrical conductivity of copper are investigated and assessed. Computational results of the electrical conductivity are compared with results from other theoretical models and available experimental measurements and showed reasonable agreement. A discussion about the choice of the ion-sphere radius is included and concerns about thermodynamic inconsistency when using the modified nonideal Saha equations are discussed and cleared.

  16. A simple white noise analysis of neuronal light responses.

    PubMed

    Chichilnisky, E J

    2001-05-01

    A white noise technique is presented for estimating the response properties of spiking visual system neurons. The technique is simple, robust, efficient and well suited to simultaneous recordings from multiple neurons. It provides a complete and easily interpretable model of light responses even for neurons that display a common form of response nonlinearity that precludes classical linear systems analysis. A theoretical justification of the technique is presented that relies only on elementary linear algebra and statistics. Implementation is described with examples. The technique and the underlying model of neural responses are validated using recordings from retinal ganglion cells, and in principle are applicable to other neurons. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique relative to classical approaches are discussed. PMID:11405422

  17. Preparation and Analysis of Multiple Hydrates of Simple Salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Richard W.; Chan, Benny; Marshall, Shireen R.; Blasiole, Brian; Khan, Neetha; Yoder, Kendra L.; Trainer, Melissa E.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2000-04-01

    We have developed a laboratory project in which the student prepares a series of hydrates of simple salts and then determines the extent of hydration of the product(s). We believe this provides a good introduction to the concepts of solubility, saturation, recrystallization, relative compound stability (e.g., a dihydrate vs tetrahydrate at elevated temperature), and simple gravimetric analysis. Moreover, the project lends itself to many variations. For example, a student could be given a "starting" hydrated salt and asked to prepare another hydrate within a specified temperature range. Or students could be given the formulas of several hydrates stable over different temperature ranges and be asked to "discover" a method of preparation. If it is deemed desirable to extend the project, the cation and/or anion could be determined quantitatively. The preparation of ionic hydrates is accomplished by four methods: (i) slow evaporation of the solvent from a near saturated solution of the starting hydrate at a temperature within the stability range of the desired hydrate, (ii) crystallization within the temperature range of the target hydrate from a saturated solution prepared at higher temperatures, (iii) crystallization within the temperature stability range from mixed solvents, and (iv) heating a higher hydrate to the temperature range of the desired lower hydrate. Analysis for water of hydration content is performed gravimetrically by gently heating the sample in a Bunsen flame. Students were able to produce results generally within 1-5% of the theoretical.

  18. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  19. Simple yet Hidden Counterexamples in Undergraduate Real Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.; Shipman, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    We study situations in introductory analysis in which students affirmed false statements as true, despite simple counterexamples that they easily recognized afterwards. The study draws attention to how simple counterexamples can become hidden in plain sight, even in an active learning atmosphere where students proposed simple (as well as more…

  20. Analysis of a theoretically optimized transonic airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Shrewsbury, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical optimization was used in conjunction with an inviscid, full potential equation, transonic flow analysis computer code to design an upper surface contour for a conventional airfoil to improve its supercritical performance. The modified airfoil was tested in a compressible flow wind tunnel. The modified airfoil's performance was evaluated by comparison with test data for the baseline airfoil and for an airfoil developed by optimization of leading edge of the baseline airfoil. While the leading edge modification performed as expected, the upper surface re-design did not produce all of the expected performance improvements. Theoretical solutions computed using a full potential, transonic airfoil code corrected for viscosity were compared to experimental data for the baseline airfoil and the upper surface modification. These correlations showed that the theory predicted the aerodynamics of the baseline airfoil fairly well, but failed to accurately compute drag characteristics for the upper surface modification.

  1. Theoretical analysis of the F(1)-ATPase experimental data.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Sancho, J M

    2010-06-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a rotatory molecular motor fueled by ATP nucleotides. Different loads can be attached to the motor axis to show that it rotates in main discrete steps of 120 degrees with substeps of approximately 80 degrees and 40 degrees . Experimental data show the dependence on the mean rotational velocity omega with respect to the external control parameters: the nucleotide concentration [ATP] and the friction of the load gamma(L). In this work we present a theoretical analysis of the experimental data whose main results are: 1), A derivation of a simple analytical formula for omega([ATP], gamma(L)) that compares favorably with experiments; 2), The introduction of a two-state flashing ratchet model that exhibits experimental phenomenology of a greater specificity than has been, to our knowledge, previously available; 3), The derivation of an argument to obtain the values of the substep sizes; 4), An analysis of the energy constraints of the model; and 5), The theoretical analysis of the coupling ratio between the ATP consumed and the success of a forward step. We also discuss the compatibility of our approach with recent experimental observations.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the F1-ATPase Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Sancho, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract F1-ATPase is a rotatory molecular motor fueled by ATP nucleotides. Different loads can be attached to the motor axis to show that it rotates in main discrete steps of 120° with substeps of ∼80° and 40°. Experimental data show the dependence on the mean rotational velocity ω with respect to the external control parameters: the nucleotide concentration [ATP] and the friction of the load γL. In this work we present a theoretical analysis of the experimental data whose main results are: 1), A derivation of a simple analytical formula for ω([ATP], γL) that compares favorably with experiments; 2), The introduction of a two-state flashing ratchet model that exhibits experimental phenomenology of a greater specificity than has been, to our knowledge, previously available; 3), The derivation of an argument to obtain the values of the substep sizes; 4), An analysis of the energy constraints of the model; and 5), The theoretical analysis of the coupling ratio between the ATP consumed and the success of a forward step. We also discuss the compatibility of our approach with recent experimental observations. PMID:20513403

  3. Analysis of the Simple Inner Magnetosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabie, J. J.; Garner, T.; Kihn, E. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Simple Inner Magnetosphere Model (SIMM) is a particle trace model designed to specify magnetospheric particle fluxes for particles up to 100 keV at geosynchronous orbit. Based on the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM), SIMM is designed to take advantage of the improvements in empirical and data assimilative modeling since initial development of the MSM. In particular, SIMM uses electric potential patterns created by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique as the electric field driver for the semi-empirical plasma sheet model. The SIMM model output provides a valuable tool for evaluation of spacecraft exposures, calibration of particle measurement instrumentation, biological effects on organisms on- board spacecraft, and provides an advanced tool for space weather modeling. The model output is being archived at the National Geophysical Data Center, and is available for viewing through the Space Physics Interactive Data Resource (SPIDR). We will present the model verification results and compare them to output from the MSM and present the geomagnetic conditions under which using AMIE for the electrodynamics provides more reliable results than direct input from remote sensing data.

  4. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion GNC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch.We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool (Critical Factors Tool or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  5. Simple Low Level Features for Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcoz, Paolo

    As human beings, we perceive the world around us mainly through our eyes, and give what we see the status of “reality”; as such we historically tried to create ways of recording this reality so we could augment or extend our memory. From early attempts in photography like the image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce (Figure 2.1) to the latest high definition camcorders, the number of recorded pieces of reality increased exponentially, posing the problem of managing all that information. Most of the raw video material produced today has lost its memory augmentation function, as it will hardly ever be viewed by any human; pervasive CCTVs are an example. They generate an enormous amount of data each day, but there is not enough “human processing power” to view them. Therefore the need for effective automatic image analysis tools is great, and a lot effort has been put in it, both from the academia and the industry. In this chapter, a review of some of the most important image analysis tools are presented.

  6. Interaction of Simple Ions with Water: Theoretical Models for the Study of Ion Hydration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gancheff, Jorge S.; Kremer, Carlos; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2009-01-01

    A computational experiment aimed to create and systematically analyze models of simple cation hydrates is presented. The changes in the structure (bond distances and angles) and the electronic density distribution of the solvent and the thermodynamic parameters of the hydration process are calculated and compared with the experimental data. The…

  7. Simple optical computing device for chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O.; Zhang, Lixia; Eastwood, DeLyle; Li, Hongli; Gemperline, Paul J.; Myrick, Michael L.

    2001-05-01

    Multivariate Optical Computing (MOC) devices have the potential of greatly simplifying as well as reducing the cost of applying the mathematics of multivariate regression to problems of chemical analysis in the real world. These devices utilize special optical interference coatings known as multivariate optical elements (MOEs) that are encoded with pre-determined spectroscopic patterns to selectively quantify a chemical species of interest in the presence of other interfering species. A T-format prototype of the first optical computing device is presented utilizing a multilayer MOE consisting of alternating layers of two metal oxide films (Nb2O5 and SiO2) on a BK-7 glass substrate. The device was tested by using it to quantify copper uroporphyrin in a quaternary mixture consisting of uroporphyrin (freebase), tin uroporphyrin, nickel uroporphyrin, and copper uroporphyrin. A standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.86(mu) M was obtained for copper uroporphyrin.

  8. Physical Violence between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.

    2005-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…

  9. Rear projection screens: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrick, R B

    1968-05-01

    The increasing use of rear projection screens has brought about the need for a better understanding of their performance limits based on an analytical model which relates the physical and optical properties of the screen. A theoretical model is developed based on the Mie theory of light scattering, and a general discussion is given of the optical and viewing properties of rear projection screens, using an operational terminology. Basic light scattering data are used to calculate relations between such optical properties as screen brightness, axial gain, uniformity, efficiency, color fidelity, and ambient light sensitivity from such physical parameters as scattering particle size and number density, and relative refractive index of the scattering particles. Data from experimental investigations of volume scattering materials fabricated by Corning Glass Works are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. PMID:20068680

  10. The vibrational structure and predissociation of the B state of HeBr 2 using a simple theoretical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Sun, Hosung

    2001-03-01

    A computationally simple theoretical method, i.e., self-consistent field (SCF) method to determine the vibrational structure of HeBr 2, distorted-wave Born (DWB) approximation for dissociating process, and the infinite-order sudden (IOS) approximation for the continuum dissociating product of Br 2 (SCF-DWB-IOS), has been applied to the vibrational predissociation of the HeBr 2 (B state) van der Waals (vdW) complex. The lifetimes of transient excited vibrational states, dissociation linewidths, and the rotational distributions of the product, Br 2 have been computed. A comparison is made with other accurate theoretical and experimental results and reasonable agreement is found for the vibrational predissociaiton from the low vibrational states of HeBr 2. The advantage and disadvantage of the methodology are also discussed.

  11. Theoretical and experimental evidence of Fano-like resonances in simple monomode photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouadili, A.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Soltani, A.; Talbi, A.; Akjouj, A.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2013-04-01

    A simple photonic device consisting of two dangling side resonators grafted at two sites on a waveguide is designed in order to obtain sharp resonant states inside the transmission gaps without introducing any defects in the structure. This results from an internal resonance of the structure when such a resonance is situated in the vicinity of a zero of transmission or placed between two zeros of transmission, the so-called Fano resonances. A general analytical expression for the transmission coefficient is given for various systems of this kind. The amplitude of the transmission is obtained following the Fano form. The full width at half maximum of the resonances as well as the asymmetric Fano parameter are discussed explicitly as function of the geometrical parameters of the system. In addition to the usual asymmetric Fano resonance, we show that this system may exhibit an electromagnetic induced transparency resonance as well as well as a particular case where such resonances collapse in the transmission coefficient. Also, we give a comparison between the phase of the determinant of the scattering matrix, the so-called Friedel phase, and the phase of the transmission amplitude. The analytical results are obtained by means of the Green's function method, whereas the experiments are carried out using coaxial cables in the radio-frequency regime. These results should have important consequences for designing integrated devices such as narrow-frequency optical or microwave filters and high-speed switches. This system is proposed as a simpler alternative to coupled-micoresonators.

  12. Category Theoretic Analysis of Hierarchical Protein Materials and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, David I.; Giesa, Tristan; Wood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a “concept web” or “semantic network” except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine. PMID:21931622

  13. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    PubMed

    Spivak, David I; Giesa, Tristan; Wood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  14. Theoretical analysis of HVAC duct hanger systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods are presented which, together, may be used in the analysis of duct hanger systems over a wide range of frequencies. The finite element method (FEM) and component mode synthesis (CMS) method are used for low- to mid-frequency range computations and have been shown to yield reasonably close results. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) method yields predictions which agree with the CMS results for the 800 to 1000 Hz range provided that a sufficient number of modes participate. The CMS approach has been shown to yield valuable insight into the mid-frequency range of the analysis. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to conduct an analysis of a duct/hanger system in a cost-effective way for a wide frequency range, using several methods which overlap for several frequency bands.

  15. Catalytic efficiency of enzymes: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-03-26

    This brief review analyzes the underlying physical principles of enzyme catalysis, with an emphasis on the role of equilibrium enzyme motions and conformational sampling. The concepts are developed in the context of three representative systems, namely, dihydrofolate reductase, ketosteroid isomerase, and soybean lipoxygenase. All of these reactions involve hydrogen transfer, but many of the concepts discussed are more generally applicable. The factors that are analyzed in this review include hydrogen tunneling, proton donor-acceptor motion, hydrogen bonding, pKa shifting, electrostatics, preorganization, reorganization, and conformational motions. The rate constant for the chemical step is determined primarily by the free energy barrier, which is related to the probability of sampling configurations conducive to the chemical reaction. According to this perspective, stochastic thermal motions lead to equilibrium conformational changes in the enzyme and ligands that result in configurations favorable for the breaking and forming of chemical bonds. For proton, hydride, and proton-coupled electron transfer reactions, typically the donor and acceptor become closer to facilitate the transfer. The impact of mutations on the catalytic rate constants can be explained in terms of the factors enumerated above. In particular, distal mutations can alter the conformational motions of the enzyme and therefore the probability of sampling configurations conducive to the chemical reaction. Methods such as vibrational Stark spectroscopy, in which environmentally sensitive probes are introduced site-specifically into the enzyme, provide further insight into these aspects of enzyme catalysis through a combination of experiments and theoretical calculations.

  16. A theoretical analysis of vertical flow equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The assumption of Vertical Flow Equilibrium (VFE) and of parallel flow conditions, in general, is often applied to the modeling of flow and displacement in natural porous media. However, the methodology for the development of the various models is rather intuitive, and no rigorous method is currently available. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic theory using as parameter the variable R{sub L} = (L/H){radical}(k{sub V})/(k{sub H}). It is rigorously shown that present models represent the leading order term of an asymptotic expansion with respect to 1/R{sub L}{sup 2}. Although this was numerically suspected, it is the first time that is is theoretically proved. Based on the general formulation, a series of models are subsequently obtained. In the absence of strong gravity effects, they generalize previous works by Zapata and Lake (1981), Yokoyama and Lake (1981) and Lake and Hirasaki (1981), on immiscible and miscible displacements. In the limit of gravity-segregated flow, we prove conditions for the fluids to be segregated and derive the Dupuit and Dietz (1953) approximations. Finally, we also discuss effects of capillarity and transverse dispersion.

  17. Landscape analysis: Theoretical considerations and practical needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godfrey, A.E.; Cleaves, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous systems of land classification have been proposed. Most have led directly to or have been driven by an author's philosophy of earth-forming processes. However, the practical need of classifying land for planning and management purposes requires that a system lead to predictions of the results of management activities. We propose a landscape classification system composed of 11 units, from realm (a continental mass) to feature (a splash impression). The classification concerns physical aspects rather than economic or social factors; and aims to merge land inventory with dynamic processes. Landscape units are organized using a hierarchical system so that information may be assembled and communicated at different levels of scale and abstraction. Our classification uses a geomorphic systems approach that emphasizes the geologic-geomorphic attributes of the units. Realm, major division, province, and section are formulated by subdividing large units into smaller ones. For the larger units we have followed Fenneman's delineations, which are well established in the North American literature. Areas and districts are aggregated into regions and regions into sections. Units smaller than areas have, in practice, been subdivided into zones and smaller units if required. We developed the theoretical framework embodied in this classification from practical applications aimed at land use planning and land management in Maryland (eastern Piedmont Province near Baltimore) and Utah (eastern Uinta Mountains). ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  18. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the physics of water rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernández-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-09-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several mathematical models have been proposed to investigate and predict their physics. However, the real equations that describe the physics of the rockets are so complicated that certain assumptions are usually made to obtain models that are easier to use. These models provide relatively good predictions but fail in describing the complex physics of the flow. This paper presents a detailed theoretical analysis of the physics of water rockets that concludes with the proposal of a physical model. The validity of the model is checked by a series of field tests. The tests showed maximum differences with predictions of about 6%. The proposed model is finally used to investigate the temporal evolution of some significant variables during the propulsion and flight of the rocket. The experience and procedure described in this paper can be proposed to graduate students and also at undergraduate level if certain simplifications are assumed in the general equations.

  19. Air Ingress Analysis: Part 1 - Theoretical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Ho Oh

    2011-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is performing research and development that focuses on key phenomena important during potential scenarios that may occur in very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs). Phenomena identification and ranking studies to date have ranked an air ingress event, following on the heels of a VHTR depressurization, as important with regard to core safety. Consequently, the development of advanced air-ingress-related models and verification and validation data are a very high priority. Following a loss of coolant and system depressurization incident, air will enter the core of the VHTR through the break, possibly causing oxidation of the graphite core and reflector graphite structure. Simple core and plant models indicate that, under certain circumstances, the oxidation may proceed at an elevated rate with additional heat generated from the oxidation reaction itself. Under postulated conditions of fluid flow and temperature, excessive degradation of lower plenum graphite caused by graphite oxidation can lead to a loss of mechanical strength. Excessive oxidation of core graphite can also lead to a release of fission products into the confinement, which could be detrimental to reactor safety. Analytical models developed in this study will improve our understanding of this phenomenon. This paper presents two sets of analytical models for the qualitative assessment of the air ingress phenomena. The results from the analytical models are compared with results of the computational fluid dynamic models (CFD) in the subsequent paper. The analytical models agree well with those CFD results.

  20. Theoretical reflections on Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2002-01-01

    The ideas contained in Wilhelm Reich's Character Analysis, while very influential, have not been thoroughly exploited in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. These ideas, aimed particularly at producing genuine change rather than mere intellectual understanding, are reexamined. Further implications of them are discussed.

  1. Gender and Physics: A Theoretical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolin, Kristina

    2001-01-01

    Argues that objections raised by Koertge, Gross and Levitt, and Weinberg against feminist scholarship are unwarranted. The concept of gender, as it has been developed in feminist theory, is key to understanding why the first objection is misguided. Social analysis of scientific knowledge is key to understanding why the second and third objections…

  2. Empirical and theoretical analysis of complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guannan

    structures evolve on a similar timescale to individual level transmission, we investigated the process of transmission through a model population comprising of social groups which follow simple dynamical rules for growth and break-up, and the profiles produced bear a striking resemblance to empirical data obtained from social, financial and biological systems. Finally, for better implementation of a widely accepted power law test algorithm, we have developed a fast testing procedure using parallel computation.

  3. On the complex relationship between energy expenditure and longevity: Reconciling the contradictory empirical results with a simple theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen; Amunugama, Kaushalya

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between energy expenditure and longevity has been a central theme in aging studies. Empirical studies have yielded controversial results, which cannot be reconciled by existing theories. In this paper, we present a simple theoretical model based on first principles of energy conservation and allometric scaling laws. The model takes into considerations the energy tradeoffs between life history traits and the efficiency of the energy utilization, and offers quantitative and qualitative explanations for a set of seemingly contradictory empirical results. We show that oxidative metabolism can affect cellular damage and longevity in different ways in animals with different life histories and under different experimental conditions. Qualitative data and the linearity between energy expenditure, cellular damage, and lifespan assumed in previous studies are not sufficient to understand the complexity of the relationships. Our model provides a theoretical framework for quantitative analyses and predictions. The model is supported by a variety of empirical studies, including studies on the cellular damage profile during ontogeny; the intra- and inter-specific correlations between body mass, metabolic rate, and lifespan; and the effects on lifespan of (1) diet restriction and genetic modification of growth hormone, (2) the cold and exercise stresses, and (3) manipulations of antioxidant. PMID:26086438

  4. Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis And Finite Element Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, Raphaeel; Boudeau, Nathalie

    2007-04-07

    This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain.

  5. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  6. Unusual Inorganic Biradicals: A Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Ruedenberg, Klaus; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-05-27

    Triatomic ions in the series FX2+, where X = O, S, Se, Te and Po are the terminal atoms, exhibit unusually high biradical characters (0.76 < β < 0.92), as measured from the analysis of Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) wavefunctions. Candidates in this series have the largest biradical character among the homologous, 18 valence electron CX22-, NX2-, X3 and OX2 (X = O, S, Se, Te and Po) systems. In the same scale the biradical character of ozone (O3) is just 0.19, whereas that of trimethylenemethane [C(CH2)3] is 0.97 (β=1 for an "ideal" biradical). For the 24 electron XO2 series, consisting of molecules with two oxygen atoms and a moiety X that is isoelectronic to oxygen, i.e. X= CH2, NH, O, F+, the singlet (S) state is lower than the triplet (T) one and the S-T splitting as well the barrier between their "open" and "ring" configurations was found to depend linearly with the inverse of the biradical character.

  7. Gender and Physics: a Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolin, Kristina

    This article argues that the objections raised by Koertge (1998), Gross and Levitt (1994), and Weinberg (1996) against feminist scholarship on gender and physics are unwarranted. The objections are that feminist science studies perpetuate gender stereotypes, are irrelevant to the content of physics, or promote epistemic relativism. In the first part of this article I argue that the concept of gender, as it has been developed in feminist theory, is a key to understanding why the first objection is misguided. Instead of reinforcing gender stereotypes, feminist science studies scholars can formulate empirically testable hypotheses regarding local and contested beliefs about gender. In the second part of this article I argue that a social analysis of scientific knowledge is a key to understanding why the second and the third objections are misguided. The concept of gender is relevant for understanding the social practice of physics, and the social practice of physics can be of epistemic importance. Instead of advancing epistemic relativism, feminist science studies scholars can make important contributions to a subfield of philosophy called social epistemology.

  8. Development of Novel, Simple Multianalyte Sensors for Remote Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Sanford A. Asher

    2003-02-18

    Advancement of our polymerized crystalline colloidal array chemical sensing technology. They have dramatically advanced their polymerized crystalline colloidal array chemical sensing technology. They fabricated nonselective sensors for determining pH and ionic strength. They also developed selective sensors for glucose and organophosphorus mimics of nerve gas agents. They developed a trace sensor for cations in water which utilized a novel crosslinking sensing motif. In all of these cases they have been able to theoretically model their sensor response by extending hydrogel volume phase transition theory. They also developed transient sampling methods to allow their ion sensing methods to operate at high ionic strengths. They also developed a novel optrode to provide for simple sampling.

  9. Theoretical analysis on flow characteristics of melt gear pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, R. J.; Wang, J. Q.; Kong, F. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between Geometric parameters and theoretical flow of melt gear pump is revealed, providing a theoretical basis to melt gear pump design. The paper has an analysis of meshing movement of melt gear pump on the condition of four different tooth numbers, stack movement law and flow ripple. The regulation of flow pulsation coefficient is researched by MATLAB software. The modulus formula of melt gear pump is proposed, consistent with actual situation.

  10. Morphometric analysis of a fresh simple crater on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, V.; Ninfo, A.; Massironi, M.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.

    In this research we are proposing an innovative method to determine and quantify the morphology of a simple fresh impact crater. Linné is a well preserved impact crater of 2.2 km in diameter, located at 27.7oN 11.8oE, near the western edge of Mare Serenitatis on the Moon. The crater was photographed by the Lunar Orbiter and the Apollo space missions. Its particular morphology may place Linné as the most striking example of small fresh simple crater. Morphometric analysis, conducted on recent high resolution DTM from LROC (NASA), quantitatively confirmed the pristine morphology of the crater, revealing a clear inner layering which highlight a sequence of lava emplacement events.

  11. The Theoretical Foundation of Sensitivity Analysis for GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikoska, U.; Davchev, D.; Shikoski, J.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper the equations of sensitivity analysis are derived and established theoretical underpinnings for the analyses. Paper propounds a land-vehicle navigation concepts and definition for sensitivity analysis. Equations of sensitivity analysis are presented for a linear Kalman filter and case study is given to illustrate the use of sensitivity analysis to the reader. At the end of the paper, extensions that are required for this research are made to the basic equations of sensitivity analysis specifically; the equations of sensitivity analysis are re-derived for a linearized Kalman filter.

  12. Multiresolution analysis over simple graphs for brain computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asensio-Cubero, J.; Gan, J. Q.; Palaniappan, R.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Multiresolution analysis (MRA) offers a useful framework for signal analysis in the temporal and spectral domains, although commonly employed MRA methods may not be the best approach for brain computer interface (BCI) applications. This study aims to develop a new MRA system for extracting tempo-spatial-spectral features for BCI applications based on wavelet lifting over graphs. Approach. This paper proposes a new graph-based transform for wavelet lifting and a tailored simple graph representation for electroencephalography (EEG) data, which results in an MRA system where temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics are used to extract motor imagery features from EEG data. The transformed data is processed within a simple experimental framework to test the classification performance of the new method. Main Results. The proposed method can significantly improve the classification results obtained by various wavelet families using the same methodology. Preliminary results using common spatial patterns as feature extraction method show that we can achieve comparable classification accuracy to more sophisticated methodologies. From the analysis of the results we can obtain insights into the pattern development in the EEG data, which provide useful information for feature basis selection and thus for improving classification performance. Significance. Applying wavelet lifting over graphs is a new approach for handling BCI data. The inherent flexibility of the lifting scheme could lead to new approaches based on the hereby proposed method for further classification performance improvement.

  13. Theoretical Notes on the Sociological Analysis of School Reform Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladwig, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, Ladwig outlined the theoretical and methodological implications of Bourdieu's concept of the social field for sociological analyses of educational policy and school reform. The current analysis extends this work to consider the sociological import of one of the most ubiquitous forms of educational reform found around…

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Random Gust Loads Part I : Aerodynamic Transfer Function of a Simple Wing Configuration in Incompressible Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Raimo J; Richardson, A S , Jr

    1957-01-01

    Sinusoidally oscillating downwash and lift produced on a simple rigid airfoil were measured and compared with calculated values. Statistically stationary random downwash and the corresponding lift on a simple rigid airfoil were also measured and the transfer functions between their power spectra determined. The random experimental values are compared with theoretically approximated values. Limitations of the experimental technique and the need for more extensive experimental data are discussed.

  15. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  16. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-07-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget.

  17. A simple model of hysteresis behavior using spreadsheet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, A.; Blachowicz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Hysteresis loops occur in many scientific and technical problems, especially as field dependent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, but also as stress-strain-curves of materials measured by tensile tests including thermal effects, liquid-solid phase transitions, in cell biology or economics. While several mathematical models exist which aim to calculate hysteresis energies and other parameters, here we offer a simple model for a general hysteretic system, showing different hysteresis loops depending on the defined parameters. The calculation which is based on basic spreadsheet analysis plus an easy macro code can be used by students to understand how these systems work and how the parameters influence the reactions of the system on an external field. Importantly, in the step-by-step mode, each change of the system state, compared to the last step, becomes visible. The simple program can be developed further by several changes and additions, enabling the building of a tool which is capable of answering real physical questions in the broad field of magnetism as well as in other scientific areas, in which similar hysteresis loops occur.

  18. Quantifying motor recovery after stroke using independent vector analysis and graph-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Laney, Jonathan; Adalı, Tülay; McCombe Waller, Sandy; Westlake, Kelly P

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of neuroplasticity after stroke through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis is a developing field where the objective is to better understand the neural process of recovery and to better target rehabilitation interventions. The challenge in this population stems from the large amount of individual spatial variability and the need to summarize entire brain maps by generating simple, yet discriminating features to highlight differences in functional connectivity. Independent vector analysis (IVA) has been shown to provide superior performance in preserving subject variability when compared with widely used methods such as group independent component analysis. Hence, in this paper, graph-theoretical (GT) analysis is applied to IVA-generated components to effectively exploit the individual subjects' connectivity to produce discriminative features. The analysis is performed on fMRI data collected from individuals with chronic stroke both before and after a 6-week arm and hand rehabilitation intervention. Resulting GT features are shown to capture connectivity changes that are not evident through direct comparison of the group t-maps. The GT features revealed increased small worldness across components and greater centrality in key motor networks as a result of the intervention, suggesting improved efficiency in neural communication. Clinically, these results bring forth new possibilities as a means to observe the neural processes underlying improvements in motor function. PMID:26106554

  19. A simple theoretical model of heat and moisture transport in multi-layer garments in cool ambient air.

    PubMed

    Wissler, Eugene H; Havenith, George

    2009-03-01

    Overall resistances for heat and vapor transport in a multilayer garment depend on the properties of individual layers and the thickness of any air space between layers. Under uncomplicated, steady-state conditions, thermal and mass fluxes are uniform within the garment, and the rate of transport is simply computed as the overall temperature or water concentration difference divided by the appropriate resistance. However, that simple computation is not valid under cool ambient conditions when the vapor permeability of the garment is low, and condensation occurs within the garment. Several recent studies have measured heat and vapor transport when condensation occurs within the garment (Richards et al. in Report on Project ThermProject, Contract No. G6RD-CT-2002-00846, 2002; Havenith et al. in J Appl Physiol 104:142-149, 2008). In addition to measuring cooling rates for ensembles when the skin was either wet or dry, both studies employed a flat-plate apparatus to measure resistances of individual layers. Those data provide information required to define the properties of an ensemble in terms of its individual layers. We have extended the work of previous investigators by developing a rather simple technique for analyzing heat and water vapor transport when condensation occurs within a garment. Computed results agree well with experimental results reported by Richards et al. (Report on Project ThermProject, Contract No. G6RD-CT-2002-00846, 2002) and Havenith et al. (J Appl Physiol 104:142-149, 2008). We discuss application of the method to human subjects for whom the rate of sweat secretion, instead of the partial pressure of water on the skin, is specified. Analysis of a more complicated five-layer system studied by Yoo and Kim (Text Res J 78:189-197, 2008) required an iterative computation based on principles defined in this paper. PMID:19125281

  20. Cost analysis and outcomes of simple elbow dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Panteli, Michalis; Pountos, Ippokratis; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Tosounidis, Theodoros H; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the management, clinical outcome and cost implications of three different treatment regimes for simple elbow dislocations. METHODS: Following institutional board approval, we performed a retrospective review of all consecutive patients treated for simple elbow dislocations in a Level I trauma centre between January 2008 and December 2010. Based on the length of elbow immobilisation (LOI), patients were divided in three groups (Group I, < 2 wk; Group II, 2-3 wk; and Group III, > 3 wk). Outcome was considered satisfactory when a patient could achieve a pain-free range of motion ≥ 100° (from 30° to 130°). The associated direct medical costs for the treatment of each patient were then calculated and analysed. RESULTS: We identified 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Due to loss to follow up, 13 patients were excluded from further analysis, leaving 67 patients for the final analysis. The mean LOI was 14 d (median 15 d; range 3-43 d) with a mean duration of hospital engagement of 67 d (median 57 d; range 10-351 d). Group III (prolonged immobilisation) had a statistically significant worse outcome in comparison to Group I and II (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01 respectively); however, there was no significant difference in the outcome between groups I and II (P = 0.30). No statistically significant difference in the direct medical costs between the groups was identified. CONCLUSION: The length of elbow immobilization doesn’t influence the medical cost; however immobilisation longer than three weeks is associated with persistent stiffness and a less satisfactory clinical outcome. PMID:26301180

  1. Theoretical analysis of dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Atabek, Osman; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed, realistic analysis of the implementation of a proposal for dipole-induced electromagnetic transparency (DIET) [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek, and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.163603] using an ensemble of cold atoms at high density. Using both direct numerical simulations and simple analytical models, we show how, in a realistic N -level quantum system, narrow transparency windows can appear at large densities. The existence of such windows is attributed to quantum interference effects in overlapping resonances. Our analysis is applied to the D1 transition of Rb atoms, and we show that, at high densities, Rb can behave like a simple three-level emitter exhibiting all the properties of DIET. Some interesting effects such as slow light are also presented, and their limits in the context of DIET are discussed

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Radiographic Images by Nonstationary Poisson Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Yamada, Isao; Uchida, Suguru

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the noise analysis of radiographic images obtained in the usual fluorescent screen-film system. The theory of nonstationary Poisson processes is applied to the analysis of the radiographic images containing the object information. The ensemble averages, the autocorrelation functions, and the Wiener spectrum densities of the light-energy distribution at the fluorescent screen and of the film optical-density distribution are obtained. The detection characteristics of the system are evaluated theoretically. Numerical examples of the one-dimensional image are shown and the results are compared with those obtained under the assumption that the object image is related to the background noise by the additive process.

  3. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Aixian; Hou, Fuyun; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1-3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens). With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution.

  4. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Aixian; Hou, Fuyun; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1–3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens). With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution. PMID:26630570

  5. Theoretical analysis of quantum ghost imaging through turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; Simon, D. S.; Sergienko, A. V.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Howell, John C.; Eberly, Joseph H.; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N.; Rodenburg, Brandon; Boyd, Robert W.

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric turbulence generally affects the resolution and visibility of an image in long-distance imaging. In a recent quantum ghost imaging experiment [P. B. Dixon et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 051803 (2011)], it was found that the effect of the turbulence can nevertheless be mitigated under certain conditions. This paper gives a detailed theoretical analysis to the setup and results reported in the experiment. Entangled photons with a finite correlation area and a turbulence model beyond the phase screen approximation are considered.

  6. Tetrad Analysis: A Practical Demonstration Using Simple Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Mary M.; Nicholl, Desmond S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Uses simple models to illustrate the principles of this genetic method of mapping gene loci. Stresses that this system enables a practical approach to be used with students who experience difficulty in understanding the concepts involved. (CW)

  7. Simple models for quorum sensing: Nonlinear dynamical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Wei-Yin; Li, Yue-Xian; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2011-10-01

    Quorum sensing refers to the change in the cooperative behavior of a collection of elements in response to the change in their population size or density. This behavior can be observed in chemical and biological systems. These elements or cells are coupled via chemicals in the surrounding environment. Here we focus on the change of dynamical behavior, in particular from quiescent to oscillatory, as the cell population changes. For instance, the silent behavior of the elements can become oscillatory as the system concentration or population increases. In this work, two simple models are constructed that can produce the essential representative properties in quorum sensing. The first is an excitable or oscillatory phase model, which is probably the simplest model one can construct to describe quorum sensing. Using the mean-field approximation, the parameter regime for quorum sensing behavior can be identified, and analytical results for the detailed dynamical properties, including the phase diagrams, are obtained and verified numerically. The second model consists of FitzHugh-Nagumo elements coupled to the signaling chemicals in the environment. Nonlinear dynamical analysis of this mean-field model exhibits rich dynamical behaviors, such as infinite period bifurcation, supercritical Hopf, fold bifurcation, and subcritical Hopf bifurcations as the population parameter changes for different coupling strengths. Analytical result is obtained for the Hopf bifurcation phase boundary. Furthermore, two elements coupled via the environment and their synchronization behavior for these two models are also investigated. For both models, it is found that the onset of oscillations is accompanied by the synchronized dynamics of the two elements. Possible applications and extension of these models are also discussed.

  8. A Simple Buckling Analysis Method for Airframe Composite Stiffened Panel by Finite Strip Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, Yoshitsugu

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have been used in structural components for newly developed aircraft and spacecraft. The main structures of an airframe, such as the fuselage and wings, are essentially composed of stiffened panels. Therefore, in the structural design of airframes, it is important to evaluate the buckling strength of the composite stiffened panels. Widely used finite element method (FEM) can analyzed any stiffened panel shape with various boundary conditions. However, in the early phase of airframe development, many studies are required in structural design prior to carrying out detail drawing. In this phase, performing structural analysis using only FEM may not be very efficient. This paper describes a simple buckling analysis method for composite stiffened panels, which is based on finite strip method. This method can deal with isotropic and anisotropic laminated plates and shells with several boundary conditions. The accuracy of this method was verified by comparing it with theoretical analysis and FEM analysis (NASTRAN). It has been observed that the buckling coefficients calculated via the present method are in agreement with results found by detail analysis methods. Consequently, this method is designed to be an effective calculation tool for the buckling analysis in the early phases of airframe design.

  9. Isolation of exosomes by differential centrifugation: Theoretical analysis of a commonly used protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshts, Mikhail A.; Khomyakova, Elena; Evtushenko, Evgeniy G.; Lazarev, Vassili N.; Kulemin, Nikolay A.; Semina, Svetlana E.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2015-11-01

    Exosomes, small (40-100 nm) extracellular membranous vesicles, attract enormous research interest because they are carriers of disease markers and a prospective delivery system for therapeutic agents. Differential centrifugation, the prevalent method of exosome isolation, frequently produces dissimilar and improper results because of the faulty practice of using a common centrifugation protocol with different rotors. Moreover, as recommended by suppliers, adjusting the centrifugation duration according to rotor K-factors does not work for “fixed-angle” rotors. For both types of rotors - “swinging bucket” and “fixed-angle” - we express the theoretically expected proportion of pelleted vesicles of a given size and the “cut-off” size of completely sedimented vesicles as dependent on the centrifugation force and duration and the sedimentation path-lengths. The proper centrifugation conditions can be selected using relatively simple theoretical estimates of the “cut-off” sizes of vesicles. Experimental verification on exosomes isolated from HT29 cell culture supernatant confirmed the main theoretical statements. Measured by the nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) technique, the concentration and size distribution of the vesicles after centrifugation agree with those theoretically expected. To simplify this “cut-off”-size-based adjustment of centrifugation protocol for any rotor, we developed a web-calculator.

  10. Theoretical analysis of hot electron dynamics in nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S.; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2015-01-01

    Localised surface plasmons create a non-equilibrium high-energy electron gas in nanostructures that can be injected into other media in energy harvesting applications. Here, we derive the rate of this localised-surface-plasmon mediated generation of hot electrons in nanorods and the rate of injecting them into other media by considering quantum mechanical motion of the electron gas. Specifically, we use the single-electron wave function of a particle in a cylindrical potential well and the electric field enhancement factor of an elongated ellipsoid to derive the energy distribution of electrons after plasmon excitation. We compare the performance of nanorods with equivolume nanoparticles of other shapes such as nanospheres and nanopallets and report that nanorods exhibit significantly better performance over a broad spectrum. We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of how different parameters contribute to efficiency of hot-electron harvesting in nanorods and reveal that increasing the aspect ratio can increase the hot-electron generation and injection, but the volume shows an inverse dependency when efficiency per unit volume is considered. Further, the electron thermalisation time shows much less influence on the injection rate. Our derivations and results provide the much needed theoretical insight for optimization of hot-electron harvesting process in highly adaptable metallic nanorods. PMID:26202823

  11. Analysis of the theoretical bias in dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    Fitting the model ''A'' to dark matter direct detection data, when the model that underlies the data is ''B'', introduces a theoretical bias in the fit. We perform a quantitative study of the theoretical bias in dark matter direct detection, with a focus on assumptions regarding the dark matter interactions, and velocity distribution. We address this problem within the effective theory of isoscalar dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by a heavy spin-1 or spin-0 particle. We analyze 24 benchmark points in the parameter space of the theory, using frequentist and Bayesian statistical methods. First, we simulate the data of future direct detection experiments assuming a momentum/velocity dependent dark matter-nucleon interaction, and an anisotropic dark matter velocity distribution. Then, we fit a constant scattering cross section, and an isotropic Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution to the simulated data, thereby introducing a bias in the analysis. The best fit values of the dark matter particle mass differ from their benchmark values up to 2 standard deviations. The best fit values of the dark matter-nucleon coupling constant differ from their benchmark values up to several standard deviations. We conclude that common assumptions in dark matter direct detection are a source of potentially significant bias.

  12. A Model and Simple Iterative Algorithm for Redundancy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornell, Claes; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This paper shows that redundancy maximization with J. K. Johansson's extension can be accomplished via a simple iterative algorithm based on H. Wold's Partial Least Squares. The model and the iterative algorithm for the least squares approach to redundancy maximization are presented. (TJH)

  13. American and Canadian environmental federalism: A game-theoretic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gillroy, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    To understand why environmental federalism is different in Canada and the United States, one might begin with the initial strategic realities that faced the Fathers of Canadian Confederation and the Framers of the Constitution of the US. This essay examined federalism from a game theoretic point of view, to integrate and expose the rational properties of the decision to federate and the logical entailments of that choice for environmental policy within two specific strategic contexts. Specifically, the author suggests that American environmental federalism has arisen in response to the strategic reality of a prisoner's dilemma, while Canadian environmental federalism can be analyzed as an effort to regulate confrontations within a game of chicken. In addition to the analysis of each federated structure, evidence from five case studies demonstrates the usefulness of games to the study of comparative federalism.

  14. Theoretical analysis of tsunami generation by pyroclastic flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, P.; Waythomas, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Pyroclastic flows are a common product of explosive volcanism and have the potential to initiate tsunamis whenever thick, dense flows encounter bodies of water. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow by decomposing the pyroclastic flow into two components, the dense underflow portion, which we term the pyroclastic debris flow, and the plume, which includes the surge and coignimbrite ash cloud parts of the flow. We consider five possible wave generation mechanisms. These mechanisms consist of steam explosion, pyroclastic debris flow, plume pressure, plume shear, and pressure impulse wave generation. Our theoretical analysis of tsunami generation by these mechanisms provides an estimate of tsunami features such as a characteristic wave amplitude and wavelength. We find that in most situations, tsunami generation is dominated by the pyroclastic debris flow component of a pyroclastic flow. This work presents information sufficient to construct tsunami sources for an arbitrary pyroclastic flow interacting with most bodies of water. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Theoretical analysis of the coherence-brightened laser in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Luqi; Hokr, Brett H.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of a recent experiment [A. J. Traverso , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1211481109 109, 15185 (2012)] in which a laserlike source is created in air by pumping with a nanosecond pulse. The source generates radiation in the forward and backward directions. The temporal behavior of the emitted pulses is investigated for different pump shapes and durations. Our analysis indicates that the spiky emission is due to quantum coherence via cooperation between atoms of an ensemble, which leads to strong-oscillatory superfluorescence. We show that these cooperative nonadiabatic coherence effects cannot be described by rate equations and instead a full set of the Maxwell-Bloch equations must be used. We consider a range of parameters and study transitions between various regimes. Understanding these coherence-brightened processes in air should lead to improvements in environmental, atmospheric remote sensing and other applications.

  16. Theoretical Analysis of Dynamic Processes for Interacting Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Mehrabiani, Kareem

    2015-01-01

    Biological transport is supported by collective dynamics of enzymatic molecules that are called motor proteins or molecular motors. Experiments suggest that motor proteins interact locally via short-range potentials. We investigate the fundamental role of these interactions by analyzing a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes where interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. It allows us to connect explicitly microscopic features of motor proteins with their collective dynamic properties. Theoretical analysis that combines various mean-field calculations and computer simulations suggests that dynamic properties of molecular motors strongly depend on interactions, and correlations are stronger for interacting motor proteins. Surprisingly, it is found that there is an optimal strength of interactions (weak repulsion) that leads to a maximal particle flux. It is also argued that molecular motors transport is more sensitive to attractive interactions. Applications of these results for kinesin motor proteins are discussed. PMID:25688287

  17. Theoretical analysis of sound transmission loss through graphene sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2014-11-17

    We examine the potential of using graphene sheets (GSs) as sound insulating materials that can be used for nano-devices because of their small size, super electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, a theoretical analysis is proposed to predict the sound transmission loss through multi-layered GSs, which are formed by stacks of GS and bound together by van der Waals (vdW) forces between individual layers. The result shows that the resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss occur in the multi-layered GSs and the values are very high. Based on the present analytical solution, we predict the acoustic insulation property for various layers of sheets under both normal incident wave and acoustic field of random incidence source. The scheme could be useful in vibration absorption application of nano devices and materials.

  18. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2013-07-25

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities.

  19. Theoretical performance analysis of multislice channelized Hotelling observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, Bart; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried

    2012-02-01

    Quality assessment of 3D medical images is becoming increasingly important, because of clinical practice rapidly moving in the direction of volumetric imaging. In a recent publication, three multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) models are presented for the task of detecting 3D signals in multi-slice images, where each multi-slice image is inspected in a so called stack-browsing mode. The observer models are based on the assumption that humans observe multi-slice images in a simple two stage process, and each of the models implement this principle in a different way. In this paper, we investigate the theoretical performance, in terms of detection signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of msCHO models, for the task of detecting a separable signal in a Gaussian background with separable covariance matrix. We find that, despite the differences in architecture of the three models, they all have the same asymptotical performance in this task (i.e., when the number of training images tends to infinity). On the other hand, when backgrounds with nonseparable covariance matrices are considered, the third model, msCHOc, is expected to perform slightly better than the other msCHO models (msCHOa and msCHOb), but only when sufficient training images are provided. These findings suggest that the choice between the msCHO models mainly depends on the experiment setup (e.g., the number of available training samples), while the relation to human observers depends on the particular choice of the "temporal" channels that the msCHO models use.

  20. A simple analysis of vaccination strategies for rubella.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    We consider an SEIR epidemic model with vertical transmission introduced by Li, Smith and Wang, [23], and apply optimal control theory to assess the effects of vaccination strategies on the model dynamics. The strategy is chosen to minimize the total number of infectious individuals and the cost associated with vaccination. We derive the optimality system and solve it numerically. The theoretical findings are then used to simulate a vaccination campaign for rubella in China. PMID:21675803

  1. Designing novel Sn-Bi, Si-C and Ge-C nanostructures, using simple theoretical chemical similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdetsis, Aristides D.

    2011-04-01

    A framework of simple, transparent and powerful concepts is presented which is based on isoelectronic (or isovalent) principles, analogies, regularities and similarities. These analogies could be considered as conceptual extensions of the periodical table of the elements, assuming that two atoms or molecules having the same number of valence electrons would be expected to have similar or homologous properties. In addition, such similar moieties should be able, in principle, to replace each other in more complex structures and nanocomposites. This is only partly true and only occurs under certain conditions which are investigated and reviewed here. When successful, these concepts are very powerful and transparent, leading to a large variety of nanomaterials based on Si and other group 14 elements, similar to well known and well studied analogous materials based on boron and carbon. Such nanomaterias designed in silico include, among many others, Si-C, Sn-Bi, Si-C and Ge-C clusters, rings, nanowheels, nanorodes, nanocages and multidecker sandwiches, as well as silicon planar rings and fullerenes similar to the analogous sp2 bonding carbon structures. It is shown that this pedagogically simple and transparent framework can lead to an endless variety of novel and functional nanomaterials with important potential applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanobiology. Some of the so called predicted structures have been already synthesized, not necessarily with the same rational and motivation. Finally, it is anticipated that such powerful and transparent rules and analogies, in addition to their predictive power, could also lead to far-reaching interpretations and a deeper understanding of already known results and information.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of the Electron Spiral Toroid Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Micheletti, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of the Electron Spiral Toroid (EST) concept being promoted by Electron Power Systems Inc. (EPS). The EST is described as a toroidal plasma structure composed Of ion and electron shells. It is claimed that the EST requires little or no external confinement, despite the extraordinarily large energy densities resulting from the self-generating magnetic fields. The present analysis is based upon documentation made available by EPS, a previous description of the model by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and direct discussions with EPS and MIT. It is found that claims of absolute stability and large energy storage capacities of the EST concept have not been substantiated. Notably, it can be demonstrated that the ion fluid is fundamentally unstable. Although various scenarios for ion confinement were subsequently suggested by EPS and MIT, none were found to be plausible. Although the experimental data does not prove the existence of EST configurations, there is undeniable experimental evidence that some type of plasma structures whose characteristics remain to be determined are observed. However, more realistic theoretical models must first be developed to explain their existence and properties before applications of interest to NASA can he assessed and developed.

  3. GRETNA: a graph theoretical network analysis toolbox for imaging connectomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Xindi; Xia, Mingrui; Liao, Xuhong; Evans, Alan; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the brain's structural and functional networks (i.e., connectomics) can be constructed by various imaging technologies (e.g., EEG/MEG; structural, diffusion and functional MRI) and further characterized by graph theory. Given the huge complexity of network construction, analysis and statistics, toolboxes incorporating these functions are largely lacking. Here, we developed the GRaph thEoreTical Network Analysis (GRETNA) toolbox for imaging connectomics. The GRETNA contains several key features as follows: (i) an open-source, Matlab-based, cross-platform (Windows and UNIX OS) package with a graphical user interface (GUI); (ii) allowing topological analyses of global and local network properties with parallel computing ability, independent of imaging modality and species; (iii) providing flexible manipulations in several key steps during network construction and analysis, which include network node definition, network connectivity processing, network type selection and choice of thresholding procedure; (iv) allowing statistical comparisons of global, nodal and connectional network metrics and assessments of relationship between these network metrics and clinical or behavioral variables of interest; and (v) including functionality in image preprocessing and network construction based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) data. After applying the GRETNA to a publicly released R-fMRI dataset of 54 healthy young adults, we demonstrated that human brain functional networks exhibit efficient small-world, assortative, hierarchical and modular organizations and possess highly connected hubs and that these findings are robust against different analytical strategies. With these efforts, we anticipate that GRETNA will accelerate imaging connectomics in an easy, quick and flexible manner. GRETNA is freely available on the NITRC website.

  4. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in mammalian cell cycle genes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Seema; Wills, Christopher; Metzgar, David

    2014-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites are hyper-mutable and can lead to disorders. Here we explore SSR distribution in cell cycle-associated genes [grouped into: checkpoint; regulation; replication, repair, and recombination (RRR); and transition] in humans and orthologues of eight mammals. Among the gene groups studied, transition genes have the highest SSR density. Trinucleotide repeats are not abundant and introns have higher repeat density than exons. Many repeats in human genes are conserved; however, CG motifs are conserved only in regulation genes. SSR variability in cell cycle genes represents a genetic Achilles' heel, yet SSRs are common in all groups of genes. This tolerance many be due to i) positions in introns where they do not disrupt gene function, ii) essential roles in regulation, iii) specific value of adaptability, and/or iv) lack of negative selection pressure. Present study may be useful for further exploration of their medical relevance and potential functionality.

  5. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J.

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data.

  6. Large deviation analysis of a simple information engine.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Michael; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J

    2015-11-01

    Information thermodynamics provides a framework for studying the effect of feedback loops on entropy production. It has enabled the understanding of novel thermodynamic systems such as the information engine, which can be seen as a modern version of "Maxwell's Dæmon," whereby a feedback controller processes information gained by measurements in order to extract work. Here, we analyze a simple model of such an engine that uses feedback control based on measurements to obtain negative entropy production. We focus on the distribution and fluctuations of the information obtained by the feedback controller. Significantly, our model allows an analytic treatment for a two-state system with exact calculation of the large deviation rate function. These results suggest an approximate technique for larger systems, which is corroborated by simulation data. PMID:26651675

  7. A novel theoretical approach to the analysis of dendritic transients.

    PubMed Central

    Agmon-Snir, H

    1995-01-01

    A novel theoretical framework for analyzing dendritic transients is introduced. This approach, called the method of moments, is an extension of Rall's cable theory for dendrites. It provides analytic investigation of voltage attenuation, signal delay, and synchronization problems in passive dendritic trees. In this method, the various moments of a transient signal are used to characterize the properties of the transient. The strength of the signal is measured by the time integral of the signal, its characteristic time is determined by its centroid ("center of gravity"), and the width of the signal is determined by a measure similar to the standard deviation in probability theory. Using these signal properties, the method of moments provides theorems, expressions, and efficient algorithms for analyzing the voltage response in arbitrary passive trees. The method yields new insights into spatiotemporal integration, coincidence detection mechanisms, and the properties of local interactions between synaptic inputs in dendritic trees. The method can also be used for matching dendritic neuron models to experimental data and for the analysis of synaptic inputs recorded experimentally. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8580308

  8. The graph theoretical analysis of the SSVEP harmonic response networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangsong; Guo, Daqing; Cheng, Kaiwen; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) have been widely used in the neural engineering and cognitive neuroscience researches. Previous studies have indicated that the SSVEP fundamental frequency responses are correlated with the topological properties of the functional networks entrained by the periodic stimuli. Given the different spatial and functional roles of the fundamental frequency and harmonic responses, in this study we further investigated the relation between the harmonic responses and the corresponding functional networks, using the graph theoretical analysis. We found that the second harmonic responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while negatively correlated with the characteristic path lengths of the corresponding networks. In addition, similar pattern occurred with the lowest stimulus frequency (6.25 Hz) at the third harmonic responses. These findings demonstrate that more efficient brain networks are related to larger SSVEP responses. Furthermore, we showed that the main connection pattern of the SSVEP harmonic response networks originates from the interactions between the frontal and parietal-occipital regions. Overall, this study may bring new insights into the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SSVEP.

  9. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a Solar Liquid Piston Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.L.; Brew-Hammoud, A.

    1985-08-01

    The Solar Liquid Piston Pump (SLPP) is driven by oscillations of an enclosed column of liquid Freon 113. Cyclic evaporation and condensation from heating and cooling coils at the top of the liquid column generate the oscillations. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations are enhanced by momentum forces in the inlet, outlet, and working tubes. Three geometrically different experimental models of a SLPP have been tested. To optimize the performance of the SLPP, a theoretical model was required to account for the large number of interdependent parametres that could be varied. A semiemperical time-incremented computer model was developed. A theoretical cycle was assumed and the heat transfer and fluid friction coefficient adjusted, within reasonable limits, so that the theoretical pressurevolume diagrams agreed closely with experimental ones. Input parameters were then varied for the theoretical model and compared to experimental results available. The theoretical model successfully predicted performance trends of the SLPP.

  10. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  11. Theoretical analysis of magnetic field interactions with aortic blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kinouchi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tenforde, T.S.

    1996-04-01

    The flow of blood in the presence of a magnetic field gives rise to induced voltages in the major arteries of the central circulatory system. Under certain simplifying conditions, such as the assumption that the length of major arteries (e.g., the aorta) is infinite and that the vessel walls are not electrically conductive, the distribution of induced voltages and currents within these blood vessels can be calculated with reasonable precision. However, the propagation of magnetically induced voltages and currents from the aorta into neighboring tissue structures such as the sinuatrial node of the heart has not been previously determined by any experimental or theoretical technique. In the analysis presented in this paper, a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation was obtained by the finite element technique for blood flow through the ascending and descending aortic vessels in the presence of a uniform static magnetic field. Spatial distributions of the magnetically induced voltage and current were obtained for the aortic vessel and surrounding tissues under the assumption that the wall of the aorta is electrically conductive. Results are presented for the calculated values of magnetically induced voltages and current densities in the aorta and surrounding tissue structures, including the sinuatrial node, and for their field-strength dependence. In addition, an analysis is presented of magnetohydrodynamic interactions that lead to a small reduction of blood volume flow at high field levels above approximately 10 tesla (T). Quantitative results are presented on the offsetting effects of oppositely directed blood flows in the ascending and descending aortic segments, and a quantitative estimate is made of the effects of assuming an infinite vs. a finite length of the aortic vessel in calculating the magnetically induced voltage and current density distribution in tissue.

  12. Pre/Post Data Analysis - Simple or Is It?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Al; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the problems of data analysis in analyzing pre and post data. Using as an example, ankle extensor strength (AES) experiments, to measure bone density loss during bed rest, the presentation discusses several questions: (1) How should we describe change? (2) Common analysis methods for comparing post to pre results. (3) What do we mean by "% change"? and (4) What are we testing when we compare % changes?

  13. Development of Novel, Simple, Multianalyte Sensors For Remote Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, Sanfor A.

    1999-06-01

    We will develop simple, inexpensive new chemical sensing materials which can be used as visual color test strips to sensitively and selectively report on the concentration and identity of environmental pollutants such as cations of Pb, U, Pu, Sr, Hg, Cs, Co as well as other species. We will develop inexpensive chemical test strips which can be immersed in water to determine these analytes in the field. We will also develop arrays of these chemical sensing materials which will be attached to fiber optic bundles to be used as rugged multichannel optrodes to simultaneously monitor numerous analytes remotely in hostile environments. These sensing materials are based on the intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) technology we recently developed. This sensing motif utilizes a mesoscopically periodic array of colloidal particles polymerized into an acrylamide hydrogel. This array Bragg diffracts light in the visible spectral region due to the periodic array of colloidal particles. This material also contains chelating agents for the analytes of interest. When an analyte binds, its charge is immobilized within the acrylamide hydrogel. The resulting Donnan potential causes an osmotic pressure which swells the array proportional to the concentration of analyte bound. The diffracted wavelength shifts and the color changes. The change in the wavelength diffracted reports on the identity and concentration of the target analyte.

  14. Simple technique for structural thermal-screening analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.C.; Dalcher, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    A closed form solution to one dimensional transient heat conduction problem is suggested for the thermal screening analysis of arbitrary input transients. This formulation has been derived from a classical solution and been applied to thermal screening analyses of nuclear structural components. Direct output in the form of computer plots is particularly useful not only for visualization of transient responses but also the selection of umbrella transients used in the detailed analyses of nuclear components especially for high temperature applications. An example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique in the design analysis of heat transport system equipments.

  15. Simple hobby computer-based off-gas analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, E.H.; Jansen, N.B.; Flickinger, M.C.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-02-01

    An Apple II computer has been adapted to monitor fermentation offgas in laboratory and pilot scale fermentors. It can calculate oxygen uptake rates, carbon dioxide evolution rates, respiratory quotient as well as initiating recalibration procedures. In this report the computer-based off-gas analysis system is described.

  16. The analysis of non-linear dynamic behavior (including snap-through) of postbuckled plates by simple analytical solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    Static postbuckling and nonlinear dynamic analysis of plates are usually accomplished by multimode analyses, although the methods are complicated and do not give straightforward understanding of the nonlinear behavior. Assuming single-mode transverse displacement, a simple formula is derived for the transverse load displacement relationship of a plate under in-plane compression. The formula is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the static postbuckling displacement and nonlinear dynamic responses of postbuckled plates under sinusoidal or random excitation. Regions with softening and hardening spring behavior are identified. Also, the highly nonlinear motion of snap-through and its effects on the overall dynamic response can be easily interpreted using the single-mode formula. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results obtained using a buckled aluminum panel, using discrete frequency and broadband point excitation. Some important effects of the snap-through motion on the dynamic response of the postbuckled plates are found.

  17. Developmental Change in the Relation between Simple and Complex Spans: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Carin M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present meta-analysis the effects of developmental level on the correlation between simple and complex span tasks were investigated. Simple span-complex span correlation coefficients presented in 52 independent samples (7,060 participants) were regressed on a variable representing mean age of sample (range: 4.96-22.80 years), using analyses…

  18. Simple theoretical analysis of the Einstein’s photoemission from quantum confined superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.; Saha, A.; De, D.; Ghatak, K. P.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we study the Einstein's photoemission from III-V, II-VI, IV-VI and HgTe/CdTe quantum well superlattices (QWSLs) with graded interfaces and quantum well effective mass superlattices in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field on the basis of newly formulated dispersion relations in the respective cases. Besides, the same has been studied from the afore-mentioned quantum dot superlattices and it appears that the photoemission oscillates with increasing carrier degeneracy and quantizing magnetic field in different manners. In addition, the photoemission oscillates with film thickness and increasing photon energy in quantum steps together with the fact that the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation will introduce new physical ideas and new experimental findings under different external conditions. The influence of band structure is apparent from all the figures and we have suggested three applications of the analyses of this paper in the fields of superlattices and microstructures.

  19. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  20. Towards theoretical analysis of long-range proton transfer kinetics in biomolecular pumps

    PubMed Central

    König, P. H.; Ghosh, N.; Hoffmann, M.; Elstner, M.; Tajkhorshid, E.; Frauenheim, Th.; Cui, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the long-term goal of theoretically analyzing long-range proton transfer (PT) kinetics in biomolecular pumps, a number of technical developments were made in the framework of QM/MM simulations. A set of collective reaction co-ordinates is proposed for characterizing the progress of long-range proton transfers; unlike previous suggestions, the new coordinates can describe PT along highly non-linear three-dimensional pathways. Calculations using a realistic model of carbonic anhydrase demonstrated that adiabatic mapping using these collective coordinates gives reliable energetics and critical geometrical parameters as compared to minimum energy path calculations, which suggests that the new coordinates can be effectively used as reaction coordinate in potential of mean force calculations for long-range PT in complex systems. In addition, the generalized solvent boundary potential was implemented in the QM/MM framework for rectangular geometries, which is useful for studying reactions in membrane systems. The resulting protocol was found to produce water structure in the interior of aquaporin consistent with previous studies including much larger number of explicit solvent and lipid molecules. The effect of electrostatics for PT through membrane protein was also illustrated with a simple model channel embedded in different dielectric continuum environments. The encouraging results observed so far suggest that robust theoretical analysis of long-range PT kinetics in biomolecular pumps can soon be realized in a QM/MM framework. PMID:16405327

  1. A theoretical analysis model of realizing wavelength converter based on saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tonggang; Ren, Jianhua; Zhao, Ronghua; Wang, Lili; Rao, Lan; Lin, Jintong

    2005-02-01

    As the key apparatus, the All optical Wavelength Converter (AOWC) will play an important role in future optical communication and optical signal processing system. In this paper, switching characteristics of wavelength converter based on saturable absorber in semiconductor lasers will be researched. This kind of conversion mechanism possesses some advantage, such as simple structure, low cost, high stability and so on. This paper is organized as follows: Firstly, utilizing rate equations, a new theoretical model on wavelength conversion based on saturable absorber is put forward. Nextly, the frequency modulation response of wavelength conversion will be discussed under the small-signal analysis based on the theoretical model. Lastly, Numerical value solution results will be given out when external signal light injects in saturable absorber region of semiconductor lasers. The characteristics of wavelength conversion are simulated in different optical parameters including the injection current, the input signal optical power and bit rate. Those results are useful to realization and the optimal design of the wavelength converter based on saturable absorber.

  2. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hailong; Fu, Dongzhi; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light.

  3. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hailong; Fu, Dongzhi; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light.

  4. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification on optical rotational Doppler effect.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hailong; Fu, Dongzhi; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical model to sufficiently investigate the optical rotational Doppler effect based on modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the difference of mode index between input and output orbital angular momentum (OAM) light, and linear to the rotating speed of spinning object as well. An experiment is carried out to verify the theoretical model. We explicitly suggest that the spatial spiral phase distribution of spinning object determines the frequency content. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler effect, and thus has many related application fields, such as detection of rotating bodies, imaging of surface and measurement of OAM light. PMID:27137615

  5. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL- 1, and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL- 1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  6. Inverse bifurcation analysis: application to simple gene systems

    PubMed Central

    Lu, James; Engl, Heinz W; Schuster, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background Bifurcation analysis has proven to be a powerful method for understanding the qualitative behavior of gene regulatory networks. In addition to the more traditional forward problem of determining the mapping from parameter space to the space of model behavior, the inverse problem of determining model parameters to result in certain desired properties of the bifurcation diagram provides an attractive methodology for addressing important biological problems. These include understanding how the robustness of qualitative behavior arises from system design as well as providing a way to engineer biological networks with qualitative properties. Results We demonstrate that certain inverse bifurcation problems of biological interest may be cast as optimization problems involving minimal distances of reference parameter sets to bifurcation manifolds. This formulation allows for an iterative solution procedure based on performing a sequence of eigen-system computations and one-parameter continuations of solutions, the latter being a standard capability in existing numerical bifurcation software. As applications of the proposed method, we show that the problem of maximizing regions of a given qualitative behavior as well as the reverse engineering of bistable gene switches can be modelled and efficiently solved. PMID:16859561

  7. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-15

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL(-1), and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL(-1), respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  8. Analysis of monoclonal antibody oxidation by simple mixed mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Jorge Alexander; Li, Xiaojuan; Chico, Steven; Kishnani, Umesh; Soundararajan, Soundara; Cheung, Jason; Li, Huijuan; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-29

    Analysis of oxidation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in most cases relies on peptide mapping and LC-MS, which is time consuming and labor-intensive. A robust chromatography based method that is able to resolve and quantitate mAb oxidation variants due to oxidized methionine or tryptophan is highly desired. Here we developed a novel mixed mode chromatography method using the unique property of Sepax Zenix SEC-300MK column to analyze mAb oxidation levels. The separation of oxidized species relied upon the mixed mode of size exclusion and hydrophobic interaction between the resin and antibodies. The chromatography was performed in a regular SEC mobile phase, PBS, containing NaCl at a concentration (0-2.4M) specific for individual antibodies. This method was able to resolve and quantitate the oxidized antibodies as prepeaks, of either methionine-oxidized species induced by the common oxidants TBHP, tryptophan-oxidized species triggered by AAPH, or oxidized species by UV photo-irradiation. The prepeaks were further characterized by SEC-MALLS as monomers and confirmed by LC-MS as oxidized antibody variants with a mass increase of 16 or 32Da. This method has been successfully applied to monitor multiple monoclonal antibodies of IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 subclasses. PMID:26774436

  9. Statistical analysis of simple repeats in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, F.; Liò, P.

    2005-03-01

    The human genome contains repetitive DNA at different level of sequence length, number and dispersion. Highly repetitive DNA is particularly rich in homo- and di-nucleotide repeats, while middle repetitive DNA is rich of families of interspersed, mobile elements hundreds of base pairs (bp) long, among which belong the Alu families. A link between homo- and di-polymeric tracts and mobile elements has been recently highlighted. In particular, the mobility of Alu repeats, which form 10% of the human genome, has been correlated with the length of poly(A) tracts located at one end of the Alu. These tracts have a rigid and non-bendable structure and have an inhibitory effect on nucleosomes, which normally compact the DNA. We performed a statistical analysis of the genome-wide distribution of lengths and inter-tract separations of poly(X) and poly(XY) tracts in the human genome. Our study shows that in humans the length distributions of these sequences reflect the dynamics of their expansion and DNA replication. By means of general tools from linguistics, we show that the latter play the role of highly-significant content-bearing terms in the DNA text. Furthermore, we find that such tracts are positioned in a non-random fashion, with an apparent periodicity of 150 bases. This allows us to extend the link between repetitive, highly mobile elements such as Alus and low-complexity words in human DNA. More precisely, we show that Alus are sources of poly(X) tracts, which in turn affect in a subtle way the combination and diversification of gene expression and the fixation of multigene families.

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Physics of Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrio-Perotti, R.; Blanco-Marigorta, E.; Fernandez-Francos, J.; Galdo-Vega, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple rocket can be made using a plastic bottle filled with a volume of water and pressurized air. When opened, the air pressure pushes the water out of the bottle. This causes an increase in the bottle momentum so that it can be propelled to fairly long distances or heights. Water rockets are widely used as an educational activity, and several…

  11. CMS Made Simple: A ROOT-less workflow for educating undergraduates about CMS data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenkel, Jessica; Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Involving students in research is an important part of the undergraduate experience. By working on a problem where the answer is unknown, students apply what they learn in the classroom to a real-world challenge, which reinforce the more theoretical aspects of their courses. Many undergraduates are drawn to the idea of working on big particle physics experiments like CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but the threshold is high for them to contribute to an analysis. Those of us who perform research spend much of our time debugging scripts and C + + code, usually specific to that one experiment. If an undergraduate is not going on to grad school in particle physics, much of that work can be wasted on them. However, there are many general skills that students can learn by working on parts of a particle physics analysis (relativistic kinematics, statistics, coding, etc.), and so it is worth trying to lower the threshold to engage students. In this poster, we present a suite of datasets and tools, built around the Python programming language that simplify the workflow and allow a student to interact with CMS data immediately. While it is a staple of the particle physics community, we avoid using the ROOT toolkit, so as to stick to more broadly used tools that the students can take with them. These tools are being used to supplement the educational examples for the CERN Open Data Portal, a project to make LHC datasets available to the general public. The successes and limitations of CMS Made Simple will be discussed and links are provided to these tools.

  12. Theoretical and experimental analysis of an optical driven servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, F.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    An optical driven servo system model based on single-type PLZT ceramic is proposed in this paper. The control equation of the proposed servo system is derived based on the mathematical model of PLZT with coupled multi-physics fields. The parameters of photodeformation of the PLZT actuator during both the illumination phase and light off phase are identified through the static experiment. Then displacement response of optical driven servo system is numerically simulated based on the control equation presented in this paper. After that, the closed-loop control experiment of optical driven servo system based on PLZT single-type ceramic with a simple on-off method is carried out. The experimental results show that the optical driven servo system with simple on-off method can achieve the target displacement by applying UV light to the PLZT actuator. Furthermore, an improved on-off control strategy is proposed to decrease the undesirable fluctuation around the target displacement.

  13. Theoretical and experimental analysis of an optical driven servo system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, F.; Wang, X. J.; Huang, J. H.; Liu, Y. F.

    2016-09-01

    An optical driven servo system model based on single-type PLZT ceramic is proposed in this paper. The control equation of the proposed servo system is derived based on the mathematical model of PLZT with coupled multi-physics fields. The parameters of photodeformation of the PLZT actuator during both the illumination phase and light off phase are identified through the static experiment. Then displacement response of optical driven servo system is numerically simulated based on the control equation presented in this paper. After that, the closed-loop control experiment of optical driven servo system based on PLZT single-type ceramic with a simple on–off method is carried out. The experimental results show that the optical driven servo system with simple on–off method can achieve the target displacement by applying UV light to the PLZT actuator. Furthermore, an improved on–off control strategy is proposed to decrease the undesirable fluctuation around the target displacement.

  14. [A simple biostatistical method for meta analysis of the data on 2 x 2 table].

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Wang, J; Kang, D; Hong, Q

    2000-06-01

    Meta-analysis is a method in common use for data analysis in evidence-based medicine. In this paper, based on the Mantel-Haenszel and Peto methods used for Meta-analysis of the data on 2 x 2 table, we put forward a simple calculating method for clinicians. It is useful for Meta-analysis and can be easily applied to analysis of the data from multi-studies in evidence-based medicine.

  15. A Measurement-Theoretic Analysis of the Fuzzy Logic Model of Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Court S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fuzzy logic model of perception (FLMP) is analyzed from a measurement-theoretic perspective. The choice rule of FLMP is shown to be equivalent to a version of the Rasch model. In fact, FLMP can be reparameterized as a simple two-category logit model. (SLD)

  16. Extending and automating a Systems-Theoretic hazard analysis for requirements generation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John

    2012-05-01

    Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a powerful new hazard analysis method designed to go beyond traditional safety techniques - such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) - that overlook important causes of accidents like flawed requirements, dysfunctional component interactions, and software errors. While proving to be very effective on real systems, no formal structure has been defined for STPA and its application has been ad-hoc with no rigorous procedures or model-based design tools. This report defines a formal mathematical structure underlying STPA and describes a procedure for systematically performing an STPA analysis based on that structure. A method for using the results of the hazard analysis to generate formal safety-critical, model-based system and software requirements is also presented. Techniques to automate both the analysis and the requirements generation are introduced, as well as a method to detect conflicts between the safety and other functional model-based requirements during early development of the system.

  17. Theoretical analysis of aqueous residues incineration with oxygen enriched flames

    SciTech Connect

    Lacava, P.T.; Pimenta, A.P.; Veras, C.A.G.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr.

    1999-10-01

    The use of oxygen to enrich the oxidizer can be an attractive alternate to increase incineration rates of a combustion chamber originally designed to operate with air. For a certain fuel flow rate, if some incineration parameters are held constant (as combustion chamber temperature, turbulence level, and residence time), an increase of incineration rates becomes possible with injection of oxygen. This work presents a theoretical evaluation of combustion air enrichment in a combustion chamber designed to incinerate aqueous residues using methane as fuel and air as oxidizer. Detailed chemistry was employed to predict pollutants formation. The overall process was investigated using the PSR routine from the CHEMKIN library.

  18. Theoretical analysis of magnetically propelled microrobots in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Plötner, P; Harada, K; Sugita, N; Mitsuishi, M

    2014-01-01

    The field of medical microrobotics is rapidly progressing; however, it is particularly challenging to control microrobots inside blood vessels. In this paper, the magnetic propulsion of a microrobot in pulsating flow is investigated. Regarding this task, the advantages of a reduced blood flow velocity are examined. The required magnetic field gradient in relation to the size of the microrobot is theoretically analyzed and compared to that for propulsion during reduced blood flow velocity. Quantitative and qualitative advantages together with the practical challenges are discussed.

  19. Analysis of NASA JP-4 fire tests data and development of a simple fire model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, P.

    1980-01-01

    The temperature, velocity and species concentration data obtained during the NASA fire tests (3m, 7.5m and 15m diameter JP-4 fires) were analyzed. Utilizing the data analysis, a sample theoretical model was formulated to predict the temperature and velocity profiles in JP-4 fires. The theoretical model, which does not take into account the detailed chemistry of combustion, is capable of predicting the extent of necking of the fire near its base.

  20. Task Analysis in Instructional Program Development. Theoretical Paper No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Michael E.

    A review of task analysis procedures beginning with the military training and systems development approach and covering the more recent work of Gagne, Klausmeier, Merrill, Resnick, and others is presented along with a plan for effective instruction based on the review of task analysis. Literature dealing with the use of task analysis in programmed…

  1. Anion order in perovskites: a group-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Talanov, M V; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, V M

    2016-03-01

    Anion ordering in the structure of cubic perovskite has been investigated by the group-theoretical method. The possibility of the existence of 261 ordered low-symmetry structures, each with a unique space-group symmetry, is established. These results include five binary and 14 ternary anion superstructures. The 261 idealized anion-ordered perovskite structures are considered as aristotypes, giving rise to different derivatives. The structures of these derivatives are formed by tilting of BO6 octahedra, distortions caused by the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect and other physical effects. Some derivatives of aristotypes exist as real substances, and some as virtual ones. A classification of aristotypes of anion superstructures in perovskite is proposed: the AX class (the simultaneous ordering of A cations and anions in cubic perovskite structure), the BX class (the simultaneous ordering of B cations and anions) and the X class (the ordering of anions only in cubic perovskite structure). In most perovskites anion ordering is accompanied by cation ordering. Therefore, the main classes of anion order in perovskites are the AX and BX classes. The calculated structures of some anion superstructures are reported. Comparison of predictions and experimentally investigated anion superstructures shows coherency of theoretical and experimental results. PMID:26919374

  2. An Isotopic Dilution Experiment Using Liquid Scintillation: A Simple Two-System, Two-Phase Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehs, Peter J.; Levine, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    A simple isotonic, dilution analysis whose principles apply to methods of more complex radioanalyses is described. Suitable for clinical and instrumental analysis chemistry students, experimental manipulations are kept to a minimum involving only aqueous extraction before counting. Background information, procedures, and results are discussed.…

  3. Experimental and theoretical analysis of long waves transformation on a sloping beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmidt, K.; Staroszczyk, R.; Hedzielski, B.

    2009-09-01

    Transformation of long water waves on a sloping beach has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments have been conducted in a 64 m long and 0.6 m wide laboratory flume at the Institute of Hydro-Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, in Gdansk, Poland. Plane monochromatic waves have been generated by a piston-type wave maker situated at one end of the flume, and the sloping beach has been modelled by an inclined rigid ramp, of the slope equal to either 10 or 15 per cent, placed at a distance of 12 m from the generator wall. The water wave parameters have been recorded by a set of gauges installed along the flume, both in its constant- and varying-depth parts. Additionally, the run-up of the wave has been measured by a special conductivity gauge mounted on the ramp along the wave propagation direction. The experiments have been carried out for a wide range of wave lengths and amplitudes, falling, however, into the long-wave regime. The theoretical analysis of the wave propagation phenomenon has been performed by solving the problem in Lagrangian coordinates, since this permits simple formulation of boundary conditions on the moving boundaries of the fluid domain. However, the price for it is a more complicated structure of equations describing the fluid motion, compared to more traditional approaches based on the Eulerian description. In order to simplify the analysis, the shallow water approximation is applied. An essential simplification, on which the theoretical formulation proposed in this work is based, is a kinematical assumption that fluid motion is "columnar"; that is, the vertical material lines of fluid particles remain vertical during the motion. Fundamental equations of the theoretical description of the problem have been derived by following the Hamilton principle. Owing to the above kinematical assumption on the fluid motion, all the integrands in the action integral are expressed in terms of only the fluid horizontal

  4. Theoretical and software considerations for nonlinear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. J.; Dodds, R. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In the finite element method for structural analysis, it is generally necessary to discretize the structural model into a very large number of elements to accurately evaluate displacements, strains, and stresses. As the complexity of the model increases, the number of degrees of freedom can easily exceed the capacity of present-day software system. Improvements of structural analysis software including more efficient use of existing hardware and improved structural modeling techniques are discussed. One modeling technique that is used successfully in static linear and nonlinear analysis is multilevel substructuring. This research extends the use of multilevel substructure modeling to include dynamic analysis and defines the requirements for a general purpose software system capable of efficient nonlinear dynamic analysis. The multilevel substructuring technique is presented, the analytical formulations and computational procedures for dynamic analysis and nonlinear mechanics are reviewed, and an approach to the design and implementation of a general purpose structural software system is presented.

  5. Theoretical analysis of rotating cavitation in rocket pump inducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu; Kamijo, Kenjiro; Yoshida, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Yoshiki

    1992-07-01

    Rotating cavitation was analyzed using an actuator disk method. Quasi-steady pressure performance of the impeller, mass flow gain factor and cavitation compliance of the cavity were taken into account. Three types of destabilizing modes were observed: rotating cavitation propagating faster than the rotational speed of the impeller, rotating cavitation propagating in the direction opposite that of the impeller, and rotating stall propagating slower than the rotational speed of the impeller. It was shown that both types of rotating cavitations were caused by the positive mass flow gain factor, while the rotating stall was caused by the positive slope of the pressure performance. Stability and propagation velocity maps are presented for the two types of rotating cavitations in the mass flow gain factor-cavitation compliance plane. The correlation between theoretical results and experimental observations is discussed.

  6. Flavor symmetry based MSSM: Theoretical models and phenomenological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Gogoladze, Ilia; Raza, Shabbar; Shafi, Qaisar

    2014-09-01

    We present a class of supersymmetric models in which symmetry considerations alone dictate the form of the soft SUSY breaking Lagrangian. We develop a class of minimal models, denoted as sMSSM—for flavor symmetry-based minimal supersymmetric standard model—that respect a grand unified symmetry such as SO(10) and a non-Abelian flavor symmetry H which suppresses SUSY-induced flavor violation. Explicit examples are constructed with the flavor symmetry being gauged SU(2)H and SO(3)H with the three families transforming as 2+1 and 3 representations, respectively. A simple solution is found in the case of SU(2)H for suppressing the flavor violating D-terms based on an exchange symmetry. Explicit models based on SO(3)H without the D-term problem are developed. In addition, models based on discrete non-Abelian flavor groups are presented which are automatically free from D-term issues. The permutation group S3 with a 2+1 family assignment, as well as the tetrahedral group A4 with a 3 assignment are studied. In all cases, a simple solution to the SUSY CP problem is found, based on spontaneous CP violation leading to a complex quark mixing matrix. We develop the phenomenology of the resulting sMSSM, which is controlled by seven soft SUSY breaking parameters for both the 2+1 assignment and the 3 assignment of fermion families. These models are special cases of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM), but with symmetry restrictions. We discuss the parameter space of sMSSM compatible with LHC searches, B-physics constraints and dark matter relic abundance. Fine-tuning in these models is relatively mild, since all SUSY particles can have masses below about 3 TeV.

  7. Gas hydrate and seismic data analysis by using theoretical approches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinivella, U.; Accaino, F.; Giustiniani, M.; Loreto, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    In order to quantify the concentrations of gas hydrate and free gas in the pore space, we use a precedure based on theoretical model (Biot equations and approximations in case of seismic frequency). This approach models the different layers associated with the BSR (two solids -grains and clathrates- and two fluids -water and free gas-) including an explicit dependence on differential pressure and depth, and the effects of cementation by hydrate on shear modulus of the sediment matrix. The theory gives both compressional and shear wave velocities, and needs easy to hypothesise physical parameters (porosity, compressibility, rigidity, density, frequency dependence). These can be determined from available lithostratigraphic information, and experimental data sets if no direct measurements are available. In particular, a detailed geological knowledge of the area is essential in order to suppose a normal gradients of physical properties (porosity, density, rigidity, and compressibility) of marine sediments, in order to correctly associate the velocity anomalies to chlatrate and free gas presences and avoid misinterpretations, like the case of over- and/or under-consolidated sediments. Our theory can be applied in the cases of i) full water saturation (to reproduce absence of gas in either hydrated or gaseous phase), ii) water and gas hydrates in the pore space, and iii) water and free gas in the pore space, even if the free gas is in overpressure condition. The effect of grains cementation when the concentration of gas hydrates is high, is considered by application of the percolation model, which describes the transition of a two-phase system from a continuous (grain cementation) to a discontinuous (no cementation) state. It is finally worth to mention that a coupling factor describes the degree of coupling between pore fluid and solid frame. The concentrations can be estimated by fitting the theoretical velocity to the experimental P-wave velocity obtained from travel

  8. Theoretical analysis of single molecule spectroscopy lineshapes of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Murali

    Conjugated Polymers(CPs) exhibit a wide range of highly tunable optical properties. Quantitative and detailed understanding of the nature of excitons responsible for such a rich optical behavior has significant implications for better utilization of CPs for more efficient plastic solar cells and other novel optoelectronic devices. In general, samples of CPs are plagued with substantial inhomogeneous broadening due to various sources of disorder. Single molecule emission spectroscopy (SMES) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the energetics and dynamics of excitons and their interactions with phonon modes. The major subject of the present thesis is to analyze and understand room temperature SMES lineshapes for a particular CP, called poly(2,5-di-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (DEH-PPV). A minimal quantum mechanical model of a two-level system coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath is utilized. The main objective is to identify the set of model parameters best fitting a SMES lineshape for each of about 200 samples of DEH-PPV, from which new insight into the nature of exciton-bath coupling can be gained. This project also entails developing a reliable computational methodology for quantum mechanical modeling of spectral lineshapes in general. Well-known optimization techniques such as gradient descent, genetic algorithms, and heuristic searches have been tested, employing an L2 measure between theoretical and experimental lineshapes for guiding the optimization. However, all of these tend to result in theoretical lineshapes qualitatively different from experimental ones. This is attributed to the ruggedness of the parameter space and inadequateness of the L2 measure. On the other hand, when the dynamic reduction of the original parameter space to a 2-parameter space through feature searching and visualization of the search space paths using directed acyclic graphs(DAGs), the qualitative nature of the fitting improved significantly. For a more

  9. Recurrence network analysis of nonlinear geoscientific time series: Theoretical foundations and applications to paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, R. V.; Donges, J. F.; Kurths, J.

    2011-12-01

    In the past years, different approaches to studying time series of complex systems from a graph-theoretical point of view have been suggested by several authors. Among the proposed methods, recurrence networks have particularly proven their great potential for characterizing the structural complexity of the system under study and detecting subtle changes in the underlying dynamics. Based on the concept of recurrence plots, recurrence networks encode mutual proximity relationships in the recorded dynamical system's phase space and thus describe the structural backbone of the underlying dynamics. As a consequence, many of the local and global measures traditionally characterizing complex networks have simple geometric interpretations when being considered for recurrence networks. For example, local and global transitivity properties of recurrence networks allow defining sophisticated measures for the effective dimensionality of the system under study. Since a more regular behavior (e.g., phases of laminar or periodic behavior) is less complex from a dynamical system's perspective than fully chaotic or stochastic dynamics, the estimated values of the corresponding graph-theoretic measures (local clustering coefficient and global network transitivity, respectively) serve as easily calculable indicators for dynamic regularity. Other network quantifiers can be interpreted in similar ways. The fact that only "spatial" information is taken into account in the network construction makes recurrence networks especially robust with respect to typical problems one is confronted with in the analysis of nonlinear geoscientific time series. Specifically, since time information is not explicitly considered, recurrence networks are well applicable to time series with nonuniform sampling and/or uncertain timing of observations, which are typical features of paleoclimate records. As a particular example, the results of recurrence network analysis are reported for different geological

  10. Theoretical limits on detection and analysis of small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretical limits on detection and reliable estimates of source characteristics of small earthquakes using synthetic seismograms for shear/tensile dislocations on kinematic circular ruptures and observed seismic noise and properties of several acquisition systems (instrument response, sampling rate). Simulated source time functions for shear/tensile dislocation events with different magnitudes, static stress drops, and rupture velocities provide estimates for the amplitude and frequency content of P and S phases at various observation angles. The source time functions are convolved with a Green's function for a homogenous solid assuming given P, S wave velocities and attenuation coefficients and a given instrument response. The synthetic waveforms are superposed with average levels of the observed ambient seismic noise up to 1 kHz. The combined seismograms are used to calculate signal-to-noise ratios and expected frequency content of P and S phases at various locations. The synthetic simulations of signal-to-noise ratio reproduce observed ratios extracted from several well-recorded data sets. The results provide guidelines on detection of small events in various geological environments, along with information relevant to reliable analyses of earthquake source properties.

  11. Theoretical Analysis for the Optical Shaping of Emulsion Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapp, David; Taylor, Jonathan; Lubanksy, Alex; Bain, Colin; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations, I discuss a theoretical framework to predict the three-dimensional shapes of optically deformed micron-sized emulsion droplets with ultra-low interfacial tension. The resulting shape and size of the droplet arises out of a balance between the interfacial tension and optical forces. Using an approximation of the laser field as a Gaussian beam, working within the Rayleigh-Gans regime and beyond, and assuming isotropic surface energy at the oil-water interface, the resulting shape equations are numerically solved to elucidate the three-dimensional droplet geometry. A plethora of shapes as a function of the number of optical tweezers, their laser powers and positions, surface tension, initial droplet size and geometry are obtained. Experimentally, two-dimensional emulsion droplet silhouettes have been imaged from above, but their full side-on view has not been observed and reported for current optical configurations. This experimental limitation points to ambiguity in differentiating between droplets having the same two-dimensional projection but with disparate three-dimensional shapes. The model I present elucidates and quantifies this difference for the first time. Supported by funding from EPSRC via grant EP/I013377/1.

  12. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  13. Income distribution dependence of poverty measure: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Mallick, Sushanta K.

    2007-04-01

    Using a modified deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the ‘global’ mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Identifying this inflexion point as the poverty line, we show that the pareto poverty function satisfies all three standard axioms of a poverty index [N.C. Kakwani, Econometrica 43 (1980) 437; A.K. Sen, Econometrica 44 (1976) 219] whereas the log-normal distribution falls short of this requisite. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  14. Theoretical analysis of the light interaction with coagulated tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerath, Maya R.; Welch, Ashley J.

    1992-08-01

    During laser treatment, coagulation affects the optical properties of the tissue. In particular, the formation of a white lesion increases the scattering coefficient significantly. This change in the optical properties in turn affects the laser light distribution in the tissue. For example, what is the effect of the white lesion formed during photocoagulation of the retina upon reflection and fluence rate? This problem was simulated on a model medium consisting of a thin absorbing black paint layer covered with a 1 cm thick layer of fresh egg white. The egg white layer was subdivided into coagulated (white) and uncoagulated (clear) layers. The optical properties of coagulated and uncoagulated egg white were determined. These values were used to model light distribution in the medium for varying thicknesses of the coagulated egg white layer using the one dimensional Adding Doubling method. Our results show that the fluence reaching the paint layer increase until the coagulated layer reaches 100 micrometers , after which it falls off exponentially. It was also found that the total reflected light increases almost linearly at first as the coagulated layer thickens, and then begins to level off to an R(infinity ) at a coagulation thickness of 2 mm. Experimental measurements of reflection from a lesion with a CCD camera confirm the computed trends. These results provide a theoretical foundation for control of lesion thickness using reflectance images.

  15. Graph theoretical analysis of EEG functional connectivity during music perception.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Chu; Liu, Dongwei; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle

    2012-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of music on large-scale structure of functional brain networks using graph theoretical concepts. While most studies on music perception used Western music as an acoustic stimulus, Guqin music, representative of Eastern music, was selected for this experiment to increase our knowledge of music perception. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from non-musician volunteers in three conditions: Guqin music, noise and silence backgrounds. Phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and between all pairs of EEG channels to construct correlation matrices. Each resulting matrix was converted into a weighted graph using a threshold, and two network measures: the clustering coefficient and characteristic path length were calculated. Music perception was found to display a higher level mean phase coherence. Over the whole range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient was larger while listening to music, whereas the path length was smaller. Networks in music background still had a shorter characteristic path length even after the correction for differences in mean synchronization level among background conditions. This topological change indicated a more optimal structure under music perception. Thus, prominent small-world properties are confirmed in functional brain networks. Furthermore, music perception shows an increase of functional connectivity and an enhancement of small-world network organizations.

  16. [Analysis on the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31)].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixing; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Suhe

    2015-12-01

    To explore the accuracy of simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31). Through the study of the ancient and modern data,the analysis and integration of the acupuncture books,the comparison of the locations of Fengshi (GB 31) by doctors from all dynasties and the integration of modern anatomia, the modern simple selection method of Fengshi (GB 31) is definite, which is the same as the traditional way. It is believed that the simple selec tion method is in accord with the human-oriented thought of TCM. Treatment by acupoints should be based on the emerging nature and the individual difference of patients. Also, it is proposed that Fengshi (GB 31) should be located through the integration between the simple method and body surface anatomical mark.

  17. Asymptotic analysis of pattern-theoretic object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Matthew L.; Srivastava, Anuj

    2000-08-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) is a problem of great importance in a wide variety of applications: from military target recognition to recognizing flow-patterns in fluid- dynamics to anatomical shape-studies. The basic goal is to utilize observations (images, signals) from remote sensors (such as videos, radars, MRI or PET) to identify the objects being observed. In a statistical framework, probability distributions on parameters representing the object unknowns are derived an analyzed to compute inferences (please refer to [1] for a detailed introduction). An important challenge in ATR is to determine efficient mathematical models for the tremendous variability of object appearance which lend themselves to reasonable inferences. This variation may be due to differences in object shapes, sensor-mechanisms or scene- backgrounds. To build models for object variabilities, we employ deformable templates. In brief, the object occurrences are described through their typical representatives (called templates) and transformations/deformations which particularize the templates to the observed objects. Within this pattern-theoretic framework, ATR becomes a problem of selecting appropriate templates and estimating deformations. For an object (alpha) (epsilon) A, let I(alpha ) denote a template (for example triangulated CAD-surface) and let s (epsilon) S be a particular transformation, then denote the transformed template by sI(alpha ). Figure 1 shows instances of the template for a T62 tank at several different orientations. For the purpose of object classification, the unknown transformation s is considered a nuisance parameter, leading to a classical formulation of Bayesian hypothesis- testing in presence of unknown, random nuisance parameters. S may not be a vector-space, but it often has a group structure. For rigid objects, the variation in translation and rotation can be modeled through the action of special Euclidean group SE(n). For flexible objects, such as

  18. Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui

    2016-07-01

    For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.

  19. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  20. Analysis of Theoretical Metaphors with Illustrations from Family Systems Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    Metaphoric analysis of family systems theory illustrates how metaphors and alternatives to those metaphors identify what a psychological theory has highlighted and obscured about the phenomena at its focus and how it has structured that phenomena. The most commonly used metaphors in family systems theory are the metaphors of system (system…

  1. Theoretical analysis of development behavior of resist measured by QCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Minoru

    2009-03-01

    Quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM) data were simulated using the characteristic matrix method on a four-layer model. The calculated surfaces of resonance frequency and impedance visualize well their dependencies on the thickness of the dry layer, the thickness and the rigidity of the swelling layer during development. The ideal and swelling dissolutions by the Case II diffusion with high rigidity were analyzed using the same surface of the resonance frequency, which gives visually the condition for the Sauerbrey's relation. The larger thickness of swelling layer and the larger decrease of rigidity during the development show the undulating surfaces of the resonance frequency and impedance, which represent QCM traces with a single-peak, a double-peak or sequential double peaks during the development. The characteristic-matrix analysis has shown the validity of quantitative analysis of QCM data.

  2. Theoretical analysis of wake-induced parachute collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Spahr, H.R.; Wolf, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    During recent drop tests of a prototype weapon system, the parachute collapsed soon after it became fully inflated. The magnitude and duration of the collapses were severe enough to degrade parachute performance drastically. A computer-assisted analysis is presented which models parachute inflation, forebody and parachute wake generation, and interaction between the wake and the inflating or collapsing parachute. Comparison of the analysis results with full-scale drop test results shows good agreement for two parachute sizes; both parachutes were tested with and without permanent reefing. Computer-generated graphics (black and white drawings, color slides, and color movies) show the forebody and inflating parachute, the wake, and the wake and parachute interaction.

  3. Hydraulically interconnected vehicle suspension: theoretical and experimental ride analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wade A.; Zhang, Nong; Jeyakumaran, Jeku

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a previously derived model for the frequency-domain analysis of vehicles with hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) systems is applied to the ride analysis of a four-degrees of freedom roll-plane, half-car under a rough road input. The entire road surface is assumed to be a realisation of a two-dimensional Gaussian homogenous and isotropic random process. The frequency responses of the half-car, in terms of bounce and roll acceleration, suspension deflection and dynamic tyre forces, are obtained under the road input of a single profile represented by its power spectral density function. Simulation results obtained for the roll-plane half-car fitted with an HIS and those with conventional suspensions are compared in detail. In addition, sensitivity analysis of key parameters of the HIS to the ride performance is carried out through simulations. The paper also presents the experimental validation of the analytical results of the free and forced vibrations of the roll-plane half-car. The hydraulic and mechanical system layouts, data acquisition system and the external force actuation mechanism of the test set-up are described in detail. The methodology for free and forced vibration tests and the application of mathematical models to account for the effective damper valve pressure loss are explained. Results are provided for the free and forced vibration testing of the half-car with different mean operating pressures. Comparisons are also given between the test results and those obtained from the system model with estimated damper valve loss coefficients. Furthermore, discussions on the deficiencies and practical implications of the proposed model and suggestions for future investigation are provided. Finally, the key findings of the investigation on the ride performance of the roll-plane half-car are summarised.

  4. Isolating the Effects of Training Using Simple Regression Analysis: An Example of the Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, C. Keith

    This paper provides a case example of simple regression analysis, a forecasting procedure used to isolate the effects of training from an identified extraneous variable. This case example focuses on results of a three-day sales training program to improve bank loan officers' knowledge, skill-level, and attitude regarding solicitation and sale of…

  5. A simple protocol for NMR analysis of the enantiomeric purity of chiral hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Tickell, David A; Mahon, Mary F; Bull, Steven D; James, Tony D

    2013-02-15

    A practically simple three-component chiral derivatization protocol for determining the enantiopurity of chiral hydroxylamines by (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis is described, involving their treatment with 2-formylphenylboronic acid and enantiopure BINOL to afford a mixture of diastereomeric nitrono-boronate esters whose ratio is an accurate reflection of the enantiopurity of the parent hydroxylamine.

  6. A Simple Gauss-Newton Procedure for Covariance Structure Analysis with High-Level Computer Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudeck, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An implementation of the Gauss-Newton algorithm for the analysis of covariance structure that is specifically adapted for high-level computer languages is reviewed. This simple method for estimating structural equation models is useful for a variety of standard models, as is illustrated. (SLD)

  7. Global Study of the Simple Pendulum by the Homotopy Analysis Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bel, A.; Reartes, W.; Torresi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques are developed to find all periodic solutions in the simple pendulum by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM). This involves the solution of the equations of motion in two different coordinate representations. Expressions are obtained for the cycles and periods of oscillations with a high degree of accuracy in the whole range of…

  8. A Simple Card Trick: Teaching Qualitative Data Analysis Using a Deck of Playing Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Yet today, despite recent welcome additions, relatively little is written about teaching qualitative research. Why is that? This article reports out a relatively simple, yet appealing, pedagogical move, a lesson the author uses to teach qualitative data analysis. Data sorting and categorization, the use of tacit and explicit theory in data…

  9. Thermal analysis of a simple-cycle gas turbine in biogas power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yomogida, D.E.; Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1995-09-01

    This paper investigates the technical feasibility of utilizing small simple-cycle gas turbines (25 kW to 125 kW) for biogas power generation through thermal analysis. A computer code, GTPower, was developed to evaluate the performance of small simple-cycle gas turbines specifically for biogas combustion. The 125 KW Solar Gas Turbine (Tital series) has been selected as the base case gas turbine for biogas combustion. After its design parameters and typical operating conditions were entered into GTPower for analysis, GTPower outputted expected values for the thermal efficiency and specific work. For a sensitivity analysis, the GTPower Model outputted the thermal efficiency and specific work. For a sensitivity analysis, the GTPower Model outputted the thermal efficiency and specific work profiles for various operating conditions encountered in biogas combustion. These results will assist future research projects in determining the type of combustion device most suitable for biogas power generation.

  10. Theoretical analysis of a realistic atom-chip quantum gate

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, E.; Cirone, M. A.; Negretti, A.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Calarco, T.

    2006-07-15

    We present a detailed, realistic analysis of the implementation of a proposal for a quantum phase gate based on atomic vibrational states, specializing it to neutral rubidium atoms on atom chips. We show how to create a double-well potential with static currents on the atom chips, using for all relevant parameters values that are achieved with present technology. The potential barrier between the two wells can be modified by varying the currents in order to realize a quantum phase gate for qubit states encoded in the atomic external degree of freedom. The gate performance is analyzed through numerical simulations; the operation time is {approx}10 ms with a performance fidelity above 99.9%. For storage of the state between the operations the qubit state can be transferred efficiently via Raman transitions to two hyperfine states, where its decoherence is strongly inhibited. In addition we discuss the limits imposed by the proximity of the surface to the gate fidelity.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase kinetics under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Popova, S V; Reich, J G

    1983-01-01

    A kinetic model of the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction has been formulated for the reversible reaction including all seven reactants (substrates and cofactors NAD(H) and NADP(H)). The model parameters have been evaluated from published initial-rate data. Analysis of the model at cofactor concentration near to that in the intact mitochondrion has shown that the competition for active sites between cofactors and substrates simultaneously present in mitochondria diminishes the steady-state rate of the reaction by a factor of 10 to 100 as compared to the maximal reaction rate. The model predicts near-equilibrium of the reaction substrates with NAD+/NADH cofactor pair and off-equilibrium with NADP+/NADPH. Substrate cycling with futile transfer of hydrogen from NADP+-system to NAD+-system has been found to account under in vivo conditions for no more than 2% of the maximal glutamate dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria.

  12. A Theoretical Analysis of Thermal Radiation from Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, James H.

    1993-01-01

    As soon as it was realized that the direct URCA process is allowed by many modern nuclear equation of state, an analysis of its effect on the cooling of neutron stars was undertaken. A primary study showed that the occurrence of the direct URCA process makes the surface temperature of a neutron star suddenly drop by almost an order of magnitude when the cold wave from the core reaches the surface when the star is a few years old. The results of this study are published in Page and Applegate. As a work in progress, we are presently extending the above work. Improved expressions for the effect of nucleon pairing on the neutrino emissivity and specific heat are now available, and we have incorporated them in a recalculation of rate of the direct URCA process.

  13. Floquet theoretic approach to sensitivity analysis for periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larter, Raima

    1986-12-01

    The mathematical relationship between sensitivity analysis and Floquet theory is explored. The former technique has been used in recent years to study the parameter sensitivity of numerical models in chemical kinetics, scattering theory, and other problems in chemistry. In the present work, we derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity coefficients for models of oscillating chemical reactions. These reactions have been the subject of increased interest in recent years because of their relationship to fundamental biological problems, such as development, and because of their similarity to related phenomena in fields such as hydrodynamics, plasma physics, meteorology, geology, etc. The analytical form of the sensitivity coefficients derived here can be used to determine the explicit time dependence of the initial transient and any secular term. The method is applicable to unstable as well as stable oscillations and is illustrated by application to the Brusselator and to a three variable model due to Hassard, Kazarinoff, and Wan. It is shown that our results reduce to those previously derived by Edelson, Rabitz, and others in certain limits. The range of validity of these formerly derived expressions is thus elucidated.

  14. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the corneal air puff test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonini, Irene; Angelillo, Maurizio; Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Ocular analyzers are used in the current clinical practice to estimate, by means of a rapid air jet, the intraocular pressure and other eye's parameters. In this study, we model the biomechanical response of the human cornea to the dynamic test with two approaches. In the first approach, the corneal system undergoing the air puff test is regarded as a harmonic oscillator. In the second approach, we use patient-specific geometries and the finite element method to simulate the dynamic test on surgically treated corneas. In spite of the different levels of approximation, the qualitative response of the two models is very similar, and the most meaningful results of both models are not significantly affected by the inclusion of viscosity of the corneal material in the dynamic analysis. Finite element calculations reproduce the observed snap-through of the corneal shell, including two applanate configurations, and compare well with in vivo images provided by ocular analyzers, suggesting that the mechanical response of the cornea to the air puff test is actually driven only by the elasticity of the stromal tissue. These observations agree with the dynamic characteristics of the test, since the frequency of the air puff impulse is several orders of magnitude larger than the reciprocal of any reasonable relaxation time for the material, downplaying the role of viscosity during the fast snap-through phase.

  15. Exploring theoretical frameworks for the analysis of fertility fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Micheli, G A

    1988-05-01

    The Easterlin theory, popular during the 1970s, explained population fluctuations in terms of maximization of choice, based on the evaluation of previously acquired information. Fluctuations in procreational patterns were seen as responses to conflict between 2 consecutive generations in which the propensity to procreate is inversely related to cohort size. However, the number of demographic trends not directly explainable by the hypothesis imply that either the model must be extended over a longer time frame or that there has been a drastic change of regime, i.e., a basic change in popular attitudes which determine decision making behavior. 4 strategic principles underlie reproductive decisions: primary adaptation, economic utility, norm internalization, and identity reinforcement. The decision-making process is determined by the relative importance of these 4 principles. Primary adaptation implies inertia, i.e., nondecision. Economic utility implies the use of rational choice to maximize economic gain. Norm internalization implies conforming to the behavior of one's sociocultural peers as if it were one's own choice. Identity reinforcement implies that one decides to reproduce because procreation is a way of extending one's identity forward in time. The 2 active decision-making attitudes, economic rationality and identity reinforcement, are strategically both antagonistic and complementary. This polarity of behavior lends itself to analysis in terms of the predator-prey model, in which population is seen as the predator and resources as the prey. However, in applying the model, one must keep in mind that the real demographic picture is not static and that it is subject to deformation by external forces.

  16. Theoretical analysis of droplet transition from Cassie to Wenzel state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tian-Qing; Yan-Jie, Li; Xiang-Qin, Li; Wei, Sun

    2015-11-01

    Whether droplets transit from the Cassie to the Wenzel state (C-W) on a textured surface is the touchstone that the superhydrophobicity of the surface is still maintained. However, the C-W transition mechanism, especially the spontaneous transition of small droplets, is still not very clear to date. The interface free energy gradient of a small droplet is firstly proposed and derived as the driving force for its C-W evolution in this study based on the energy and gradient analysis. Then the physical and mathematical model of the C-W transition is found after the C-W driving force or transition pressure, the resistance, and the parameters of the meniscus beneath the droplet are formulated. The results show that the micro/nano structural parameters significantly affect the C-W driving force and resistance. The smaller the pillar diameter and pitch, the minor the C-W transition pressure, and the larger the resistance. Consequently, the C-W transition is difficult to be completed for the droplets on nano-textured surfaces. Meanwhile if the posts are too short, the front of the curved liquid-air interface below the droplet will touch the structural substrate easily even though the three phase contact line (TPCL) has not depinned. When the posts are high enough, the TPCL beneath the drop must move firstly before the meniscus can reach the substrate. As a result, the droplet on a textured surface with short pillars is easy to complete its C-W evolution. On the other hand, the smaller the droplet, the easier the C-W shift, since the transition pressure becomes larger, which well explains why an evaporating drop will collapse spontaneously from composite to Wenzel state. Besides, both intrinsic and advancing contact angles affect the C-W transition as well. The greater the two angles, the harder the C-W transition. In the end, the C-W transition parameters and the critical conditions measured in literatures are calculated and compared, and the calculations accord well with

  17. Quantitative Analysis of the Nanopore Translocation Dynamics of Simple Structured Polynucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Severin; Renner, Stephan; Alim, Karen; Arnaut, Vera; Simmel, Friedrich C.; Gerland, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Nanopore translocation experiments are increasingly applied to probe the secondary structures of RNA and DNA molecules. Here, we report two vital steps toward establishing nanopore translocation as a tool for the systematic and quantitative analysis of polynucleotide folding: 1), Using α-hemolysin pores and a diverse set of different DNA hairpins, we demonstrate that backward nanopore force spectroscopy is particularly well suited for quantitative analysis. In contrast to forward translocation from the vestibule side of the pore, backward translocation times do not appear to be significantly affected by pore-DNA interactions. 2), We develop and verify experimentally a versatile mesoscopic theoretical framework for the quantitative analysis of translocation experiments with structured polynucleotides. The underlying model is based on sequence-dependent free energy landscapes constructed using the known thermodynamic parameters for polynucleotide basepairing. This approach limits the adjustable parameters to a small set of sequence-independent parameters. After parameter calibration, the theoretical model predicts the translocation dynamics of new sequences. These predictions can be leveraged to generate a baseline expectation even for more complicated structures where the assumptions underlying the one-dimensional free energy landscape may no longer be satisfied. Taken together, backward translocation through α-hemolysin pores combined with mesoscopic theoretical modeling is a promising approach for label-free single-molecule analysis of DNA and RNA folding. PMID:22225801

  18. Muon-catalyzed [ital dd] fusion between 25 and 150 K: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scrinzi, A.; Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Breunlich, W.H.; Marton, J. ); Faifman, M.P.; Ponomarev, L.I. ); Strizh, T.A. )

    1993-06-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of experimental rates for [ital dd][mu] molecular formation and [ital d][mu] hyperfine transitions at temperatures 25.5--150 K, which were reported by Zmeskal [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. A 42, 1165 (1990)]. Theoretical effective [ital dd][mu] formation rates are fitted to the observed rates by adjusting the [ital dd][mu] binding energy [var epsilon][sub 11], the effective [ital dd] fusion rate [tilde [lambda

  19. ViSimpl: Multi-View Visual Analysis of Brain Simulation Data

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Sergio E.; Toharia, Pablo; Robles, Oscar D.; Pastor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    After decades of independent morphological and functional brain research, a key point in neuroscience nowadays is to understand the combined relationships between the structure of the brain and its components and their dynamics on multiple scales, ranging from circuits of neurons at micro or mesoscale to brain regions at macroscale. With such a goal in mind, there is a vast amount of research focusing on modeling and simulating activity within neuronal structures, and these simulations generate large and complex datasets which have to be analyzed in order to gain the desired insight. In such context, this paper presents ViSimpl, which integrates a set of visualization and interaction tools that provide a semantic view of brain data with the aim of improving its analysis procedures. ViSimpl provides 3D particle-based rendering that allows visualizing simulation data with their associated spatial and temporal information, enhancing the knowledge extraction process. It also provides abstract representations of the time-varying magnitudes supporting different data aggregation and disaggregation operations and giving also focus and context clues. In addition, ViSimpl tools provide synchronized playback control of the simulation being analyzed. Finally, ViSimpl allows performing selection and filtering operations relying on an application called NeuroScheme. All these views are loosely coupled and can be used independently, but they can also work together as linked views, both in centralized and distributed computing environments, enhancing the data exploration and analysis procedures. PMID:27774062

  20. Chapter 2. General theoretical perspectives of narrative analysis of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Sam; Lilja, John; von Braun, Therese; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    This chapter provides a short introduction to, and an overview for, using narrative analysis in the understanding of the use and misuse of alcohol and drugs. Important theoretical and methodological dimensions are discussed. Some tentative conclusions, limitations, and unresolved critical issues concerning the use of narrative research methods in the analysis of substance use-related dependency problems are also presented.

  1. Study on the Theoretical Foundation of Business English Curriculum Design Based on ESP and Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Wenzhong; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Based on a review of the literature on ESP and needs analysis, this paper is intended to offer some theoretical supports and inspirations for BE instructors to develop BE curricula for business contexts. It discusses how the theory of need analysis can be used in Business English curriculum design, and proposes some principles of BE curriculum…

  2. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  3. Global analysis of a simple parasite-host model with homoclinic orbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianquan; Xiao, Yanni; Yang, Yali

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a simple parasite-host model proposed by Ebert et al.(2000) is reconsidered. The basic epidemiological reproduction number of parasite infection (R0) and the basic demographic reproduction number of infected hosts (R1) are given. The global dynamics of the model is completely investigated, and the existence of heteroclinic and homoclinic orbits is theoretically proved, which implies that the outbreak of parasite infection may happen. The thresholds determining the host extinction in the presence of parasite infection and variation in the equilibrium level of the infected hosts with R0 are found. The effects of R0 and R1 on dynamics of the model are considered and we show that the equilibrium level of the infected host may not be monotone with respect to R0. In particular, it is found that full loss of fecundity of infected hosts may lead to appearance of the singular case.

  4. The theoretical analysis and experimental research on the optimal condition of semiconductor refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y. F.

    2016-08-01

    The traditional limiting conditions have the biggest refrigeration quantity condition and the biggest refrigeration coefficient condition, there is a special operating mode during these conditions, enabling to both have the big refrigeration quantity and the small power loss, this operating mode is “Optimum condition”. This article first carried on the theoretical analysis to the semiconductor's optimum condition, inferred optimum electric current's theoretical formula; Carried on the experiment again to a semiconductor refrigeration box by regulating current changing operating mode, which had analyzed performance parameter's change situation under 8 kinds of condition experiments, carried on the regression analysis to the experimental data, obtained the regression equation thus discovered optimum electric current corresponding optimum condition. Carried on working under this condition, and then obtained the big refrigeration quantity and small power, which enhanced the refrigeration performance of semiconductor refrigerator. The experimental result and the theoretical analysis result tallied basically.

  5. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination1

    PubMed Central

    Van Houdt, Sabine; Heyrman, Jan; Vanhaecht, Kris; Sermeus, Walter; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination. Results Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(inter)organizational outcome’. Conclusion These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive. PMID:23882171

  6. Analysis of dietary interventions. A simple payoff matrix for display of comparative dietary trials

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Volek, Jeff S

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide a simple method for presentation of data in comparative dietary trials. Methods Individual data from each diet are ranked and all possible paired comparisons are made and displayed in a pay-off matrix which can be color-coded according to the magnitude of the differences between the two diets. Probability of outcome can be calculated from the fraction of matrix elements corresponding to specified conditions. The method has the advantage of emphasizing differences and providing the maximum amount of information. Results The method was tested with values from the literature and allows intuitive sense of the comparative effectiveness of the two diets. In a test case in which a cross-over study had been performed the matrix derived from theoretical paired comparisons (treating the data as two parallel studies) was consistent with the results from the actual pairing in the cross-over. Conclusion The matrix method is a simple way of providing access to the differences between dietary trials. It exaggerates differences but can be used in combination with group statistics that, conversely, provide reliability at the expense of detailed information. PMID:18759982

  7. Theoretical Analysis and Optimum Design of High Speed Gas Film Thrust Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Ochiai, Masayuki

    This paper describes the theoretical and experimental investigations of static and dynamic characteristics of four types of high-speed gas film thrust bearings, such as stepped, pocketed, spiral and herring bone grooved bearings. The specially designed test rig is used to measure the air film thickness, friction torque, spring and damping coefficients of air film under the high speed operation conditions from 20000 rpm to 40000 rpm. It is verified that the maximum error in the measurements by the present test rig is less than 7 percent. On the other hand, the measured results are compared with the theoretical results for checking the applicability of numerical analysis method to bearing design. Good agreements are seen between the measured results and theoretical predictions, and applicability of theoretical prediction method is confirmed with experimental verifications.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. M.; Dos Santos, A.

    2012-07-01

    The theoretical analysis of the subcritical experiments performed at the IPEN/MB-01 reactor employing the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/TORT systems was successfully accomplished. All the analysis was performed employing ENDF/B-VII.0. The theoretical approach follows all the steps of the subcritical model of Gandini and Salvatores. The theory/experiment comparison reveals that the calculated subcritical reactivity is in a very good agreement to the experimental values. The subcritical index ({xi}) shows some discrepancies although in this particular case some work still have to be made to model in a better way the neutron source present in the experiments. (authors)

  9. Predicting excitonic gaps of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes from a field theoretic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that a nonperturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single-walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. We test this theory explicitly on the data reported by Dukovic et al. [Nano Lett. 5, 2314 (2005), 10.1021/nl0518122] and Sfeir et al. [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.195424] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.

  10. Predicting excitonic gaps of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes from a field theoretic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.

    2015-02-17

    We demonstrate that a non-perturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. As a result, we test this theory explicitly on the data reported in [NanoLetters 5, 2314 (2005)] and [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010)] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.

  11. Predicting excitonic gaps of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes from a field theoretic analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Konik, Robert M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Misewich, James A.

    2015-02-17

    We demonstrate that a non-perturbative framework for the treatment of the excitations of single walled carbon nanotubes based upon a field theoretic reduction is able to accurately describe experiment observations of the absolute values of excitonic energies. This theoretical framework yields a simple scaling function from which the excitonic energies can be read off. This scaling function is primarily determined by a single parameter, the charge Luttinger parameter of the tube, which is in turn a function of the tube chirality, dielectric environment, and the tube's dimensions, thus expressing disparate influences on the excitonic energies in a unified fashion. Asmore » a result, we test this theory explicitly on the data reported in [NanoLetters 5, 2314 (2005)] and [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195424 (2010)] and so demonstrate the method works over a wide range of reported excitonic spectra.« less

  12. Analysis of sequential reactive transformations using stable isotope analysis: a theoretical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thullner, Martin; Jin, Shuang; Stadler, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    Stable isotope methods have been establish as powerful tools for the analysis of reactive transformation in the subsurface with applications ranging from the field of contaminant hydrology to biogeochemical cycling. While the link between single transformations based on stable isotope signatures and their changes is commonly well understood and allows for qualitative and - in case certain requirements are met - also quantitative analysis, the interpretation of sequential reactive transformations, e.g. decay chains, is more complicated. In the latter case isotope signature changes of individual reactive compounds are affected by more than one transformation which challenges the interpretation of these changes. In recent years, some methods have been proposed (e.g. isotope mass balance approaches) which allow at least for a qualitative or semi-quantitative estimation of sequential reactive transformation processes. However, a systematic assessment of the validity of these estimation methods is missing so far and the accuracy of these methods - in general and for specific conditions encountered in the field - is not fully validated. In this presentation we use a combination of mathematical analyses and numerical modeling to test the validity of the proposed estimation methods and to determine the limits of their applicability. Results recommend modifications of existing theoretical estimation approaches and identify sorption processes as potential limitation of their applicability.

  13. Petri nets modeling and analysis using extended bag-theoretic relational algebra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Kim, T G

    1996-01-01

    Petri nets are a powerful modeling tool for studying reactive, concurrent systems. Analysis of the nets can reveal important information concerning the behavior of a modeled system. While various means for the analysis of the nets has been developed, a major limitation in the analysis, is explosion of large states space in simulation. An efficient method to manage large states space would overcome such a limitation. This paper proposes a framework for the modeling and analysis of Petri nets using relational database technologies. Formalism of the framework is based on a bag-theoretic relational algebra extended from the conventional, Within the framework, Petri nets are formalized by bag relations, and analysis algorithms are developed based on such formal relations. Properties associated with the nets are formalized by queries described in terms of the bag-theoretic relational algebra. The framework has been realized in a commercial relational database system using a standard SQL.

  14. A simple and fractal analysis of the European on-line network for airborne radioactivity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Raes, F; Graziani, G; Girardi, F

    1991-09-01

    We introduce two simple descriptors and use the fractal dimension to characterize the capability of a monitoring network to either 'spot', 'delineate' or 'track' a pollution cloud moving across a territory. The descriptors are applied to the 'European' monitoring network for radioactive aerosol (i.e. the sum of the national networks). Simple analysis shows that on average the time and space resolution of the network are well balanced for tracking the movement of a radioactive cloud. Such tracking, however, can only be started one or two days after the release. The geographical inhomogeneity of the network is quantified by a fractal dimension of 1.6, implying that radioactive clouds with a dimension less than 0.4 might not be detected by the network.

  15. Simple imputation methods versus direct likelihood analysis for missing item scores in multilevel educational data.

    PubMed

    Kadengye, Damazo T; Cools, Wilfried; Ceulemans, Eva; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-06-01

    Missing data, such as item responses in multilevel data, are ubiquitous in educational research settings. Researchers in the item response theory (IRT) context have shown that ignoring such missing data can create problems in the estimation of the IRT model parameters. Consequently, several imputation methods for dealing with missing item data have been proposed and shown to be effective when applied with traditional IRT models. Additionally, a nonimputation direct likelihood analysis has been shown to be an effective tool for handling missing observations in clustered data settings. This study investigates the performance of six simple imputation methods, which have been found to be useful in other IRT contexts, versus a direct likelihood analysis, in multilevel data from educational settings. Multilevel item response data were simulated on the basis of two empirical data sets, and some of the item scores were deleted, such that they were missing either completely at random or simply at random. An explanatory IRT model was used for modeling the complete, incomplete, and imputed data sets. We showed that direct likelihood analysis of the incomplete data sets produced unbiased parameter estimates that were comparable to those from a complete data analysis. Multiple-imputation approaches of the two-way mean and corrected item mean substitution methods displayed varying degrees of effectiveness in imputing data that in turn could produce unbiased parameter estimates. The simple random imputation, adjusted random imputation, item means substitution, and regression imputation methods seemed to be less effective in imputing missing item scores in multilevel data settings.

  16. A theoretical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, R. C. Y.; Hauser, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The correlation of theoretical and experimental data is discussed along with the development of a complete solar cell analysis. The dark current-voltage characteristics, and the parameters for solar cells are analyzed. The series resistance, and impurity gradient effects on solar cells were studied, the effects of nonuniformities on solar cell performance were analyzed.

  17. Security Analysis of Selected AMI Failure Scenarios Using Agent Based Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2014-01-01

    Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) functional domain which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) working group has currently documented 29 failure scenarios. The strategy for the game was developed by analyzing five electric sector representative failure scenarios contained in the AMI functional domain. From these five selected scenarios, we characterize them into three specific threat categories affecting confidentiality, integrity and availability (CIA). The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the AMI functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the AMI network with respect to CIA.

  18. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  19. The theoretical analysis of an instrument for linear and angular displacements of the steered wheel measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wach, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper the theoretical analysis of the measuring instrument for determination of translation and rotation of the stub axle with the steered wheel against car body was presented. The instrument is made of nine links with elongation sensors embedded in it. One of several possible structures of instrument of this kind was presented. Basing on solution of the geometrical constraints system of equations of the device, the numerical analysis of the measurement accuracy was conducted.

  20. A simple, objective analysis scheme for scatterometer data. [Seasat A satellite observation of wind over ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G.; Brown, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple economical objective analysis scheme is devised and tested on real scatterometer data. It is designed to treat dense data such as those of the Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS) for individual or multiple passes, and preserves subsynoptic scale features. Errors are evaluated with the aid of sampling ('bootstrap') statistical methods. In addition, sensitivity tests have been performed which establish qualitative confidence in calculated fields of divergence and vorticity. The SASS wind algorithm could be improved; however, the data at this point are limited by instrument errors rather than analysis errors. The analysis error is typically negligible in comparison with the instrument error, but amounts to 30 percent of the instrument error in areas of strong wind shear. The scheme is very economical, and thus suitable for large volumes of dense data such as SASS data.

  1. Simple sequence repeat-based association analysis of fruit traits in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Ge, H Y; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Han, H Q; Li, H Z; Shao, W T; Chen, H Y

    2013-11-18

    Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provides a promising tool to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in plant resources. A total of 141 eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) accessions were selected to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with nine fruit traits. Population structure analysis was performed with 105 SSR markers, which revealed that two subgroups were present in this population. LD analysis exhibited an extensive long-range LD of approximately 11 cM. A total of 49 marker associations related to eight phenotypic traits were identified to involve 24 different markers, although no association was found with the trait of fruit glossiness. To our knowledge, this is the 1st approach to use a genome-wide association study in eggplant with SSR markers. These results suggest that the association analysis approach could be a useful alternative to traditional linkage mapping to detect putative QTLs in eggplant.

  2. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

  3. In- silico exploration of thirty alphavirus genomes for analysis of the simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Chaudhary Mashhood; Singh, Avadhesh Kumar; Sharfuddin, Choudhary; Ali, Safdar

    2014-12-01

    The compilation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in viruses and its analysis with reference to incidence, distribution and variation would be instrumental in understanding the functional and evolutionary aspects of repeat sequences. Present study encompasses the analysis of SSRs across 30 species of alphaviruses. The full length genome sequences, assessed from NCBI were used for extraction and analysis of repeat sequences using IMEx software. The repeats of different motif sizes (mono- to penta-nucleotide) observed therein exhibited variable incidence across the species. Expectedly, mononucleotide A/T was the most prevalent followed by dinucleotide AG/GA and trinucleotide AAG/GAA in these genomes. The conversion of SSRs to imperfect microsatellite or compound microsatellite (cSSR) is low. cSSR, primarily constituted by variant motifs accounted for up to 12.5% of the SSRs. Interestingly, seven species lacked cSSR in their genomes. However, the SSR and cSSR are predominantly localized to the coding region ORFs for non structural protein and structural proteins. The relative frequencies of different classes of simple and compound microsatellites within and across genomes have been highlighted.

  4. [Assessment of ultraviolet radiation penetration into human skin. I. Theoretical analysis].

    PubMed

    Cader, A; Jankowski, J

    1995-01-01

    This is one of the two articles under the same title "Assessment of ultraviolet radiation penetrating into human skin" which are aimed at presenting a part of broader studies in this area. They drive at identifying biophysical aspects of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on human skin. In order to characterise such parameters as UV reflectance from the skin surface of UV absorption and dispersion coefficients, it is necessary to develop appropriate methods. In Part I--"Theoretical analysis", theoretical principles for interpreting measurements of radiation dispersed in different geometrical configurations are presented. They can serve as a basis for estimating the values of UV linear absorption and dispersion coefficients in skin tissues.

  5. A simple method of qualitative analysis for musk ambrette, musk ketone and musk xylene in cologne.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Kwok, S F

    1986-01-01

    Musk ambrette has become one of the commonest photosensitizers in many countries and is the cause of persistent light reactions in many patients. A simple method is presented for qualitative analysis for musk ambrette and other nitromusks in colognes using thin-layer chromatography with toluene as carrier solvent and visualization under UVL. It is useful for identifying such colognes so that proper recommendations can be given to patients sensitive to musk ambrette. 14 of 32 men's colognes, analysed by TLC and confirmed on GC/MS, were found to contain musk ambrette, the concentration varying from 0.02 to 0.39% w/v.

  6. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  7. Enumeration and stability analysis of simple periodic orbits in β-Fermi Pasta Ulam lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sonone, Rupali L. Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-04-24

    We study the well-known one-dimensional problem of N particles with a nonlinear interaction. The special case of quadratic and quartic interaction potential among nearest neighbours is the β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We enumerate and classify the simple periodic orbits for this system and find the stability zones, employing Floquet theory. Such stability analysis is crucial to understand the transition of FPU lattice from recurrences to globally chaotic behavior, energy transport in lower dimensional system, dynamics of optical lattices and also its impact on shape parameter of bio-polymers such as DNA and RNA.

  8. Theoretical analysis of BER performance of nonlinearly amplified FBMC/OQAM and OFDM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhadda, Hanen; Shaiek, Hmaied; Roviras, Daniel; Zayani, Rafik; Medjahdi, Yahia; Bouallegue, Ridha

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical study of the impact of high-power amplifier (HPA) nonlinear distortion (NLD) on the bit error rate (BER) of multicarrier techniques. Two schemes of multicarrier modulations are considered in this work: the classical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and the filter bank-based multicarrier using offset quadrature amplitude modulation (FBMC/OQAM), including different HPA models. According to Bussgang's theorem, the in-band NLD is modeled as a complex gain in addition to an independent noise term for a Gaussian input signal. The BER performance of OFDM and FBMC/OQAM modulations, transmitting over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels, is theoretically investigated and compared to simulation results. For simple HPA models, such as the soft envelope limiter, it is easy to compute the BER theoretical expression. However, for other HPA models or for real measured HPA, BER derivation is generally intractable. In this paper, we propose a general method based on a polynomial fitting of the HPA characteristics and we give theoretical expressions for the BER for any HPA model.

  9. Engineering design and theoretical analysis of nanoporous carbon membranes for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Madhav

    1999-11-01

    Gases are used in a direct or indirect manner in virtually every major industry, such as steel manufacturing, oil production, foodstuffs and electronics. Membranes are being investigated as an alternative to established methods of gas separation such as pressure swing adsorption and cryogenic distillation. Membranes can be used in continuous operation and work very well at ambient conditions, thus representing a tremendous energy and economic saving over the other technologies. In addition, the integration of reaction and separation into a single unit known as a membrane reactor has the potential to revolutionize the chemical industry by making selective reactions a reality. Nanoporous carbons are highly disordered materials obtained from organic polymers or natural sources. They have the ability to separate gas molecules by several different mechanisms, and hence there is a growing effort to form them into membranes. In this study, nanoporous carbon membranes were prepared on macroporous stainless steel supports of both tubular and disk geometries. The precursor used was poly(furfuryl alcohol) and different synthesis protocols were employed. A spray coating method also was developed which allowed reproducible synthesis of membranes with very few defects. High gas selectivities were obtained such as O2/N2 = 6, H2/C2H 4 = 70 and CO2/N2 = 20. Membranes also were characterized using SEM and AFM, which revealed thin layers of carbon that were quite uniform and homogeneous. The simulation of nanoporous carbon structures also was carried out using a simple algorithmic approach. 5,6 and 7-membered rings were introduced into the structure, thus resulting in considerable curvature. The density of the structures were calculated and found to compare favorably with experimental findings. Finally, a theoretical analysis of size selective transport was performed using transition state theory concepts. A definite correlation of gas permeance with molecular size was obtained after

  10. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the laser shock cleaning process for nanoscale particle removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongsik; Oh, Bukuk; Jang, Deoksuk; Lee, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Jong-Myoung

    2007-07-01

    The laser shock cleaning (LSC) process has been shown to be effective for removing submicron-sized contaminant particles from solid surfaces and thus bears strong potential in various applications. In this work, experimental and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the underlying physical mechanisms of the LSC process, with emphasis on the laser-induced hydrodynamics and the effect of external gas-jet injection through a nozzle. A two-dimensional theoretical model is proposed for rigorous simulation of the hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in the LSC process. The hydrodynamics computed by the model is in qualitative agreement with experimental observations and reveal the details of the physics involved in the cleaning process. The effect of gas blowing on the cleaning performance is analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the gas flow can significantly change the hydrodynamics and increase the cleaning efficiency by reducing the chance of particle redeposition.

  11. Theoretical analysis and experimental research on the finline ferrite isolator (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Sheng-chuan; Hao, Yan-ming; Zhang, Yao-xi

    1991-04-01

    Recently, the finline ferrite devices have attracted people's attention. Beyer et al. have done theoretical and experimental researches for a finline isolator.1,2 In order to make it convenient for theoretical design and experimental adjustment of this device, we have developed a synthetical theory and have carried out the experimental research successfully.3 In this paper, we have done the further theoretical analysis and experimental researches for the finline ferrite isolator, such as the impedance matching, the effects of device structure on performances, and the transplantation of a waveguide isolator to a finline isolator problem. Good agreement between design and experiment is obtained. The performances of a X-band finline isolator are as follows A+<1.5 dB, A-≳18 dB, VSWR<1.5 in a 8% bandwidth, and the bia-field is lower (about 1000 Oe).

  12. [Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement for secondary electron yield of microchannel plate in extreme ultraviolet region].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Ni, Qi-liang; Dong, Ning-ning; Chen, Bo

    2010-08-01

    Photon counting detectors based on microchannel plate have widespread applications in astronomy. The present paper deeply studies secondary electron of microchannel plate in extreme ultraviolet. A theoretical model describing extreme ultraviolet-excited secondary electron yield is presented, and the factor affecting on the secondary electron yields of both electrode and lead glass which consist of microchannel plate is analyzed according to theoretical formula derived from the model. The result shows that the higher secondary electron yield is obtained under appropriate condition that the thickness of material is more than 20 nm and the grazing incidence angle is larger than the critical angle. Except for several wavelengths, the secondary electron yields of both electrode and lead glass decrease along with the increase in the wavelength And also the quantum efficiency of microchannel plate is measured using quantum efficiency test set-up with laser-produced plasmas source as an extreme ultraviolet radiation source, and the result of experiment agrees with theoretical analysis.

  13. Theoretical Noise Analysis on a Position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the theoretical noise analysis for a position-sensitive Metallic Magnetic Calorimeter (MMC), consisting of MMC read-out at both ends of a large X-ray absorber. Such devices are under consideration as alternatives to other cryogenic technologies for future X-ray astronomy missions. We use a finite-element model (FEM) to numerically calculate the signal and noise response at the detector outputs and investigate the correlations between the noise measured at each MMC coupled by the absorber. We then calculate, using the optimal filter concept, the theoretical energy and position resolution across the detector and discuss the trade-offs involved in optimizing the detector design for energy resolution, position resolution and count rate. The results show, theoretically, the position-sensitive MMC concept offers impressive spectral and spatial resolving capabilities compared to pixel arrays and similar position-sensitive cryogenic technologies using Transition Edge Sensor (TES) read-out.

  14. Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2010-01-29

    As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

  15. Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of Plastic Response of 5A06 Aluminum Circular Plates Subjected to Underwater Explosion Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO:11272057).

  16. A Simple Technique of Liquid Purity Analysis and Its Application to Analysis of Water Concentration in Alcohol-Water Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Aziz de, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    The change of activation energy of a liquid molecule and hence its viscosity coefficient with addition of contaminants to the original liquid gives rise to a new technology for analysis of purity of the liquid. We discovered that concentration of certain contaminants such as water in alcohol or vice versa can be uniquely and accurately determined in a short time (about 10-15 minutes) using a simple and yet innovative technique that only requires measurement of time of flow of the impure liquid (say, water-alcohol mixture) and distilled water through a simple viscometer. We determined the increase of activation energy of alcohol molecules with increase of water concentration for ethyl and methyl alcohol. Our detailed investigation on the alcohol-water mixtures along with discussion on possible future potential application of the simple and very reliable inexpensive technique for liquid purity analysis is presented. We compared our present method with other methods on the accuracies, problems and reliability of impurity analysis in liquids. We also discuss a part of the quantum theory of viscosity of liquid mixtures that is in the developmental stage.

  17. Analysis and Simple Circuit Design of Double Differential EMG Active Electrode.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Federico Nicolás; Spinelli, Enrique Mario; Haberman, Marcelo Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the voltage amplifier needed for double differential (DD) sEMG measurements and a novel, very simple circuit for implementing DD active electrodes. The three-input amplifier that standalone DD active electrodes require is inherently different from a differential amplifier, and general knowledge about its design is scarce in the literature. First, the figures of merit of the amplifier are defined through a decomposition of its input signal into three orthogonal modes. This analysis reveals a mode containing EMG crosstalk components that the DD electrode should reject. Then, the effect of finite input impedance is analyzed. Because there are three terminals, minimum bounds for interference rejection ratios due to electrode and input impedance unbalances with two degrees of freedom are obtained. Finally, a novel circuit design is presented, including only a quadruple operational amplifier and a few passive components. This design is nearly as simple as the branched electrode and much simpler than the three instrumentation amplifier design, while providing robust EMG crosstalk rejection and better input impedance using unity gain buffers for each electrode input. The interference rejection limits of this input stage are analyzed. An easily replicable implementation of the proposed circuit is described, together with a parameter design guideline to adjust it to specific needs. The electrode is compared with the established alternatives, and sample sEMG signals are obtained, acquired on different body locations with dry contacts, successfully rejecting interference sources. PMID:26841414

  18. Analysis and Simple Circuit Design of Double Differential EMG Active Electrode.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Federico Nicolás; Spinelli, Enrique Mario; Haberman, Marcelo Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the voltage amplifier needed for double differential (DD) sEMG measurements and a novel, very simple circuit for implementing DD active electrodes. The three-input amplifier that standalone DD active electrodes require is inherently different from a differential amplifier, and general knowledge about its design is scarce in the literature. First, the figures of merit of the amplifier are defined through a decomposition of its input signal into three orthogonal modes. This analysis reveals a mode containing EMG crosstalk components that the DD electrode should reject. Then, the effect of finite input impedance is analyzed. Because there are three terminals, minimum bounds for interference rejection ratios due to electrode and input impedance unbalances with two degrees of freedom are obtained. Finally, a novel circuit design is presented, including only a quadruple operational amplifier and a few passive components. This design is nearly as simple as the branched electrode and much simpler than the three instrumentation amplifier design, while providing robust EMG crosstalk rejection and better input impedance using unity gain buffers for each electrode input. The interference rejection limits of this input stage are analyzed. An easily replicable implementation of the proposed circuit is described, together with a parameter design guideline to adjust it to specific needs. The electrode is compared with the established alternatives, and sample sEMG signals are obtained, acquired on different body locations with dry contacts, successfully rejecting interference sources.

  19. Analysis of pipe flow with free surface. Part II. Theoretical analysis and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Amane; Takaki, Ryuji

    1994-05-01

    Flow field near the front of an incompressible viscous fluid pushed into a circular pipe is analyzed theoretically and observed experimentally. In the theory, an approximated stream function for a steady state near the axis of the pipe is obtained by use of the Stokes equation. In the experiment, the shape of the surface was observed by a video camera. The theoretical velocity profile and the surface shape near the axis coincide with those from computation (Part I) and experiment.

  20. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Gautier, D C; Kline, J L; Flippo, K A; Gaillard, S A; Letzring, S A; Hegelich, B M

    2008-10-01

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola. PMID:19044517

  1. A simple element for multilayer beams in NASTRAN thermal stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T.; Wadhwa, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    In the application of NASTRAN, structural members are usually represented by bar elements with multipoint constraint cards to enforce the interface conditions. While this is a very powerful method in principle, it was found that in practice the process for specification of constraints became tedious and error prone, unless the geometry was simple and the number of grid points low. An alternative approach was found within the framework of the NASTRAN program. This approach made use of the idea that a thermal distortion in a multilayer beam may be similar to a homogeneous beam with a thermal gradient across the cross section. The exact mathematical derivation for the equivalent beam, and all the necessary formulae for the equivalent parameters in NASTRAN analysis are presented. Some numerical examples illustrate the simplicity and ease of this approach for finite element analysis.

  2. A simple apparatus for quick qualitative analysis of CR39 nuclear track detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D. C.; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K. A.; Gaillard, S. A.; Letzring, S. A.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2008-10-15

    Quantifying the ion pits in Columbia Resin 39 (CR39) nuclear track detector from Thomson parabolas is a time consuming and tedious process using conventional microscope based techniques. A simple inventive apparatus for fast screening and qualitative analysis of CR39 detectors has been developed, enabling efficient selection of data for a more detailed analysis. The system consists simply of a green He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital single-lens reflex camera. The laser illuminates the edge of the CR39 at grazing incidence and couples into the plastic, acting as a light pipe. Subsequently, the laser illuminates all ion tracks on the surface. A high-resolution digital camera is used to photograph the scattered light from the ion tracks, enabling one to quickly determine charge states and energies measured by the Thomson parabola.

  3. A mean-field analysis of the simple model of evolving open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Takashi; Ogushi, Fumiko

    2016-09-01

    A recently reported mechanism of letting evolving systems grow only if the interactions in it is moderately sparse is reviewed and examined. It is shown that the mean field analysis, which is known to give a good simple understanding for this transition from growing to non-growing phase but with about 30% difference in its position, is well improved by taking only mean field type information from the simulation of the original model. This supports the validity of the understanding for the mechanism of the transition, obtained from the mean field analysis. The transition stems from an essential balance of two effects: although having more interactions makes each node robust, it also increases the impact of the loss of a node.

  4. Post-buckling and Large Amplitude Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams: Simple Intuitive Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, Jagadish Babu; Venkateswara Rao, Gundabathula

    2016-04-01

    Post-buckling and large amplitude free vibration analysis of composite beams with axially immovable ends is investigated in the present study using a simple intuitive formulation. Geometric nonlinearity of Von-Karman type is considered in the analysis which accounts for mid-plane stretching action of the beam. Intuitive formulation uses only two parameters: the critical bifurcation point and the axial stretching force developed due to membrane stretching action of the beam. Hinged-hinged, clamped-clamped and clamped-hinged boundary conditions are considered. Numerical accuracy of the proposed analytical closed-form solutions obtained from the intuitive formulation are compared to available finite element solutions for symmetric and asymmetric layup schemes of laminated composite beam which indicates the confidence gained on the present formulation.

  5. Theoretical and experimental analysis of optical gyroscopes based on fiber ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yao-ying; Xue, Chen-yang; Cui, Xiao-wen; Cui, Dan-feng; Wei, Li-ping; Wang, Yong-hua; Li, Yan-na

    2014-12-01

    The research on gyroscopes has lasted for a long time, but there is not a thorough analysis of them. In this paper, a detailed theoretical analysis of fiber ring gyroscope and its gyroscope effect were presented, the performance characteristics of optical resonator gyroscope ranging from transmission function Tfrr, Finesse, Q-factor, the gyro sensitivity, signal noise ratio, random walk to dynamic range are all deduced in detail. In addition, a large number of experiments have been done to verify the deduced theoretical results. Simulating the relevance of dQ and turn number of fiber ring, analyzing the frequency difference of two counter transmitted waves (CW and CCW) of the rotated system, make the conclusion that with the increase of turn number of ring, the resonance depth increased while the dQ value decreased, obtain a high sensitivity of 0.210/h, random walk of 0.00350/√h, and Q factor of 8×106. Moreover, in the digital frequency locked dual rotation gyro experiments, obvious step effect was observed. And the experimental line of frequency difference is very agreement with the theoretical line. The research provides a good theoretical and experimental basis for the study of gyroscopes.

  6. Theoretical Analysis of Shear Wave Interference Patterns by Means of Dynamic Acoustic Radiation Forces.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic radiation forces associated with high intensity focused ultrasound stimulate shear wave propagation allowing shear wave speed and shear viscosity estimation of tissue structures. As wave speeds are meters per second, real time displacement tracking over an extend field-of-view using ultrasound is problematic due to very high frame rate requirements. However, two spatially separated dynamic external sources can stimulate shear wave motion leading to shear wave interference patterns. Advantages are shear waves can be imaged at lower frame rates and local interference pattern spatial properties reflect tissue's viscoelastic properties. Here a theoretical analysis of shear wave interference patterns by means of dynamic acoustic radiation forces is detailed. Using a viscoelastic Green's function analysis, tissue motion due to a pair of focused ultrasound beams and associated radiation forces are presented. Overall, this paper theoretically demonstrates shear wave interference patterns can be stimulated using dynamic acoustic radiation forces and tracked using conventional ultrasound imaging.

  7. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  8. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  9. Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Broeng, Jes; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-28

    We present a simple theoretical model of transverse mode instability in high-power rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers. The model shows that efficient power transfer between the fundamental and higher-order modes of the fiber can be induced by a nonlinear interaction mediated through the thermo-optic effect, leading to transverse mode instability. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the instability dynamics are investigated, and it is shown that the instability can be seeded by both quantum noise and signal intensity noise, while pure phase noise of the signal does not induce instability. It is also shown that the presence of a small harmonic amplitude modulation of the signal can lead to generation of higher harmonics in the output intensity when operating near the instability threshold.

  10. Nanoscale deflection detection of a cantilever-based biosensor using MOSFET structure: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paryavi, Mohsen; Montazeri, Abbas; Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman

    2016-10-01

    A novel method for detection of biological species based on measurement of cantilever deflection has been proposed and numerically evaluated. Employing the cantilever as a moving gate of a MOSFET structure, its deflection can be analyzed via current characterization of the MOSFET consequently. Locating the cantilever as a suspended gate of a MOSFET on a substrate, the distance between cantilever and oxide layer will change the carrier concentration. Accordingly, it will be resulted in different current voltage characteristics of the device which can be easily measured using simple apparatuses. In order to verify the proposed method, the performance of system has been theoretically analyzed using COMSOL platform. The simulation results have confirmed the performance and sensitivity of the proposed method.

  11. A simple method for the analysis of neutron resonance capture spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Clarijs, Martijn C.; Bom, Victor R.; Eijk, Carel W. E. van

    2009-03-15

    Neutron resonance capture analysis (NRCA) is a method used to determine the bulk composition of various kinds of objects and materials. It is based on analyzing direct capture resonance peaks. However, the analysis is complicated by scattering followed by capture effects in the object itself. These effects depend on the object's shape and size. In this paper the new Delft elemental analysis program (DEAP) is presented which can automatically and quickly analyze multiple NRCA spectra in a practical and simple way, yielding the elemental bulk composition of an object, largely independent of its shape and size. The DEAP method is demonstrated with data obtained with a Roman bronze water tap excavated in Nijmegen (The Netherlands). DEAP will also be used in the framework of the Ancient Charm project as data analysis program for neutron resonance capture imaging (NRCI) experiments. NRCI provides three-dimensional visualization and quantification of the internal structure of archaeological objects by performing scanning measurements with narrowly collimated neutron beams on archaeological objects in computed tomography based experimental setups. The large amounts (hundreds to thousands) of spectra produced during a NRCI experiment can automatically and quickly be analyzed by DEAP.

  12. (1) H NMR analysis of O-methyl-inositol isomers: a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Mauro V; Couri, Mara Rubia C; De Assis, João Vitor; Anconi, Cleber P A; Dos Santos, Hélio F; De Almeida, Wagner B

    2012-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (1) H NMR chemical shifts for l-quebrachitol isomers were performed using the B3LYP functional employing the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311 + G(2d,p) basis sets. The effect of the solvent on the B3LYP-calculated NMR spectrum was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model. Comparison is made with experimental (1) H NMR spectroscopic data, which shed light on the average uncertainty present in DFT calculations of chemical shifts and showed that the best match between experimental and theoretical B3LYP (1) H NMR profiles is a good strategy to assign the molecular structure present in the sample handled in the experimental measurements. Among four plausible O-methyl-inositol isomers, the l-quebrachitol 2a structure was unambiguously assigned based only on the comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical (1) H NMR chemical shift data. The B3LYP infrared (IR) spectrum was also calculated for the four isomers and compared with the experimental data, with analysis of the theoretical IR profiles corroborating assignment of the 2a structure. Therefore, it is confirmed in this study that a combined experimental/DFT spectroscopic investigation is a powerful tool in structural/conformational analysis studies. PMID:22865668

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis of photoinduced electron transfer: Including the role of liquid structure

    SciTech Connect

    Swallen, S.F.; Weidemaier, K.; Tavernier, H.L.; Fayer, M.D.

    1996-05-16

    Experimental determinations of the dynamics of photoinduced electron transfer from rubrene to duroquinone in three solvents, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl sebacate, and cyclohexanone are presented. The data are analyzed using recent theoretical developements that include important features of the solvent, i.e., the effects of finite molecular volume on local solvent structure and on the mutual donor-acceptor diffusion rates. Inclusion of the liquid radial distribution function (rdf) in the theory accounts for the significant variation of the acceptor concentration near a donor. Hydrodynamic effects, which slow the rate of donor-acceptor approach at short distance, are important and are also included in the theoretical analysis of the data. The data analysis depends on a reasonable model of the rdf. A method is presented to obtain the hard-sphere parameters needed to calculate the rdf. The Marcus form of the distance-dependent transfer rate is used. For the highest viscosity solvent (dibutylphthalate), a unique set of the Marcus transfer parameters is obtained. For lower viscosity solvents, the transfer parameters are less well defined, but information on the distance and time dependence of charge separation is still acquired. These experiments, combined with the theoretical analysis, yield the first realistic description of through-solvent photoinduced electron transfer. 102 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Jones matrix formulation of a Porro prism laser resonator with waveplates: theoretical and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.

  15. (1) H NMR analysis of O-methyl-inositol isomers: a joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    De Almeida, Mauro V; Couri, Mara Rubia C; De Assis, João Vitor; Anconi, Cleber P A; Dos Santos, Hélio F; De Almeida, Wagner B

    2012-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (1) H NMR chemical shifts for l-quebrachitol isomers were performed using the B3LYP functional employing the 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311 + G(2d,p) basis sets. The effect of the solvent on the B3LYP-calculated NMR spectrum was accounted for using the polarizable continuum model. Comparison is made with experimental (1) H NMR spectroscopic data, which shed light on the average uncertainty present in DFT calculations of chemical shifts and showed that the best match between experimental and theoretical B3LYP (1) H NMR profiles is a good strategy to assign the molecular structure present in the sample handled in the experimental measurements. Among four plausible O-methyl-inositol isomers, the l-quebrachitol 2a structure was unambiguously assigned based only on the comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical (1) H NMR chemical shift data. The B3LYP infrared (IR) spectrum was also calculated for the four isomers and compared with the experimental data, with analysis of the theoretical IR profiles corroborating assignment of the 2a structure. Therefore, it is confirmed in this study that a combined experimental/DFT spectroscopic investigation is a powerful tool in structural/conformational analysis studies.

  16. A simple and compact fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis and its application to food analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haiyun; Yuan, Kaisong; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Zuanguang; Liu, Zhenping; Su, Zihao

    2015-10-01

    A novel fluorescence detection system for CE was described and evaluated. Two miniature laser pointers were used as the excitation source. A Y-style optical fiber was used to transmit the excitation light and a four-branch optical fiber was used to collect the fluorescence. The optical fiber and optical filter were imported into a photomultiplier tube without any extra fixing device. A simplified PDMS detection cell was designed with guide channels through which the optical fibers were easily aligned to the detection window of separation capillary. According to different requirements, laser pointers and different filters were selected by simple switching and replacement. The fluorescence from four different directions was collected at the same detecting point. Thus, the sensitivity was enhanced without peak broadening. The fluorescence detection system was simple, compact, low-cost, and highly sensitive, with its functionality demonstrated by the separation and determination of red dyes and fluorescent whitening agents. The detection limit of rhodamine 6G was 7.7 nM (S/N = 3). The system was further applied to determine illegal food dyes. The CE system is potentially eligible for food safety analysis. PMID:26109527

  17. A Theoretical Analysis of the Influence of Electroosmosis on the Effective Ionic Mobility in Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijnen, Hens

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical description of the influence of electroosmosis on the effective mobility of simple ions in capillary zone electrophoresis is presented. The mathematical equations derived from the space-charge model contain the pK[subscript a] value and the density of the weak acid surface groups as parameters characterizing the capillary. It is…

  18. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the performance of Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, Seita; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Takanose, Eiichiro; Igawa, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the detailed experimental and theoretical performance of new type Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer (PDSE) which was proposed last year. This kind of engine has a pendulum type displacer suspended by the hinge shaft, and swings right and left in displacer space. The present paper mainly discusses the PDSE-3B which is an atmospheric 30[W] engine heated by fuel and cooled by water. It is clear that power required to provide a pendulum type displacer motion is expressed as a simple equation consisting of viscous flow loss term proportional to the square of rotational speed and dynamic pressure loss term proportional to the cube of rotational speed. It is also clear that theoretical engine power defined as the difference between experimental indicated power and power required to provide pendulum type displacer motion agrees well with the experimental engine power. It is also clear that measured Nusselt number of regenerator`s wire meshes agreed with the equation of previous study. In conclusion, PDSE is considered effective for measuring many aspects of performance of the Stirling engine.

  19. A simple, low-cost staining method for rapid-throughput analysis of tumor spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdt, Frank; Alvarez, Angel; Bell, Jonathan; Arvanitis, Constadina; Iqbal, Asneha; Arslan, Ahmet D.; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Goldman, Stewart; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor spheroids are becoming an important tool for the investigation of cancer stem cell (CSC) function in tumors; thus, low-cost and high-throughput methods for drug screening of tumor spheroids are needed. Using neurospheres as non-adherent three-dimensional (3-D) cultures, we developed a simple, low-cost acridine orange (AO)–based method that allows for rapid analysis of live neurospheres by fluorescence microscopy in a 96-well format. This assay measures the cross-section area of a spheroid, which corresponds to cell viability. Our novel method allows rapid screening of a panel of anti-proliferative drugs to assess inhibitory effects on the growth of cancer stem cells in 3-D cultures. PMID:26757811

  20. Poly: a quantitative analysis tool for simple sequence repeat (SSR) tracts in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Bizzaro, Jeff W; Marx, Kenneth A

    2003-01-01

    Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), microsatellites or polymeric sequences are common in DNA and are important biologically. From mononucleotide to trinucleotide repeats and beyond, they can be found in long (> 6 repeating units) tracts and may be characterized by quantifying the frequencies in which they are found and their tract lengths. However, most of the existing computer programs that find SSR tracts do not include these methods. Results A computer program named Poly has been written not only to find SSR tracts but to analyze the results quantitatively. Conclusions Poly is significant in its use of non-standard, quantitative methods of analysis. And, with its flexible object model and data structure, Poly and its generated data can be used for even more sophisticated analyses. PMID:12791171

  1. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 2: TETRA 2 theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallardo, Vincente C.; Black, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical development of the forced steady state analysis of the structural dynamic response of a turbine engine having nonlinear connecting elements is discussed. Based on modal synthesis, and the principle of harmonic balance, the governing relations are the compatibility of displacements at the nonlinear connecting elements. There are four displacement compatibility equations at each nonlinear connection, which are solved by iteration for the principle harmonic of the excitation frequency. The resulting computer program, TETRA 2, combines the original TETRA transient analysis (with flexible bladed disk) with the steady state capability. A more versatile nonlinear rub or bearing element which contains a hardening (or softening) spring, with or without deadband, is also incorporated.

  2. Analysis and Modeling of the Arctic Oscillation Using a Simple Barotropic Model with Baroclinic Eddy Forcing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H. L.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is conducted using a simple barotropic model that considers the barotropic-baroclinic interactions as the external forcing. The model is referred to as a barotropic S model since the external forcing is obtained statistically from the long-term historical data, solving an inverse problem. The barotropic S model has been integrated for 51 years under a perpetual January condition and the dominant empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes in the model have been analyzed. The results are compared with the EOF analysis of the barotropic component of the real atmosphere based on the daily NCEP-NCAR reanalysis for 50 yr from 1950 to 1999.According to the result, the first EOF of the model atmosphere appears to be the AO similar to the observation. The annular structure of the AO and the two centers of action at Pacific and Atlantic are simulated nicely by the barotropic S model. Therefore, the atmospheric low-frequency variabilities have been captured satisfactorily even by the simple barotropic model.The EOF analysis is further conducted to the external forcing of the barotropic S model. The structure of the dominant forcing shows the characteristics of synoptic-scale disturbances of zonal wavenumber 6 along the Pacific storm track. The forcing is induced by the barotropic-baroclinic interactions associated with baroclinic instability.The result suggests that the AO can be understood as the natural variability of the barotropic component of the atmosphere induced by the inherent barotropic dynamics, which is forced by the barotropic-baroclinic interactions. The fluctuating upscale energy cascade from planetary waves and synoptic disturbances to the zonal motion plays the key role for the excitation of the AO.

  3. The Probabilistic Analysis of Language Acquisition: Theoretical, Computational, and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Anne S.; Chater, Nick; Vitanyi, Paul M. B.

    2011-01-01

    There is much debate over the degree to which language learning is governed by innate language-specific biases, or acquired through cognition-general principles. Here we examine the probabilistic language acquisition hypothesis on three levels: We outline a novel theoretical result showing that it is possible to learn the exact "generative model"…

  4. Analysis of simple 2-D and 3-D metal structures subjected to fragment impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witmer, E. A.; Stagliano, T. R.; Spilker, R. L.; Rodal, J. J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical methods were developed for predicting the large-deflection elastic-plastic transient structural responses of metal containment or deflector (C/D) structures to cope with rotor burst fragment impact attack. For two-dimensional C/D structures both, finite element and finite difference analysis methods were employed to analyze structural response produced by either prescribed transient loads or fragment impact. For the latter category, two time-wise step-by-step analysis procedures were devised to predict the structural responses resulting from a succession of fragment impacts: the collision force method (CFM) which utilizes an approximate prediction of the force applied to the attacked structure during fragment impact, and the collision imparted velocity method (CIVM) in which the impact-induced velocity increment acquired by a region of the impacted structure near the impact point is computed. The merits and limitations of these approaches are discussed. For the analysis of 3-d responses of C/D structures, only the CIVM approach was investigated.

  5. Limitation of high-resolution melting curve analysis for genotyping simple sequence repeats in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Yue, Y J; Guo, T T; Han, J L; Liu, J B; Guo, J; Sun, X P; Feng, R L; Wu, Y Y; Wang, C F; Wang, L P; Yang, B H

    2014-04-08

    Variation in microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci has, until recently, relied heavily on the use of gel-based methods that can be both time consuming and difficult to genotype. Non gel-based systems are therefore important to increase simplicity and improve turn-around time without compromising assay sensitivity and accuracy. In this report, we assessed the latest of the non-gel-based methods, high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis. HRM is a technique that monitors exactly the decreasing fluorescence of intercalating dye in the process of dissociation of double-stranded DNA. The measurement immediately follows polymerase chain reaction in a one-step, closed-tube method. Four SSR loci of different complexity in sheep, namely MAF209, MCM140, CB226, and SRCRSP5, were assessed using the LightScanners System with LC Greens PLUS DNA binding dye. In order to improve the accuracy of genotyping, we applied internal oligo nucleotide calibrators while performing HRM. DNA polymorphisms were previously identified using capillary electrophoresis analysis (CE). The result showed that CE detected more genotypes than HRM in the same loci regardless of the level of polymorphism at the SSR loci. We demonstrate current limitations of the HRM method for the analysis of SSR loci.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of simple sequence repeats in marine animals-a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2014-10-01

    Tandem simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are one of the most popular molecular markers in genetic analysis owing to their ubiquitous occurrence,high reproducibility, multiallelic nature, and codominant mode. High mutability makes SSRs play a role in genome evolution and correspondingly show different patterns. Comparative analysis of genomic SSRs in different taxonomic groups usually focuses on land species, while marine animals have been neglected. This study examined the abundance of genomic SSRs with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 bp in 30 marine animals including nine taxonomic groups and further compared with the land species. More than thousands of SSRs were discovered in every organism which provided a huge resource for the development of molecular markers. Thirty marine animals showed profound differences in SSR characteristics, but some group-specific trends were also found. Both similarities and differences of repeat patterns were discovered between the land and marine species. Two taxon-specific SSR types were discovered: the pentanucleotides motif AGAGG in Euteleostei and the hexanucleotide repeats of ATGTAC in Porifera and Echinodermata. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of two representative species (Amphimedon queenslandica for Porifera and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus for Echinodermata) revealed functional preference of the ATGTAC motif associated genes, and this might hint at evolutionary significance.

  7. A simple RNA probe system for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes polymerase chain reaction products.

    PubMed Central

    Blais, B W; Phillippe, L M

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of an RNA probe specific for the hlyA gene of Listeria monocytogenes by in vitro transcription from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated template incorporating bacteriophage T7 promoter sequences is described. This simple method produced a high yield of RNA which hybridized specifically with hlyA PCR products on a membrane, resulting in RNA-DNA hybrids which were detected by an immunoenzymatic assay with an anti-RNA-DNA hybrid antibody. The RNA probe hybridization system was more sensitive in the analysis of the PCR products than was the conventional agarose gel electrophoresis method. When applied to the analysis of PCR samples from cultures of various Listeria and non-Listeria organisms, the RNA probe was reactive in the assay of 62 different L. monocytogenes isolates but not other Listeria species. Among the non-Listeria organisms tested, only Enterococcus faecalis gave a weak positive reaction with more than 10(9) cells per ml. This reactivity disappeared at lower cell densities. This strategy for the synthesis and application of RNA probes should facilitate the analysis of PCR products in the detection of L. monocytogenes and possibly other food pathogens. Images PMID:8215354

  8. AppEEARS: Simple and Intuitive Access to Analysis Ready Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenzer, R.; Friesz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many search and discovery tools for satellite land remote sensing data archives are often catalog-based and can only be queried at a granule level requiring remote sensing data users to download and process entire data files before science questions can be addressed. Methods for accessing remote sensing data archives must become more precise in order to allow users to concisely extract study relevant information from rapidly expanding archives. To address the need, NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) is developing AppEEARS (Application for Extracting and Exploring Analysis Ready Samples). Built on top of middleware services, the AppEEARS user interface facilitates input of precise sample locations, such as field study sites or flux towers, to extract analysis-ready data from land MODIS products held by NASA's LP DAAC. AppEEARS provides simple and intuitive access to LP DAAC's land MODIS products. For a given set of sample locations, AppEEARS returns pixel values that intersect with the provided locations through the requested date range. Additionally, the AppEEARS user interface provides exploratory data analysis services (e.g. time series and scatter plots) allowing users to interact and explore the requested data and its associated quality information before downloading. AppEEARS delivers study relevant data sets requiring little more processing allowing users to spend less time performing data preparation routines and more time answer questions.

  9. Simple sequence repeat analysis of genetic diversity in primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica).

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Hong; Li, Yin-Xia; Li, Zi-Chao; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Qi, Yong-Wen; Wang, Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of 51 cultivars in the primary core collection of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) was evaluated by using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history among different cultivars were determined on the basis of SSR data. Twenty-two polymorphic SSR primer pairs were selected, and a total of 111 alleles were identified in the 51 cultivars, with an average of 5 alleles per locus. According to traditional Chinese classification of peach cultivars, the 51 cultivars in the peach primary core collection belong to six variety groups. The SSR analysis revealed that the levels of the genetic diversity within each variety group were ranked as Sweet peach > Crisp peach > Flat peach > Nectarine > Honey Peach > Yellow fleshed peach. The genetic diversity among the Chinese cultivars was higher than that among the introduced cultivars. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) placed the 51 cultivars into five linkage clusters. Cultivar members from the same variety group were distributed in different UPGMA clusters and some members from different variety groups were placed under the same cluster. Different variety groups could not be differentiated in accordance with SSR markers. The SSR analysis revealed rich genetic diversity in the peach primary core collection, representative of genetic resources of peach.

  10. A simple ion chromatography method for inorganic anion analysis in edible seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ordóñez, Eva; Alonso, Esther; Rupérez, Pilar

    2010-09-15

    A new, simple, fast and sensitive ion chromatography (IC) method, for the simultaneous analysis of fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in edible seaweeds was developed and reported for the first time. The validation of the analytical method was studied in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. All standard calibration curves showed very good correlation between anion peak area and concentration (r>0.999). Limits of detection and quantitation ranged between 0.002-0.05 mg/L and 0.01-0.1mg/L, respectively and indicated the high sensitivity of the method. Relative standard deviation values of repeatability and inter-day precision for standard anions with the same sample were less than 2%. Anion recoveries ranged from 97 to 113% for chloride and from 87 to 105% for sulphate, respectively and showed the fairly good accuracy of the method. The method was applied to the analysis of inorganic anions in brown and red edible seaweeds. Brown seaweeds were characterized by higher chloride content up to 33.7-36.9%, while red seaweeds were characterized by higher sulphate content (45-57%). Sulphate content in seaweeds is related to the presence of sulphated polysaccharides of biological importance. The method developed was well applicable to mineral anion analysis in edible seaweeds and shows suitability and reliability of use in other food samples of nutritional importance. PMID:20801334

  11. Creativity in theoretical physics: A situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics, 1927

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    First, Leili K.

    This dissertation investigates the intersections and interactions of factors which enhance and inhibit creativity in theoretical physics research, using a situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics of 1927 (Solvay 1927), a pivotal point in the history of quantum physics. Situational analysis is a postmodern variant of the grounded theory method which views a situation as the unit of analysis and adds situational mapping as an analytic tool. This method specifically works against normalizing or simplifying the points of view, instead drawing out diversity, complexity, and contradiction. It results in "theorizing" rather than theory. This research differs from other analyses of the development of quantum mechanics in looking at technical issues as well as individual, collective, and societal factors. Data examined in this historical analysis includes theoretical papers, conference proceedings, personal letters, and commentary and analysis, both contemporaneous and modern. Literature related to scientific creativity was also consulted. Mapping the situation as a master discourse of Niels Bohr overlapping and interacting with co-existent major discourses on matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation, wave mechanics, and the pilot-wave theory resulted in the most descriptive illustration of the factors influencing scientific creativity before and after Solvay 1927. The master discourse strongly influenced the major discourses and generated the "Copenhagen spirit" which effectively marginalized discourses other than matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation after Solvay 1927.

  12. Simple prostatectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Prostatectomy - simple; Suprapubic prostatectomy; Retropubic simple prostatectomy; Open prostatectomy; Millen procedure ... prostate and what caused your prostate to grow. Open simple prostatectomy is often used when the prostate ...

  13. Elastic Cherenkov effects in transversely isotropic soft materials-I: Theoretical analysis, simulations and inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Yanlin; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    A body force concentrated at a point and moving at a high speed can induce shear-wave Mach cones in dusty-plasma crystals or soft materials, as observed experimentally and named the elastic Cherenkov effect (ECE). The ECE in soft materials forms the basis of the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique, an ultrasound-based dynamic elastography method applied in clinics in recent years. Previous studies on the ECE in soft materials have focused on isotropic material models. In this paper, we investigate the existence and key features of the ECE in anisotropic soft media, by using both theoretical analysis and finite element (FE) simulations, and we apply the results to the non-invasive and non-destructive characterization of biological soft tissues. We also theoretically study the characteristics of the shear waves induced in a deformed hyperelastic anisotropic soft material by a source moving with high speed, considering that contact between the ultrasound probe and the soft tissue may lead to finite deformation. On the basis of our theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we propose an inverse approach to infer both the anisotropic and hyperelastic parameters of incompressible transversely isotropic (TI) soft materials. Finally, we investigate the properties of the solutions to the inverse problem by deriving the condition numbers in analytical form and performing numerical experiments. In Part II of the paper, both ex vivo and in vivo experiments are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the inverse method in practical use.

  14. Asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron: theoretical analysis and on-FPGA learning.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-01

    A generalized asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron model is a special kind of cellular automaton that is designed to mimic the nonlinear dynamics of neurons. The model can be implemented as an asynchronous sequential logic circuit and its control parameter is the pattern of wires among the circuit elements that is adjustable after implementation in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. In this paper, a novel theoretical analysis method for the model is presented. Using this method, stabilities of neuron-like orbits and occurrence mechanisms of neuron-like bifurcations of the model are clarified theoretically. Also, a novel learning algorithm for the model is presented. An equivalent experiment shows that an FPGA-implemented learning algorithm enables an FPGA-implemented model to automatically reproduce typical nonlinear responses and occurrence mechanisms observed in biological and model neurons.

  15. Laboratory measurements and a theoretical analysis of the TCT fading channel radio system. [Tone Calibrated Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafferty, William; Anderson, John B.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Holm, John R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper documents the laboratory and theoretical performance of a pilot-aided digital radio system. The technique considered transmits a midband pilot tone to improve the receiver data detection performance in a multipath fading channel and is referred to as the tone calibrated technique (TCT). The performance of a 860 MHz prototype system carrying 2.4 kbit/s data under Rician fading conditions is reported. Both experimental and analytical results show that the error floor experienced with nonpilot-aided transmission methods is effectively removed by the TCT scheme, resulting in significant performance gains at high signal-to-noise ratio values. The paper also examines the TCT system performance under typical operating conditions and presents a new analysis of the TCT theoretical error probability.

  16. Spike Train Analysis Toolkit: Enabling Wider Application of Information-Theoretic Techniques to Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David H.; Victor, Jonathan D.; Gardner, Esther P.

    2009-01-01

    Conventional methods widely available for the analysis of spike trains and related neural data include various time- and frequency-domain analyses, such as peri-event and interspike interval histograms, spectral measures, and probability distributions. Information theoretic methods are increasingly recognized as significant tools for the analysis of spike train data. However, developing robust implementations of these methods can be time-consuming, and determining applicability to neural recordings can require expertise. In order to facilitate more widespread adoption of these informative methods by the neuroscience community, we have developed the Spike Train Analysis Toolkit. STAToolkit is a software package which implements, documents, and guides application of several information-theoretic spike train analysis techniques, thus minimizing the effort needed to adopt and use them. This implementation behaves like a typical Matlab toolbox, but the underlying computations are coded in C for portability, optimized for efficiency, and interfaced with Matlab via the MEX framework. STAToolkit runs on any of three major platforms: Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. The toolkit reads input from files with an easy-to-generate text-based, platform-independent format. STAToolkit, including full documentation and test cases, is freely available open source via http://neuroanalysis.org, maintained as a resource for the computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics communities. Use cases drawn from somatosensory and gustatory neurophysiology, and community use of STAToolkit, demonstrate its utility and scope. PMID:19475519

  17. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with and without Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Psychosis is one of the most important psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and its pathophysiology still remains unsolved. We aimed to explore the connectivity differences of structural neuroimaging between TLE with and without psychosis using a graph theoretical analysis, which is an emerging mathematical method to investigate network connections in the brain as a small-world system. Materials and Methods We recruited 11 TLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) presenting psychosis or having a history of psychosis (TLE-P group). As controls, 15 TLE patients with unilateral HS without any history of psychotic episodes were also recruited (TLE-N group). For graph theoretical analysis, the normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). As secondary analyses, each group was compared to 14 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. Results The hub node locations were found predominantly in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the TLE-N group, and mainly on the contralateral side in the TLE-P group. The TLE-P group showed significantly higher characteristic path length, transitivity, lower global efficiency, and resilience to random or targeted attack than those of the TLE-N group. The regional comparison in betweenness centrality revealed significantly decreased connectivity in the contralateral temporal lobe, ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral postcentral gyri in the TLE-P group. The healthy subjects showed well-balanced nodes/edges distributions, similar metrics to TLE-N group except for higher small-worldness/modularity/assortativity, and various differences of regional betweenness/clustering. Conclusion In TLE with psychosis, graph theoretical analysis of structural imaging revealed disrupted connectivity in the contralateral hemisphere. The network metrics suggested that the existence of psychosis can bring vulnerability and decreased efficiency of the whole

  18. A Simple Method of Genomic DNA Extraction from Human Samples for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatak, Souvik; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Isolation of DNA from blood and buccal swabs in adequate quantities is an integral part of forensic research and analysis. The present study was performed to determine the quality and the quantity of DNA extracted from four commonly available samples and to estimate the time duration of the ensuing PCR amplification. Here, we demonstrate that hair and urine samples can also become an alternate source for reliably obtaining a small quantity of PCR-ready DNA. We developed a rapid, cost-effective, and noninvasive method of sample collection and simple DNA extraction from buccal swabs, urine, and hair using the phenol-chloroform method. Buccal samples were subjected to DNA extraction, immediately or after refrigeration (4–6°C) for 3 days. The purity and the concentration of the extracted DNA were determined spectrophotometerically, and the adequacy of DNA extracts for the PCR-based assay was assessed by amplifying a 1030-bp region of the mitochondrial D-loop. Although DNA from all the samples was suitable for PCR, the blood and hair samples provided a good quality DNA for restriction analysis of the PCR product compared with the buccal swab and urine samples. In the present study, hair samples proved to be a good source of genomic DNA for PCR-based methods. Hence, DNA of hair samples can also be used for the genomic disorder analysis in addition to the forensic analysis as a result of the ease of sample collection in a noninvasive manner, lower sample volume requirements, and good storage capability. PMID:24294115

  19. A simple method of observation impact analysis for operational storm surge forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumihar, Julius; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a simple method is developed for analyzing the impact of assimilating observations in improving forecast accuracy of a model. The method simply makes use of observation time series and the corresponding model output that are generated without data assimilation. These two time series are usually available in an operational database. The method is therefore easy to implement. Moreover, it can be used before actually implementing any data assimilation to the forecasting system. In this respect, it can be used as a tool for designing a data assimilation system, namely for searching for an optimal observing network. The method can also be used as a diagnostic tool, for example, for evaluating an existing operational data assimilation system to check if all observations are contributing positively to the forecast accuracy. The method has been validated with some twin experiments using a simple one-dimensional advection model as well as with an operational storm surge forecasting system based on the Dutch Continental Shelf model version 5 (DCSMv5). It has been applied for evaluating the impact of observations in the operational data assimilation system with DCSMv5 and for designing a data assimilation system for the new model DCSMv6. References: Verlaan, M. and J. Sumihar (2016), Observation impact analysis methods for storm surge forecasting systems, Ocean Dynamics, ODYN-D-15-00061R1 (in press) Zijl, F., J. Sumihar, and M. Verlaan (2015), Application of data assimilation for improved operational water level forecasting of the northwest European shelf and North Sea, Ocean Dynamics, 65, Issue 12, pp 1699-1716.

  20. A rapid and simple HPLC method for the analysis of propofol in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Cussonneau, Xavier; De Smet, Els; Lantsoght, Kristof; Salvi, Jean-Paul; Bolon-Larger, Magali; Boulieu, Roselyne

    2007-07-27

    A selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of propofol in biological samples was developed. Propofol and thymol (internal standard) were analysed on a Purospher RP-18 endcapped (75 mmx4 mm, 3 microm) stationary phase using acetonitrile and water (65:35, v/v) as eluents at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The excitation and emission wavelengths were 276 and 310 nm, respectively. Sample treatment consisted of deproteinization by acetonitrile containing the internal standard and direct injection of the supernatant. Mean analytical recovery were 105% (CV 2.0%) at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 10 mg/L. The quantification limit was 3 ng/mL for a 500 microL sample plasma volume and 5 ng/mL for a 500 microL blood sample. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were lower than 5.5% for three concentrations assessed (0.05, 1.0 and 10.0 mg/L). Considering the column size and the flow rate, the separation was achieved with an analysis time less than 6 min with a reduced consumption of solvent. This rapid HPLC method using a simple treatment procedure is sensitive enough for monitoring propofol in human biological samples. PMID:17129698

  1. A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for analysis of some nitrofuran drugs in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek Saied

    2008-09-01

    A simple, rapid, selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was described for the analysis of three nitrofuran drugs, namely, nifuroxazide (NX), nitrofurantoin (NT) and nitrofurazone (NZ). The method involved the alkaline hydrolysis of the studied drugs by warming with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution then dilution with distilled water for NX or 2-propanol for NT and NZ. The formed fluorophores were measured at 465 nm (lambda (Ex) 265 nm), 458 nm (lambda (Ex) 245 nm) and 445 nm (lambda (Ex) 245 nm) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The reaction pathway was discussed and the structures of the fluorescent products were proposed. The different experimental parameters were studied and optimized. Regression analysis showed good correlation between fluorescence intensity and concentration over the ranges 0.08-1.00, 0.02-0.24 and 0.004-0.050 microg ml(-1) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The limits of detection of the method were 8.0, 1.9 and 0.3 ng ml(-1) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision and specificity, and it was successfully applied for the assay of the three nitrofurans in their different dosage forms. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. The results were favorably compared with those obtained by reference spectrophotometric methods. PMID:18246413

  2. A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for analysis of some nitrofuran drugs in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Belal, Tarek Saied

    2008-09-01

    A simple, rapid, selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was described for the analysis of three nitrofuran drugs, namely, nifuroxazide (NX), nitrofurantoin (NT) and nitrofurazone (NZ). The method involved the alkaline hydrolysis of the studied drugs by warming with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution then dilution with distilled water for NX or 2-propanol for NT and NZ. The formed fluorophores were measured at 465 nm (lambda (Ex) 265 nm), 458 nm (lambda (Ex) 245 nm) and 445 nm (lambda (Ex) 245 nm) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The reaction pathway was discussed and the structures of the fluorescent products were proposed. The different experimental parameters were studied and optimized. Regression analysis showed good correlation between fluorescence intensity and concentration over the ranges 0.08-1.00, 0.02-0.24 and 0.004-0.050 microg ml(-1) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The limits of detection of the method were 8.0, 1.9 and 0.3 ng ml(-1) for NX, NT and NZ, respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision and specificity, and it was successfully applied for the assay of the three nitrofurans in their different dosage forms. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical adjuvants. The results were favorably compared with those obtained by reference spectrophotometric methods.

  3. Infrared, Raman and ultraviolet with circular dichroism analysis and theoretical calculations of tedizolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, Katarzyna; Mizera, Mikołaj; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2016-07-01

    Tedizolid is the newest antibacterial agent from the oxazolidinone class. For its identification, FT-IR (2000-400 cm-1) and Raman (2000-400 cm-1) analyses were proposed. Studies of the enantiomeric purity of tedizolid were conducted based on ultraviolet-circular dichroism (UV-CD) analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311G(2df,2pd) basis set was used for support of the analysis of the FT-IR and Raman spectra. Theoretical methods made it possible to conduct HOMO and LUMO analysis, which was used to determine the charge transfer for two tedizolid enantiomers. Molecular electrostatic potential maps were calculated with the DFT method for both tedizolid enantiomers. The relationship between the results of ab initio calculations and knowledge about the chemical-biological properties of R- and S-tedizolid enantiomers is also discussed.

  4. Dream-reality confusion in borderline personality disorder: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Skrzypińska, Dagna; Szmigielska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of dream-reality confusion (DRC) in relation to the characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), based on research findings and theoretical considerations. It is hypothesized that people with BPD are more likely to experience DRC compared to people in non-clinical population. Several variables related to this hypothesis were identified through a theoretical analysis of the scientific literature. Sleep disturbances: problems with sleep are found in 15-95.5% of people with BPD (Hafizi, 2013), and unstable sleep and wake cycles, which occur in BPD (Fleischer et al., 2012), are linked to DRC. Dissociation: nearly two-thirds of people with BPD experience dissociative symptoms (Korzekwa and Pain, 2009) and dissociative symptoms are correlated with a fantasy proneness; both dissociative symptoms and fantasy proneness are related to DRC (Giesbrecht and Merckelbach, 2006). Negative dream content: People with BPD have nightmares more often than other people (Semiz et al., 2008); dreams that are more likely to be confused with reality tend to be more realistic and unpleasant, and are reflected in waking behavior (Rassin et al., 2001). Cognitive disturbances: Many BPD patients experience various cognitive disturbances, including problems with reality testing (Fiqueierdo, 2006; Mosquera et al., 2011), which can foster DRC. Thin boundaries: People with thin boundaries are more prone to DRC than people with thick boundaries, and people with BPD tend to have thin boundaries (Hartmann, 2011). The theoretical analysis on the basis of these findings suggests that people who suffer from BPD may be more susceptible to confusing dream content with actual waking events. PMID:26441768

  5. Dream-reality confusion in borderline personality disorder: a theoretical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypińska, Dagna; Szmigielska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of dream-reality confusion (DRC) in relation to the characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), based on research findings and theoretical considerations. It is hypothesized that people with BPD are more likely to experience DRC compared to people in non-clinical population. Several variables related to this hypothesis were identified through a theoretical analysis of the scientific literature. Sleep disturbances: problems with sleep are found in 15–95.5% of people with BPD (Hafizi, 2013), and unstable sleep and wake cycles, which occur in BPD (Fleischer et al., 2012), are linked to DRC. Dissociation: nearly two-thirds of people with BPD experience dissociative symptoms (Korzekwa and Pain, 2009) and dissociative symptoms are correlated with a fantasy proneness; both dissociative symptoms and fantasy proneness are related to DRC (Giesbrecht and Merckelbach, 2006). Negative dream content: People with BPD have nightmares more often than other people (Semiz et al., 2008); dreams that are more likely to be confused with reality tend to be more realistic and unpleasant, and are reflected in waking behavior (Rassin et al., 2001). Cognitive disturbances: Many BPD patients experience various cognitive disturbances, including problems with reality testing (Fiqueierdo, 2006; Mosquera et al., 2011), which can foster DRC. Thin boundaries: People with thin boundaries are more prone to DRC than people with thick boundaries, and people with BPD tend to have thin boundaries (Hartmann, 2011). The theoretical analysis on the basis of these findings suggests that people who suffer from BPD may be more susceptible to confusing dream content with actual waking events. PMID:26441768

  6. Analysis of the genetic diversity of beach plums by simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Wu, W L; Zhang, C H; Zhang, Y P; Li, W L; Huang, T

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to measure the genetic diversity of wild beach plum and cultivated species, and to determine the species relationships using SSRs markers. An analysis of genetic diversity from ten beach plum germplasms was carried out using 11 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers selected from 35 primers to generate distinct PCR products. From this plant material, 44 allele variations were detected, with 3-5 alleles identified from each primer. The analysis showed that the genetic similarity coefficient varied from 0.721 ± 0.155 to 0.848 ± 0.136 within each of the ten beach plum germplasms and changed within the range of 0.551 ± 0.084 to 0.695 ± 0.073 between any two pairs of germplasms. According to the genetic dissimilarity coefficient matrix, a cluster analysis of SSRs using the unweighted pair group mean average method in the NTSYSpc 2.10 software revealed that the ten germplasms could be divided into two groups at the dissimilarity coefficient of 0.606. Class I included 77.8, 12.5, 30, and 33.3% of MM, MI, NY, and CM, respectively. Class II contains the remaining 9 beach plum germplasms. The markers generated by 11 SSR primers proved very effective in distinguishing the beach plum germplasm resources. It was clear that the geographical distribution did not correspond with the genetic relationships among the different beach plum strains. This result will be of value to beach plum breeding programs.

  7. A simple direct injection method for GC/MS analysis of PAHs in particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Smith, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    A simple direct injection method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or other organic components of particulate matter by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. This method uses a small custom brass capsule to insert a particulate sample deposited on a quartz fiber filter or powdery sample directly into a GC injector inlet. This approach was applied in the analysis of PAHs in diesel emissions and other particulate samples, which are introduced into the GC and analyzed by MS using selected ion monitoring mode. Quantitation is based on the concentration of PAHs in a standard reference material (SRM), which are certified by US National Institute of Standard Technology to avoid matrix effects on extraction efficiency. A standard filter is prepared by deposition of small amount of SRM of diesel particulate or ambient PM on quartz fiber filter. By this method, the linearity for 12 kinds of PAHs (3 to 6 rings) was demonstrated from 0.022 mg to 0.65 mg of SRM 1650. The linearity of BaP, for example, was confirmed from 0.028 to 0.845 ng. The reproducibility of this method determined by analyzing the standard filter was 15.4%. By selecting an appropriate SRM as a standard material, this method is applicable for analyzing PAHs in fine particulate matter of less than 1 microm from various origins. Preliminary results for a series of ambient particulate matter, roadside PM, diesel soot and sidestream smoke, are presented. This method enables analysis of organic chemical substances, for example PAHs, in PM without any pretreatment using organic solvent, and without any expensive modification of GC instrument.

  8. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and quality of life. A theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanestad, B R

    1989-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) affects the overall life situation of the individual. The term "quality of life" means each individual person's estimation of what it means to have a good life. There are many aspects of diabetes which will influence to a greater or lesser extent each individual's degree of satisfaction with his/her life. This theoretical analysis shows that there is no direct connection between reduced quality of life and IDDM. There is a need, however, for empirical investigations which will provide a better understanding of the relationship between quality of life and IDDM. PMID:2814081

  9. Analysis of poetic literature using B. F. Skinner's theoretical framework from verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Nicole M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines Skinner's work on verbal behavior in the context of literature as a particular class of written verbal behavior. It looks at contemporary literary theory and analysis and the contributions that Skinner's theoretical framework can make. Two diverse examples of poetic literature are chosen and analyzed following Skinner's framework, examining the dynamic interplay between the writer and reader that take place within the bounds of the work presented. It is concluded that Skinner's hypotheses about verbal behavior and the functional approach to understanding it have much to offer literary theorists in their efforts to understand literary works and should be more carefully examined.

  10. Morphology of synthetic chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals: Analysis of experimental data and theoretical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromalova, N. A.; Eremin, N. N.; Dorokhova, G. I.; Urusov, V. S.

    2012-07-01

    A morphological analysis of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals obtained by flux crystallization has been performed. Seven morphological types of crystals are selected. The surface energies of the faces of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals and their isostructural analogs, BeCr2O4 and BeFe2O4, have been calculated by atomistic computer modeling using the Metadise program. A "combined" approach is proposed which takes into account both the structural geometry and the surface energy of the faces and thus provides better agreement between the theoretical and experimentally observed faceting of chrysoberyl and alexandrite crystals.

  11. PLANS: A finite element program for nonlinear analysis of structures. Volume 1: Theoretical manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, A.; Levine, H. S.; Armen, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The PLANS system is described which is a finite element program for nonlinear analysis. The system represents a collection of special purpose computer programs each associated with a distinct physical problem class. Modules of PLANS specifically referenced and described in detail include: (1) REVBY, for the plastic analysis of bodies of revolution; (2) OUT-OF-PLANE, for the plastic analysis of 3-D built-up structures where membrane effects are predominant; (3) BEND, for the plastic analysis of built-up structures where bending and membrane effects are significant; (4) HEX, for the 3-D elastic-plastic analysis of general solids; and (5) OUT-OF-PLANE-MG, for material and geometrically nonlinear analysis of built-up structures. The SATELLITE program for data debugging and plotting of input geometries is also described. The theoretical foundations upon which the analysis is based are presented. Discussed are the form of the governing equations, the methods of solution, plasticity theories available, a general system description and flow of the programs, and the elements available for use.

  12. Dependence of velocity fluctuations on solar wind speeds: A simple analysis with IPS method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misawa, H.; Kojima, M.

    1995-01-01

    A number of theoretical works have suggested that MHD plasma fluctuations in solar winds should play an important role particularly in the acceleration of high speed winds inside or near 0.1 AU from the sun. Since velocity fluctuations in solar winds are expected to be caused by the MHD plasma fluctuations, measurements of the velocity fluctuations give clues to reveal the acceleration process of solar winds. We made interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at the region out of 0.1 AU to investigate dependence of velocity fluctuations on flow speeds. For evaluating the velocity fluctuation of a flow, we selected the IPS data-set acquired at 2 separate antennas which located in the projected flow direction onto the baseline plane, and tried to compare skewness of the observed cross correlation function(CCF) with skewness of modeled CCFs in which velocity fluctuations were parametrized. The integration effect of IPS along a ray path was also taken into account in the estimation of modeled CCFs. Although this analysis method is significant to derive only parallel fluctuation components to the flow directions, preliminary analyses show following results: (1) High speed winds (Vsw greater than or equal to 500 km/s out of 0.3 AU) indicate enhancement of velocity fluctuations near 0.1 AU; and (2) Low speed winds (Vsw less than or equal to 400 Km/s out of 0.3 AU) indicate small velocity fluctuations at any distances.

  13. Genetic diversity of wild soybean populations in Dongying, China, by simple sequence repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Zhang, X J; Fan, S J

    2015-09-28

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), the ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), is believed to be a potential gene source for further improvement of soybean to cope with environmental stress. In this study, 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in five wild soybean populations using 195 accessions collected from Dongying, China. Ten SSR markers yielded 90 bands, with an average of nine bands per marker. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 97.78%, the distribution of expected heterozygosity (HE) was 0.1994-0.4460 with an average of 0.3262, and the distribution from Shannon's information index (I) was 0.3595-0.6506 with an average of 0.5386. The results showed that wild soybean had a high degree of genetic diversity at the species level. Nei's differentiation coefficient (FST) was 0.1533, and gene flow (Nm) was 1.3805, which indicated that genetic variation mainly existed within populations and that there was a certain level of gene exchange between populations. Some genetic differentiation occurred among populations, although this was not significant. Cluster analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between the genetic structure of wild soybean populations and their geographic distribution, and the clustering results may be relatively consistent with the habitats of the accessions. In the present study, the genetic diversity of wild soybeans showed a broad genetic base and enables suggestions for the conservation of this plant to be made.

  14. [Analysis of simple sequence repeats in genomes of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Huai-Gu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Ai-Xiang; Chen, Li-Hua; Jiang, Wei-Li

    2007-09-01

    Simple sequence repeats or microsatellites have been used as genetic markers in population genetics because of their abundance and length variation between different individuals. This study examined the SSRs in the completely sequenced Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea genomes. The occurrences, relative abundance, relative density, most common motifs, and the longest SSRs in the two species were analyzed, and compared with other plant pathogenic fungal species, such as Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe grisea and Ustilago maydis. The results demonstrated that the SSRs are abundant in S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea genomes, and 6 539 and 8 627 SSRs were obtained from these species. The types and distributions of SSRs have similarities between the two species. In the genomes of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats were more abundant than other species, indicating high mutation rates in these species. Furthermore, the abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. The analysis in this study provided useful information on applications of microsatellites in population genetics of S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea.

  15. Analysis of sequence diversity through internal transcribed spacers and simple sequence repeats to identify Dendrobium species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y T; Chen, R K; Lin, S J; Chen, Y C; Chin, S W; Chen, F C; Lee, C Y

    2014-04-08

    The Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. The Dendrobium genus has high economic potential as ornamental plants and for medicinal purposes. In addition, the species of this genus are able to produce large crops. However, many Dendrobium varieties are very similar in outward appearance, making it difficult to distinguish one species from another. This study demonstrated that the 12 Dendrobium species used in this study may be divided into 2 groups by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. Red and yellow flowers may also be used to separate these species into 2 main groups. In particular, the deciduous characteristic is associated with the ITS genetic diversity of the A group. Of 53 designed simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs, 7 pairs were polymorphic for polymerase chain reaction products that were amplified from a specific band. The results of this study demonstrate that these 7 SSR primer pairs may potentially be used to identify Dendrobium species and their progeny in future studies.

  16. A simple iterative independent component analysis algorithm for vibration source signal identification of complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Sup; Cho, Dae-Seung; Kim, Kookhyun; Jeon, Jae-Jin; Jung, Woo-Jin; Kang, Myeng-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis (ICA), one of the blind source separation methods, can be applied for extracting unknown source signals only from received signals. This is accomplished by finding statistical independence of signal mixtures and has been successfully applied to myriad fields such as medical science, image processing, and numerous others. Nevertheless, there are inherent problems that have been reported when using this technique: instability and invalid ordering of separated signals, particularly when using a conventional ICA technique in vibratory source signal identification of complex structures. In this study, a simple iterative algorithm of the conventional ICA has been proposed to mitigate these problems. The proposed method to extract more stable source signals having valid order includes an iterative and reordering process of extracted mixing matrix to reconstruct finally converged source signals, referring to the magnitudes of correlation coefficients between the intermediately separated signals and the signals measured on or nearby sources. In order to review the problems of the conventional ICA technique and to validate the proposed method, numerical analyses have been carried out for a virtual response model and a 30 m class submarine model. Moreover, in order to investigate applicability of the proposed method to real problem of complex structure, an experiment has been carried out for a scaled submarine mockup. The results show that the proposed method could resolve the inherent problems of a conventional ICA technique.

  17. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  18. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-04-25

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins.

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

    2014-01-01

    Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

  20. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample.

  1. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in three genomes of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongmei

    2016-06-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, which composed of tandem repeated short units of 1-6 bp, have been paying attention continuously. Here, the distribution, composition and polymorphism of microsatellites and compound microsatellites were analyzed in three available genomes of Candida species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata and Candida orthopsilosis). The results show that there were 118,047, 66,259 and 61,119 microsatellites in genomes of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. orthopsilosis, respectively. The SSRs covered more than 1/3 length of genomes in the three species. The microsatellites, which just consist of bases A and (or) T, such as (A)n, (T)n, (AT)n, (TA)n, (AAT)n, (TAA)n, (TTA)n, (ATA)n, (ATT)n and (TAT)n, were predominant in the three genomes. The length of microsatellites was focused on 6 bp and 9 bp either in the three genomes or in its coding sequences. What's more, the relative abundance (19.89/kbp) and relative density (167.87 bp/kbp) of SSRs in sequence of mitochondrion of C. glabrata were significantly great than that in any one of genomes or chromosomes of the three species. In addition, the distance between any two adjacent microsatellites was an important factor to influence the formation of compound microsatellites. The analysis may be helpful for further studying the roles of microsatellites in genomes' origination, organization and evolution of Candida species.

  2. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-01

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  3. Finite-fault source inversion using teleseismic P waves: Simple parameterization and rapid analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the ability of teleseismic P waves to provide a timely image of the rupture history for large earthquakes using a simple, 2D finite‐fault source parameterization. We analyze the broadband displacement waveforms recorded for the 2010 Mw∼7 Darfield (New Zealand) and El Mayor‐Cucapah (Baja California) earthquakes using a single planar fault with a fixed rake. Both of these earthquakes were observed to have complicated fault geometries following detailed source studies conducted by other investigators using various data types. Our kinematic, finite‐fault analysis of the events yields rupture models that similarly identify the principal areas of large coseismic slip along the fault. The results also indicate that the amount of stabilization required to spatially smooth the slip across the fault and minimize the seismic moment is related to the amplitudes of the observed P waveforms and can be estimated from the absolute values of the elements of the coefficient matrix. This empirical relationship persists for earthquakes of different magnitudes and is consistent with the stabilization constraint obtained from the L‐curve in Tikhonov regularization. We use the relation to estimate the smoothing parameters for the 2011 Mw 7.1 East Turkey, 2012 Mw 8.6 Northern Sumatra, and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes and invert the teleseismic P waves in a single step to recover timely, preliminary slip models that identify the principal source features observed in finite‐fault solutions obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) from the analysis of body‐ and surface‐wave data. These results indicate that smoothing constraints can be estimated a priori to derive a preliminary, first‐order image of the coseismic slip using teleseismic records.

  4. The beauty of simple adaptive control and new developments in nonlinear systems stability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-12-10

    Although various adaptive control techniques have been around for a long time and in spite of successful proofs of stability and even successful demonstrations of performance, the eventual use of adaptive control methodologies in practical real world systems has met a rather strong resistance from practitioners and has remained limited. Apparently, it is difficult to guarantee or even understand the conditions that can guarantee stable operations of adaptive control systems under realistic operational environments. Besides, it is difficult to measure the robustness of adaptive control system stability and allow it to be compared with the common and widely used measure of phase margin and gain margin that is utilized by present, mainly LTI, controllers. Furthermore, customary stability analysis methods seem to imply that the mere stability of adaptive systems may be adversely affected by any tiny deviation from the pretty idealistic and assumably required stability conditions. This paper first revisits the fundamental qualities of customary direct adaptive control methodologies, in particular the classical Model Reference Adaptive Control, and shows that some of their basic drawbacks have been addressed and eliminated within the so-called Simple Adaptive Control methodology. Moreover, recent developments in the stability analysis methods of nonlinear systems show that prior conditions that were customarily assumed to be needed for stability are only apparent and can be eliminated. As a result, sufficient conditions that guarantee stability are clearly stated and lead to similarly clear proofs of stability. As many real-world applications show, once robust stability of the adaptive systems can be guaranteed, the added value of using Add-On Adaptive Control along with classical Control design techniques is pushing the desired performance beyond any previous limits.

  5. Effective Conductivity of a Suspension of Permeabilized Cells: A Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlin, Mojca; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2003-01-01

    During the electroporation cell membrane undergoes structural changes, which increase the membrane conductivity and consequently lead to a change in effective conductivity of a cell suspension. To correlate microscopic membrane changes to macroscopic changes in conductivity of a suspension, we analyzed the effective conductivity theoretically, using two different approaches: numerically, using the finite elements method; and analytically, by using the equivalence principle. We derived the equation, which connects membrane conductivity with effective conductivity of the cell suspension. The changes in effective conductivity were analyzed for different parameters: cell volume fraction, membrane and medium conductivity, critical transmembrane potential, and cell orientation. In our analysis we used a tensor form of the effective conductivity, thus taking into account the anisotropic nature of the cell electropermeabilization and rotation of the cells. To determine the effect of cell rotation, as questioned by some authors, the difference between conductivity of a cell suspension with normally distributed orientations and parallel orientation was also calculated, and determined to be <10%. The presented theory provides a theoretical basis for the analysis of measurements of the effective conductivity during electroporation. PMID:12885623

  6. Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI in normal and pathological brain networks.

    PubMed

    Guye, Maxime; Bettus, Gaelle; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2010-12-01

    Graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional connectivity MRI data (ie. diffusion tractography or cortical volume correlation and resting-state or task-related (effective) fMRI, respectively) has provided new measures of human brain organization in vivo. The most striking discovery is that the whole-brain network exhibits "small-world" properties shared with many other complex systems (social, technological, information, biological). This topology allows a high efficiency at different spatial and temporal scale with a very low wiring and energy cost. Its modular organization also allows for a high level of adaptation. In addition, degree distribution of brain networks demonstrates highly connected hubs that are crucial for the whole-network functioning. Many of these hubs have been identified in regions previously defined as belonging to the default-mode network (potentially explaining the high basal metabolism of this network) and the attentional networks. This could explain the crucial role of these hub regions in physiology (task-related fMRI data) as well as in pathophysiology. Indeed, such topological definition provides a reliable framework for predicting behavioral consequences of focal or multifocal lesions such as stroke, tumors or multiple sclerosis. It also brings new insights into a better understanding of pathophysiology of many neurological or psychiatric diseases affecting specific local or global brain networks such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Graph theoretical analysis of connectivity MRI data provides an outstanding framework to merge anatomical and functional data in order to better understand brain pathologies. PMID:20349109

  7. Theoretical and experimental analysis of bispectrum of vibration signals for fault diagnosis of gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoji, Shen; McLaughlin, Stephen; Yongcheng, Xu; White, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is an important issue for gearbox maintenance and safety. The critical process involved in such activities is to extract reliable features representative of the condition of the gears or gearbox. In this paper a framework is presented for the application of bispectrum to the analysis of gearbox vibration. The bispectrum of a composite signal consisting of multiple periodic components has peaks at the bifrequencies that correspond to closely related components which can be produced by any nonlinearity. As a result, biphase verification is necessary to decrease false-alarming for any bispectrum-based method. A model based on modulated signals is adopted to reveal the bispectrum characteristics for the vibration of a faulty gear, and the corresponding amplitude and phase of the bispectrum expression are deduced. Therefore, a diagnostic approach based on the theoretical result is derived and verified by the analysis of a set of vibration signals from a helicopter gearbox.

  8. A Thematic Analysis of Theoretical Models for Translational Science in Nursing: Mapping the Field

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sandra A.; Fisher, Cheryl A.; Hastings, Clare E.; Silverman, Leanne B.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The quantity and diversity of conceptual models in translational science may complicate rather than advance the use of theory. Purpose This paper offers a comparative thematic analysis of the models available to inform knowledge development, transfer, and utilization. Method Literature searches identified 47 models for knowledge translation. Four thematic areas emerged: (1) evidence-based practice and knowledge transformation processes; (2) strategic change to promote adoption of new knowledge; (3) knowledge exchange and synthesis for application and inquiry; (4) designing and interpreting dissemination research. Discussion This analysis distinguishes the contributions made by leaders and researchers at each phase in the process of discovery, development, and service delivery. It also informs the selection of models to guide activities in knowledge translation. Conclusions A flexible theoretical stance is essential to simultaneously develop new knowledge and accelerate the translation of that knowledge into practice behaviors and programs of care that support optimal patient outcomes. PMID:21074646

  9. NDARC-NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft Theoretical Basis and Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis and architecture of the conceptual design tool NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft) are described. The principal tasks of NDARC are to design (or size) a rotorcraft to satisfy specified design conditions and missions, and then analyze the performance of the aircraft for a set of off-design missions and point operating conditions. The aircraft consists of a set of components, including fuselage, rotors, wings, tails, and propulsion. For each component, attributes such as performance, drag, and weight can be calculated. The aircraft attributes are obtained from the sum of the component attributes. NDARC provides a capability to model general rotorcraft configurations, and estimate the performance and attributes of advanced rotor concepts. The software has been implemented with low-fidelity models, typical of the conceptual design environment. Incorporation of higher-fidelity models will be possible, as the architecture of the code accommodates configuration flexibility, a hierarchy of models, and ultimately multidisciplinary design, analysis and optimization.

  10. Theoretical development and critical analysis of burst frequency equations for passive valves on centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Soroori, Salar; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical development and critical analysis of the burst frequency equations for capillary valves on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) platform. This analysis includes background on passive capillary valves and the governing models/equations that have been developed to date. The implicit assumptions and limitations of these models are discussed. The fluid meniscus dynamics before bursting is broken up into a multi-stage model and a more accurate version of the burst frequency equation for the capillary valves is proposed. The modified equations are used to evaluate the effects of various CD design parameters such as the hydraulic diameter, the height to width aspect ratio, and the opening wedge angle of the channel on the burst pressure. PMID:23292292

  11. Theoretical analysis of signal-to-noise ratios for transient evoked otoacoustic emission recordings.

    PubMed

    Lineton, Ben

    2013-09-01

    Recordings of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) suffer from two main sources of contamination: Random noise and the stimulus artifact. The stimulus artifact can be substantially reduced by using a derived non-linear recording paradigm. Three such paradigms are analyzed, called here the level derived non-linear (LDNL), the double-evoked (DE), and the rate derived non-linear (RDNL) paradigms. While these methods successfully reduce the stimulus artifact, they lead to an increase in contamination by random noise. In this study, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) achievable by these three paradigms is compared using a common theoretical framework. This analysis also allows the optimization of the parameters of the RDNL paradigm to achieve the maximum SNR. Calculations based on the analysis with typical parameters used in practice suggest that when ranked in terms of their SNR for a given averaging time, RDNL performs best followed by the LDNL and DE paradigms.

  12. Au 133 (SPh - t Bu) 52 Nanomolecules: X-ray Crystallography, Optical, Electrochemical, and Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dass, Amala; Theivendran, Shevanuja; Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy; Kumara, Chanaka; Jupally, Vijay Reddy; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Sementa, Luca; Barcaro, Giovanni; Zuo, Xiaobing; Noll, Bruce C.

    2015-04-15

    Crystal structure determination has revolutionized modern science in biology, chemistry, and physics. However, the difficulty in obtaining periodic crystal lattices which are needed for X-ray crystal analysis has hindered the determination of atomic structure in nanomaterials, known as the "nanostructure problem". Here, by using rigid and bulky ligands, we have overcome this limitation and successfully solved the X-ray crystallographic structure of the largest reported thiolated gold nanomolecule, Au133S52. The total composition, Au-133(SPh-tBu)(52), was verified using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The experimental and simulated optical spectra show an emergent surface plasmon resonance that is more pronounced than in the slightly larger Au-144(SCH2CH2Ph)(60). Theoretical analysis indicates that the presence of rigid and bulky ligands is the key to the successful crystal formation.

  13. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework. PMID:24852642

  14. A theoretical analysis of pitch stability during gliding in flying snakes.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Farid; Ross, Shane D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Socha, John J

    2014-06-01

    Flying snakes use their entire body as a continuously morphing 'wing' to produce lift and shallow their glide trajectory. Their dominant behavior during gliding is aerial undulation, in which lateral waves are sent posteriorly down the body. This highly dynamic behavior, which is unique among animal gliders, should have substantial effects on the flight dynamics and stability of the snakes, resulting from the continuous redistribution of mass and aerodynamic forces. In this study, we develop two-dimensional theoretical models to assess the stability characteristics of snakes in the pitch direction. Previously measured force coefficients are used to simulate aerodynamic forces acting on the models, and undulation is simulated by varying mass. Model 1 is a simple three-airfoil representation of the snake's body that possesses a passively stable equilibrium solution, whose basin of stability contains initial conditions observed in experimental gliding trajectories. Model 2 is more sophisticated, with more degrees of freedom allowing for postural changes to better represent the snake's real kinematics; in addition, a restoring moment is added to simulate potential active control. The application of static and dynamic stability criteria show that Model 2 is passively unstable, but can be stabilized with a restoring moment. Overall, these models suggest that undulation does not contribute to stability in pitch, and that flying snakes require a closed-loop control system formed around a passively stable dynamical framework.

  15. Genetic diversity of wild soybean populations in Dongying, China, by simple sequence repeat analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Zhang, X J; Fan, S J

    2015-01-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.), the ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), is believed to be a potential gene source for further improvement of soybean to cope with environmental stress. In this study, 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure in five wild soybean populations using 195 accessions collected from Dongying, China. Ten SSR markers yielded 90 bands, with an average of nine bands per marker. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 97.78%, the distribution of expected heterozygosity (HE) was 0.1994-0.4460 with an average of 0.3262, and the distribution from Shannon's information index (I) was 0.3595-0.6506 with an average of 0.5386. The results showed that wild soybean had a high degree of genetic diversity at the species level. Nei's differentiation coefficient (FST) was 0.1533, and gene flow (Nm) was 1.3805, which indicated that genetic variation mainly existed within populations and that there was a certain level of gene exchange between populations. Some genetic differentiation occurred among populations, although this was not significant. Cluster analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between the genetic structure of wild soybean populations and their geographic distribution, and the clustering results may be relatively consistent with the habitats of the accessions. In the present study, the genetic diversity of wild soybeans showed a broad genetic base and enables suggestions for the conservation of this plant to be made. PMID:26436402

  16. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  17. A framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis--part I: theoretical foundations.

    PubMed

    Venrooij, Joost; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Mark; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Max; van der Helm, Frans C T; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-09-01

    Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) is a complex phenomenon, which has been studied for several decades. However, there is little consensus on how to approach the BDFT problem in terms of definitions, nomenclature, and mathematical descriptions. In this paper, a framework for biodynamic feedthrough analysis is presented. The goal of this framework is two-fold. First, it provides some common ground between the seemingly large range of different approaches existing in the BDFT literature. Second, the framework itself allows for gaining new insights into BDFT phenomena. It will be shown how relevant signals can be obtained from measurement, how different BDFT dynamics can be derived from them, and how these different dynamics are related. Using the framework, BDFT can be dissected into several dynamical relationships, each relevant in understanding BDFT phenomena in more detail. The presentation of the BDFT framework is divided into two parts. This paper, Part I, addresses the theoretical foundations of the framework. Part II, which is also published in this issue, addresses the validation of the framework. The work is presented in two separate papers to allow for a detailed discussion of both the framework's theoretical background and its validation.

  18. Theoretical analysis of preconfigured k-edge-connected structures in flexible bandwidth optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a protection scheme based on preconfigured k-edge-connected structures (p-kecs) and study the spectrum resource redundancy of flexible bandwidth optical networks under single-link-failure and multiple-link-failure environments. The lower bound of redundancy and the upper bound on efficiency of preconfigured protection structures in flexible bandwidth optical networks are provided. With sufficient capacity, the analysis shows that p-cycle is the optimal structure against single-link failure and p-kecs are the optimal structures to address multiple-link failures. Straddling links reduce the network redundancy while requiring little or no increase in spare spectrum capacity relative to the total spectrum capacity consumed in the protection process. We theoretically prove that the spectrum resource redundancy of the p-kecs has the same lower bound as that of flexible bandwidth optical networks under multiple-link failures. Numerical results show that p-kecs can achieve or approximate the lower bound on redundancy and support protection against multiple-link failures in static and dynamic networks. These results support the theoretical underpinning for the efficiency of p-kecs in providing protection against multiple-link failures in flexible bandwidth optical networks.

  19. Information-theoretic model-averaged benchmark dose analysis in environmental risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Piegorsch, Walter W.; An, Lingling; Wickens, Alissa A.; West, R. Webster; Peña, Edsel A.; Wu, Wensong

    2013-01-01

    An important objective in environmental risk assessment is estimation of minimum exposure levels, called Benchmark Doses (BMDs), that induce a pre-specified Benchmark Response (BMR) in a dose-response experiment. In such settings, representations of the risk are traditionally based on a specified parametric model. It is a well-known concern, however, that existing parametric estimation techniques are sensitive to the form employed for modeling the dose response. If the chosen parametric model is in fact misspecified, this can lead to inaccurate low-dose inferences. Indeed, avoiding the impact of model selection was one early motivating issue behind development of the BMD technology. Here, we apply a frequentist model averaging approach for estimating benchmark doses, based on information-theoretic weights. We explore how the strategy can be used to build one-sided lower confidence limits on the BMD, and we study the confidence limits’ small-sample properties via a simulation study. An example from environmental carcinogenicity testing illustrates the calculations. It is seen that application of this information-theoretic, model averaging methodology to benchmark analysis can improve environmental health planning and risk regulation when dealing with low-level exposures to hazardous agents. PMID:24039461

  20. A game theoretical analysis of the mating sign behavior in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, M; Chhetri, M; Rychtář, J; Rueppell, O

    2011-03-01

    Queens of the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.), exhibit extreme polyandry, mating with up to 45 different males (drones). This increases the genetic diversity of their colonies, and consequently their fitness. After copulation, drones leave a mating sign in the genital opening of the queen which has been shown to promote additional mating of the queen. On one hand, this signing behavior is beneficial for the drone because it increases the genetic diversity of the resulting colony that is to perpetuate his genes. On the other hand, it decreases the proportion of the drone's personal offspring among colony members which is reducing drone fitness. We analyze the adaptiveness and evolutionary stability of this drone's behavior with a game-theoretical model. We find that theoretically both the strategy of leaving a mating sign and the strategy of not leaving a mating sign can be evolutionary stable, depending on natural parameters. However, the signing strategy is not favored for most scenarios, including the cases that are biologically plausible in reference to empirical data. We conclude that leaving a sign is not in the interest of the drone unless it serves biological functions other than increasing subsequent queen mating chances. Nevertheless, our analysis can also explain the prevalence of such a behavior of honey bee drones by a very low evolutionary pressure for an invasion of the nonsigning strategy.

  1. Absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes of bacteriochlorins: a theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, Laurence; Adamo, Carlo; Russo, Nino

    2005-06-23

    A theoretical study on a family of divalent transition metal bacteriochlorin complexes (M-BC, where M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni Cu, and Zn) has been carried out to elucidate their potentialities as active molecules in photodynamic therapy (PDT). To draw a complete picture of their electronic properties, both for the ground and excited states, these complexes have been studied by the means of density functional theory (DFT). The time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approach was used to interpret the electronic spectra, while solvent effects were taken into account by explicitly considering both two water molecules coordinated to the central metal atom and the contribution from the solvent bulk. Particular attention has been devoted to the analysis of the so-called Q bands, since these can be particularly important for medical applications. Metal substitution and environment (solvent) effects have been analyzed, and good agreement is found between computed and available UV-vis spectra. These theoretical data, especially those relative to the metallobacteriochlorins not yet completely characterized at the experimental level, could give some hints for future medical applications.

  2. Theoretical analysis of hot electron injection from metallic nanotubes into a semiconductor interface.

    PubMed

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-07-21

    Metallic nanostructures under optical illumination can generate a non-equilibrium high-energy electron gas (also known as hot electrons) capable of being injected into neighbouring media over a potential barrier at particle boundaries. The nature of this process is highly nanoparticle shape and size dependent. Here, we have derived an analytical expression for the frequency dependent rate of injection of these energetic electrons from a metallic nanotube into a semiconductor layer in contact with its inner boundary. In our derivation, we have considered the quantum mechanical motion of the electron gas confined by the particle boundaries in determining the electron energy spectrum and wave functions. We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of how different geometric parameters such as the outer to inner radius ratio, length and thickness of a nanotube and illumination frequency affect the hot electron injection and internal quantum efficiency of the nanotube. We reveal that longer nanotubes with thin shells and high inner to outer radius ratios show better performance at visible and infrared frequencies. Our derivations and results provide the much needed theoretical insight for optimization of thin nanotubes for different hot electron based applications. PMID:27332556

  3. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis of genetic diversity in tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter].

    PubMed

    Assefa, Kebebew; Merker, Arnulf; Tefera, Hailu

    2003-01-01

    The DNA polymorphism among 92 selected tef genotypes belonging to eight origin groups was assessed using eight inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers. The objectives were to examine the possibility of using ISSR markers for unravelling genetic diversity in tef, and to assess the extent and pattern of genetic diversity in the test germplasm with respect to origin groups. The eight primers were able to separate or distinguish all of the 92 tef genotypes based on a total of 110 polymorphic bands among the test lines. The Jaccard similarity coefficient among the test genotypes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86, and at about 60 % similarity level the clustering of this matrix using the unweighted pair-group method based on arithmetic average (UPGMA) resulted in the formation of six major clusters of 2 to 37 lines with further eight lines remaining ungrouped. The standardized Nei genetic distance among the eight groups of origin ranged between 0.03 and 0.32. The UPGMA clustering using the standardized genetic distance matrix resulted in the identification of three clusters of the eight groups of origin with bootstrap values ranging from 56 to 97. The overall mean Shannon Weaver diversity index of the test lines was 0.73, indicating better resolution of genetic diversity in tef with ISSR markers than with phenotypic (morphological) traits used in previous studies. This can be attributed mainly to the larger number of loci generated for evaluation with ISSR analysis as compared to the few number of phenotypic traits amenable for assessment and which are further greatly affected by environment and genotype x environment interaction. Analysis of variance of mean Shannon Weaver diversity indices revealed substantial (P < or = 0.05) variation in the level of diversity among the eight groups of origin. In conclusion, our results indicate that ISSR can be useful as DNA-based molecular markers for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships, DNA fingerprinting for the

  4. HackAttack: Game-Theoretic Analysis of Realistic Cyber Conflicts

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Brady, Andrew C; Brady, Ethan J; Ferragut, Jacob M; Ferragut, Nathan M; Wildgruber, Max C

    2016-01-01

    Game theory is appropriate for studying cyber conflict because it allows for an intelligent and goal-driven adversary. Applications of game theory have led to a number of results regarding optimal attack and defense strategies. However, the overwhelming majority of applications explore overly simplistic games, often ones in which each participant s actions are visible to every other participant. These simplifications strip away the fundamental properties of real cyber conflicts: probabilistic alerting, hidden actions, unknown opponent capabilities. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to analyze a more realistic game, one in which different resources have different weaknesses, players have different exploits, and moves occur in secrecy, but they can be detected. Certainly, more advanced and complex games are possible, but the game presented here is more realistic than any other game we know of in the scientific literature. While optimal strategies can be found for simpler games using calculus, case-by-case analysis, or, for stochastic games, Q-learning, our more complex game is more naturally analyzed using the same methods used to study other complex games, such as checkers and chess. We define a simple evaluation function and employ multi-step searches to create strategies. We show that such scenarios can be analyzed, and find that in cases of extreme uncertainty, it is often better to ignore one s opponent s possible moves. Furthermore, we show that a simple evaluation function in a complex game can lead to interesting and nuanced strategies.

  5. Genome wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in watermelon genome and their application in comparative mapping and genetic diversity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellite markers are one of the most informative and versatile DNA-based markers. The use of next-generation sequencing technologies allow whole genome sequencing and make it possible to develop large numbers of SSRs through bioinformatic analysis of genome da...

  6. Field-induced periodic distortions in a nematic liquid crystal: deuterium NMR study and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, A; Zakharov, A V

    2011-08-01

    The peculiarities in the dynamic of the director reorientation in a liquid crystal (LC) film under the influence of the electric E field directed at an angle α to the magnetic B field have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Time-resolved deuterium NMR spectroscopy is employed to investigate the field-induced director dynamics. Analysis of the experimental results, based on the predictions of hydrodynamic theory including both the director motion and fluid flow, provides an evidence for the appearance of the spatially periodic patterns in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl LC film, at the angles α>60∘, in response to the suddenly applied E. These periodic distortions produce a lower effective rotational viscosity. This gives a faster response of the director rotation than for a uniform mode, as observed in our NMR experiment. PMID:21929001

  7. Pipette aspiration of hyperelastic compliant materials: Theoretical analysis, simulations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Gong; Cao, Yan-Ping; Li, Guo-Yang; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2014-08-01

    This paper explores the pipette aspiration test of hyperelastic compliant materials. Explicit expressions of the relationship between the imposed pressure and the aspiration length are developed, which serve as fundamental relations to deduce the material parameters from experimental responses. Four commonly used hyperelastic constitutive models, e.g. neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Fung, and Arruda-Boyce models, are investigated. Through dimensional analysis and nonlinear finite element simulations, we establish the relations between the experimental responses and the constitutive parameters of hyperelastic materials in explicit form, upon which inverse approaches for determining the hyperelastic properties of materials are developed. The reliability of the results given by the proposed methods has been verified both theoretically and numerically. Experiments have been carried out on an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane, 1:50) and porcine liver to validate the applicability of the inverse approaches in practical measurements.

  8. Information-theoretical analysis of time-correlated single-photon counting measurements of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Talaga, David S

    2009-04-30

    Time-correlated single photon counting allows luminescence lifetime information to be determined on a single molecule level. This paper develops a formalism to allow information theory analysis of the ability of luminescence lifetime measurements to resolve states in a single molecule. It analyzes the information content of the photon stream and the fraction of that information that is relevant to the state determination problem. Experimental losses of information due to instrument response, digitization, and different types of background are calculated and a procedure to determine the optimal value of experimental parameters is demonstrated. This paper shows how to use the information theoretical formalism to evaluate the number of photons required to distinguish dyes that differ only by lifetime. It extends this idea to include distinguishing molecular states that differ in the electron transfer quenching or resonant energy transfer and shows how the differences between the lifetime of signal and background can help distinguish the dye position in an excitation beam. PMID:19385684

  9. Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability method with quadratic flux approach

    SciTech Connect

    Shafii, Mohammad Ali Meidianti, Rahma Wildian, Fitriyani, Dian; Tongkukut, Seni H. J.; Arkundato, Artoto

    2014-09-30

    Theoretical analysis of integral neutron transport equation using collision probability (CP) method with quadratic flux approach has been carried out. In general, the solution of the neutron transport using the CP method is performed with the flat flux approach. In this research, the CP method is implemented in the cylindrical nuclear fuel cell with the spatial of mesh being conducted into non flat flux approach. It means that the neutron flux at any point in the nuclear fuel cell are considered different each other followed the distribution pattern of quadratic flux. The result is presented here in the form of quadratic flux that is better understanding of the real condition in the cell calculation and as a starting point to be applied in computational calculation.

  10. [A theoretical analysis of coordination in the field of health care: application to coordinated care systems].

    PubMed

    Sebai, Jihane

    2016-01-01

    Various organizational, functional or structural issues have led to a review of the foundations of the former health care system based on a traditional market segmentation between general practice and hospital medicine, and between health and social sectors and marked by competition between private and public sectors. The current reconfiguration of the health care system has resulted in “new” levers explained by the development of a new organizational reconfiguration of the primary health care model. Coordinated care structures (SSC) have been developed in this context by making coordination the cornerstone of relations between professionals to ensure global, continuous and quality health care. This article highlights the contributions of various theoretical approaches to the understanding of the concept of coordination in the analysis of the current specificity of health care. PMID:27392057

  11. [A theoretical analysis of coordination in the field of health care: application to coordinated care systems].

    PubMed

    Sebai, Jihane

    2016-01-01

    Various organizational, functional or structural issues have led to a review of the foundations of the former health care system based on a traditional market segmentation between general practice and hospital medicine, and between health and social sectors and marked by competition between private and public sectors. The current reconfiguration of the health care system has resulted in “new” levers explained by the development of a new organizational reconfiguration of the primary health care model. Coordinated care structures (SSC) have been developed in this context by making coordination the cornerstone of relations between professionals to ensure global, continuous and quality health care. This article highlights the contributions of various theoretical approaches to the understanding of the concept of coordination in the analysis of the current specificity of health care.

  12. Theoretical Analysis of Heat Pump Cycle Characteristics with Pure Refrigerants and Binary Refrigerant Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Uematsu, Masahiko; Watanabe, Koichi

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest of the use of nonazeotropic binary mixtures to improve performance in heat pump systems, and to restrict the consumption of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants as internationally agreed-upon in the Montreal Protocol. However, the available knowledge on the thermophysical properties of mixtures is very much limited particularly with respect to quantitative information. In order to systematize cycle performance with Refrigerant 12 (CCl2F2) + Refrigerant 22 (CHClF2) and Refrigerant 22 + Refrigerant 114 (CClF2-CClF2) systems which are technically important halogenated refrigerant mixtures, the heat pump cycle analysis in case of using these mixtures was theoretically studied. It became clear that the maximum coefficients of performance with various pure refrigerants and binary refrigerant mixtures were obtained at the reduced condensing temperature being 0.9 when the same temperature difference between condensing and evaporating temperature was chosen.

  13. Theoretical analysis of AC electric field transmission into biological tissue through frozen saline for electroporation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunyan; Rubinsky, Boris

    2014-12-01

    An analytical model was used to explore the feasibility of sinusoidal electric field transmission across a frozen saline layer into biological tissue. The study is relevant to electroporation and permeabilization of the cell membrane by electric fields. The concept was analyzed for frequencies in the range of conventional electroporation frequencies and electric field intensity. Theoretical analysis for a variety of tissues show that the transmission of electroporation type electric fields through a layer of frozen saline into tissue is feasible and the behavior of this composite system depends on tissue type, frozen domain temperature, and frequency. Freezing could become a valuable method for adherence of electroporation electrodes to moving tissue surfaces, such as the heart in the treatment of atrial fibrillation or blood vessels for the treatment of restenosis.

  14. Systems theoretic analysis of the central dogma of molecular biology: some recent results.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Yu, Juanyi; Zhang, Mingjun; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Jr-Shin

    2010-03-01

    This paper extends our early study on a mathematical formulation of the central dogma of molecular biology, and focuses discussions on recent insights obtained by employing advanced systems theoretic analysis. The goal of this paper is to mathematically represent and interpret the genetic information flow at the molecular level, and explore the fundamental principle of molecular biology at the system level. Specifically, group theory was employed to interpret concepts and properties of gene mutation, and predict backbone torsion angle along the peptide chain. Finite state machine theory was extensively applied to interpret key concepts and analyze the processes related to DNA hybridization. Using the proposed model, we have transferred the character-based model in molecular biology to a sophisticated mathematical model for calculation and interpretation.

  15. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  16. Theoretical and numerical stability analysis of the liquid metal pinch using the shallow water approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zienicke, E.; Li, Ben-Wen; Thess, A.; Kräzschmar, A.; Terhoeven, P.

    2008-09-01

    The pinch instability for a cylindrical jet of liquid metal passed through by an axial electrical current is investigated. Besides the pinch effect originating from surface tension, the Lorentz force, created by the axial current density and the corresponding azimuthal magnetic field, causes an electromagnetic pinch effect. This effect has drawn attention in electrical engineering, because it can be used in the construction of liquid metal current limiters with self-healing properties. In this paper a simple model is derived using the shallow water approximation: the equations describing the full system are reduced to two one-dimensional evolution equations for the axial velocity and the radius of the jet. A stability analysis for this reduced system is carried out yielding critical current density and the growth rate for the instability. To investigate the nonlinear behaviour of the pinch instability for finite perturbations simulations, the shallow water model are performed.

  17. Theoretical analysis of rotating two phase detonation in a rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, I.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Tangential mode, non-linear wave motion in a liquid propellant rocket engine is studied, using a two phase detonation wave as the reaction model. Because the detonation wave is followed immediately by expansion waves, due to the side relief in the axial direction, it is a Chapman-Jouguet wave. The strength of this wave, which may be characterized by the pressure ratio across the wave, as well as the wave speed and the local wave Mach number, are related to design parameters such as the contraction ratio, chamber speed of sound, chamber diameter, propellant injection density and velocity, and the specific heat ratio of the burned gases. In addition, the distribution of flow properties along the injector face can be computed. Numerical calculations show favorable comparison with experimental findings. Finally, the effects of drop size are discussed and a simple criterion is found to set the lower limit of validity of this strong wave analysis.

  18. Graph theoretical analysis of resting-state MEG data: Identifying interhemispheric connectivity and the default mode.

    PubMed

    Maldjian, Joseph A; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T

    2014-08-01

    Interhemispheric connectivity with resting state MEG has been elusive, and demonstration of the default mode network (DMN) yet more challenging. Recent seed-based MEG analyses have shown interhemispheric connectivity using power envelope correlations. The purpose of this study is to compare graph theoretic maps of brain connectivity generated using MEG with and without signal leakage correction to evaluate for the presence of interhemispheric connectivity. Eight minutes of resting state eyes-open MEG data were obtained in 22 normal male subjects enrolled in an IRB-approved study (ages 16-18). Data were processed using an in-house automated MEG processing pipeline and projected into standard (MNI) source space at 7mm resolution using a scalar beamformer. Mean beta-band amplitude was sampled at 2.5second epochs from the source space time series. Leakage correction was performed in the time domain of the source space beam formed signal prior to amplitude transformation. Graph theoretic voxel-wise source space correlation connectivity analysis was performed for leakage corrected and uncorrected data. Degree maps were thresholded across subjects for the top 20% of connected nodes to identify hubs. Additional degree maps for sensory, visual, motor, and temporal regions were generated to identify interhemispheric connectivity using laterality indices. Hubs for the uncorrected MEG networks were predominantly symmetric and midline, bearing some resemblance to fMRI networks. These included the cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal lobes, bilateral hippocampal formations and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. These uncorrected networks however, demonstrated little to no interhemispheric connectivity using the ROI-based degree maps. Leakage corrected MEG data identified the DMN, with hubs in the posterior cingulate and biparietal areas. These corrected networks demonstrated robust interhemispheric connectivity for the ROI-based degree maps. Graph theoretic analysis of

  19. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Resting-State MEG data: Identifying Interhemispheric Connectivity and the Default Mode

    PubMed Central

    Maldjian, Joseph A.; Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Whitlow, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    Interhemispheric connectivity with resting state MEG has been elusive, and demonstration of the default mode network (DMN) yet more challenging. Recent seed-based MEG analyses have shown interhemispheric connectivity using power envelope correlations. The purpose of this study is to compare graph theoretic maps of brain connectivity generated using MEG with and without signal leakage correction to evaluate for the presence of interhemispheric connectivity. Eight minutes of resting state eyes-open MEG data were obtained in 22 normal male subjects enrolled in an IRB-approved study (ages 16–18). Data were processed using an in-house automated MEG processing pipeline and projected into standard (MNI) source space at 7 mm resolution using a scalar beamformer. Mean beta-band amplitude was sampled at 2.5 second epochs from the source space time series. Leakage correction was performed in the time domain of the source space beam-formed signal prior to amplitude transformation. Graph theoretic voxel-wise source space correlation connectivity analysis was performed for leakage-corrected and uncorrected data. Degree maps were thresholded across subjects for the top 20% of connected nodes to identify hubs. Additional degree maps for sensory, visual, motor, and temporal regions were generated to identify interhemispheric connectivity using laterality indices. Hubs for the uncorrected MEG networks were predominantly symmetric and midline, bearing some resemblance to fMRI networks. These included the cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal lobes, bilateral hippocampal formations and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. These uncorrected networks however, demonstrated little to no interhemispheric connectivity using the ROI-based degree maps. Leakage corrected MEG data identified the DMN, with hubs in the posterior cingulate and biparietal areas. These corrected networks demonstrated robust interhemispheric connectivity for the ROI-based degree maps. Graph theoretic analysis

  20. Theoretical analysis of selectivity mechanisms in molecular transport through channels and nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Agah, Shaghayegh; Pasquali, Matteo; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-01-28

    Selectivity is one of the most fundamental concepts in natural sciences, and it is also critically important in various technological, industrial, and medical applications. Although there are many experimental methods that allow to separate molecules, frequently they are expensive and not efficient. Recently, a new method of separation of chemical mixtures based on utilization of channels and nanopores has been proposed and successfully tested in several systems. However, mechanisms of selectivity in the molecular transport during the translocation are still not well understood. Here, we develop a simple theoretical approach to explain the origin of selectivity in molecular fluxes through channels. Our method utilizes discrete-state stochastic models that take into account all relevant chemical transitions and can be solved analytically. More specifically, we analyze channels with one and two binding sites employed for separating mixtures of two types of molecules. The effects of the symmetry and the strength of the molecular-pore interactions are examined. It is found that for one-site binding channels, the differences in the strength of interactions for two species drive the separation. At the same time, in more realistic two-site systems, the symmetry of interaction potential becomes also important. The most efficient separation is predicted when the specific binding site is located near the entrance to the nanopore. In addition, the selectivity is higher for large entrance rates into the channel. It is also found that the molecular transport is more selective for repulsive interactions than for attractive interactions. The physical-chemical origin of the observed phenomena is discussed.

  1. Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells with two-layer, composite electrolytes - Electrolyte stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using two-layer, composite electrolytes consisting of a solid electrolyte of a significantly higher conductivity compared to zirconia (such as ceria or bismuth oxide) with a thin layer of zirconia or thoria on the fuel side is presented. Electrochemical transport in the two-layer composite electrolytes is examined by taking both ionic and electronic fluxes into account. Similar to most electrochemical transport phenomena, it is assumed that local equilibrium prevails. An equivalent circuit approach is used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen at the interface. It is shown that thermodynamic stability of the electrolyte (ceria or bismuth oxide) depends upon the transport characteristics of the composite electrolyte, in particular the electronic conductivity of the air-side part of the electrolyte. The analysis shows that it would be advantageous to use composite electrolytes instead of all-zirconia electrolytes, thus making low-temperature (about 600-800 C) SOFCs feasible. Implications of the analysis from the standpoint of the desired characteristics of SOFC components are discussed.

  2. A Simple Model for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Induced Seismicity Associated With Deep Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlittenhardt, Joerg; Spies, Thomas; Kopera, Juergen; Morales Aviles, Wilhelm

    2014-05-01

    In the research project MAGS (Microseismic activity of geothermal systems) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment (BMU) a simple model was developed to determine seismic hazard as the probability of the exceedance of ground motion of a certain size. Such estimates of the annual frequency of exceedance of prescriptive limits of e.g. seismic intensities or ground motions are needed for the planning and licensing, but likewise for the development and operation of deep geothermal systems. For the development of the proposed model well established probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) methods for the estimation of the hazard for the case of natural seismicity were adapted to the case of induced seismicity. Important differences between induced and natural seismicity had to be considered. These include significantly smaller magnitudes, depths and source to site distances of the seismic events and, hence, different ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) that had to be incorporated to account for the seismic amplitude attenuation with distance as well as differences in the stationarity of the underlying tectonic and induced processes. Appropriate GMPE's in terms of PGV (peak ground velocity) were tested and selected from the literature. The proposed model and its application to the case of induced seismicity observed during the circulation period (operation phase of the plant) at geothermal sites in Germany will be presented. Using GMPE's for PGV has the advantage to estimate hazard in terms of velocities of ground motion, which can be linked to engineering regulations (e.g. German DIN 4150) which give prescriptive standards for the effects of vibrations on buildings and people. It is thus possible to specify the probability of exceedance of such prescriptive standard values and to decide whether they can be accepted or not. On the other hand hazard curves for induced and natural seismicity can be compared to study the impact at a site. Preliminary

  3. Paper spray: a simple and efficient means of analysis of different contaminants in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Cooks, R Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    A simple and efficient ambient ionization method based on paper spray combined with tandem mass spectrometry allows rapid detection and quantitation of various contaminants (clenbuterol, melamine, plasticizer and sudan red) in various foodstuffs (e.g., meat, milk, sports drinks and chili powder).

  4. Error Analysis of Present Simple Tense in the Interlanguage of Adult Arab English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses errors on present simple tense among adult Arab English language learners. It focuses on the error on 3sg "-s" (the third person singular present tense agreement morpheme "-s"). The learners are undergraduate adult Arabic speakers learning English as a foreign language. The study gathered data from…

  5. Simple technique for texture function analysis in granular thin film media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hilo, M.; Al Saie, J.; Morales, M. P.; Pita, M.

    2009-11-01

    In this work a simple technique to extract the texture function in granular thin film media is implemented. The technique is based on previous work in which the distribution function of particles easy axes f( α) is calculated from the measured parallel remanence curve ( Mrp( β)). In this simple technique we consider that the measured Mrp( β) curve can be fitted to a series of cos(2 β), i.e. Mrp( β)= B0+ B2 cos(2 β)+ B4 cos(4 β) where the angle β is the angle by which the film is rotated. This approximation is found to be valid when the texture function has a standard deviation >20°. On this basis, the constants B0, B2 and B4 can be determined by using only three data points for the parallel remanence, Mrp(0), Mrp(45°) and Mrp(90°). The new technique is applied to a textured thin film consisting of cobalt ferrite particles 17 nm in diameter and to a commercial Sony video tape. Using this simple technique, the obtained texture functions are found to be similar to those obtained from the full Mrp( β) curves. This new technique will furnish a simple method with which the texture function in 2D systems can be obtained.

  6. A Simple Empirical Analysis of the Enthalpies of Formation of Lanthanide Halides and Oxides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a simple and general method whereby the lattice energies of lanthanide(II) and (IV) compounds are derived directly from those found experimentally for the corresponding lanthanide(III) compounds. The method is applicable to all lanthanide halides and oxides and involves calculations which can be easily and quickly performed by students.…

  7. Site-city interaction: theoretical, numerical and experimental crossed-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, L.; Boutin, C.; Padrón, L. A.; Dietz, M. S.; Bard, P.-Y.; Taylor, C.

    2016-05-01

    The collective excitation of city structures by a seismic wavefield and the subsequent multiple Structure-Soil-Structure Interactions (SSSIs) between the buildings are usually disregarded in conventional seismology and earthquake engineering practice. The objective here is to qualify and quantify these complex multiple SSSIs through the design of an elementary study case, which serves as a benchmark for theoretical, numerical and experimental crossed-analysis. The experimental specimen consists of an idealized site-city setup with up to 37 anisotropic resonant structures arranged at the top surface of an elastic layer and in co-resonance with it. The experimental data from shaking table measurements is compared with the theoretical and numerical results provided respectively by an equivalent city-impedance model derived analytically from homogenization in the long-wavelength approximation and a model based on boundary elements. The signatures of the site-city interactions are identified in the frequency, time and space domain, and in particular consist of a frequency-dependent free/rigid switch in the surface condition at the city resonance, beatings in the records and the depolarization of the wavefield. A parametric study on the city density shows that multiple SSSIs among the city structures (five are sufficient) can have significant effects on both the seismic response of its implantation site and that of the buildings. Key parameters are provided to assess site-city interactions in the low seismic frequency range: They involve the mass and rigidity of the city compared to those of the soil and the damping of the building.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of the Optical Propagation Characteristics in a Fiber-Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linlin; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhong; Wan, Xiaoping; Hu, Ning; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is widely used for its high precision and real-time analysis. Fiber-optic SPR sensor is easy for miniaturization, so it is commonly used in the development of portable detection equipment. It can also be used for remote, real-time, and online detection. In this study, a wavelength modulation fiber-optic SPR sensor is designed, and theoretical analysis of optical propagation in the optical fiber is also done. Compared with existing methods, both the transmission of a skew ray and the influence of the chromatic dispersion are discussed. The resonance wavelength is calculated at two different cases, in which the chromatic dispersion in the fiber core is considered. According to the simulation results, a novel multi-channel fiber-optic SPR sensor is likewise designed to avoid defaults aroused by the complicated computation of the skew ray as well as the chromatic dispersion. Avoiding the impact of skew ray can do much to improve the precision of this kind of sensor. PMID:23748170

  9. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr–Coulomb matrix. Part I: Theoretical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoukou, K.; Pastor, F.; Dufrenoy, P.; Kondo, D.

    2016-06-01

    The present two-part study aims at investigating the specific effects of Mohr-Coulomb matrix on the strength of ductile porous materials by using a kinematic limit analysis approach. While in the Part II, static and kinematic bounds are numerically derived and used for validation purpose, the present Part I focuses on the theoretical formulation of a macroscopic strength criterion for porous Mohr-Coulomb materials. To this end, we consider a hollow sphere model with a rigid perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb matrix, subjected to axisymmetric uniform strain rate boundary conditions. Taking advantage of an appropriate family of three-parameter trial velocity fields accounting for the specific plastic deformation mechanisms of the Mohr-Coulomb matrix, we then provide a solution of the constrained minimization problem required for the determination of the macroscopic dissipation function. The macroscopic strength criterion is then obtained by means of the Lagrangian method combined with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. After a careful analysis and discussion of the plastic admissibility condition associated to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the above procedure leads to a parametric closed-form expression of the macroscopic strength criterion. The latter explicitly shows a dependence on the three stress invariants. In the special case of a friction angle equal to zero, the established criterion reduced to recently available results for porous Tresca materials. Finally, both effects of matrix friction angle and porosity are briefly illustrated and, for completeness, the macroscopic plastic flow rule and the voids evolution law are fully furnished.

  10. Hand-held resonance sensor for tissue stiffness measurements—a theoretical and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, Ville

    2010-05-01

    A piezoelectric transducer in a feedback circuit operating in a resonance state is the basis of a resonance sensor. Upon contact with a soft object a change in the resonance frequency reflects the acoustic impedance. Together with force measurement it is possible to obtain the elastic stiffness of the object. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concept of a hand-held resonance sensor for tissue stiffness measurement. A time derivative analysis of the force and the frequency change showed that a stiffness-sensitive parameter was independent of the impression speed. Soft tissue phantoms of gelatin were used in an experimental validation of the theory. A force indentation method was used as a reference method for assessing the gelatin's elastic stiffness. Results from the hand-held measurements showed that the stiffness parameter accurately measured the elastic stiffness of the gelatin (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.05). The stiffness parameter was weakly (on average R2 = 0.15) and non-significantly (p > 0.05, 14 out of 17) dependent on an impression speed parameter. On average, a small amount of the total variance was explained by the impression speed. In conclusion, soft tissue stiffness can be objectively measured with free-hand measurement with a resonance sensor. This study contributes a theoretical analysis and an experimental demonstration of the concept of a hand-held resonance sensor for stiffness measurements.

  11. Accounting for the kinetics in order parameter analysis: Lessons from theoretical models and a disordered peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovska, Ganna; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Molecular simulations as well as single molecule experiments have been widely analyzed in terms of order parameters, the latter representing candidate probes for the relevant degrees of freedom. Notwithstanding this approach is very intuitive, mounting evidence showed that such descriptions are inaccurate, leading to ambiguous definitions of states and wrong kinetics. To overcome these limitations a framework making use of order parameter fluctuations in conjunction with complex network analysis is investigated. Derived from recent advances in the analysis of single molecule time traces, this approach takes into account the fluctuations around each time point to distinguish between states that have similar values of the order parameter but different dynamics. Snapshots with similar fluctuations are used as nodes of a transition network, the clusterization of which into states provides accurate Markov-state-models of the system under study. Application of the methodology to theoretical models with a noisy order parameter as well as the dynamics of a disordered peptide illustrates the possibility to build accurate descriptions of molecular processes on the sole basis of order parameter time series without using any supplementary information.

  12. A decision-theoretic framework for the application of cost-effectiveness analysis in regulatory processes.

    PubMed

    Baio, Gianluca; Russo, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) represents the most important tool in the health economics literature to quantify and qualify the reasoning behind the optimal decision process in terms of the allocation of resources to a given health intervention. However, the practical application of CEA in the regulatory process is often limited by some critical barriers, and decisions in clinical practice are frequently influenced by factors that do not contribute to efficient resource allocation, leading to inappropriate drug prescription and utilization. Moreover, most of the time there is uncertainty about the real cost-effectiveness profile of an innovative intervention, with the consequence that it is usually impossible to obtain an immediate and perfect substitution of a product with another having a better cost-effectiveness ratio. The objective of this article is to propose a rational approach to CEA within regulatory processes, basing our analysis in a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework and proposing an extension of the application of well known tools (such as the expected value of information) to such cases. The regulator can use these tools to identify the economic value of reducing the uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness profile of the several alternatives. This value can be compared with the one that is generated by the actual market share of the different treatment options: one that is the most cost effective and others in the same therapeutic category that, despite producing clinical benefits, are less cost effective.

  13. Theoretical analysis of electromigration-induced failure of metallic thin films due to transgranular void propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Gungor, M.R.; Maroudas, D.

    1999-02-01

    Failure of metallic thin films driven by electromigration is among the most challenging materials reliability problems in microelectronics toward ultra-large-scale integration. One of the most serious failure mechanisms in thin films with bamboo grain structure is the propagation of transgranular voids, which may lead to open-circuit failure. In this article, a comprehensive theoretical analysis is presented of the complex nonlinear dynamics of transgranular voids in metallic thin films as determined by capillarity-driven surface diffusion coupled with drift induced by electromigration. Our analysis is based on self-consistent dynamical simulations of void morphological evolution and it is aided by the conclusions of an approximate linear stability theory. Our simulations emphasize that the strong dependence of surface diffusivity on void surface orientation, the strength of the applied electric field, and the void size play important roles in the dynamics of the voids. The simulations predict void faceting, formation of wedge-shaped voids due to facet selection, propagation of slit-like features emanating from void surfaces, open-circuit failure due to slit propagation, as well as appearance and disappearance of soliton-like features on void surfaces prior to failure. These predictions are in very good agreement with recent experimental observations during accelerated electromigration testing of unpassivated metallic films. The simulation results are used to establish conditions for the formation of various void morphological features and discuss their serious implications for interconnect reliability. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Theoretical analysis of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with gel-immobilized oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Livshits, M A; Mirzabekov, A D

    1996-01-01

    A new method of DNA sequencing by hybridization using a microchip containing a set of immobilized oligonucleotides is being developed. A theoretical analysis is presented of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with deoxynucleotide molecules chemically tethered in a polyacrylamide gel layer. The analysis has shown that long-term evolution of the spatial distribution and of the amount of DNA bound in a hybridization cell is governed by "retarded diffusion," i.e., diffusion of the DNA interrupted by repeated association and dissociation with immobile oligonucleotide molecules. Retarded diffusion determines the characteristic time of establishing a final equilibrium state in a cell, i.e., the state with the maximum quantity and a uniform distribution of bound DNA. In the case of cells with the most stable, perfect duplexes, the characteristic time of retarded diffusion (which is proportional to the equilibrium binding constant and to the concentration of binding sites) can be longer than the duration of the real hybridization procedure. This conclusion is indirectly confirmed by the observation of nonuniform fluorescence of labeled DNA in perfect-match hybridization cells (brighter at the edges). For optimal discrimination of perfect duplexes from duplexes with mismatches the hybridization process should be brought to equilibrium under low-temperature nonsaturation conditions for all cells. The kinetic differences between perfect and nonperfect duplexes in the gel allow further improvement in the discrimination through additional washing at low temperature after hybridization. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8913616

  15. Vibrational analysis and formation mechanism of typical deep eutectic solvents: An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siwen; Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Peiwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2016-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as ionic liquid analogues for green solvents, have gained increasing attentions in chemistry. In this work, three typical kinds of DESs (ChCl/Gly, ChCl/AcOH and ChCl/Urea) were successfully synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Then comprehensive and systematical analyses were performed by the methods of density functional theory (DFT). Two methods (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) and dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(2d,p)) were employed to investigate the structures, vibrational frequencies and assign their ownership of vibrational modes for the DESs, respectively. Nearly all the experimental characteristic peaks of IR and Raman were identified according to the calculated results. By linear fitting of the combined calculated vs experimental vibration frequencies, it can be found that both of the two methods are excellent to reproduce the experimental results. Besides, hydrogen bonds were proved to exist in DESs by IR spectrum, structure analysis and RDG analysis. This work was aimed at predicting and understanding the vibrational spectra of the three typical DESs based on DFT methods. Moreover, by comparing experimental and theoretical results, it provides us a deep understanding of the formation mechanisms of DESs. PMID:27450770

  16. Wettability of graphitic-carbon and silicon surfaces: MD modeling and theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2015-07-28

    The wettability of graphitic carbon and silicon surfaces was numerically and theoretically investigated. A multi-response method has been developed for the analysis of conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of droplets wettability. The contact angle and indicators of the quality of the computations are tracked as a function of the data sets analyzed over time. This method of analysis allows accurate calculations of the contact angle obtained from the MD simulations. Analytical models were also developed for the calculation of the work of adhesion using the mean-field theory, accounting for the interfacial entropy changes. A calibration method is proposed to provide better predictions of the respective contact angles under different solid-liquid interaction potentials. Estimations of the binding energy between a water monomer and graphite match those previously reported. In addition, a breakdown in the relationship between the binding energy and the contact angle was observed. The macroscopic contact angles obtained from the MD simulations were found to match those predicted by the mean-field model for graphite under different wettability conditions, as well as the contact angles of Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces. Finally, an assessment of the effect of the Lennard-Jones cutoff radius was conducted to provide guidelines for future comparisons between numerical simulations and analytical models of wettability.

  17. Accounting for the kinetics in order parameter analysis: lessons from theoretical models and a disordered peptide.

    PubMed

    Berezovska, Ganna; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco

    2012-11-21

    Molecular simulations as well as single molecule experiments have been widely analyzed in terms of order parameters, the latter representing candidate probes for the relevant degrees of freedom. Notwithstanding this approach is very intuitive, mounting evidence showed that such descriptions are inaccurate, leading to ambiguous definitions of states and wrong kinetics. To overcome these limitations a framework making use of order parameter fluctuations in conjunction with complex network analysis is investigated. Derived from recent advances in the analysis of single molecule time traces, this approach takes into account the fluctuations around each time point to distinguish between states that have similar values of the order parameter but different dynamics. Snapshots with similar fluctuations are used as nodes of a transition network, the clusterization of which into states provides accurate Markov-state-models of the system under study. Application of the methodology to theoretical models with a noisy order parameter as well as the dynamics of a disordered peptide illustrates the possibility to build accurate descriptions of molecular processes on the sole basis of order parameter time series without using any supplementary information. PMID:23181288

  18. Theoretical analysis of on-chip linear quantum optical information processing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.; Preble, Stefan F.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum optical analysis of waveguides directionally coupled to ring resonators, an architecture realizable using silicon nanophotonics. The innate scalability of the silicon platform allows for the possibility of "on-chip" quantum computation and information processing. In this paper, we briefly review a comprehensive method for analyzing the quantum mechanical output of such a network for an arbitrary input state of the quantized, traveling electromagnetic field in the continuous wave (cw) limit. Specifically, we briefly review a recent theoretical result identifying a particular device topology that yields, via Passive Quantum Optical Feedback (PQOF), dramatic and unexpected enhancements of the Hong-Ou-Mandel Effect, an effect central to the operation of many quantum information processing systems. Next, we extend the analysis to our proposal for a scalable, on-chip realization of the Nonlinear Sign (NS) shifter essential for implementation of the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) protocol for Linear Optical Quantum Computing (LOQC). Finally, we discuss generalizations to arbitrary networks of directionally coupled ring resonators along with possible applications is the areas of quantum metrology and sensitive photon detection.

  19. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr-Coulomb matrix. Part I: Theoretical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoukou, K.; Pastor, F.; Dufrenoy, P.; Kondo, D.

    2016-06-01

    The present two-part study aims at investigating the specific effects of Mohr-Coulomb matrix on the strength of ductile porous materials by using a kinematic limit analysis approach. While in the Part II, static and kinematic bounds are numerically derived and used for validation purpose, the present Part I focuses on the theoretical formulation of a macroscopic strength criterion for porous Mohr-Coulomb materials. To this end, we consider a hollow sphere model with a rigid perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb matrix, subjected to axisymmetric uniform strain rate boundary conditions. Taking advantage of an appropriate family of three-parameter trial velocity fields accounting for the specific plastic deformation mechanisms of the Mohr-Coulomb matrix, we then provide a solution of the constrained minimization problem required for the determination of the macroscopic dissipation function. The macroscopic strength criterion is then obtained by means of the Lagrangian method combined with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. After a careful analysis and discussion of the plastic admissibility condition associated to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the above procedure leads to a parametric closed-form expression of the macroscopic strength criterion. The latter explicitly shows a dependence on the three stress invariants. In the special case of a friction angle equal to zero, the established criterion reduced to recently available results for porous Tresca materials. Finally, both effects of matrix friction angle and porosity are briefly illustrated and, for completeness, the macroscopic plastic flow rule and the voids evolution law are fully furnished.

  20. Electrochemical and theoretical analysis of the reactivity of shikonin derivatives: dissociative electron transfer in esterified compounds.

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Vidales, Georgina; Frontana, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    An electrochemical and theoretical analysis of a series of shikonin derivatives in aprotic media is presented. Results showed that the first electrochemical reduction signal is a reversible monoelectronic transfer, generating a stable semiquinone intermediate; the corresponding E(I)⁰ values were correlated with calculated values of electroaccepting power (ω(+)) and adiabatic electron affinities (A(Ad)), obtained with BH and HLYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) and considering the solvent effect, revealing the influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the substituting group at position C-2 in the experimental reduction potential. For the second reduction step, esterified compounds isobutyryl and isovalerylshikonin presented a coupled chemical reaction following dianion formation. Analysis of the variation of the dimensionless cathodic peak potential values (ξ(p)) as a function of the scan rate (v) functions and complementary experiments in benzonitrile suggested that this process follows a dissociative electron transfer, in which the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer is slow (~0.2 cm s(-1)), and the rate constant of the chemical process is at least 10(5) larger. PMID:25007856

  1. Si/SiGe: Er/Si structures for laser realization: Theoretical analysis and luminescent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepikhova, M. V.; Krasil'nikova, L. V.; Krasil'nik, Z. F.; Shengurov, V. G.; Chalkov, V. Yu.; Svetlov, S. P.; Zhigunov, D. M.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.

    2006-02-01

    In this work we present the results of theoretical calculations and experimental studies carried out for Si/Si 1-XGe X: Er/Si heterostructures that show promise as the material for realizing a laser with Si: Er active medium. Analysis of the mode composition and estimation of the degree of electromagnetic wave localization in Si/Si 1-XGe X: Er/Si waveguide structures have been performed for a fairly wide range of values of the Si 1-XGe X: Er layer thickness and Ge content. It is shown that a method of sublimation molecular-beam epitaxy in germane gas atmosphere enables growing effective light-emitting structures of Si/Si 1-XGe X: Er/Si with the external quantum efficiency to 0.2%. The kinetics analysis of erbium photoluminescence, performed for the test structures, demonstrates the appearance of the population inversion of Er 3+ ion states under optical pumping. The number of Er ions in the inversely populated state comes to about 80% from the total concentration of optically active Er ions at the excitation power density of 4 W/cm 2.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Heat Pump Cycle Characteristics with Pure Refrigerants and Binary Refrigerant Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru; Uematsu, Masahiko; Watanabe, Koichi

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest of the use of nonazeotropic binary mixtures to improve performance in heat pump systems, and to restrict the consumption of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants as internationally agreed-upon in the Montreal Protocol. However, the available knowledge on the thermophysical properties of mixtures is very much limited particularly with respect to quantitative information. In order to examine cycle performance for Refrigerant 12 (CCl2F2) + Refrigerant 22 (CHClF2) and Refrigerant 22 + Refrigerant 114 (CClF2-CClF2) systems which are technically important halogenated refrigerant mixtures, the heat pump cycle analysis in case of using pure Refrigerants 12, 22 and 114 was theoretically carried out in the present paper. For the purpose of systematizing the heat pump cycle characteristics with pure refrigerants, the cycle analysis for Refrigerants 502, 13B1, 152a, 717 (NH3) and 290 (C3H8) was also examined. It became clear that the maximum coefficients of performance with various refrigerants were obtained at the reduced condensing temperature being 0.9 when the same temperature difference between condensing and evaporating temperature was chosen.

  3. Vibrational analysis and formation mechanism of typical deep eutectic solvents: An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siwen; Li, Hongping; Zhu, Wenshuai; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Peiwen; Zhang, Qi; Li, Huaming

    2016-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as ionic liquid analogues for green solvents, have gained increasing attentions in chemistry. In this work, three typical kinds of DESs (ChCl/Gly, ChCl/AcOH and ChCl/Urea) were successfully synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman. Then comprehensive and systematical analyses were performed by the methods of density functional theory (DFT). Two methods (B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,p) and dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(2d,p)) were employed to investigate the structures, vibrational frequencies and assign their ownership of vibrational modes for the DESs, respectively. Nearly all the experimental characteristic peaks of IR and Raman were identified according to the calculated results. By linear fitting of the combined calculated vs experimental vibration frequencies, it can be found that both of the two methods are excellent to reproduce the experimental results. Besides, hydrogen bonds were proved to exist in DESs by IR spectrum, structure analysis and RDG analysis. This work was aimed at predicting and understanding the vibrational spectra of the three typical DESs based on DFT methods. Moreover, by comparing experimental and theoretical results, it provides us a deep understanding of the formation mechanisms of DESs.

  4. A theoretical analysis to estimate the hydraulic properties of a loam soil from a capillary-evaporation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Sancho, Carolina; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Latorre, Borja; Moret-Fernández, David

    2015-04-01

    The determination of the water retention curve (WRC) parameters and the hydraulic conductivity (K) is of paramount importance in many scientific fields such as hydrology or environmental science. Their direct characterization, however, is typically cumbersome and time consuming. This work analyze the viability to estimate the α and n Van Genuchten (VG) WRC parameters and K from following processes: a capillary wetting process at saturation, an evaporation process and a capillary wetting at saturation followed by an evaporation process. The theoretical analysis was carried out on a 5 cm high and 5 cm diameter cylinder filled with loam soil using numerically generated data with the HYDRUS 2D code. The error maps for the above mentioned processes and the n-K, α-n and K-α planes were generated from the RMSE calculated between the original and the simulated cumulative curves. The deviation (%) between the optimal and original hydraulic parameters was also calculated. Results showed that the capillary plus evaporation method applied on the n-K and α-n planes was the unique process that allowed a unique and well defined minimum. For this last case, the deviation for the α and n parameter were 6'67 and 0'88%, respectively. Taking into account that K can be easy measured from the same soil cylinder by means of Darcy's law, we conclude the capillary + evaporation process can be a simple and effective alternative to estimate the WRC parameters. To this end, the hysteresis phenomena due to the wetting-evaporation process should be taking into account.

  5. Theoretical analysis of saturation and limit cycles in short pulse FEL oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Piovella, N.; Chaix, P.; Jaroszynski, D.

    1995-12-31

    We derive a model for the non linear evolution of a short pulse oscillator from low signal up to saturation in the small gain regime. This system is controlled by only two independent parameters: cavity detuning and losses. Using a closure relation, this model reduces to a closed set of 5 non linear partial differential equations for the EM field and moments of the electron distribution. An analysis of the linearised system allows to define and calculate the eigenmodes characterising the small signal regime. An arbitrary solution of the complete nonlinear system can then be expanded in terms of these eigenmodes. This allows interpreting various observed nonlinear behaviours, including steady state saturation, limit cycles, and transition to chaos. The single mode approximation reduces to a Landau-Ginzburg equation. It allows to obtain gain, nonlinear frequency shift, and efficiency as functions of cavity detuning and cavity losses. A generalisation to two modes allows to obtain a simple description of the limit cycle behaviour, as a competition between these two modes. An analysis of the transitions to more complex dynamics is also given. Finally, the analytical results are compared to the experimental data from the FELIX experiment.

  6. Theoretical analysis of a rotating two-phase detonation in liquid rocket motors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, P. I.-W.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis to study tangential mode shock instabilities in a thin annular chamber is carried out by employing a one dimensional two phase detonation wave as a reaction model. It is assumed that phase change and reaction take place only within the wave, which is treated as a discontinuity. The annulus is unrolled and the flow is considered as two dimensional with the coordinate system fixed on the wave front. Between waves, the flow is assumed to be isentropic with no interaction between droplets and burned gases. Jump conditions across the wave are solved for two phase flow. The average pressure along the injection plate is related to the design chamber pressure by the use of overall conservation equations. The wave strength is written in terms of the design parameters of the chamber. The results compare favorably with existing experiments. Finally, the effects of drop size on the wave strength are discussed and a simple criterion which sets the lower limit of validity for this strong wave analysis, is presented.

  7. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a nondispersive solvent extraction pilot plant for the removal of Cr(VI) from a galvanic process wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, A.I.; Galan, B.; Gonzalez, M.; Ortiz, I.

    1999-04-01

    The scale-up of a chemical process from the results obtained in a laboratory scale involves a high degree of uncertainty. Experimental tests in pilot plants are therefore necessary in order to decrease that uncertainty. When the processes are not simple, these experimental tests should be supplemented by simulation studies which are a highly useful tool in the analysis of a chemical plant. A nondispersive solvent extraction (NDSX) plant includes two processes, extraction and stripping, coupled by an organic phase. Because of this fact, the variables of the system are interrelated, making the prediction of the behavior of the whole system difficult. Because of this complexity, in this work, the behavior of a NDSX pilot plant has been experimentally and theoretically analyzed. The removal and recovery of chromium(VI) from wastewaters of a galvanic process have been used as a case study for the simulation and experimental analysis of the NDSX process. The mathematical model consists of nonlinear partial differential equations which are solved using the process simulator gPROMS. Once the suitability of the proposed model and parameters for the description of removal and concentration of Cr(VI) in the NDSX pilot plant was checked, the simulation was used to perform a sensitivity analysis to operating variables such as flow rates, volumes, total carrier concentration, and initial complex species concentration. The theoretically predicted behavior was checked with some experimental results, and a satisfactory performance of the pilot plant was achieved.

  8. Design and analysis of simple choice surveys for natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fieberg, John; Cornicelli, Louis; Fulton, David C.; Grund, Marrett D.

    2010-01-01

    We used a simple yet powerful method for judging public support for management actions from randomized surveys. We asked respondents to rank choices (representing management regulations under consideration) according to their preference, and we then used discrete choice models to estimate probability of choosing among options (conditional on the set of options presented to respondents). Because choices may share similar unmodeled characteristics, the multinomial logit model, commonly applied to discrete choice data, may not be appropriate. We introduced the nested logit model, which offers a simple approach for incorporating correlation among choices. This forced choice survey approach provides a useful method of gathering public input; it is relatively easy to apply in practice, and the data are likely to be more informative than asking constituents to rate attractiveness of each option separately.

  9. Connecting the dots : analysis, development and applications of the SimpleX algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruip, Chael

    2011-11-01

    The SimpleX radiative transfer method is based on the interpretation of photons as particles interacting on a natural scale: the local mean free path. In our method, light is transported along the lines of an unstructured Delaunay mesh that encodes this natural distance and represents the physical medium. The SimpleX method is fast, highly adaptive and its computational cost does not scale with the number of sources. It is therefore well-suited for cosmological applications where it is essential to cover many orders of magnitude in resolution and where millions of sources can exist within a single simulation. We describe the code, its recent developments and apply it to several relevant astrophysical problems. In particular, we perform radiative transfer calculations of cosmological reionization and of the wind-wind interaction region of the Eta Carinae binary system.

  10. Theoretical Analysis of the Relative Impact of Obesity on Hemodynamic Stability During Acute Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Sarah A.; Jones, Alan E.; Coleman, Thomas G.; Summers, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that morbid obesity may be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with traumatic injuries. Objectives: In this study, a theoretic analysis using a derivation of the Guyton model of cardiovascular physiology examines the expected impact of obesity on hemodynamic changes in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Cardiac Output (CO) during Hemorrhagic Shock (HS). Patients and Methods: Computer simulation studies were used to predict the relative impact of increasing Body Mass Index (BMI) on global hemodynamic parameters during HS. The analytic procedure involved recreating physiologic conditions associated with changing BMI for a virtual subject in an In Silico environment. The model was validated for the known effect of a BMI of 30 on iliofemoral venous pressures. Then, the relative effect of changing BMI on the outcome of target cardiovascular parameters was examined during simulated acute loss of blood volume in class II hemorrhage. The percent changes in these parameters were compared between the virtual nonobese and obese subjects. Model parameter values are derived from known population distributions, producing simulation outputs that can be used in a deductive systems analysis assessment rather than traditional frequentist statistical methodologies. Results: In hemorrhage simulation, moderate increases in BMI were found to produce greater decreases in MAP and CO compared to the normal subject. During HS, the virtual obese subject had 42% and 44% greater falls in CO and MAP, respectively, compared to the nonobese subject. Systems analysis of the model revealed that an increase in resistance to venous return due to changes in intra-abdominal pressure resulting from obesity was the critical mechanism responsible for the differences. Conclusions: This study suggests that obese patients in HS may have a higher risk of hemodynamic instability compared to their nonobese counterparts primarily due to obesity

  11. Minimizing MRI Geometric Distortions for Improved Stereotactic Surgical Planning Accuracy: a Theoretical and Experimental Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolina, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate localization of internal structures is essential for successful stereotactic surgical planning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive modality for stereotactic imaging because it is highly sensitive to soft-tissue differences. Unfortunately, it has been shown to be susceptible to geometric distortions. These distortions contribute to object shifting and also to object -shape deformations. Research analyzing these distortions has found them to be complex and attributable to a variety of different sources. Furthermore, a wide range of stereotactic errors has been reported in numerous clinical studies, intimating that these errors are site specific. Because of the complexity of these distortions and the uncertainty of their effects from one imaging site to the next, most clinical sites choose either to ignore the likelihood that distortions exist, or image concurrently with MRI (for tissue specificity) and x-ray computed tomography (for geometric accuracy). Both of these strategies are unsatisfactory, however, as they either compromise patient care or induce unnecessary cost and inconvenience. This uncertainty in the accuracy of MRI was the impetus that prompted a comprehensive study of geometric distortion contributors and their subsequent effects on both imaged objects and stereotactic accuracy. This dissertation is a report of that study. As far as is known, it is the first comprehensive analysis (theoretical and experimental) of all of the individual distortion contributors that affect MRI geometric accuracy. Additionally, it is the first work that individually analyzes distortion effects on the stereotactic referencing system as well as on imaged objects. The dissertation begins with a brief history of the role of medical imaging in stereotactic surgical planning. Individual contributors to MRI geometric distortions are then analyzed theoretically and experimentally. How they affect both object distortions and stereotactic accuracy is

  12. Field theoretic analysis of a class of planar microwave and optoelectronic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Yeon-Chang

    2000-11-01

    With increasing operating frequencies in CMOS RF/microwave integrated circuits, the performance of on- chip interconnects is becoming significantly affected by the lossy substrate. It is the purpose of the first part of this thesis to develop a rigorous field theoretic analysis approach for efficient characterization of single and multiple coupled interconnects on silicon substrate, which is applicable over a wide range of substrate resistivities. The frequency-dependent transmission line parameters of a microstrip on silicon are determined by a new formulation based on a quasi- electrostatic and quasi-magnetostatic spectral domain approach. It is demonstrated that this new quasi-static formulation provides the complete frequency-dependent interconnect characteristics for all three major transmission line modes of operation. In particular, it is shown that in the case of heavily doped CMOS substrates, the distributed series inductance and series resistance parameters are significantly affected by the presence of longitudinal substrate currents giving rise to the substrate skin-effect. The method is further extended to multiple coupled single and multi-level interconnect structures with ground plane and multiple coupled co-planar stripline structures without ground plane. The finite conductor thickness is taken into account in terms of a stacked conductor model. The new quasi-static approach is validated by comparison with results obtained with a full-wave spectral domain method and the commercial planar full-wave electromagnetic field solver HP/Momentum®, as well as published simulation and measurement data. In the second part of this thesis, coupled planar optical interconnect structures are investigated based on a rigorous field theoretic analysis combined with an application of the normal mode theory for coupled transmission lines. A new transfer matrix description for a general optical directional coupler is presented. Based on this transfer matrix formulation

  13. An effectiveness analysis of healthcare systems using a systems theoretic approach

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Sheuwen; Inder, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of accreditation and quality measurement and reporting to improve healthcare quality and patient safety has been widespread across many countries. A review of the literature reveals no association between the accreditation system and the quality measurement and reporting systems, even when hospital compliance with these systems is satisfactory. Improvement of health care outcomes needs to be based on an appreciation of the whole system that contributes to those outcomes. The research literature currently lacks an appropriate analysis and is fragmented among activities. This paper aims to propose an integrated research model of these two systems and to demonstrate the usefulness of the resulting model for strategic research planning. Methods/design To achieve these aims, a systematic integration of the healthcare accreditation and quality measurement/reporting systems is structured hierarchically. A holistic systems relationship model of the administration segment is developed to act as an investigation framework. A literature-based empirical study is used to validate the proposed relationships derived from the model. Australian experiences are used as evidence for the system effectiveness analysis and design base for an adaptive-control study proposal to show the usefulness of the system model for guiding strategic research. Results Three basic relationships were revealed and validated from the research literature. The systemic weaknesses of the accreditation system and quality measurement/reporting system from a system flow perspective were examined. The approach provides a system thinking structure to assist the design of quality improvement strategies. The proposed model discovers a fourth implicit relationship, a feedback between quality performance reporting components and choice of accreditation components that is likely to play an important role in health care outcomes. An example involving accreditation surveyors is developed that

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Central H{sub {beta}} Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, A. V.; Demchenko, G. V.; Djurovic, S.; Cirisan, M.; Nikolic, D.; Gigosos, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2008-10-22

    The hydrogen Balmer beta line is used as a plasma diagnostics tool for a long time. It is well known that the experimental profiles of H{sub {beta}} line exhibit an asymmetry while some of most commonly used theoretical models, due to the employed approximations, give unshifted and symmetrical profiles. In the present work the central part of H{sub {beta}} profile is reanalyzed experimentally and in terms of two theoretical approaches based correspondingly on the Standard Theory (ST) assumptions and on the electric field computer simulation method. The present experimental and theoretical results are compared with the obtained earlier experimental and theoretical data.

  15. Magnetotelluric observations over the Rhine Graben, France: a simple impedance tensor analysis helps constrain the dominant electrical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, M.; Jouanne, V.; Menvielle, M.; Chouteau, M.; Grandis, H.; Tarits, P.

    1992-12-01

    A simple impedance tensor analysis of four magnetotelluric soundings recorded over the ECORS section of the Rhine Graben shows that for periods shorter than about 30 s, induction dominates over channelling. For longer periods, 2-D induction galvanically distorted by surface heterogeneities and/or current chanelled in the Graben can explain the observations; the role of chanelling becomes dominant at periods of the order of a few hundred seconds. In the area considered, induction appears to be controlled by inclusions of saline water in a porous limestone layer (Grande Oolithe) and not by the limits of the Graben with its crystalline shoulder (Vosges). The simple analysis is supported by tipper analyses and by the results of schematic 2-D modelling.

  16. A MoS₂ Nanosheet-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Simple and Quantitative Analysis of DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Le; Xu, Li; Gao, Chuan; Zhang, Yulin; Yao, Qunfeng; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    MoS₂ nanomaterial has unique properties, including innate affinity with ss-DNA and quenching ability for fluorescence dyes. Here, we present the development of a simple fluorescence biosensor based on water-soluble MoS₂ nanosheets and restriction endonuclease BstUI for methylation analysis of p16 promoter. The biosensing platform exhibited excellent sensitivity in detecting DNA with a linear range of 100 pM~20 nM and a detection limit of 140 pM. More importantly, our method could distinguish as low as 1% difference in methylation level. Compared with previous methylation analysis, our design is both time saving and simple to operate, avoiding the limitations of PCR-based assays without compromising performance. PMID:27669248

  17. Electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction - A theoretical and experimental analysis of the rotating ring-disc electrode method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsueh, K.-L.; Chin, D.-T.; Srinivasan, S.

    1983-01-01

    In order to calculate most of the rate constants for the intermediate formation of H2O2 in the electroreduction of O2 to H2O, the theoretical treatments of the rotating ring-disc electrode method by Damjanovic et al. (1966, 1967), Bagotskii et al. (1968, 1969), and Wroblowa et al. (1976) are modified. Rotating ring-disc electrode experimental data obtained for O2 reduction in Pt in 0.55 M H2SO4 are used to illustrate the calculations of rate constants according to the above theoretical treatments. A simple reaction model as proposed by the first author is consistent with the experimental data. The results indicate that O2 (97 percent) reduces to H2O in a direct four-electron transfer reaction. The adsorption of O2 is probably the rate-determining step in the potential region more negative than 0.5 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode.

  18. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Qian, Depei; Zhang, Han; Cai, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network’s stability by adjusting the network’s properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability. PMID:26551649

  19. Theoretical analysis of transcranial Hall-effect stimulation based on passive cable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yi; Li, Xiao-Li

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial Hall-effect stimulation (THS) is a new stimulation method in which an ultrasonic wave in a static magnetic field generates an electric field in an area of interest such as in the brain to modulate neuronal activities. However, the biophysical basis of simulating the neurons remains unknown. To address this problem, we perform a theoretical analysis based on a passive cable model to investigate the THS mechanism of neurons. Nerve tissues are conductive; an ultrasonic wave can move ions embedded in the tissue in a static magnetic field to generate an electric field (due to Lorentz force). In this study, a simulation model for an ultrasonically induced electric field in a static magnetic field is derived. Then, based on the passive cable model, the analytical solution for the voltage distribution in a nerve tissue is determined. The simulation results showthat THS can generate a voltage to stimulate neurons. Because the THS method possesses a higher spatial resolution and a deeper penetration depth, it shows promise as a tool for treating or rehabilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61273063 and 61503321), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M540215), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. F2014203161), and the Youth Research Program of Yanshan University, China (Grant No. 02000134).

  20. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaida; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yi; Qian, Depei; Zhang, Han; Cai, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability. PMID:26551649

  1. Experimental and theoretical analysis of H-bonded supramolecular assemblies of PTCDA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, M.; Sun, X.; Silly, F.; Jonkman, H. T.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Castell, M. R.; Kantorovich, L. N.

    2010-05-01

    Using a systematic method based on considering all possible hydrogen bond connections between molecules and subsequent density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated planar superstructures that the perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules can form in one and two dimensions. Structures studied are mostly based on two molecule unit cells and all assemble in flat periodic arrays. We show that 42 different monolayer structures are possible, which can be split into eight families of distinct structures. A single representative of every family was selected and relaxed using DFT. We find square, herringbone and brick wall phases (among others) which were already observed on various substrates. Using scanning tunneling microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum, we also observed herringbone and square phases after sublimation of PTCDA molecules on the Au(111) surface at room temperature, the square phase being observed for the first time on this substrate. The square phase appears as a thin stripe separating two herringbone domains and provides a perfect structural matching for them. A similar structural formation serving as a domain wall between two other phases has been recently reported on the same surface formed by melamine molecules [F. Silly , J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 11476 (2008)]. Our theoretical analysis helps to account for these and other observed complex structures.

  2. A theoretical analysis of river bars stability under changing channel width

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, S.; Zolezzi, G.; Tubino, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new theoretical model to investigate the influence of temporal changes in channel width on river bar stability. This is achieved by performing a nonlinear stability analysis, which includes temporal width variations as a small-amplitude perturbation of the basic flow. In order to quantify width variability, channel width is related with the instantaneous discharge using existing empirical formulae proposed for channels with cohesionless banks. Therefore, width can vary (increase and/or decrease) either because it adapts to the temporally varying discharge or, if discharge is constant, through a relaxation relation describing widening of an initially overnarrow channel towards the equilibrium width. Unsteadiness related with changes in channel width is found to directly affect the instantaneous bar growth rate, depending on the conditions under which the widening process occurs. The governing mathematical system is solved by means of a two-parameters (ɛ, δ) perturbation expansion, where ɛ is related to bar amplitude and δ to the temporal width variability. In general width unsteadiness is predicted to play a destabilizing role on free bar stability, namely during the peak stage of a flood event in a laterally unconfined channel and invariably for overnarrow channels fed with steady discharge. In this latter case, width unsteadiness tends to shorten the most unstable bar wavelength compared to the case with constant width, in qualitative agreement with existing experimental observations.

  3. Structural Network Topology Revealed by White Matter Tractography in Cannabis Users: A Graph Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Jin; Skosnik, Patrick D.; Cheng, Hu; Pruce, Ben J.; Brumbaugh, Margaret S.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; Hetrick, William P.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Sporns, Olaf; Puce, Aina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Endocannabinoid receptors modulate synaptic plasticity in the brain and may therefore impact cortical connectivity not only during development but also in response to substance abuse in later life. Such alterations may not be evident in volumetric measures utilized in brain imaging, but could affect the local and global organization of brain networks. To test this hypothesis, we used a novel computational approach to estimate network measures of structural brain connectivity derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and white matter tractography. Twelve adult cannabis (CB) users and 13 healthy subjects were evaluated using a graph theoretic analysis of both global and local brain network properties. Structural brain networks in both CB subjects and controls exhibited robust small-world network attributes in both groups. However, CB subjects showed significantly decreased global network efficiency and significantly increased clustering coefficients (degree to which nodes tend to cluster around individual nodes). CB subjects also exhibited altered patterns of local network organization in the cingulate region. Among all subjects, schizotypal and impulsive personality characteristics correlated with global efficiency but not with the clustering coefficient. Our data indicate that structural brain networks in CB subjects are less efficiently integrated and exhibit altered regional connectivity. These differences in network properties may reflect physiological processes secondary to substance abuse-induced synaptic plasticity, or differences in brain organization that increase vulnerability to substance use. PMID:22432904

  4. A Detection-Theoretic Analysis of Auditory Streaming and Its Relation to Auditory Masking

    PubMed Central

    Chang, An-Chieh; Lee, Jungmee; Heo, Inseok

    2016-01-01

    Research on hearing has long been challenged with understanding our exceptional ability to hear out individual sounds in a mixture (the so-called cocktail party problem). Two general approaches to the problem have been taken using sequences of tones as stimuli. The first has focused on our tendency to hear sequences, sufficiently separated in frequency, split into separate cohesive streams (auditory streaming). The second has focused on our ability to detect a change in one sequence, ignoring all others (auditory masking). The two phenomena are clearly related, but that relation has never been evaluated analytically. This article offers a detection-theoretic analysis of the relation between multitone streaming and masking that underscores the expected similarities and differences between these phenomena and the predicted outcome of experiments in each case. The key to establishing this relation is the function linking performance to the information divergence of the tone sequences, DKL (a measure of the statistical separation of their parameters). A strong prediction is that streaming and masking of tones will be a common function of DKL provided that the statistical properties of sequences are symmetric. Results of experiments are reported supporting this prediction. PMID:27641681

  5. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin. PMID:24018954

  6. A Detection-Theoretic Analysis of Auditory Streaming and Its Relation to Auditory Masking.

    PubMed

    Chang, An-Chieh; Lutfi, Robert; Lee, Jungmee; Heo, Inseok

    2016-01-01

    Research on hearing has long been challenged with understanding our exceptional ability to hear out individual sounds in a mixture (the so-called cocktail party problem). Two general approaches to the problem have been taken using sequences of tones as stimuli. The first has focused on our tendency to hear sequences, sufficiently separated in frequency, split into separate cohesive streams (auditory streaming). The second has focused on our ability to detect a change in one sequence, ignoring all others (auditory masking). The two phenomena are clearly related, but that relation has never been evaluated analytically. This article offers a detection-theoretic analysis of the relation between multitone streaming and masking that underscores the expected similarities and differences between these phenomena and the predicted outcome of experiments in each case. The key to establishing this relation is the function linking performance to the information divergence of the tone sequences, DKL (a measure of the statistical separation of their parameters). A strong prediction is that streaming and masking of tones will be a common function of DKL provided that the statistical properties of sequences are symmetric. Results of experiments are reported supporting this prediction. PMID:27641681

  7. Intrinsic functional brain architecture derived from graph theoretical analysis in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Moriah E; Brown, Jesse A; Dassanayake, Maya T; Shastri, Rupal; Marusak, Hilary A; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Yeo, Lami; Mody, Swati; Berman, Susan; Hassan, Sonia S; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The human brain undergoes dramatic maturational changes during late stages of fetal and early postnatal life. The importance of this period to the establishment of healthy neural connectivity is apparent in the high incidence of neural injury in preterm infants, in whom untimely exposure to ex-uterine factors interrupts neural connectivity. Though the relevance of this period to human neuroscience is apparent, little is known about functional neural networks in human fetal life. Here, we apply graph theoretical analysis to examine human fetal brain connectivity. Utilizing resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 33 healthy human fetuses, 19 to 39 weeks gestational age (GA), our analyses reveal that the human fetal brain has modular organization and modules overlap functional systems observed postnatally. Age-related differences between younger (GA <31 weeks) and older (GA≥31 weeks) fetuses demonstrate that brain modularity decreases, and connectivity of the posterior cingulate to other brain networks becomes more negative, with advancing GA. By mimicking functional principles observed postnatally, these results support early emerging capacity for information processing in the human fetal brain. Current technical limitations, as well as the potential for fetal fMRI to one day produce major discoveries about fetal origins or antecedents of neural injury or disease are discussed.

  8. A theoretical analysis of the effect of altitude on running performance.

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G; Cousineau, D L

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the effect of altitude on running performance is presented using a mathematical model we have recently described and validated (J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 453-465, 1989). This model relates the average power output available over a given running time for a given combination of anaerobic capacity, maximal aerobic power, and endurance capability. For short sprinting distances, the contribution of aerobic metabolism to the energy requirement is small and the speed sustained is high. The reduction of maximal aerobic power with altitude is, thus, negligible, whereas the reduction of aerodynamic resistance is beneficial. Accordingly the performance steadily increases with altitude (e.g., average speed for 100 m at Mexico City is 101.9% of the average speed at sea level). On the other hand, the reduction in maximal aerobic power with altitude is associated with a reduction in performance over middle and long distances (800 m to marathon). For 400 m an improvement in performance is observed up to an altitude of approximately 2,400-2,500 m (average speed approximately 101.4% of sea level speed). Beyond this altitude the reduction in air density cannot compensate for the reduction in maximal aerobic power, and the performance deteriorates. Tables of performances equivalent to the current world records for selected altitudes ranging from 0 to 4,000 m are proposed.

  9. A theoretical analysis in the time-domain of wave reflection on a bone plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimal, Quentin; Naïli, Salah

    2006-11-01

    This paper presents an original method for simulating ultrasonic wave reflection on a fluid-loaded plate. Geometrical and material parameters used are relevant to the "axial transmission technique" (ATT) setup. Devices based on the ATT are used for the assessment of cortical bone strength (estimate of a fracture risk). In this work, the cortical bone layer is represented as a plate of infinite extent surrounded by fluid (soft tissues). A line source and a receiver are placed in the fluid. Transient waves generated upon reflection at the plate-fluid interfaces are addressed. Analytic Green's functions are derived with the generalized ray/Cagniard-de Hoop method. The acoustic response is obtained upon convolution of Green's functions with a given source pulse. The method associates each wave amplitude in the time-domain (lateral waves, reflected body waves, etc.) to a specific term of the final solution. The method is ideally suited to a detailed analysis of the ultrasonic signal for various geometrical and mechanical parameters. The results presented highlight the potential of the method for the understanding of wave phenomena involved in the ATT and similar setups. They also bring new elements that reinforce our theoretical knowledge of the ATT.

  10. Theoretical analysis on pulsed microwave heating of pork meat supported on ceramic plate.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tanmay; Rao, Badri S

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical analysis has been carried out to study the role of ceramic plates (alumina and SiC) and pulsed microwave heating of pork meat (Pork Luncheon Roll (PLR) and White Pudding (WP)) samples. Spatial hot spots occur either at the center of the sample or at the outer face or at the face attached with alumina plate and application of pulsing minimizes formation of hot spots within meat samples. Pulsing of microwave is characterized by set point for temperature difference (ΔTS) and on-off constraints for temperature (T'). It is found that alumina plate with higher ΔTS and lower T' may be recommended for thick meat samples (both WP and PLR) whereas for thin meat samples, lower ΔTS with alumina plate/without plate may be preferred. It is also observed that SiC plate may be selectively used with ΔTS=20K for both the pork meats. The distributed microwave incidence is found to be effective due to lesser degree of thermal runaway in absence of pulsing for both meat samples.

  11. Theoretical analysis of the influence of flexoelectric effect on the defect site in nematic inversion walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui-Li, Zheng; Hui, Zhang; Wen-Jiang, Ye; Zhi-Dong, Zhang; Hong-Wei, Song; Li, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the experimental phenomena of flexoelectric response at defect sites in nematic inversion walls conducted by Kumar et al., we gave the theoretical analysis using the Frank elastic theory. When a direct-current electric field normal to the plane of the substrate is applied to the parallel aligned nematic liquid crystal cell with weak anchoring, the rotation of ±1 defects in the narrow inversion walls can be exhibited. The free energy of liquid crystal molecules around the +1 and -1 defect sites in the nematic inversion walls under the electric field was formulated and the electric-field-driven structural changes at the defect site characterized by polar and azimuthal angles of the local director were simulated. The results reveal that the deviation of azimuthal angle induced by flexoelectric effect are consistent with the switching of extinction brushes at the +1 and -1 defects obtained in the experiment conducted by Kumar et al. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374087, 11274088, and 11304074), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2014202123 and A2016202282), the Research Project of Hebei Education Department, China (Grant Nos. QN2014130 and QN2015260), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  12. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the actuation behavior of magnetoactive elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Jürgen; Uhlenbusch, Dominik

    2016-10-01

    Composites made of an elastomeric matrix and a magnetizable filler, called magnetoactive elastomers (MAEs), are able to undergo a change of their rheological or damping behavior by applying external magnetic fields. Furthermore, these fields lead to actuation forces and deformations of these materials. Consequential, actuation forces and deformations caused by this behavior can be utilized in an actuation mode of the MAE material. To investigate the induced actuation characteristic different cylindrical MAE specimens are described in a first step. In order to perform a measurement of the actuation a suitable test bench is specified and designed. By this test bench a variable external magnetic field has to be provided within an airgap the MAE specimen are placed in. Furthermore, it has to enable a measurement of the induced actuation forces in a specified axial direction on the one hand and the induced elongation in the same direction on the other hand. Subsequently, a theoretical investigation of the described behavior is performed by use of a suitable finite element analysis (FEA). Therefore, an appropriate continuum mechanical modeling approach based on the Kelvin force is introduced. Implementation of this modeling approach within the FEA-tool Comsol Multiphysics enables a coupled simulation of the magnetism and structural-mechanics domain. Finally, an experimental validation of the modeling approach is carried out by measurements using the developed test bench showing a good accordance.

  13. A theoretical analysis of the observed variability of the geomagnetic dipole field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyng, P.; Schmitt, D.; Ossendrijver, M. A. J. H.

    2002-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Sint-800 virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) data in terms of an αΩ mean field model of the geodynamo that features a non-steady generation of poloidal from toroidal magnetic field. The result is a variable excitation of the dipole mode and the overtones, and there are occasional dipole reversals. The model permits a theoretical evaluation of the statistical properties of the dipole mode. We show that the model correctly predicts the distribution of the VADM and the autocorrelation function inferred from the Sint-800 data. The autocorrelation technique allows us to determine the turbulent diffusion time τd= R2/ β of the geodynamo. We find that τd is about 10-15 kyr. The model is able to reproduce the observed secular variation of the dipole mode, and the mean time between successive dipole reversals. On the other hand, the duration of a reversal is a factor ˜2 too long. This could be due to imperfections in the model or to unknown systematics in the Sint-800 data. The use of mean field theory is shown to be selfconsistent.

  14. A novel self-powered MR damper: theoretical and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xinchun, Guan; Yonghu, Huang; Yi, Ru; Hui, Li; Jinping, Ou

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a novel magnetorheological (MR) damper with a self-powered capability, which is proposed to have energy harvesting and MR damping technologies integrated into a single device. Vibration energy harvesting mechanisms were adopted, based on ball-screw mechanisms and a rotary permanent magnet dc generator, to convert the external vibration energy into electrical energy to power the MR damping unit. The configuration and operating principles of the proposed self-powered MR damper were presented. Considering the core loss effect on the magnetic field, a theoretical analysis of the proposed MR damper was carried out and a mechanical model was developed. Finally, a prototype with a capacity of 10 kN was fabricated and experimentally investigated in both the direct-supply mode and the supply-with-rectifier mode. The results indicated that the proposed configuration is feasible and that both modes can realize good self-adaptability of the MR damping force. However, the direct-supply mode has a sag effect in the force-displacement curve and provides a lower energy-dissipating capacity than the direct-supply mode does under the same conditions.

  15. A theoretical analysis of how strain-specific viruses can control microbial species diversity.

    PubMed

    Thingstad, T Frede; Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Giske, Jarl

    2014-05-27

    Pelagic prokaryote communities are often dominated by the SAR11 clade. The recent discovery of viruses infecting this clade led to the suggestion that such dominance could not be explained by assuming SAR11 to be a defense specialist and that the explanation therefore should be sought in its competitive abilities. The issue is complicated by the fact that prokaryotes may develop strains differing in their balance between competition and viral defense, a situation not really captured by present idealized models that operate only with virus-controlled "host groups." We here develop a theoretical framework where abundance within species emerges as the sum over virus-controlled strains and show that high abundance then is likely to occur for species able to use defense mechanisms with a low trade-off between competition and defense, rather than by extreme investment in one strategy or the other. The J-shaped activity-abundance community distribution derived from this analysis explains the high proportion low-active prokaryotes as a consequence of extreme defense as an alternative to explanations based on dormancy or death due to nutrient starvation.

  16. Theoretical Analysis of X-ray Compound Refractive Lens Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, V.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.

    2004-05-12

    We present a theoretical analysis of optical properties of parabolic compound refractive lenses (CRL). The parabolic CRL with a large number of elements is considered as a parabolic medium along the x-ray path. The problem of x-ray coherent wave propagation inside such a medium is solved exactly. The analytical formula is obtained for the parabolic CRL imaging propagator as a parabolic wave with complex parameters due to absorption of x rays inside the lens. The fast and universal computer program is developed for simulating the CRL generated images. An imaging example of a test object as a silicon plate of 3 {mu}m thickness with a round hole of 3 {mu}m diameter is presented and discussed in details. The main optical parameters of parabolic CRL such as an effective aperture, a diffraction limited resolution and a focal distance are calculated analytically and discussed. It is shown that parabolic CRL has no spherical aberration while long single plano-concave and bi-concave lenses have.

  17. Theoretical analysis of interferometer wave front tilt and fringe radiant flux on a rectangular photodetector.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-09-06

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin.

  18. Comparison of functional network integrity in TBI and orthopedic controlpatientsusing graph-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Karmonik, Christof; Clark, Jessica; Fung, Steve H; Grossman, Robert G; High, Walter; Jiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The integrity of functional brain networks inpatients (n=12) diagnosed with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was compared to age-matched subjects (n=12) with orthopedic injury (OI) during a working memory task. A graph-theoretical analysis algorithm was developed and integrated into the AFNI software. Functional networks with correlations between time courses as edge-weights were automatically created and their integrity was quantified by determining the statistical significance of the following network parameters: diameter, density, clustering coefficient, average path length, two largest eigenvalues, spectral density, and minimum eccentricity. Network graphs using a spring-embedded layout (Cytoscape) and a 3D layout integrated into the anatomical space (Paraview) were created. Functional images were composed by color-coding the degree of each voxel (network node) and transformed into Talairach space. Using the AFNI Talairach atlas, degrees of distinct brain regions were quantified. Reduced averaged BOLD responses were found for the TBI group with a higher network integrity potentially as a compensatory mechanism. Regions of high functional connectivity varied in between groups with largest differences in the cerebellum, the temporal lobes and deep brain structures including the lentiform nucleus, caudate and thalamus.

  19. A Detection-Theoretic Analysis of Auditory Streaming and Its Relation to Auditory Masking.

    PubMed

    Chang, An-Chieh; Lutfi, Robert; Lee, Jungmee; Heo, Inseok

    2016-09-18

    Research on hearing has long been challenged with understanding our exceptional ability to hear out individual sounds in a mixture (the so-called cocktail party problem). Two general approaches to the problem have been taken using sequences of tones as stimuli. The first has focused on our tendency to hear sequences, sufficiently separated in frequency, split into separate cohesive streams (auditory streaming). The second has focused on our ability to detect a change in one sequence, ignoring all others (auditory masking). The two phenomena are clearly related, but that relation has never been evaluated analytically. This article offers a detection-theoretic analysis of the relation between multitone streaming and masking that underscores the expected similarities and differences between these phenomena and the predicted outcome of experiments in each case. The key to establishing this relation is the function linking performance to the information divergence of the tone sequences, DKL (a measure of the statistical separation of their parameters). A strong prediction is that streaming and masking of tones will be a common function of DKL provided that the statistical properties of sequences are symmetric. Results of experiments are reported supporting this prediction.

  20. Experimental and theoretical analysis of vortex breakdown in the wake of the 25∘ Ahmed body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermann, Cyril; Meliga, Philippe; Pujals, Gregory; Gallaire, Francois; Serre, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the wake of the 25circ; Ahmed body, considered a suitable test-case to reproduce the two counter-rotating longitudinal vortices widely encountered in automotive aerodynamics. The three-dimensional experimental mean flow is reconstructed at high Reynolds number (Re = 2 . 8 ×106) from a series of cross-flow time-averaged planes acquired with a moving automated Stereo-PIV system. We observe a sharp decay of the axial velocity and vorticity in the near-wake, 0 . 5 times the projected length of the slanted surface downstream the square back, where the streamwise vortices is subjected to a strong adverse pressure gradient and the turbulent kinetic energy exhibits a peak in the vortex core. A stability analysis of the experimental velocity shows that the flow undergoes vortex breakdown roughly at the same position, through a transition from supercritical (x < 0 . 5) to subcritical (x > 0 . 5) conditions and the accumulation of upstream propagating axisymmetric waves.

  1. Information-theoretic analysis of phenotype changes in early stages of carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Remacle, F; Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Levitzki, Alexander; Levine, R D

    2010-06-01

    Cancer is a multistep process characterized by altered signal transduction, cell growth, and metabolism. To identify such processes in early carcinogenesis we use an information theoretic approach to characterize gene expression quantified as mRNA levels in primary keratinocytes (K) and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-transformed keratinocytes (HF1 cells) from early (E) and late (L) passages and from benzo(a)pyrene-treated (BP) L cells. Our starting point is that biological signaling processes are subjected to the same quantitative laws as inanimate, nonequilibrium chemical systems. Environmental and genomic constraints thereby limit the maximal thermodynamic entropy that the biological system can reach. The procedure uncovers the changes in gene expression patterns in different networks and defines the significance of each altered network in the establishment of a particular phenotype. The development of transformed HF1 cells is shown to be represented by one major transcription pattern that is important at all times. Two minor transcription patterns are also identified, one that contributes at early times and a distinguishably different pattern that contributes at later times. All three transcription patterns defined by our analysis were validated by gene expression values and biochemical means. The major transcription pattern includes reduced transcripts participating in the apoptotic network and enhanced transcripts participating in cell cycle, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. The two minor patterns identify genes that are mainly involved in lipid or carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:20479229

  2. Parametric sensitivity analysis for stochastic molecular systems using information theoretic metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tsourtis, Anastasios; Pantazis, Yannis Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Harmandaris, Vagelis

    2015-07-07

    In this paper, we present a parametric sensitivity analysis (SA) methodology for continuous time and continuous space Markov processes represented by stochastic differential equations. Particularly, we focus on stochastic molecular dynamics as described by the Langevin equation. The utilized SA method is based on the computation of the information-theoretic (and thermodynamic) quantity of relative entropy rate (RER) and the associated Fisher information matrix (FIM) between path distributions, and it is an extension of the work proposed by Y. Pantazis and M. A. Katsoulakis [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054115 (2013)]. A major advantage of the pathwise SA method is that both RER and pathwise FIM depend only on averages of the force field; therefore, they are tractable and computable as ergodic averages from a single run of the molecular dynamics simulation both in equilibrium and in non-equilibrium steady state regimes. We validate the performance of the extended SA method to two different molecular stochastic systems, a standard Lennard-Jones fluid and an all-atom methane liquid, and compare the obtained parameter sensitivities with parameter sensitivities on three popular and well-studied observable functions, namely, the radial distribution function, the mean squared displacement, and the pressure. Results show that the RER-based sensitivities are highly correlated with the observable-based sensitivities.

  3. A Model of Resource Allocation in Public School Districts: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    This paper formulates a comprehensive model of resource allocation in a local public school district. The theoretical framework specified could be applied equally well to any number of local public social service agencies. Section 1 develops the theoretical model describing the process of resource allocation. This involves the determination of the…

  4. A model-based analysis of a display for helicopter landing approach. [control theoretical model of human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Wheat, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    A control theoretic model of the human pilot was used to analyze a baseline electronic cockpit display in a helicopter landing approach task. The head down display was created on a stroke written cathode ray tube and the vehicle was a UH-1H helicopter. The landing approach task consisted of maintaining prescribed groundspeed and glideslope in the presence of random vertical and horizontal turbulence. The pilot model was also used to generate and evaluate display quickening laws designed to improve pilot vehicle performance. A simple fixed base simulation provided comparative tracking data.

  5. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  6. Conflicts of Interest during Contact Investigations: A Game-Theoretic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Enanoria, Wayne T.; Porco, Travis C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of contact tracing is to reduce the likelihood of transmission, particularly to individuals who are at greatest risk for developing complications of infection, as well as identifying individuals who are in need of medical treatment of other interventions. In this paper, we develop a simple mathematical model of contact investigations among a small group of individuals and apply game theory to explore conflicts of interest that may arise in the context of perceived costs of disclosure. Using analytic Kolmogorov equations, we determine whether or not it is possible for individual incentives to drive noncooperation, even though cooperation would yield a better group outcome. We found that if all individuals have a cost of disclosure, then the optimal individual decision is to simply not disclose each other. With further analysis of (1) completely offsetting the costs of disclosure and (2) partially offsetting the costs of disclosure, we found that all individuals disclose all contacts, resulting in a smaller basic reproductive number and an alignment of individual and group optimality. More data are needed to understand decision making during outbreak investigations and what the real and perceived costs are. PMID:24982688

  7. Conflicts of interest during contact investigations: a game-theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sippl-Swezey, Nicolas; Enanoria, Wayne T; Porco, Travis C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of contact tracing is to reduce the likelihood of transmission, particularly to individuals who are at greatest risk for developing complications of infection, as well as identifying individuals who are in need of medical treatment of other interventions. In this paper, we develop a simple mathematical model of contact investigations among a small group of individuals and apply game theory to explore conflicts of interest that may arise in the context of perceived costs of disclosure. Using analytic Kolmogorov equations, we determine whether or not it is possible for individual incentives to drive noncooperation, even though cooperation would yield a better group outcome. We found that if all individuals have a cost of disclosure, then the optimal individual decision is to simply not disclose each other. With further analysis of (1) completely offsetting the costs of disclosure and (2) partially offsetting the costs of disclosure, we found that all individuals disclose all contacts, resulting in a smaller basic reproductive number and an alignment of individual and group optimality. More data are needed to understand decision making during outbreak investigations and what the real and perceived costs are.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the anomalous spectral splitting of tetracene in 4He droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Heather D; DuBois, Jonathan L; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2011-06-30

    We present a theoretical analysis of the electronic absorption spectra of tetracene in (4)He droplets based on many-body quantum simulations. Using the path integral ground state approach, we calculate one- and two-body reduced density matrices of the most strongly localized He atoms near the molecule surface and use these to investigate the helium ground-state quantum coherence and correlations when tetracene is in its electronic ground and excited states. We identify a trio of quasi-one-dimensional, strongly localized atoms adsorbed along the long axis of the molecule that show some quantum coherence among themselves but far less with the remaining solvating helium. We evaluate the single-particle natural orbitals of the localized He atoms by diagonalization of the one-body density matrix and use these to construct single- and many-particle solvating helium basis states with which the zero-phonon spectral features of the tetracene-(4)He(N) absorption spectrum are then calculated. The absorption spectrum resulting from the three-body density matrix for the strongly bound trio of helium atoms is in very good agreement with the experimental data, accounting quantitatively for the anomalous splitting of the zero-phonon line [Hartmann, M.; Lindinger, A.; Toennies, J. P.; Vilesov, A. F. Chem. Phys. 1998, 239, 139; Krasnokutski, S.; Rouillé, G.; Huisken, F. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2005, 406, 386]. Our results indicate that the combination of strong localization and the quasi-one-dimensional nature of trios of helium atoms adsorbed along the long axis of tetracene leads to a quantum coherent, yet highly correlated ground state for the helium density closest to the molecule. The spectroscopic analysis shows that this feature accounts quantitatively for the anomalous splittings and hitherto unexplained fine structure observed in the absorption spectra of tetracene and suggests that it may be responsible for the corresponding zero-phonon splittings in other quasi

  9. Railway noise annoyance: exposure-response relationships and testing a theoretical model by structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Pennig, Sibylle; Schady, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    In some regions the exposure to railway noise is extremely concentrated, which may lead to high residential annoyance. Nonacoustical factors contribute to these reactions, but there is limited evidence on the interrelations between the nonacoustical factors that influence railway noise annoyance. The aims of the present study were (1) to examine exposure-response relationships between long-term railway noise exposure and annoyance in a region severely affected by railway noise and (2) to determine a priori proposed interrelations between nonacoustical factors by structural equation analysis. Residents (n = 320) living close to railway tracks in the Middle Rhine Valley completed a socio-acoustic survey. Individual noise exposure levels were calculated by an acoustical simulation model for this area. The derived exposure-response relationships indicated considerably higher annoyance at the same noise exposure level than would have been predicted by the European Union standard curve, particularly for the night-time period. In the structural equation analysis, 72% of the variance in noise annoyance was explained by the noise exposure (L(den)) and nonacoustical variables. The model provides insights into several causal mechanisms underlying the formation of railway noise annoyance considering indirect and reciprocal effects. The concern about harmful effects of railway noise and railway traffic, the perceived control and coping capacity, and the individual noise sensitivity were the most important factors that influence noise annoyance. All effects of the nonacoustical factors on annoyance were mediated by the perceived control and coping capacity and additionally proposed indirect effects of the theoretical model were supported by the data.

  10. Analysis of the THz response of a simple periodic graphite-based structure.

    PubMed

    Colleoni, M P M; Vidal, B

    2014-12-01

    We report the observation of the dichroism effect in simple wire grid structures made of graphite on a paper substrate, i.e. we investigate the feasibility of drawing polarizers for the THz band using conventional graphite-based lead pencils. The displacement of the maximum frequency of the selective absorption phenomenon by varying the wire pitch hints at a polarizing behavior. Measurements of the maximum and minimum of transmission efficiency, extinction ratio and degree of polarization are carried out with a transmission fiber THz-TDS setup. Experimental results show a 9 dB extinction ratio for an inexpensive (<1$) home-made component.

  11. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) present in the genomes of plant viroids.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lü; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhao, Xiangyan; Wu, Xiaolong; Chen, Yubao; Tan, Zhongyang; Li, Shifang

    2014-01-01

    Extensive simple sequence repeat (SSR) surveys have been performed for eukaryotic prokaryotic and viral genomes, but information regarding SSRs in viroids is limited. We undertook a survey to examine the presence of SSRs in viroid genomes. Our results show that the distribution of SSRs in viroids may influence secondary structure, and that SSRs could play a role in generating genetic diversity. We also discuss the potential evolutionary role of repeated sequences in the viroid genome. This is the first report of SSR loci in viroids, and our study could be helpful in understanding the structure and evolution of viroid genomes.

  12. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  13. Simple proteomics data analysis in the object-oriented PowerShell.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yassene; Palmblad, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Scripting languages such as Perl and Python are appreciated for solving simple, everyday tasks in bioinformatics. A more recent, object-oriented command shell and scripting language, Windows PowerShell, has many attractive features: an object-oriented interactive command line, fluent navigation and manipulation of XML files, ability to consume Web services from the command line, consistent syntax and grammar, rich regular expressions, and advanced output formatting. The key difference between classical command shells and scripting languages, such as bash, and object-oriented ones, such as PowerShell, is that in the latter the result of a command is a structured object with inherited properties and methods rather than a simple stream of characters. Conveniently, PowerShell is included in all new releases of Microsoft Windows and therefore already installed on most computers in classrooms and teaching labs. In this chapter we demonstrate how PowerShell in particular allows easy interaction with mass spectrometry data in XML formats, connection to Web services for tools such as BLAST, and presentation of results as formatted text or graphics. These features make PowerShell much more than "yet another scripting language." PMID:23666736

  14. Simple proteomics data analysis in the object-oriented PowerShell.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yassene; Palmblad, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Scripting languages such as Perl and Python are appreciated for solving simple, everyday tasks in bioinformatics. A more recent, object-oriented command shell and scripting language, Windows PowerShell, has many attractive features: an object-oriented interactive command line, fluent navigation and manipulation of XML files, ability to consume Web services from the command line, consistent syntax and grammar, rich regular expressions, and advanced output formatting. The key difference between classical command shells and scripting languages, such as bash, and object-oriented ones, such as PowerShell, is that in the latter the result of a command is a structured object with inherited properties and methods rather than a simple stream of characters. Conveniently, PowerShell is included in all new releases of Microsoft Windows and therefore already installed on most computers in classrooms and teaching labs. In this chapter we demonstrate how PowerShell in particular allows easy interaction with mass spectrometry data in XML formats, connection to Web services for tools such as BLAST, and presentation of results as formatted text or graphics. These features make PowerShell much more than "yet another scripting language."

  15. Theoretical analysis of some problems in the measurement of beam divergence angle for EAST neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, YongJian; Hu, ChunDong

    2011-12-01

    Beam angular divergence is one of the indicators to evaluate the beam quality. Operating parameters of the beam extraction system could be adjusted to gain better beam quality following the measurement results, which will be helpful not only to study the transmission characteristics of the beam and the power distribution on the heat load components, but also to understand the real-time working condition of the ion source and beam extraction system. This study includes: (1) the theoretical analysis of beam extraction pulse duration for measurement of beam angular divergence; (2) the theoretical analysis of beam intensity distribution during beam transmission for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST) neutral beam injector. Those theoretical analyses could point the way to the measurement of beam divergence angle for EAST neutral beam injector.

  16. Chaos and simple determinism in reversed field pinch plasmas: Nonlinear analysis of numerical simulation and experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, C.A.

    1993-09-01

    In this dissertation the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas is investigated. To properly assess this possibility, data from both numerical simulations and experiment are analyzed. A large repertoire of nonlinear analysis techniques is used to identify low dimensional chaos in the data. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents and short term predictability. In addition, nonlinear noise reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped electron mode (DTEM) model, which models drift wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental date were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low dimensional chaos or low simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system.

  17. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Preliminary Analysis of a Conceptual and Theoretical Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Malachy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of a quality-of-life?based model of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. This model, termed disability centrality, represents a conceptual and theoretical synthesis of several existing theories and models, drawn from the quality-of life, rehabilitation counseling, and…

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Amounts of Musical Noise and Speech Distortion in Structure-Generalized Parametric Blind Spatial Subtraction Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Ryoichi; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    We propose a structure-generalized blind spatial subtraction array (BSSA), and the theoretical analysis of the amounts of musical noise and speech distortion. The structure of BSSA should be selected according to the application, i.e., a channelwise BSSA is recommended for listening but a conventional BSSA is suitable for speech recognition.

  19. Analysis of a Four-Station Doppler Tracking Method Using a Simple CW Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Clifford L.; Watkins, Carl W. L.

    1961-01-01

    A Doppler tracking method is presented in which a very small, simple CW beacon transmitter is used with four Doppler receiving stations to obtain the position and velocity of a space research vehicle. The exact transmitter frequency need not be known, but an initial position is required, and Doppler frequencies must be measured with extreme accuracy. The errors in the system are analyzed and general formulas are derived for position and velocity errors. The proper location of receiving stations is discussed, a rule for avoiding infinite errors is given, and error charts for ideal station configurations are presented. The effect of the index of refraction is also investigated. The system is capable of determining transmitter position within 1,000 feet at a range of 200 miles.

  20. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  1. A simple DNA extraction method for marijuana samples used in amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller Coyle, Heather; Shutler, Gary; Abrams, Sharon; Hanniman, Janet; Neylon, Suzanne; Ladd, Carll; Palmbach, Timothy; Lee, Henry C

    2003-03-01

    As a first step in developing a molecular method for the individualization of marijuana samples, we evaluated a plant DNA extraction kit. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method uses a spin column format for recovery of DNA and is effective for obtaining high molecular weight DNA from leaf, flower (bud), and seed samples of marijuana. The average DNA yield was 125-500 ng per 100 milligrams of fresh plant tissue. The recovered DNA was of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quality as measured by the ability to generate reproducible amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles. AFLP is a technique used to create a DNA profile for plant varieties and is being applied to marijuana samples by the authors to link growers and distributors of clonal material. The QIAGEN plant DNeasy method was simple, efficient, and reproducible for processing small quantities of marijuana into DNA.

  2. Simple models for the analysis of binding protein-dependent transport systems.

    PubMed Central

    Shilton, B. H.; Mowbray, S. L.

    1995-01-01

    Mathematical modeling was used to evaluate experimental data for bacterial binding protein-dependent transport systems. Two simple models were considered in which ligand-free periplasmic binding protein interacts with the membrane-bound components of transport. In one, this interaction was viewed as a competition with the ligand-bound binding protein, whereas in the other, it was considered to be a consequence of the complexes formed during the transport process itself. Two sets of kinetic parameters were derived for each model that fit the available experimental results for the maltose system. By contrast, a model that omitted the interaction of ligand-free binding protein did not fit the experimental data. Some applications of the successful models for the interpretation of existing mutant data are illustrated, as well as the possibilities of using mutant data to test the original models and sets of kinetic parameters. Practical suggestions are given for further experimental design. PMID:7670377

  3. Nastran level 16 theoretical manual updates for aeroelastic analysis of bladed discs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elchuri, V.; Smith, G. C. C.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on state of the art compressor and structural technologies applied to bladed shrouded disc was developed and made operational in NASTRAN Level 16. Aeroelastic analyses, modes and flutter. Theoretical manual updates are included.

  4. A theoretical analysis of the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuanming; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ping; Cheng, Ke

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to present a theoretical method to study the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups. The interactions between group piles result in different bearing performance of both a single pile and pile groups. Considering the pile group effect and the skin friction from both outer and inner soils, an analytical solution is developed to calculate the settlement and axial force in large-diameter pipe pile groups. The analytical solution was verified by centrifuge and field testing results. An extensive parametric analysis was performed to study the bearing performance of the pipe pile groups. The results reveal that the axial forces in group piles are not the same. The larger the distance from central pile, the larger the axial force. The axial force in the central pile is the smallest, while that in corner piles is the largest. The axial force on the top of the corner piles decreases while that in the central pile increases with increasing of pile spacing and decreasing of pile length. The axial force in side piles varies little with the variations of pile spacing, pile length, and shear modulus of the soil and is approximately equal to the average load shared by one pile. For a pile group, the larger the pile length is, the larger the influence radius is. As a result, the pile group effect is more apparent for a larger pile length. The settlement of pile groups decreases with increasing of the pile number in the group and the shear modulus of the underlying soil.

  5. Graph Theoretical Analysis of BOLD Functional Connectivity during Human Sleep without EEG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Dongdong; Ma, Jing; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Background Functional brain networks of human have been revealed to have small-world properties by both analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series. Methods & Results In our study, by using graph theoretical analysis, we attempted to investigate the changes of paralimbic-limbic cortex between wake and sleep states. Ten healthy young people were recruited to our experiment. Data from 2 subjects were excluded for the reason that they had not fallen asleep during the experiment. For each subject, blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) images were acquired to analyze brain network, and peripheral pulse signals were obtained continuously to identify if the subject was in sleep periods. Results of fMRI showed that brain networks exhibited stronger small-world characteristics during sleep state as compared to wake state, which was in consistent with previous studies using EEG synchronization. Moreover, we observed that compared with wake state, paralimbic-limbic cortex had less connectivity with neocortical system and centrencephalic structure in sleep. Conclusions In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, has observed that small-world properties of brain functional networks altered when human sleeps without EEG synchronization. Moreover, we speculate that paralimbic-limbic cortex organization owns an efficient defense mechanism responsible for suppressing the external environment interference when humans sleep, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the paralimbic-limbic cortex may be functionally disconnected from brain regions which directly mediate their interactions with the external environment. Our findings also provide a reasonable explanation why stable sleep exhibits homeostasis which is far less susceptible to outside world. PMID:26360464

  6. Theoretic and numerical analysis of diamagnetic levitation and its experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhitong; Duan, Zhiyong; Su, Yufeng

    2015-02-01

    Diamagnetic levitation system is studied in detail in this paper. From top to bottom, the diamagnetic levitation system is composed of a lifting magnet, a top pyrolytic graphite sheet, a floating magnet and a bottom pyrolytic graphite sheet. The gravity of the floating magnet is balanced by the attractive force between the lifting magnet and the floating magnet. And the floating magnet is stably levitated between the top and bottom graphite sheets due to their diamagnetism. The force exerted on the floating magnet is analyzed through theoretical and numerical methods, and at the same time the equilibrium position is obtained. Totally 11 groups of magnets are studied by COMSOL, in which the accumulative error is eliminated to improve the accuracy of finite element analysis(FEA). Corresponding experiments are carried out to verify the numerical results, and the error of equilibrium position is less than 10%, which shows that the FEA is precise enough to simulate the diamagnetic system. Motion characteristic is studied for group 6, in which the lifting magnet is a φ3/16"× 1/8" cylinder. For the floating magnet, the horizontal force versus the eccentric displacement and the vertical force versus the vertical displacement are calculated by COMSOL respectively. In the magnetic potential well of the lifting magnet, the floating magnet returns to the vertical central axis automatically, and the frequencies of the vertical and horizontal movements are between 4 and 5 Hz. The frequencies of the two directional movements can be tuned by the magnetic parameters of the lifting and floating magnets and the structure dimensions of the system. The method used to analyze the diamagnetic system is proved effective to design the diamagnetic levitation structure. Because of the contactless levitation of the floating magnet based on diamagnetism, the system is sensitive to very small input. This diamagnetic levitation structure is potential in micro-actuators and sensors.

  7. Theoretical hypervelocity ballistic limit for single or double plates using nonlinear modal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David

    1990-01-01

    The original research on the use on nonlinear vibration technique to solve for the hypervelocity ballistic limit for double plates is examined. Such structure is commonly found in typical Space Station design where the incoming space or man-made debris would be fragmented upon hitting the outer plate (shield) and the subsequent impact on the main wall would result in a much reduced damge of the space station or spacecraft. The existing few theoretical impact equations do not agree well with each other. The existing computer code bumper used at NASA-Johnson Space Center appears to predict an unconservative ballistic limit when compared with experimental data where the velocity ranges from 3 km/s to 8 km/s. Such unconservative prediction is unacceptable from a practical safe design point of view. The bumper code is based on Wilkinson's (1968) paper and his equations have not been improved nor modified even though they are viewed with suspicion due to lack of agreement with experiments. To make matters worse, there is not another theory which is better than Wilkinson's equation and the designers are forced to use purely empirical Nysmith (1969) or semiempirical equations developed by Cour-Palais in 1969. The Cour-Palais equations were later modified empirically in 1989. The purpose of the present investigation is to examine the many assumptions of the Wilkinson equation. An attempt is made to present design charts based on the modified-Wilkinson equation so that the designer can get a feel of the ranges of the parameters which are of interest and discard a huge range of parameters, thus, significantly reducing the number of test shots required. The analysis is based on a solution of the governing nonlinear differential equations for a plate, assuming axisymmetric behavior using polar coordinates.

  8. Theoretical analysis of a pressure setting and control system with PWM direction control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, M.; Duminică, D.; Cartal, L. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper tackles theoretical aspects concerning an original automated system that sets and controls the pressure inside a tank chamber of fixed volume. The structure of the system integrates an original device developed and designed by the authors. The device digitally controls the one way flow of the working fluid using pulse width modulation, allowing the free flow in the other way. The purpose of this research stage was the theoretical establishing of the variation law of the pressure inside the controlled chamber.

  9. Improved analysis of simple sugars and galacturonic acid in hydrolyzed citrus waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the most accurate method for analysis of sugars in biomass is based on gas chromatography of trimethylsilane or alditol acetate derivitives of sugars, the derivation method is time consuming and laborious. In comparison, sample preparation for sugar analysis using liquid chromatography is a si...

  10. Brain network of semantic integration in sentence reading: insights from independent component analysis and graph theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng; Doñamayor, Nuria; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-02-01

    A set of cortical and sub-cortical brain structures has been linked with sentence-level semantic processes. However, it remains unclear how these brain regions are organized to support the semantic integration of a word into sentential context. To look into this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that required participants to silently read sentences with semantically congruent or incongruent endings and analyzed the network properties of the brain with two approaches, independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA). The GTA suggested that the whole-brain network is topologically stable across conditions. The ICA revealed a network comprising the supplementary motor area (SMA), left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and left angular gyrus, which was modulated by the incongruity of sentence ending. Furthermore, the GTA specified that the connections between the left SMA and left caudate nucleus as well as that between the left caudate nucleus and right thalamus were stronger in response to incongruent vs. congruent endings.

  11. Phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester intramolecular interactions and conformational analysis by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Cormanich, Rodrigo A; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F; Rittner, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    Amino acid conformational analysis in solution are scarce, since these compounds present a bipolar zwitterionic structure ((+)H3NCHRCOO(-)) in these media. Also, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have been classified as the sole interactions governing amino acid conformational behavior in the literature. In the present work we propose phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl ester conformational studies in different solvents by (1)H NMR and infrared spectroscopies and theoretical calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results are in agreement and suggest that the conformational behavior of the phenylalanine and tyrosine methyl esters are similar and are dictated by the interplay between steric and hyperconjugative interactions.

  12. Predicting leaf physiology from simple plant and climate attributes: a global GLOPNET analysis.

    PubMed

    Reich, Peter B; Wright, Ian J; Lusk, Christopher H

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of leaf chemistry, physiology, and life span is essential for global vegetation modeling, but such data are scarce or lacking for some regions, especially in developing countries. Here we use data from 2021 species at 175 sites around the world from the GLOPNET compilation to show that key physiological traits that are difficult to measure (such as photosynthetic capacity) can be predicted from simple qualitative plant characteristics, climate information, easily measured ("soft") leaf traits, or all of these in combination. The qualitative plant functional type (PFT) attributes examined are phylogeny (angiosperm or gymnosperm), growth form (grass, herb, shrub, or tree), and leaf phenology (deciduous vs. evergreen). These three PFT attributes explain between one-third and two-thirds of the variation in each of five quantitative leaf ecophysiological traits: specific leaf area (SLA), leaf life span, mass-based net photosynthetic capacity (Amass), nitrogen content (N(mass)), and phosphorus content (P(mass)). Alternatively, the combination of four simple, widely available climate metrics (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, mean vapor pressure deficit, and solar irradiance) explain only 5-20% of the variation in those same five leaf traits. Adding the climate metrics to the qualitative PFTs as independent factors in the model increases explanatory power by 3-11% for the five traits. If a single easily measured leaf trait (SLA) is also included in the model along with qualitative plant traits and climate metrics, an additional 5-25% of the variation in the other four other leaf traits is explained, with the models accounting for 62%, 65%, 66%, and 73% of global variation in N(mass), P(mass), A(mass), and leaf life span, respectively. Given the wide availability of the summary climate data and qualitative PFT data used in these analyses, they could be used to explain roughly half of global variation in the less accessible leaf traits (A

  13. Environmental analysis of present and future fuels in 2D simple model marine gas tubines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gohary, M. Morsy

    2013-12-01

    Increased worldwide concerns about fossil fuel costs and effects on the environment lead many governments and scientific societies to consider the hydrogen as the fuel of the future. Many researches have been made to assess the suitability of using the hydrogen gas as fuel for internal combustion engines and gas turbines; this suitability was assessed from several viewpoints including the combustion characteristics, the fuel production and storage and also the thermodynamic cycle changes with the application of hydrogen instead of ordinary fossil fuels. This paper introduces the basic environmental differences happening when changing the fuel of a marine gas turbine from marine diesel fuel to gaseous hydrogen for the same power output. Environmentally, the hydrogen is the best when the CO2 emissions are considered, zero carbon dioxide emissions can be theoretically attained. But when the NOx emissions are considered, the hydrogen is not the best based on the unit heat input. The hydrogen produces 270% more NOx than the diesel case without any control measures. This is primarily due to the increased air flow rate bringing more nitrogen into the combustion chamber and the increased combustion temperature (10% more than the diesel case). Efficient and of course expensive NOx control measures are a must to control these emissions levels.

  14. High-throughput analysis pipeline for achieving simple low-copy wheat and barley transgenics.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic (or genetically modified-GM) plant breeding is increasingly being used as a supplementary tool to many classical plant-breeding programs. Currently the range of transgenic traits accepted for commercial use is largely restricted to herbicide and pest resistance. Given the fact that transgenics can offer an alternative and novel source of genetic variation, pre-breeding research is now increasingly exploiting this technology to tackle a greater spectrum of traits. These traits range from abiotic stress tolerance to improved product quality and nutritional characteristics. Likewise there is an increasing demand for high-throughput methodologies for transgenic plant generation, characterization and phenotyping. Selecting simple low-copy number transgenic events that are both heritable and stably expressed "in planta" is considered a prerequisite to systematic phenotyping for traits of interest. Furthermore, this assessment relies heavily on comparisons to appropriate control plants, in the case of wheat and barley transgenics this is both wild-type and null siblings. This chapter presents a general scheme on which to base selection of transgenics and respective null siblings using wheat and barley as an example. This scheme can be adapted to other similar crop species. Overall this strategy reduces the total number of plants to be genotyped and phenotyped at each generational step, and therefore resulting in significant savings in time, effort, and resources. PMID:24816672

  15. Simple Fall Criteria for MEMS Sensors: Data Analysis and Sensor Concept

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple fall detection concept based on detailed experimental data of human falling and the activities of daily living (ADLs). Establishing appropriate fall algorithms compatible with MEMS sensors requires detailed data on falls and ADLs that indicate clearly the variations of the kinematics at the possible sensor node location on the human body, such as hip, head, and chest. Currently, there is a lack of data on the exact direction and magnitude of each acceleration component associated with these node locations. This is crucial for MEMS structures, which have inertia elements very close to the substrate and are capacitively biased, and hence, are very sensitive to the direction of motion whether it is toward or away from the substrate. This work presents detailed data of the acceleration components on various locations on the human body during various kinds of falls and ADLs. A two-degree-of-freedom model is used to help interpret the experimental data. An algorithm for fall detection based on MEMS switches is then established. A new sensing concept based on the algorithm is proposed. The concept is based on employing several inertia sensors, which are triggered simultaneously, as electrical switches connected in series, upon receiving a true fall signal. In the case of everyday life activities, some or no switches will be triggered resulting in an open circuit configuration, thereby preventing false positive. Lumped-parameter model is presented for the device and preliminary simulation results are presented illustrating the new device concept. PMID:25006997

  16. A simple model for deep tissue attenuation correction and large organ analysis of Cerenkov luminescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habte, Frezghi; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Paik, David S.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2014-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging cost effective modality that uses conventional small animal optical imaging systems and clinically available radionuclide probes for light emission. CLI has shown good correlation with PET for organs of high uptake such as kidney, spleen, thymus and subcutaneous tumors in mouse models. However, CLI has limitations for deep tissue quantitative imaging since the blue-weighted spectral characteristics of Cerenkov radiation attenuates highly by mammalian tissue. Large organs such as the liver have also shown higher signal due to the contribution of emission of light from a greater thickness of tissue. In this study, we developed a simple model that estimates the effective tissue attenuation coefficient in order to correct the CLI signal intensity with a priori estimated depth and thickness of specific organs. We used several thin slices of ham to build a phantom with realistic attenuation. We placed radionuclide sources inside the phantom at different tissue depths and imaged it using an IVIS Spectrum (Perkin-Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA) and Inveon microPET (Preclinical Solutions Siemens, Knoxville, TN). We also performed CLI and PET of mouse models and applied the proposed attenuation model to correct CLI measurements. Using calibration factors obtained from phantom study that converts the corrected CLI measurements to %ID/g, we obtained an average difference of less that 10% for spleen and less than 35% for liver compared to conventional PET measurements. Hence, the proposed model has a capability of correcting the CLI signal to provide comparable measurements with PET data.

  17. Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC. PMID:22649749

  18. Evaluation and analysis of dengue virus enhancing and neutralizing activities using simple high-throughput assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Quan; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yan-Fen; Ding, Xi-Xia; Liu, Li-Dong; Qiu, Li-Wen; Pan, Yu-Xian; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Hu, Dong-Mei; Di, Biao; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Che, Xiao-Yan

    2013-07-01

    The risk of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major obstacle for the development of dengue vaccine candidates. Here, we described a novel approach for assessment of ADE by measuring DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) production in culture supernatants with Fcγ receptor-expressing K562 cells in ELISA format (ELISA-ADE). Enhancing activities quantified by measurement of kinetics of NS1 production were in a good agreement with the results of the virus titration assay. In conjunction with the previously established enzyme-linked immunospot-based micro-neutralization test (ELISPOT-MNT) in 96-well format, the observable dose-response profiles of enhancing and neutralizing activities against all four DENV serotypes were produced with two flaviviral envelope cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies and four primary DENV-1-infected human sera. The simple high-throughput ELISA-ADE assay offers advantages for quantitative measurement of infection enhancement that can potentially be applied to large-scale seroepidemiological studies of DENV infection and vaccination.

  19. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals a simple strategy of global resource allocation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Sheng; Silverman, Josh M; Chen, Stephen S; Erickson, David W; Basan, Markus; Wang, Jilong; Hwa, Terence; Williamson, James R

    2015-01-01

    A central aim of cell biology was to understand the strategy of gene expression in response to the environment. Here, we study gene expression response to metabolic challenges in exponentially growing Escherichia coli using mass spectrometry. Despite enormous complexity in the details of the underlying regulatory network, we find that the proteome partitions into several coarse-grained sectors, with each sector's total mass abundance exhibiting positive or negative linear relations with the growth rate. The growth rate-dependent components of the proteome fractions comprise about half of the proteome by mass, and their mutual dependencies can be characterized by a simple flux model involving only two effective parameters. The success and apparent generality of this model arises from tight coordination between proteome partition and metabolism, suggesting a principle for resource allocation in proteome economy of the cell. This strategy of global gene regulation should serve as a basis for future studies on gene expression and constructing synthetic biological circuits. Coarse graining may be an effective approach to derive predictive phenomenological models for other ‘omics’ studies. PMID:25678603

  20. Simple fall criteria for MEMS sensors: data analysis and sensor concept.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah; Younis, Mohammad I

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple fall detection concept based on detailed experimental data of human falling and the activities of daily living (ADLs). Establishing appropriate fall algorithms compatible with MEMS sensors requires detailed data on falls and ADLs that indicate clearly the variations of the kinematics at the possible sensor node location on the human body, such as hip, head, and chest. Currently, there is a lack of data on the exact direction and magnitude of each acceleration component associated with these node locations. This is crucial for MEMS structures, which have inertia elements very close to the substrate and are capacitively biased, and hence, are very sensitive to the direction of motion whether it is toward or away from the substrate. This work presents detailed data of the acceleration components on various locations on the human body during various kinds of falls and ADLs. A two-degree-of-freedom model is used to help interpret the experimental data. An algorithm for fall detection based on MEMS switches is then established. A new sensing concept based on the algorithm is proposed. The concept is based on employing several inertia sensors, which are triggered simultaneously, as electrical switches connected in series, upon receiving a true fall signal. In the case of everyday life activities, some or no switches will be triggered resulting in an open circuit configuration, thereby preventing false positive. Lumped-parameter model is presented for the device and preliminary simulation results are presented illustrating the new device concept.

  1. A simple separation method for downstream biochemical analysis of aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Cody E; Bochdansky, Alexander B

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the chemical composition of aquatic microbes it is necessary to obtain completely separated fractions of subpopulations. Size separation by filtration is usually unsuccessful because the smaller group of organisms contaminates the larger fractions due to being trapped on filter surfaces of nominally much larger pore sizes. Here we demonstrate that a simple sucrose density separation method allowed us to separate microorganisms of even subtle size differences and to determine their bulk biochemical composition (proteins, polysaccharides+nucleic acids, and lipids). Both autotrophs and heterotrophs (through anaplerotic pathways) were labeled with (14)C-bicarbonate for biochemical fractionation. We provided proof of concept that eukaryotic microbes could be cleanly separated from prokaryotes in cultures and in field samples, enabling detection of differences in their biochemical makeup. We explored methodological issues regarding separation mechanisms, fixation, and pre-concentration via tangential flow filtration of oligotrophic marine waters where abundances of microorganisms are comparably low. By selecting an appropriate centrifugal force, two processes (i.e., isopycnal and rate-zonal separation) can be exploited simultaneously resulting in finely-separated density fractions, which also resulted in size separation. Future applications of this method include exploration of the stoichiometric, biochemical and genetic differences among subpopulations of microbes in a wide variety of aquatic environments.

  2. A simple separation method for downstream biochemical analysis of aquatic microbes.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Cody E; Bochdansky, Alexander B

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the chemical composition of aquatic microbes it is necessary to obtain completely separated fractions of subpopulations. Size separation by filtration is usually unsuccessful because the smaller group of organisms contaminates the larger fractions due to being trapped on filter surfaces of nominally much larger pore sizes. Here we demonstrate that a simple sucrose density separation method allowed us to separate microorganisms of even subtle size differences and to determine their bulk biochemical composition (proteins, polysaccharides+nucleic acids, and lipids). Both autotrophs and heterotrophs (through anaplerotic pathways) were labeled with (14)C-bicarbonate for biochemical fractionation. We provided proof of concept that eukaryotic microbes could be cleanly separated from prokaryotes in cultures and in field samples, enabling detection of differences in their biochemical makeup. We explored methodological issues regarding separation mechanisms, fixation, and pre-concentration via tangential flow filtration of oligotrophic marine waters where abundances of microorganisms are comparably low. By selecting an appropriate centrifugal force, two processes (i.e., isopycnal and rate-zonal separation) can be exploited simultaneously resulting in finely-separated density fractions, which also resulted in size separation. Future applications of this method include exploration of the stoichiometric, biochemical and genetic differences among subpopulations of microbes in a wide variety of aquatic environments. PMID:25655777

  3. Analysis of simple tandem repeat (STR) marker allele distributions in a Balinese population

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, R.; Ashler, J.H.; Friedman, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    Genotypes for 53 simple tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at greater than 39 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 46 individuals from the village of Bengkala, Bali. This village dates to at least the thirteenth century, has approximately 2,200 individuals and has an oral and written tradition suggesting genetic bottlenecks. The allele frequency distributions in Bengkala were compared with distributions obtained by typing individuals in the CEPH data base using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test. Twenty-eight of the 53 markers showed differences (p<0.05) in distribution between the two populations. Allele frequencies of tetranucleotide STRs were much more similar between the two populations than were those of dinucleotide STRs (p < 0.0043). This may be due to the higher mutation rate of tetranucleotide STRs, combining with selection on repeat lengths, to produce a {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} allele distribution. Population heterogeneity in Bengkala was indicated by an excess of observed homozygosity, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at seven loci, and significant genotypic disequilibrium between physically unlinked loci. These analyses serve as a resource to map a gene causing non-syndromal autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala, and to corroborate the anthropological study of the history and social structure of the village.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals a simple strategy of global resource allocation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hui, Sheng; Silverman, Josh M; Chen, Stephen S; Erickson, David W; Basan, Markus; Wang, Jilong; Hwa, Terence; Williamson, James R

    2015-02-12

    A central aim of cell biology was to understand the strategy of gene expression in response to the environment. Here, we study gene expression response to metabolic challenges in exponentially growing Escherichia coli using mass spectrometry. Despite enormous complexity in the details of the underlying regulatory network, we find that the proteome partitions into several coarse-grained sectors, with each sector's total mass abundance exhibiting positive or negative linear relations with the growth rate. The growth rate-dependent components of the proteome fractions comprise about half of the proteome by mass, and their mutual dependencies can be characterized by a simple flux model involving only two effective parameters. The success and apparent generality of this model arises from tight coordination between proteome partition and metabolism, suggesting a principle for resource allocation in proteome economy of the cell. This strategy of global gene regulation should serve as a basis for future studies on gene expression and constructing synthetic biological circuits. Coarse graining may be an effective approach to derive predictive phenomenological models for other 'omics' studies.

  5. Precise estimate of correlation length exponents from simple real-space renormalization group analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni

    2014-03-01

    We invent a novel real-space renormalization group (RG) scheme which accurately estimates correlation length exponents ν near criticality of quantum Ising and clock models in higher dimensions. The method, based on a recent proposal by Miyazaki et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 051103 (2011), is remarkably simple (often analytical), grouping only a few spins into a block spin so that renormalized Hamiltonian has a closed form. A previous difficulty of spatial anisotropy and unwanted terms arising in higher-dimensional RG schemes is avoided by incorporating rotational invariance and internal Zq symmetries of the Hamiltonian. By applying this scheme to (2+1)-dim Ising model on a triangular lattice, we obtained ν = 0 . 6300 which is within statistical error of the current best Monte-Carlo result and ϕ4 theory estimation with seven-loop corrections. We also apply the scheme to higher-dimensional clock (Potts) models for which ordinary Monte-Carlo methods are not efficient due to suppression of quantum fluctuation in first-order phase transition.

  6. Rapid and simple DNA extraction protocol from goat rumen digesta for metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Yasir; Rather, Irfan A; Konwar, B K

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to the traditional culturing techniques and microscopy that have led to the identification and characterization of only about 15-20 % of the rumen microbes till date, nucleic acid-based molecular approaches are rapid, reproducible, and allow both the qualitative and quantitative assessment of microbial diversity. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, rapid and effective extraction protocol for the recovery of high-molecular-weight and cloneable metagenomic DNA (mDNA) from goat rumen contents. An efficient method was devised to isolate high-molecular-weight mDNA (&>23kb) that was pure and cloneable after isolation in a relatively short period (3.5 h). This is the first report wherein purification of isolated mDNA could be passed. The purity and cloneability of mDNA was found to be possible with the successful restriction digestion, 16S rDNA PCR amplification of the isolated mDNA and mDNA library construction.The screening of 1600 clones from the metagenomic library revealed one clone with adistinct hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) agar suggesting its endoglucanase activity. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed aDNA insert of ~1.5kb size on digestion with BamH1. The metagenomic clones offer a prodigious non-conventional means to explore the genetically untapped resources from nature. PMID:26687757

  7. Deployment Analysis of a Simple Tape-Spring Hinge Using Probabilistic Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Horta, Lucas G.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance of new deployable structures architectures and concepts requires validated design methods to minimize the expense involved with technology validation flight testing. Deployable concepts for large lightweight spacecraft include booms, antennae, and masts. This paper explores the implementation of probabilistic methods in the design process for the deployment of a strain-energy mechanism, specifically a simple tape-spring hinge. Strain-energy mechanisms are attractive for deployment in very lightweight systems because they do not require the added mass and complexity associated with motors and controllers. However, designers are hesitant to include free deployment, strain-energy mechanisms because of the potential for uncontrolled behavior. In the example presented here, the tapespring cross-sectional dimensions have been varied and a target displacement during deployment has been selected as the design metric. Specifically, the tape-spring should reach the final position in the shortest time with the minimal amount of overshoot and oscillations. Surrogate models have been used to reduce computational expense. Parameter values to achieve the target response have been computed and used to demonstrate the approach. Based on these results, the application of probabilistic methods for design of a tape-spring hinge has shown promise as a means of designing strain-energy components for more complex space concepts.

  8. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    erroneous assumptions and do not solve the very fundamental issue that lies at the base of the problem. This problem is straighforward and obvious: a sedimentary system is inherently four-dimensional (3 spatial dimensions + 1 temporal dimension). Any method using an inferior number or dimensions is bound to fail to describe the evolution of a sedimentary system. It is indicative of the present day geological world that such fundamental issues be overlooked. The only reason for which one can appoint the socalled "rationality" in todays society. Simple "common sense" leads us to the conclusion that in this case the empirical method is bound to fail and the only method that can solve the problem is the theoretical approach. Reasoning that is completely trivial for the traditional exact sciences like physics and mathematics and applied sciences like engineering. However, not for geology, a science that was traditionally descriptive and jumped to empirical science, skipping the stage of theoretical science. I argue that the gap of theoretical geology is left open and needs to be filled. Every discipline in geology lacks a theoretical base. This base can only be filled by the theoretical/inductive approach and can impossibly be filled by the empirical/deductive approach. Once a critical mass of geologists realises this flaw in todays geology, we can start solving the fundamental problems in geology.

  9. Measuring health lifestyles in a comparative analysis: theoretical issues and empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Abel, T

    1991-01-01

    The concept of lifestyle bears great potential for research in medical sociology. Yet, weaknesses in current methods have restrained lifestyle research from realizing its full potentials. The present focus is on the links between theoretical conceptions and their empirical application. The paper divides into two parts. The first part provides a discussion of basic theoretical and methodological issues. In particular selected lines of thought from Max Weber are presented and their usefulness in providing a theoretical frame of reference for health lifestyle research is outlined. Next, a theory guided definition of the subject matter is introduced and basic problems in empirical applications of theoretical lifestyle concepts are discussed. In its second part the paper presents findings from comparative lifestyle analyses. Data from the U.S. and West Germany are utilized to explore issues of measurement equivalence and theoretical validity. Factor analyses indicate high conceptual equivalence for new measures of health lifestyle dimensions in both the U.S. and West Germany. Divisive cluster analyses detect three distinct lifestyle groups in both nations. Implications for future lifestyle research are discussed.

  10. Rapid universal solublization and analysis of bacterial spores using a simple flow-through ultrahigh-temperature capillary device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jay A.; Hukari, Kyle W.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Patel, Kamlesh

    2004-12-01

    Rapid identification of viral and bacterial species is dependent of the ability to manipulate biological agents into a form where they are directly analyzed. Many of these species of interest, such as bacterial spores, are inherently hearty and very difficult to lyse or solubilize. Standard protocols for spore inactivation include, chemical treatment, sonication, pressure and thermal lysis. While these protocols are effective for the inactivation of these agents they are less well suited for sample preparation for analysis using capillary electrophoresis techniques. In order to overcome this difficulty we fabricated a simple capillary device to perform thermal lysis of vegatative bacterial cells and bacterial spores. Using an ethylene glycol buffer to super heat bacterial spores we were able to perform rapid flow through lysis and solubilzation of these agents. This device was then coupled to a sample preparation station for on-line fluorescamine dye lableling and buffer exchange for direct analysis using a miniaturized capillary electrophoresis instrument. Using this integrated device were we enabled to perform sample lysis, labeling and protein fingerprint analysis of vegatative bacterial cells, bacterial spores and viruses in less than 10 minutes. The described device is simple, inexpensive and easily integratable with various microfluidic devices.

  11. Simple non-invasive analysis of embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes beating in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaszkiewicz, Katarzyna Anna; Sýkorová, Dominika; Karas, Pavel; Kudová, Jana; Kohút, Lukáš; Binó, Lucia; Večeřa, Josef; Víteček, Jan; Kubala, Lukáš; Pacherník, Jiří

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of digital video output enables the non-invasive screening of various active biological processes. For the monitoring and computing of the beating parameters of cardiomyocytes in vitro, CB Analyser (cardiomyocyte beating analyser) software was developed. This software is based on image analysis of the video recording of beating cardiomyocytes. CB Analyser was tested using cardiomyocytes derived from mouse embryonic stem cells at different stages of cardiomyogenesis. We observed that during differentiation (from day 18), the beat peak width decreased, which corresponded to the increased speed of an individual pulse. However, the beating frequency did not change. Further, the effects of epinephrine modulating mature cardiomyocyte functions were tested to validate the CB Analyser analysis. In conclusion, data show that CB Analyser is a useful tool for evaluating the functions of both developing and mature cardiomyocytes under various conditions in vitro.

  12. Simple Analysis Used in Diagnosis and Follow-up of Schizophrenic Patients (Patent)

    PubMed Central

    Nour El-Dien, Faten A.; El-Nahas, Reham G.; El-Nahas, Ahmed G.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine acts as neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Determination of dopamine (DO) was performed by spectrophotometric analysis depending on the formation of new colored compound. The proposed procedure was efficient in quantitative determination of DO as pure material in pharmaceutical preparations and in urine samples. DO concentration in urine sample of patient confirms the affection with schizophrenia and the proposed procedure was used to facilitate diagnosis and followup of schizophrenic patients. It is recommended to apply the proposed procedures as routine analysis in pharmaceutical companies for quality control and in analytical laboratories to diagnose and follow up schizophrenia. PMID:17671624

  13. Examination of an influence of winding geometry and operating temperature on basic parameters of superconducting coils made of MgB2 wire - Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitel, Jozef; Kováč, Pavol

    2012-12-01

    Development and consecutive improvement of the properties of superconductor such as MgB2 raise the natural question about its potential with respect to application in magnets. A magnet designer is confronted with the question what quantitative values of the basic parameters of coils such as critical current, central field and stored energy can be expected at various operating temperature. In fact, the overall wire length can be considered as one of the key factors which determines the final price of the magnet. Therefore, a simple mathematical model was developed, and a detailed theoretical analysis of the influence of the winding geometry on the parameters of the cylindrical coils was performed with respect to the constant wire length. As an example the experimental data of the 30 filament MgB2 wire which was developed at the Department of Superconductor Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, were used in calculations at operating temperatures between 4.2 and 20 K. An influence of the inner winding diameter and overall wire length on the values of the coils’ critical current, central field and stored energy, was studied theoretically with the aim to specify the significance of respective parameters. An optimization of the winding geometry was performed with respect to achieving the maximum central field.

  14. Quantitative analysis of nanometer anatase-rutile mixtures via experimentation and theoretical calculation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Jia, Peiyun; Ye, Feng

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we developed a method based on X-ray diffractometry for determining the weight ratio of nanometer anatase to rutile or their relative amounts in TiO2 polymorphs, and corresponding formulas for such determination were put forward. The very key constant K in these formulas has been specially evaluated by experimentalizing nanometer polymorphs of titanium dioxide. Furthermore, a theoretical value of K was obtained through detailed theoretical calculation based on X-ray powder diffraction theory. The K value concluded from experimentation coincides well with that yielded from theoretical calculation, thus the validity and reliability of the experimental K value has been further confirmed. This coincidence may also suggest the applicability of X-ray powder diffraction theory to nanometer crystals. With this method, the relative amounts of nanometer anatase and rutile in their mixtures or the weight ratio of nanometer anatase to rutile in any a mixture can be easily determined only upon a XRD test.

  15. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a piezoelectric plate connected to a negative capacitance at MHz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoura, S. A.; Benard, P.; Morvan, B.; Maréchal, P.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Dubus, B.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a theoretical and experimental study of the electric impedance of a piezoelectric plate connected to a negative capacitance is performed in the MHz frequency range. The negative capacitance is realized with a circuit using current conveyors (CCII+). This circuit allows us to achieve important values of negative capacitance, of the same order of the static capacitance of the piezoelectric plate studied. Mason’s model is considered for the theoretical characterization of the piezoelectric plate connected to the negative capacitance circuit. The experimental results show a large tunability of the frequency of the piezoelectric parallel resonance over a range of 1.1 MHz to 1.28 MHz. Moreover, according to the value of the negative capacitance, the effective electromechanical coupling factor of the piezoelectric plate is evaluated. With a very good agreement with the theoretical estimation, an increase of approximately 50% of the effective electromechanical coupling factor is experimentally measured.

  16. Proton transfer in benzoic acid crystals: A chemical spin-boson problem. Theoretical analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron scattering, and optical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, J. L.; Trommsdorff, H. P.

    1988-07-01

    The double proton transfer in benzoic acid crystals can be described by a double-minimum potential. At low temperatures one need consider only the two lowest energy eigenstates, which must be coupled to the crystalline phonons in order to obtain relaxation. Thus the benzoic acid system provides a well-defined chemical example of the spin-boson Hamiltonian. Within this model the tunneling relaxation between localized states occurs by one-phonon emission or absorption. Alternatively, at high temperatures the proton transfer is thermally activated. With this simple picture in mind we analyze NMR T1 relaxation experiments. The temperature-dependent proton transfer rate that emerges from the NMR analysis is in good agreement with inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Optical transitions of a dye probe have also been used to determine proton transfer rates in crystalline benzoic acid. Our model allows us to discuss both doped and pure crystal experiments within a unified framework. Thus, we find that all three different experimental probes yield results that are consistent with our simple theoretical picture. From our results we can determine the proton-phonon coupling constant.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: A Simple and Rapid Method for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedure for making a quantitative analysis of organic compounds suitable for secondary school chemistry classes. Using the Schoniger procedure, the organic compound, such as PVC, is decomposed in a conical flask with oxygen. The products are absorbed in a suitable liquid and analyzed by titration. (JR)

  18. Starr: Simple Tiling ARRay analysis of Affymetrix ChIP-chip data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with DNA microarrays (ChIP-chip) is an assay used for investigating DNA-protein-binding or post-translational chromatin/histone modifications. As with all high-throughput technologies, it requires thorough bioinformatic processing of the data for which there is no standard yet. The primary goal is to reliably identify and localize genomic regions that bind a specific protein. Further investigation compares binding profiles of functionally related proteins, or binding profiles of the same proteins in different genetic backgrounds or experimental conditions. Ultimately, the goal is to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of DNA binding events on gene expression. Results We present a free, open-source R/Bioconductor package Starr that facilitates comparative analysis of ChIP-chip data across experiments and across different microarray platforms. The package provides functions for data import, quality assessment, data visualization and exploration. Starr includes high-level analysis tools such as the alignment of ChIP signals along annotated features, correlation analysis of ChIP signals with complementary genomic data, peak-finding and comparative display of multiple clusters of binding profiles. It uses standard Bioconductor classes for maximum compatibility with other software. Moreover, Starr automatically updates microarray probe annotation files by a highly efficient remapping of microarray probe sequences to an arbitrary genome. Conclusion Starr is an R package that covers the complete ChIP-chip workflow from data processing to binding pattern detection. It focuses on the high-level data analysis, e.g., it provides methods for the integration and combined statistical analysis of binding profiles and complementary functional genomics data. Starr enables systematic assessment of binding behaviour for groups of genes that are alingned along arbitrary genomic features. PMID:20398407

  19. A Simple Method for Causal Analysis of Return on IT Investment

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Farrokh; Zargoush, Manaf; Oakes, James L.; Edrees, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for examining the causal relationship among investment in information technology (IT) and the organization's productivity. In this method, first a strong relationship among (1) investment in IT, (2) use of IT and (3) organization's productivity is verified using correlations. Second, the assumption that IT investment preceded improved productivity is tested using partial correlation. Finally, the assumption of what may have happened in the absence of IT investment, the so called counterfactual, is tested through forecasting productivity at different levels of investment. The paper applies the proposed method to investment in the Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture (VISTA) system. Result show that the causal analysis can be done, even with limited data. Furthermore, because the procedure relies on overall organization's productivity, it might be more objective than when the analyst picks and chooses which costs and benefits should be included in the analysis. PMID:23019515

  20. Theoretical analysis of condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases as applied to open cycle OTEC condensers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, C. B.; Bell, K. J.

    The open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion condenser was analyzed from a theoretical standpoint. Interfacial temperature profiles and gas concentrations in the axial direction were determined, and their effects on the rate of condensation studied. For the analysis, the vapor phase was modeled using diffusion equations for simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes, while the liquid phase was modeled using a falling film analysis. This analysis was then applied to a plate fin condenser, and the effect of varying the fin density along the condenser lengths was investigated. General engineering aspects of heat exchanger design are discussed for condensation of vapor mixtures in the presence of noncondensable gases.

  1. Simple and suitable immunosensor for β-lactam antibiotics analysis in real matrixes: milk, serum, urine.

    PubMed

    Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-03-15

    The anti-penicillin G was conjugated to avidin-peroxidase and biotin to obtain immunogen and competitor which were then used to develop a competitive immunosensor assay for the detection of penicillin G and other β-lactam antibiotics, with Kaff values of the order of 10(8) M(-1). The new immunosensor appears to afford a number of advantages in terms of sensitivity, possibility of "in situ" analysis, but especially of simplicity and lower costs, compared with other existing devices, or different chemical instrumental methods reported in the literature and used for the analysis of β-lactam compounds. Satisfactory results were found in the analysis of real matrixes and good recoveries were obtained by applying the standard addition method to spiked milk, urine, serum and drug samples. The new device uses an amperometric electrode for hydrogen peroxide as transducer, the BSA-penicillin G immobilized on polymeric membrane overlapping the amperometric transducer and the peroxidase enzyme as marker. It proved to be highly sensitive, inexpensive and easily reproducible; LOD was of the order of 10(-11)M. Lastly, the new immunosensor displayed low selectivity versus the entire class of β-lactam antibiotics and higher selectivity toward other classes of non-β-lactam antibiotics.

  2. Following the enzymatic digestion of chondroitin sulfate by a simple GPC analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla; Novoa-Carballal, Ramon; Reis, Rui L; Pashkuleva, Iva

    2015-07-23

    We describe the use of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) setup with four size exclusion columns for analysis of enzymatically digested glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This setup provides information about the molecular weight (Mw) and concentration of all species (low and high Mw) present in the digests in a single measurement. The data about the fraction with high Mw (often omitted in the analysis of GAG digests) provide direct evidence about the mechanisms of action of the enzymes. We proved the feasibility of this methodology by applying it to chondroitin sulfate (CS) substrates with different molecular weight and sulfation pattern and using different enzymes (hyaluronidase and chondroitinase). NMR analysis of the obtained digests fractionated by ultrafiltration confirmed the results obtained by GPC setup and reveal further details about the degradation mechanisms: (i) both enzymes preferentially attack 4-sulfated chondroitin and (ii) additionally to the well documented endolytic activity of hyaluronidase we also observed a low lyase activity for this enzyme reflected in the detected minor exolytic breakage. Finally, we demonstrate that CS with medium molecular weight (12-60kDa) which is sulfated mainly at 6-position can be obtained in good yields by enzymatic digestion and following ultrafiltration.

  3. GPR-Analyzer: a simple tool for quantitative analysis of hierarchical multispecies microarrays.

    PubMed

    Dittami, Simon M; Edvardsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of marine microalgae is important to predict and manage harmful algae blooms. It currently relies mainly on light-microscopic identification and enumeration of algal cells, yet several molecular tools are currently being developed to complement traditional methods. MIcroarray Detection of Toxic ALgae (MIDTAL) is an FP7-funded EU project aiming to establish a hierarchical multispecies microarray as one of these tools. Prototype arrays are currently being tested with field samples, yet the analysis of the large quantities of data generated by these arrays presents a challenge as suitable analysis tools or protocols are scarce. This paper proposes a two-part protocol for the analysis of the MIDTAL and other hierarchical multispecies arrays: Signal-to-noise ratios can be used to determine the presence or absence of signals and to identify potential false-positives considering parallel and hierarchical probes. In addition, normalized total signal intensities are recommended for comparisons between microarrays and in order to relate signals for specific probes to cell concentrations using external calibration curves. Hybridization- and probe-specific detection limits can be calculated to help evaluate negative results. The suggested analyses were implemented in "GPR-Analyzer", a platform-independent and graphical user interface-based application, enabling non-specialist users to quickly and quantitatively analyze hierarchical multispecies microarrays. It is available online at http://folk.uio.no/edvardse/gpranalyzer . PMID:22767354

  4. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the propagation of sinusoidal signals in Bacteriorhodopsin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaya, S.; Candela, M.; Acebal, P.; Carretero, L.; Gomariz, M.; Madrigal, R. F.; Fimia, A.

    2014-05-01

    Time-delay of transmitted pulses with respect to the incident pulse in bacteriorhodopsin films has been studied without the use of a pump beam. Based on a modified saturable absorber model, analytical expressions of the transmitted pulse have been obtained. As a result, time delay, distortion and fractional delay have been theoretically analyzed for sinusoidal pulses with a low background.

  5. Rethinking High School Principal Compensation Practices: An Analysis of Salaries in South Carolina and Theoretical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Tim A.

    2012-01-01

    This study described the current state of principal salaries in South Carolina and compared the salaries of similar size schools by specific report card performance and demographic variables. Based on the findings, theoretical models were proposed, and comparisons were made with current salary data. School boards, human resource personnel and…

  6. A Historical Analysis of Academic Development Using the Theoretical Lens of Pierre Bourdieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloot, Bruce Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a history of academic development by examining how a South African institution coped with the potent social forces confronting it before the collapse of apartheid. Theoretically, it draws on the framework of Pierre Bourdieu and engages with a paper written a decade ago by Naidoo, who also used Bourdieu to understand…

  7. A Preliminary Theoretical Analysis of a Research Experience for Undergraduates Community Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Garsow, Carlos; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Woodley, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    The Mathematical and Theoretical Biology Institute (MTBI) is a successful summer research experience for undergraduates, with a strong record of mentoring Ph.D. graduates, particularly, underrepresented minority students. However, the MTBI program was designed for education in research, not for research in education, and the mechanisms of the…

  8. A theoretical analysis of the lowest excited states in HNO/NOH and HPO/POH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Alberto; Merchán, Manuela; Ross, Björn O.

    1995-07-01

    A theoretical study has been performed on the ground and two lowest excited states of the HNO/NOH and HPO/POH systems. Full geometry optimization was made for all states using the CASSCF method with dynamic correlation effects accounted for by second order perturbation theory (CASPT2). The computed vertical and adiabatic transition energies are in agreement with available experimental data.

  9. A Critical Analysis of Approaches To Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldner, Matthew T.; Monson, Candice M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Although efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have met with relatively limited success, theoretically driven preventive approaches with promising efficacy are emerging. The current article critically reviews investigations of PTSD prevention programs that target persons at risk for being exposed to a traumatic event or who have…

  10. Falling Chains as Variable-Mass Systems: Theoretical Model and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.; Gordo, Paulo M.; Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit, theoretically and experimentally, the fall of a folded U-chain and of a pile-chain. The model calculation implies the division of the whole system into two subsystems of variable mass, allowing us to explore the role of tensional contact forces at the boundary of the subsystems. This justifies, for instance, that the…

  11. Adjectives That Aren't: An ERP-Theoretical Analysis of Adjectives in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Laura B.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the syntactic status of adjectives in Spanish through a crossdisciplinary perspective, incorporating methodologies from both theoretical linguistics and neurolinguistics, specifically, event-related potentials (ERPs). It presents conflicting theories about the syntax of adjectives and explores the ways that the processing…

  12. Methods for Maximizing the Learning Process: A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.

    This research deals with optimizing the instructional process. The approach adopted was to limit consideration to simple learning tasks for which adequate mathematical models could be developed. Optimal or suitable suboptimal instructional strategies were developed for the models. The basic idea was to solve for strategies that either maximize the…

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Spectroscopic Analysis of Cyano-Substituted Styrylpyridine Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Maria Eugenia; Percino, Maria Judith; Chapela, Victor M.; Ceron, Margarita; Soriano-Moro, Guillermo; Lopez-Cruz, Jorge; Melendez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study on the structure, infrared, UV-Vis and 1H NMR data of trans-2-(m-cyanostyryl)pyridine, trans-2-[3-methyl-(m-cyanostyryl)] pyridine and trans-4-(m-cyanostyryl)pyridine is presented. The synthesis was carried out with an efficient Knoevenagel condensation using green chemistry conditions. Theoretical geometry optimizations and their IR spectra were carried out using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) in both gas and solution phases. For theoretical UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectra, the Time-Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) and the Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) methods were used, respectively. The theoretical characterization matched the experimental measurements, showing a good correlation. The effect of cyano- and methyl-substituents, as well as of the N-atom position in the pyridine ring on the UV-Vis, IR and NMR spectra, was evaluated. The UV-Vis results showed no significant effect due to electron-withdrawing cyano- and electron-donating methyl-substituents. The N-atom position, however, caused a slight change in the maximum absorption wavelengths. The IR normal modes were assigned for the cyano- and methyl-groups. 1H NMR spectra showed the typical doublet signals due to protons in the trans position of a double bond. The theoretical characterization was visibly useful to assign accurately the signals in IR and 1H NMR spectra, as well as to identify the most probable conformation that could be present in the formation of the styrylpyridine-like compounds. PMID:23429190

  14. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  15. A simple analysis of the changes during evaporation of a commercial emulsion of unknown composition.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Santos, Orlando D H; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A; Friberg, Stig E

    2008-01-01

    Optical microscopy and centrifugation were used to observe the structural changes during evaporation of a commercial skin lotion of unknown composition. The degree of evaporation was determined from the changed weight of a microscope slide with the emulsion on a defined area and thickness, the evaporation loss versus time being measured by a balance under an infrared lamp. The results revealed not only which parts of the emulsion were most prone to evaporation without chemical analysis, but also gave surprising information as to which kind of structures would appear after extensive evaporation. The importance of these changes for the action of a skin lotion is briefly discussed.

  16. The Analysis of Quantitative Traits for Simple Genetic Models from Parental, F1 and Backcross Data

    PubMed Central

    Elston, R. C.; Stewart, John

    1973-01-01

    The following models are considered for the genetic determination of quantitative traits: segregation at one locus, at two linked loci, at any number of equal and additive unlinked loci, and at one major locus and an indefinite number of equal and additive loci. In each case an appropriate likelihood is given for data on parental, F1 and backcross individuals, assuming that the environmental variation is normally distributed. Methods of testing and comparing the various models are presented, and methods are suggested for the simultaneous analysis of two or more traits. PMID:4711900

  17. Genetic diversity and geographic differentiation analysis of duckweed using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huiling; Xiao, Yao; Jin, Yanling; Li, Xinbo; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Guan, Jiafa

    2012-01-01

    Duckweed, with rapid growth rate and high starch content, is a new alternate feedstock for bioethanol production. The genetic diversity among 27 duckweed populations of seven species in genus Lemna and Spirodela from China and Vietnam was analyzed by ISSR-PCR. Eight ISSR primers generating a reproducible amplification banding pattern had been screened. 89 polymorphic bands were scored out of the 92 banding patterns of 16 Lemna populations, accounting for 96.74% of the polymorphism. 98 polymorphic bands of 11 Spirodela populations were scored out of 99 banding patterns, and the polymorphism was 98.43%. The genetic distance of Lemna varied from 0.127 to 0.784, and from 0.138 to 0.902 for Spirodela, which indicated a high level of genetic variation among the populations studied. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis corresponded well with the genetic distance. Populations from Sichuan China grouped together and so did the populations from Vietnam, which illuminated populations collected from the same region clustered into one group. Especially, the only one population from Tibet was included in subgroup A2 alone. Clustering analysis indicated that the geographic differentiation of collected sites correlated closely with the genetic differentiation of duckweeds. The results suggested that geographic differentiation had great influence on genetic diversity of duckweed in China and Vietnam at the regional scale. This study provided primary guidelines for collection, conservation, characterization of duckweed resources for bioethanol production etc.

  18. In Silico Genome Comparison and Distribution Analysis of Simple Sequences Repeats in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Andrea; López, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a SSRs density analysis in different cassava genomic regions. The information obtained was useful to establish comparisons between cassava's SSRs genomic distribution and those of poplar, flax, and Jatropha. In general, cassava has a low SSR density (~50 SSRs/Mbp) and has a high proportion of pentanucleotides, (24,2 SSRs/Mbp). It was found that coding sequences have 15,5 SSRs/Mbp, introns have 82,3 SSRs/Mbp, 5′ UTRs have 196,1 SSRs/Mbp, and 3′ UTRs have 50,5 SSRs/Mbp. Through motif analysis of cassava's genome SSRs, the most abundant motif was AT/AT while in intron sequences and UTRs regions it was AG/CT. In addition, in coding sequences the motif AAG/CTT was also found to occur most frequently; in fact, it is the third most used codon in cassava. Sequences containing SSRs were classified according to their functional annotation of Gene Ontology categories. The identified SSRs here may be a valuable addition for genetic mapping and future studies in phylogenetic analyses and genomic evolution. PMID:25374887

  19. Theoretical analysis of direct CP violation and differential decay width in in phase space around the resonances and

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Song, Ren; Su, Yu-Mo; Lü, Gang; Zheng, Bo

    2015-09-01

    We perform a theoretical study on direct CP violation in in phase space around the intermediate states and . The possible interference between the amplitudes corresponding to the two resonances is taken into account, and the relative strong phase of the two amplitudes is treated as a free parameter. Our analysis shows that by a properly chosen strong phase, both the CP violation strength and the differential decay width accommodate the experimental results.

  20. Influential and theoretical analysis of nano-defect in the stub resonator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Li, Hongjian; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Chen, Zhiquan; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a classic optical effect based on plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) bus waveguide coupled with a single defective cavity. With the coupled mode theory (CMT), a theoretical model, for the single defective cavity, is established to study spectral features in the plasmonic waveguide. We can achieve a required description for the phenomenon, and the theoretical results also agree well with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Our researches show that the defect's position and size play important roles in the PIT phenomenon. By adjusting the position and size of the defect, we can realize the PIT phenomenon well and get the required slow light effect. The proposed model and findings may provide guidance for fundamental research of the control of light in highly integrated optical circuits. PMID:27477218

  1. Influential and theoretical analysis of nano-defect in the stub resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Li, Hongjian; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Chen, Zhiquan; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a classic optical effect based on plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) bus waveguide coupled with a single defective cavity. With the coupled mode theory (CMT), a theoretical model, for the single defective cavity, is established to study spectral features in the plasmonic waveguide. We can achieve a required description for the phenomenon, and the theoretical results also agree well with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Our researches show that the defect’s position and size play important roles in the PIT phenomenon. By adjusting the position and size of the defect, we can realize the PIT phenomenon well and get the required slow light effect. The proposed model and findings may provide guidance for fundamental research of the control of light in highly integrated optical circuits.

  2. On the independence of visual awareness and metacognition: a signal detection theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jachs, Barbara; Blanco, Manuel J; Grantham-Hill, Sarah; Soto, David

    2015-04-01

    Classically, visual awareness and metacognition are thought to be intimately linked, with our knowledge of the correctness of perceptual choices (henceforth metacognition) being dependent on the level of stimulus awareness. Here we used a signal detection theoretic approach involving a Gabor orientation discrimination task in conjunction with trial-by-trial ratings of perceptual awareness and response confidence in order to gauge estimates of type-1 (perceptual) orientation sensitivity and type-2 (metacognitive) sensitivity at different levels of stimulus awareness. Data from three experiments indicate that while the level of stimulus awareness had a profound impact on type-1 perceptual sensitivity, the awareness effect on type-2 metacognitive sensitivity was far lower by comparison. The present data pose a challenge for signal detection theoretic models in which both type-1 (perceptual) and type-2 (metacognitive) processes are assumed to operate on the same input. More broadly, the findings challenge the commonly held view that metacognition is tightly coupled to conscious states.

  3. Analysis of theoretical and real values of heat consumption in units of the apartment building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavloková, Petra; Richter, Aleš; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is focused on heat consumption in the apartment building and the factors affecting it. The apartment building has three entrances and four over ground floors and one underground floor. In the entire apartment building there are 24 flats, which they are identical (kitchen, bedroom, living room and bathroom). In flats on radiators were installed the ratio heat meters according to Act 318/2012 Coll. by the Metrology Act. The ratio heat meters are used for fair billing of the heat costs for all owners. Continuous monitoring of the actual heat consumption in the flats were collected data of the real heat consumption. The theoretical values of heat consumption were counted in software ENERGIE. The apartment building is divided into24 flats and the calculation was made for each of them. The theoretical and real heat consumption was compared.

  4. Influential and theoretical analysis of nano-defect in the stub resonator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Li, Hongjian; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Chen, Zhiquan; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a classic optical effect based on plasmon induced transparency (PIT) in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) bus waveguide coupled with a single defective cavity. With the coupled mode theory (CMT), a theoretical model, for the single defective cavity, is established to study spectral features in the plasmonic waveguide. We can achieve a required description for the phenomenon, and the theoretical results also agree well with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Our researches show that the defect’s position and size play important roles in the PIT phenomenon. By adjusting the position and size of the defect, we can realize the PIT phenomenon well and get the required slow light effect. The proposed model and findings may provide guidance for fundamental research of the control of light in highly integrated optical circuits. PMID:27477218

  5. Portfolio theory and the alternative decision rule of cost-effectiveness analysis: theoretical and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sendi, Pedram; Al, Maiwenn J; Gafni, Amiram; Birch, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Bridges and Terris (Soc. Sci. Med. (2004)) critique our paper on the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation in the presence of uncertainty and constrained resources within the context of a portfolio of health care programs (Sendi et al. Soc. Sci. Med. 57 (2003) 2207). They argue that by not adopting a formal portfolio theory approach we overlook the optimal solution. We show that these arguments stem from a fundamental misunderstanding of the alternative decision rule of economic evaluation. In particular, the portfolio theory approach advocated by Bridges and Terris is based on the same theoretical assumptions that the alternative decision rule set out to relax. Moreover, Bridges and Terris acknowledge that the proposed portfolio theory approach may not identify the optimal solution to resource allocation problems. Hence, it provides neither theoretical nor practical improvements to the proposed alternative decision rule.

  6. Error control in the GCF: An information-theoretic model for error analysis and coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeyemi, O.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of data-transmission errors within the Ground Communications Facility is analyzed in order to provide error control (both forward error correction and feedback retransmission) for improved communication. Emphasis is placed on constructing a theoretical model of errors and obtaining from it all the relevant statistics for error control. No specific coding strategy is analyzed, but references to the significance of certain error pattern distributions, as predicted by the model, to error correction are made.

  7. Polarimetric glucose sensing using the Brewster-reflection off the eye lens: theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-05-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote et al., and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  8. Experimental Evidence and Theoretical Analysis of Nanobubble Stability Within Graphene Nanoscrolls.

    PubMed

    Mokkapati, V R S S; Ozguz, Volkan; Kosar, Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this study direct observation and dynamics of nanoscale water and nanobubbles within graphene nanoscrolls were reported. The life time of these nanobubbles is much higher than expected, which we propose is due to the combination of several factors including localized heating and surface charge. The stability of the nanobubbles within graphene nanoscrolls has been theoretically analyzed. The nanobubbles inside these nanoscrolls reveal a wide distribution of graphene-water contact angles. Bubble dynamics within these graphene nanochannels was directly observed and recorded.

  9. Segregation during directional melting and its implications on seeded crystal growth: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourret, E. D.; Favier, J. J.; Witt, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    Directional melting of binary systems, as encountered during seeding in melt growth, is analyzed for concurrent compositional changes at the crystal-melt interface. It is shown that steady state conditions cannot normally be reached during seeding and that the growth interface temperature at the initial stages of seeded growth is a function of backmelt conditions. The theoretical treatment is numerically applied to Hg1-xCdXTe and Ga-doped Ge.

  10. Theoretical analysis of triple concentric-tube heat exchangers. Part 1: Mathematical modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Uenal, A.

    1998-10-01

    A theoretical study consisting of two parts is conducted on triple concentric tube heat exchangers. This paper presents the first part of the study and deals with mathematical modeling. The model includes the derivation and possible solutions of the governing differential equations for both counter-flow and parallel-flow arrangements. In the second part of the study, which is under its way for publication, the results of several case studies will be presented.

  11. [Theoretical analysis of factors affecting heat exchange stability of human body with environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Wang, X

    1998-06-01

    Life could not be normal without the heat produced by metabolism of human body being transmitted into environment. This paper discussed the ways of heat exchange of human body with the environment, and analyzed their effects on the stability of heat exchange theoretically. In addition, factors that affects the stability of heat exchange were studied. The results indicate that the environmental temperature is the most important factor.

  12. A Theoretical Analysis of a New Polarimetric Optical Scheme for Glucose Sensing in the Human Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovati, Luigi L.; Boeckle, Stefan; Ansari, Rafat R.; Salzman, Jack A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The challenging task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is the identification and selection of a scheme to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this short communication an earlier approach of Cote et al. is theoretically compared with our new optical scheme. Simulations of the new scheme using the eye model of Navarro, suggest that the new optical geometry can overcome the limitations of the previous approach for in vivo measurements of glucose in a human eye.

  13. Theoretical analysis of copper-ion extraction through hollow fiber supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shiau, C.Y.; Chen, P.Z. )

    1993-10-01

    An understanding of the extraction of metal ions through hollow fiber supported liquid membranes is important for the design of such systems. In this paper, copper-ion extraction through hollow fiber supported liquid membranes containing D2EHPA as a carrier agent is analyzed. Both a rigorous model and a simple model with varied permeation coefficients for the system are proposed. The once-through mode is first modeled and the parametric effects on the extraction rate are discussed. The recycling mode is then modeled. A comparison between the rigorous model and the simple model with varied/constant permeation coefficients is made. From the models it is found that the permeation coefficient is a function of copper ion concentration. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Infrared spectrum analysis of the dissociated states of simple amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sebben, Damien; Pendleton, Phillip

    2014-11-11

    In this work, we present detailed analyses of the dissociation of dilute aqueous solutions of glycine and of lysine over the range 1Analysis of the deconvoluted peak areas due to CO and COO- at pH ranges<4.5 and those due to NH2 and NH3+ for pH>8 resulted in consistent pKa values for the amino acids.

  15. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations. PMID:26965479

  16. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  17. Simple automatic strategy for background drift correction in chromatographic data analysis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Li, He-Dong; Yu, Yong-Jie; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peng; Cui, Hua-Peng; Liu, Ping-Ping; She, Yuan-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Chromatographic background drift correction, which influences peak detection and time shift alignment results, is a critical stage in chromatographic data analysis. In this study, an automatic background drift correction methodology was developed. Local minimum values in a chromatogram were initially detected and organized as a new baseline vector. Iterative optimization was then employed to recognize outliers, which belong to the chromatographic peaks, in this vector, and update the outliers in the baseline until convergence. The optimized baseline vector was finally expanded into the original chromatogram, and linear interpolation was employed to estimate background drift in the chromatogram. The principle underlying the proposed method was confirmed using a complex gas chromatographic dataset. Finally, the proposed approach was applied to eliminate background drift in liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight samples used in the metabolic study of Escherichia coli samples. The proposed method was comparable with three classical techniques: morphological weighted penalized least squares, moving window minimum value strategy and background drift correction by orthogonal subspace projection. The proposed method allows almost automatic implementation of background drift correction, which is convenient for practical use.

  18. Infrared Thermal Imaging: A Tool for Simple, Simultaneous, and High-Throughput Enthalpimetric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barin, Juliano Smanioto; Tischer, Bruna; Oliveira, Alessandra Stangherlin; Wagner, Roger; Costa, Adilson Ben; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the feasibility of infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is demonstrated to show its potential application in analytical chemistry. A system of ITI was combined with disposable microplates to perform enthalpimetric analysis, which was selected as an example in order to show the reliability of this method. In this way, the novel thermal infrared enthalpimetry (TIE) method was evaluated in neutralization, precipitation, redox, and complexation reactions, with a multichannel pipet for adding the reagent and an infrared camera to monitor the temperature of multiple reactions (up to 24 simultaneous reactions) in a contactless way. Analytical signals were obtained in only 10 s, and the difference in temperature (ΔT) before and after the reaction was used for the construction of calibration curves by use of reference solutions. More than 10,000 values were considered for the temperature determination for each reaction. The proposed method was applied for determination of the total acidity of vinegar as well as the chloride, iron, and calcium content of pharmaceuticals. The results were compared with those from conventional techniques (titration), and agreement between 96% and 101% was obtained. Sample throughput could even reach thousands of samples analyzed in 1 h. These preliminary results demonstrate the important features of TIE and possible application for other matrices and analytical parameters. The proposed TIE could be spread to cover other enthalpimetric techniques, different reactors (e.g., microfluidic and paper analytical devices), and portable devices, thus reaching other fields of chemistry. PMID:26562490

  19. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuliang; Ren, Long; Meng, Fankun; Xu, Chen; Wang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM), mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP) and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing. PMID:25966285

  20. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yuliang; Ren, Long; Meng, Fankun; Xu, Chen; Wang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM), mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP) and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing. PMID:25966285

  1. Theoretical Analysis of the Mechanism of Fracture Network Propagation with Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) Fracturing in Tight Oil Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuliang; Ren, Long; Meng, Fankun; Xu, Chen; Wang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) fracturing in tight oil reservoirs often induces complex fracture-network growth, which has a fundamentally different formation mechanism from traditional planar bi-winged fracturing. To reveal the mechanism of fracture network propagation, this paper employs a modified displacement discontinuity method (DDM), mechanical mechanism analysis and initiation and propagation criteria for the theoretical model of fracture network propagation and its derivation. A reasonable solution of the theoretical model for a tight oil reservoir is obtained and verified by a numerical discrete method. Through theoretical calculation and computer programming, the variation rules of formation stress fields, hydraulic fracture propagation patterns (FPP) and branch fracture propagation angles and pressures are analyzed. The results show that during the process of fracture propagation, the initial orientation of the principal stress deflects, and the stress fields at the fracture tips change dramatically in the region surrounding the fracture. Whether the ideal fracture network can be produced depends on the geological conditions and on the engineering treatments. This study has both theoretical significance and practical application value by contributing to a better understanding of fracture network propagation mechanisms in unconventional oil/gas reservoirs and to the improvement of the science and design efficiency of reservoir fracturing.

  2. Theoretical analysis of specimen cooling rate during impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing of freeze-etch specimens.

    PubMed

    Kopstad, G; Elgsaeter, A

    1982-11-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of specimen cooling rate under ideal conditions during impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing. The analysis shows that use of liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cooling medium during impact freezing results in an increase in a specimen cooling rate of no more than 30-40%. We have further shown that when both impact freezing and liquid-jet freezing are conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature, the two methods give approximately the same specimen cooling rate under ideal conditions except for a thin outer layer of the specimen. In this region impact freezing yields the highest cooling rate. PMID:7171712

  3. Information-theoretic analysis of x-ray photoabsorption based threat detection system for check-point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuzhang; Allouche, Genevieve G.; Huang, James; Ashok, Amit; Gong, Qian; Coccarelli, David; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Gehm, Michael E.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present an information-theoretic framework for a systematic study of checkpoint x-ray systems using photoabsorption measurements. Conventional system performance analysis of threat detection systems confounds the effect of the system architecture choice with the performance of a threat detection algorithm. However, our system analysis approach enables a direct comparison of the fundamental performance limits of disparate hardware architectures, independent of the choice of a specific detection algorithm. We compare photoabsorptive measurements from different system architectures to understand the affect of system geometry (angular views) and spectral resolution on the fundamental limits of the system performance.

  4. A Simple and Accurate Analysis of Conductivity Loss in Millimeter-Wave Helical Slow-Wave Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, S. K.; Kumar, Lalit; Basu, B. N.

    2009-04-01

    Electromagnetic field analysis of a helix slow-wave structure was carried out and a closed form expression was derived for the inductance per unit length of the transmission-line equivalent circuit of the structure, taking into account the actual helix tape dimensions and surface current on the helix over the actual metallic area of the tape. The expression of the inductance per unit length, thus obtained, was used for estimating the increment in the inductance per unit length caused due to penetration of the magnetic flux into the conducting surfaces following Wheeler’s incremental inductance rule, which was subsequently interpreted for the attenuation constant of the propagating structure. The analysis was computationally simple and accurate, and accrues the accuracy of 3D electromagnetic analysis by allowing the use of dispersion characteristics obtainable from any standard electromagnetic modeling. The approach was benchmarked against measurement for two practical structures, and excellent agreement was observed. The analysis was subsequently applied to demonstrate the effects of conductivity on the attenuation constant of a typical broadband millimeter-wave helical slow-wave structure with respect to helix materials and copper plating on the helix, surface finish of the helix, dielectric loading effect and effect of high temperature operation - a comparative study of various such aspects are covered.

  5. Simple and rapid human papillomavirus genotyping method by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with two restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linghan; Watanabe, Ken; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer, the third most common cancer that affects women worldwide, is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) and is treatable when detected at an early stage. To date, more than 100 different HPV types have been described, and the development of simple, low-cost, and accurate methods to distinguish HPV genotypes is highly warranted. In this study, an HPV genotyping assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated. This method involved the use of MY09/11 primers followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII. Cervical specimens preserved using CytoRich Blue fluid were collected from 1,134 female volunteers for HPV detection, and 1,111 valid samples were amplified using PCR. The PCR method was sensitive enough to detect 25 copies of HPV18, and three copies of HPV16. Out of 202 PCR-positive samples, HPV genotypes were determined in 189 samples (93.6%) by this RFLP method. Results were then evaluated further by capillary sequencing method. Concordant results between the two tests were as high as 96.0%. Thirteen samples, which tested negative with RFLP, were verified as non-specific amplifications with PCR. In conclusion, this PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzymes HpyCH4V and NlaIII is simple, non-labor intensive, and is applicable for the inexpensive determination of HPV genotypes in clinical samples.

  6. SYMPHONY, an information-theoretic method for gene-gene and gene-environment interaction analysis of disease syndromes.

    PubMed

    Knights, J; Yang, J; Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M

    2013-06-01

    We develop an information-theoretic method for gene-gene (GGI) and gene-environmental interactions (GEI) analysis of syndromes, defined as a phenotype vector comprising multiple quantitative traits (QTs). The K-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric, was derived for multivariate normal distributed phenotype vectors. The utility of the method was challenged with three simulated data sets, the Genetic Association Workshop-15 (GAW15) rheumatoid arthritis data set, a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and atherosclerosis data set from a mouse QT locus study, and the 1000 Genomes data. The dependence of the KWII on effect size, minor allele frequency, linkage disequilibrium, population stratification/admixture, as well as the power and computational time requirements of the novel method was systematically assessed in simulation studies. In these studies, phenotype vectors containing two and three constituent multivariate normally distributed QTs were used and the KWII was found to be effective at detecting GEI associated with the phenotype. High KWII values were observed for variables and variable combinations associated with the syndrome phenotype compared with uninformative variables not associated with the phenotype. The KWII values for the phenotype-associated combinations increased monotonically with increasing effect size values. The KWII also exhibited utility in simulations with non-linear dependence between the constituent QTs. Analysis of the HDL and atherosclerosis data set indicated that the simultaneous analysis of both phenotypes identified interactions not detected in the analysis of the individual traits. The information-theoretic approach may be useful for non-parametric analysis of GGI and GEI of complex syndromes.

  7. Theoretical analysis of errors when estimating snow distribution through point measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, E.; Lehning, M.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, marked improvements in our knowledge of the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of snow properties have been achieved thanks to improvements in measuring technologies (e.g., LIDAR, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and ground-penetrating radar (GPR)). Despite this, objective and quantitative frameworks for the evaluation of errors in snow measurements have been lacking. Here, we present a theoretical framework for quantitative evaluations of the uncertainty in average snow depth derived from point measurements over a profile section or an area. The error is defined as the expected value of the squared difference between the real mean of the profile/field and the sample mean from a limited number of measurements. The model is tested for one- and two-dimensional survey designs that range from a single measurement to an increasing number of regularly spaced measurements. Using high-resolution (~ 1 m) LIDAR snow depths at two locations in Colorado, we show that the sample errors follow the theoretical behavior. Furthermore, we show how the determination of the spatial location of the measurements can be reduced to an optimization problem for the case of the predefined number of measurements, or to the designation of an acceptable uncertainty level to determine the total number of regularly spaced measurements required to achieve such an error. On this basis, a series of figures are presented as an aid for snow survey design under the conditions described, and under the assumption of prior knowledge of the spatial covariance/correlation properties. With this methodology, better objective survey designs can be accomplished that are tailored to the specific applications for which the measurements are going to be used. The theoretical framework can be extended to other spatially distributed snow variables (e.g., SWE - snow water equivalent) whose statistical properties are comparable to those of snow depth.

  8. Comparison of subset-based local and FE-based global digital image correlation: Theoretical error analysis and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, B.; Wang, B.; Lubineau, G.

    2016-07-01

    Subset-based local and finite-element-based (FE-based) global digital image correlation (DIC) approaches are the two primary image matching algorithms widely used for full-field displacement mapping. Very recently, the performances of these different DIC approaches have been experimentally investigated using numerical and real-world experimental tests. The results have shown that in typical cases, where the subset (element) size is no less than a few pixels and the local deformation within a subset (element) can be well approximated by the adopted shape functions, the subset-based local DIC outperforms FE-based global DIC approaches because the former provides slightly smaller root-mean-square errors and offers much higher computation efficiency. Here we investigate the theoretical origin and lay a solid theoretical basis for the previous comparison. We assume that systematic errors due to imperfect intensity interpolation and undermatched shape functions are negligibly small, and perform a theoretical analysis of the random errors or standard deviation (SD) errors in the displacements measured by two local DIC approaches (i.e., a subset-based local DIC and an element-based local DIC) and two FE-based global DIC approaches (i.e., Q4-DIC and Q8-DIC). The equations that govern the random errors in the displacements measured by these local and global DIC approaches are theoretically derived. The correctness of the theoretically predicted SD errors is validated through numerical translation tests under various noise levels. We demonstrate that the SD errors induced by the Q4-element-based local DIC, the global Q4-DIC and the global Q8-DIC are 4, 1.8-2.2 and 1.2-1.6 times greater, respectively, than that associated with the subset-based local DIC, which is consistent with our conclusions from previous work.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Penalized Maximum-Likelihood Patlak Parametric Image Reconstruction in Dynamic PET for Lesion Detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-04-01

    Detecting cancerous lesions is a major clinical application of emission tomography. In a previous work, we studied penalized maximum-likelihood (PML) image reconstruction for lesion detection in static PET. Here we extend our theoretical analysis of static PET reconstruction to dynamic PET. We study both the conventional indirect reconstruction and direct reconstruction for Patlak parametric image estimation. In indirect reconstruction, Patlak parametric images are generated by first reconstructing a sequence of dynamic PET images, and then performing Patlak analysis on the time activity curves (TACs) pixel-by-pixel. In direct reconstruction, Patlak parametric images are estimated directly from raw sinogram data by incorporating the Patlak model into the image reconstruction procedure. PML reconstruction is used in both the indirect and direct reconstruction methods. We use a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) to assess lesion detectability in Patlak parametric images. Simplified expressions for evaluating the lesion detectability have been derived and applied to the selection of the regularization parameter value to maximize detection performance. The proposed method is validated using computer-based Monte Carlo simulations. Good agreements between the theoretical predictions and the Monte Carlo results are observed. Both theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulation results show the benefit of the indirect and direct methods under optimized regularization parameters in dynamic PET reconstruction for lesion detection, when compared with the conventional static PET reconstruction.

  10. Current trends and future challenges in the experimental, theoretical and computational analysis of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transitions.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Deanna M; Keene, F Richard

    2006-05-01

    Mixed-valence chemistry has a long and rich history which is characterised by a strong interplay of experimental, theoretical and computational studies. The intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) transitions generated in dinuclear mixed-valence species (particularly of ruthenium and osmium) have received considerable attention in this context, as they provide a powerful and sensitive probe of the factors which govern electronic delocalisation and the activation barrier to intramolecular electron transfer. This tutorial review discusses classical, semi-classical and quantum mechanical theoretical treatments which have been developed over the past 35 years for the analysis of IVCT absorption bands. Particular attention is drawn to the applicability of these models for the analysis of mixed-valence complexes which lie between the fully localised (Class II) and delocalised (Class III) limits in the "localised-to-delocalised" (Class II-III) regime. A clear understanding of the complex interplay of inter- and intramolecular factors which influence the IVCT process is crucial for the design of experimental studies to probe the localised-to-delocalised regime and in guidance of the development of appropriate theoretical models. PMID:16636726

  11. Theoretical analysis of terahertz parametric oscillator using KTiOPO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongyang; Bing, Pibin; Yuan, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Terahertz parametric oscillator (TPO) using KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal with a noncollinear phase-matching scheme is investigated. Frequency tuning characteristics of terahertz wave (THz-wave) by varying the phase-matching angle and pump wavelength are analyzed. The expression of the effective parametric gain length under the noncollinear phase matching condition is deduced. Parametric gain and absorption characteristics of THz-wave in KTP are theoretically simulated for the first time. The characteristics of KTP for TPO are compared with MgO:LiNbO3. The analyses indicate that KTP is more suitable than MgO:LiNbO3 for TPO.

  12. The theoretical analysis of the Fog removal in the LNG Ambient Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    The fog removal process is one of the important process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. In this study we carried out theoretical study of the fog removal process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. The LNG Ambient Vaporizer in Incheon area was used in our study. The fog temperature and the required energy produced from air fan to remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer were calculated using average temperature of Incheon area in 2012 by Psychometruc Chart method. As a result we can be remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer using Enthalpy[kW] energy in summer season and Enthalpy[kW] in winter season respectively.

  13. Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using Brewster Reflection off of Eye Lens: Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote, et al. (G.L. Cot6, M.D. Fox, and R.B. Northrop: Noninvasive Optical Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using a True Phase Measurement Technique. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 752-756, 1992.) and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  14. Fat stigma and public health: a theoretical framework and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Abu-Odeh, Desiree

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people's well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan's 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral agency, arguing that the use of obesity-related stigma for public health ends violates the bioethics principles of nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice.

  15. Theoretic analysis of liquid film movement and its disintegration near the orifice of atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Zhuang, Fengchen

    1993-04-01

    The movement of a conic liquid film in a restricted space is studied in this paper. The film is produced by a centrifugal nozzle and impinged on by a high-speed gas stream. Based on the theory of aerodynamics, some theoretical formulas for liquid film movement are established, a criterion of breaking up the moving liquid film is proposed and a formula for calculating the size of droplet formed by disintegration of the liquid film is presented. The calculation results can be used as a reference for atomizer design.

  16. Theoretical analysis of fluorescence signals in filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas

    SciTech Connect

    Arevalo, E.; Becker, A.

    2005-10-15

    We study numerically and analytically the role of the combined effect of self-focusing, geometrical focusing, and the plasma defocusing in the formation of the fluorescence signal during the filamentation of a Ti:sapphire laser pulse in nitrogen molecular gas. Results of numerical simulations are used to estimate the number of excited ions in the focal volume, which is proportional to the fluorescence signal. We find good agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental data, showing that such data can be used to get further insight into the effective focal volume during filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in transparent media.

  17. Theoretical analysis of external feedback effect on oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Safumi

    2015-07-01

    The resonant tunneling diode (RTD) is a candidate for a compact and coherent source in the terahertz frequency range. We show theoretically that the oscillation characteristics of RTDs are strongly affected by the external feedback of partially reflected output power. The oscillation frequency and output power largely change with a small amount of the reflected output power as a periodic function of the position of the reflection object. A change in the current-voltage curve, which can be used for the detection of the external feedback, also occurs.

  18. Transitive inference in non-human animals: an empirical and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Transitive inference has long been considered one of the hallmarks of human deductive reasoning. Recent reports of transitive-like behaviors in non-human animals have prompted a flourishing empirical and theoretical search for the mechanism(s) that may mediate this ability in non-humans. In this paper, I begin by describing the transitive inference tasks customarily used with non-human animals and then review the empirical findings. Transitive inference has been demonstrated in a wide variety of species, and the signature effects that usually accompany transitive inference in humans (the serial position effect and the symbolic distance effect) have also been found in non-humans. I then critically analyze the most prominent models of this ability in non-human animals. Some models are cognitive, proposing for instance that animals use the rules of formal logic or form mental representations of the premises to solve the task, others are based on associative mechanisms such as value transfer and reinforcement and non-reinforcement. Overall, I argue that the reinforcement-based models are in a much better empirical and theoretical position. Hence, transitive inference in non-human animals should be considered a property of reinforcement history rather than of inferential processes. I finalize by shedding some light on some promising lines of research.

  19. Dual-Mode Measurement and Theoretical Analysis of Evaporation Kinetics of Binary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hanyu; He, Chi-Ruei; Basdeo, Carl; Li, Ji-Qin; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Li, Si-Yu; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the precision measurement of evaporation kinetics of binary mixtures using a quartz crystal resonator. A thin layer of light alcohol mixture including a volatile (methanol) and a much less volatile (1-butanol) components is deployed on top of the resonator. The normal or acoustic mode is to detect the moving liquid-vapor interface due to evaporation with a great spatial precision on the order of microns, and simultaneously the shear mode is used for in-situ detection of point viscosity or concentration of the mixture near the resonator. A one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to describe the underlying mass transfer and interfacial transport phenomena. Along with the modeling results, the transient evaporation kinetics, moving interface, and the stratification of viscosity of the liquid mixture during evaporation are simultaneously measured by the impedance response of the shear and longitudinal waves emitted from the resonator. The system can be used to characterize complicated evaporation kinetics involving multi-component fuels. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, NSF CMMI-0952646.

  20. Observations and theoretical analysis of highly excited singlet and triplet states of cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidolova-Angelova, E.; Baharis, C.; Roupakas, G.; Kompitsas, M.

    1996-06-01

    We have recorded the 0953-4075/29/12/010/img7 - 50) bound Rydberg spectrum of cadmium. We have fully resolved the multiplet up to n = 19 and partially up to n = 24. Furthermore, we have observed the odd singlet and triplet 5sn f Rydberg series for n = 10 - 22 and n = 4 - 21, respectively. We have applied two- and three-step laser schemes to excite Cd vapour in a heat pipe-like oven which was operated as a thermionic diode for detection. Theoretical calculations were performed for the energies of the 5sn p and 5sn f series using perturbation theory with a zero-order model approximation. There is a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the 5sn p series, the deviation decreasing with n and being 1 - 2 0953-4075/29/12/010/img8 for n = 50. The agreement for the 5sn f is satisfactory. From the quantum defect of the 5sn f series we approximate a value of the effective dipole polarizability of the 0953-4075/29/12/010/img9 ion of 0953-4075/29/12/010/img10 in units of the Bohr radius.

  1. A theoretical analysis of the reaction between CN radicals and NH3.

    PubMed

    Talbi, Dahbia; Smith, Ian W M

    2009-10-14

    The reaction between CN radicals and NH3 molecules has been studied experimentally over an unusually wide range of temperature (25-716 K). Below 295 K, the rate constant exhibits a strong negative dependence on temperature; that is, it increases sharply as the temperature is lowered. The present work analyses the kinetics of this reaction theoretically, both to explain this unusual temperature-dependence and to identify the major products of the reaction--which have not been well established by experiment. Quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T) theoretical level show that the minimum energy path for reaction proceeds: (a) first, via a potential well, which is 39.3 kJ mol(-1) below the energy of the separated reactants, when allowance is made for zero-point energies, corresponding to a quite strongly bound NC-NH3 complex, and (ii) then over a 'submerged' barrier with a crest 10.9 kJ mol(-1) below the energy of the reactants to the products HCN + NH2. These ab initio calculations also demonstrate that there is no low energy path to the products NCNH2 + H. The dynamics of the main reaction have been further investigated using the two transition state model of Klippenstein and co-workers, in which transition state theory is applied at the selected E, J microcanonical level. The rate constants calculated for temperatures between 25 and 200 K are in excellent agreement with the experimental values.

  2. A theoretical analysis of the reaction between ethyl and molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Miller; Stephen J. Klippenstein; Stuart H. Robertson

    2000-12-13

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, the authors have studied the kinetics of the title reaction theoretically over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The agreement between theory and experiment is quite good. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results describing the kinetic behavior, they have been able to deduce a value for the C{sub 2}H{sub 5}-O{sub 2} bond energy of {approximately}34 kcal/mole and a value for the exit-channel transition-state energy of {minus}4.3 kcal/mole (measured from reactants). These numbers compare favorably with the electronic-structure theory predictions of 33.9 kcal/mole and {minus}3.0 kcal/mole, respectively. The master-equation solutions show three distinct temperature regimes for the reaction, discussed extensively in the paper. Above T {approx} 700 K, the reaction can be written as an elementary step, C{sub 2}H{sub 5} + O{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + HO{sub 2}, with the rate coefficient, k(T) = 3.19 x 10{sup {minus}17} T{sup 1.02} exp(2035/RT) cm{sup 3}/molec.-sec., independent of pressure even though the intermediate collision complex may suffer a large number of collisions.

  3. Theoretical analysis on ion transport through polymer networks in electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwanikken, Jos W.; Jing, Yufei; Jadhao, Vikram; Sing, Charles E.; Boon, Niels; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The development of predictive methods for deformable electronics calls for an equally composite theoretical foundation that unites traditionally separated fields. We are pioneering theoretical methods that unite polymer physics with liquid state theory, and develop a dynamical algorithm for inhomogeneous polarizable media between capacitor plates. By a quantitative study of the local molecular correlations we can explain the macroscopic behavior and the induced (non-equilibrium) potentials of mean force between the ions, the supporting medium, and the electrodes. Several timescales are found that correspond to different relaxation processes, related to ion diffusion, double layer formation, and the elastic response of the network. The application of an alternating current reveals a complex frequency-dependent response, by which the relative importance of the different underlying processes can be tuned. Typical non-equilibrium forces, generated by the applied field, are found to arise between regions with sharp gradients in the molecular structure or supporting background. The results may inform experimental efforts on noise reduction in soft capacitors, and suggest new functionality based on frequency-dependent non-equilibrium forces.

  4. Integrated seismic risk analysis using simple weighting method: the case of residential Eskişehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, E.; Tun, M.; Guney, Y.; Mutlu, S.

    2015-06-01

    A large part of the residential areas in Turkey are at risk from earthquakes. The main factors that threaten residential areas during an earthquake are poor quality building stock and soil problems. Liquefaction, loss of bearing capacity, amplification, slope failure, and landslide hazards must be taken into account for residential areas that are close to fault zones and covered with younger sediments. Analyzing these hazards separately and then combining the analyses would ensure a more realistic risk evaluation according to population density than analyzing several risks based on a single parameter. In this study, an integrated seismic risk analysis of central Eskişehir was performed based on two earthquake related parameters, liquefaction and amplification. The analysis used a simple weighting method. Other earthquake-related problems such as loss of bearing capacity, landslides, and slope failures are not significant for Eskişehir because of the geological and the topographical conditions of the region. According to the integrated seismic risk analysis of the Eskişehir residential area, the populated area is found to be generally at medium to high risk during a potential earthquake.

  5. A theoretical and experimental analysis of polymerization shrinkage of bone cement: A potential major source of porosity.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J L; Hasenwinkel, J M; Wixson, R L; Lautenschlager, E P

    2000-10-01

    A theoretical basis for understanding polymerization shrinkage of bone cement is presented based on density changes in converting monomer to polymer. Also, an experimental method, based on dilatometry and the Archimedes' principle is presented for highly precise and accurate measurement of unconstrained volumetric shrinkage of bone cement. Furthermore, a theoretical and experimental analysis of polymerization shrinkage in a constrained deformational state is presented to demonstrate that porosity can develop due to shrinkage. Six bone-cement conditions (Simplex-Ptrade mark vacuum and hand mixed, Endurancetrade mark vacuum mixed, and three two-solution experimental bone cements with higher initial monomer levels) were tested for volumetric shrinkage. It was found that shrinkage varied statistically (p< or = 0.05) from 5.1% (hand-mixed Simplex-Ptrade mark) to 6.7% (vacuum-mixed Simplex-Ptrade mark) to 10.5% for a 0.6:1 (polymer g/monomer mL) two-solution bone cement. Shrinkage was highly correlated with initial monomer content (R(2) = 0.912) but with a lower than theoretically expected rate. This discrepancy was due to the presence of residual monomer after polymerization. Using previously determined residual monomer levels, the theoretic shrinkage analysis was shown to be predictive of the shrinkage results with some residual monomer left after polymerization. Polymerization of a two-solution bone cement in a constrained state resulted in pores developing with volumes predicted by the theory that they are the result of shrinkage. The results of this study show that shrinkage of bone cement under certain constrained conditions may result in the development of porosity at the implant-bone cement interface and elsewhere in the polymerizing cement mantle. PMID:10906694

  6. Theoretical modeling of enzyme catalytic power: analysis of "cratic" and electrostatic factors in catechol O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roca, Maite; Martí, Sergio; Andrés, Juan; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki; Bertrán, Juan; Williams, Ian H

    2003-06-25

    A comparative theoretical study of a bimolecular reaction in aqueous solution and catalyzed by the enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been carried out by a combination of two hybrid QM/MM techniques: statistical simulation methods and internal energy minimizations. In contrast to previous studies by other workers, we have located and characterized transition structures for the reaction in the enzyme active site, in water and in a vacuum, and our potential of mean force calculations are based upon reaction coordinates obtained from features of the potential energy surfaces in the condensed media, not from the gas phase. The AM1/CHARMM calculated free energy of activation for the reaction of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) with catecholate catalyzed by COMT is 15 kcal mol(-1) lower the AM1/TIP3P free-energy barrier for the reaction of the trimethylsulfonium cation with the catecholate anion in water at 300 K, in agreement with previous estimates. The thermodynamically preferred form of the reactants in the uncatalyzed model reaction in water is a solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP). Conversion of the SSIP into a contact ion pair, with a structure resembling that of the Michaelis complex (MC) for the reaction in the COMT active site, is unfavorable by 7 kcal mol(-1), largely due to reorganization of the solvent. We have considered alternative ways to estimate the so-called "cratic" free energy for bringing the reactant species together in the correct orientation for reaction but conclude that direct evaluation of the free energy of association by means of molecular dynamics simulation with a simple standard-state correction is probably the best approach. The latter correction allows for the fact that the size of the unit cell employed with the periodic boundary simulations does not correspond to the standard state concentration of 1 M. Consideration of MC-like species allows a helpful decomposition of the catalytic effect into preorganization and reorganization

  7. Graph Theoretical Analysis Reveals: Women's Brains Are Better Connected than Men's.

    PubMed

    Szalkai, Balázs; Varga, Bálint; Grolmusz, Vince

    2015-01-01

    Deep graph-theoretic ideas in the context with the graph of the World Wide Web led to the definition of Google's PageRank and the subsequent rise of the most popular search engine to date. Brain graphs, or connectomes, are being widely explored today. We believe that non-trivial graph theoretic concepts, similarly as it happened in the case of the World Wide Web, will lead to discoveries enlightening the structural and also the functional details of the animal and human brains. When scientists examine large networks of tens or hundreds of millions of vertices, only fast algorithms can be applied because of the size constraints. In the case of diffusion MRI-based structural human brain imaging, the effective vertex number of the connectomes, or brain graphs derived from the data is on the scale of several hundred today. That size facilitates applying strict mathematical graph algorithms even for some hard-to-compute (or NP-hard) quantities like vertex cover or balanced minimum cut. In the present work we have examined brain graphs, computed from the data of the Human Connectome Project, recorded from male and female subjects between ages 22 and 35. Significant differences were found between the male and female structural brain graphs: we show that the average female connectome has more edges, is a better expander graph, has larger minimal bisection width, and has more spanning trees than the average male connectome. Since the average female brain weighs less than the brain of males, these properties show that the female brain has better graph theoretical properties, in a sense, than the brain of males. It is known that the female brain has a smaller gray matter/white matter ratio than males, that is, a larger white matter/gray matter ratio than the brain of males; this observation is in line with our findings concerning the number of edges, since the white matter consists of myelinated axons, which, in turn, roughly correspond to the connections in the brain graph

  8. Graph Theoretical Analysis Reveals: Women’s Brains Are Better Connected than Men’s

    PubMed Central

    Szalkai, Balázs; Varga, Bálint; Grolmusz, Vince

    2015-01-01

    Deep graph-theoretic ideas in the context with the graph of the World Wide Web led to the definition of Google’s PageRank and the subsequent rise of the most popular search engine to date. Brain graphs, or connectomes, are being widely explored today. We believe that non-trivial graph theoretic concepts, similarly as it happened in the case of the World Wide Web, will lead to discoveries enlightening the structural and also the functional details of the animal and human brains. When scientists examine large networks of tens or hundreds of millions of vertices, only fast algorithms can be applied because of the size constraints. In the case of diffusion MRI-based structural human brain imaging, the effective vertex number of the connectomes, or brain graphs derived from the data is on the scale of several hundred today. That size facilitates applying strict mathematical graph algorithms even for some hard-to-compute (or NP-hard) quantities like vertex cover or balanced minimum cut. In the present work we have examined brain graphs, computed from the data of the Human Connectome Project, recorded from male and female subjects between ages 22 and 35. Significant differences were found between the male and female structural brain graphs: we show that the average female connectome has more edges, is a better expander graph, has larger minimal bisection width, and has more spanning trees than the average male connectome. Since the average female brain weighs less than the brain of males, these properties show that the female brain has better graph theoretical properties, in a sense, than the brain of males. It is known that the female brain has a smaller gray matter/white matter ratio than males, that is, a larger white matter/gray matter ratio than the brain of males; this observation is in line with our findings concerning the number of edges, since the white matter consists of myelinated axons, which, in turn, roughly correspond to the connections in the brain graph

  9. Theoretical analysis of [5.5.6]cyclacenes: electronic properties, strain energies and substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Esser, Birgit

    2015-03-21

    A novel class of cyclic conjugated molecules, composed of annelated five- and six-membered rings, is proposed and theoretically investigated using density functional theory and multireference methods with regards to their structures, strain energies, aromaticity (NICS values), electronic ground states, band gaps, and the effect of substituents. These [5.5.6]ncyclacenes are predicted to be low band gap materials (below 1 eV) with, depending on their size, closed-shell singlet ground states. The strain energies from n = 4 upwards lie in the range of the synthetically known [n]cycloparaphenylenes. An investigation of the effect of rim-substitution by methyl, alkynyl, thiomethyl or phenyl groups on the electronic ground states showed that thiomethyl-substitution leads to [5.5.6]ncyclacenes with closed-shell singlet ground states for all sizes n investigated. PMID:25700011

  10. Theoretical analysis of solar-driven natural convection energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, E.W.; Lasier, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical study of solar-powered natural convection tower (chimney) performance. Both heated and cooled towers are analyzed; the latter uses evaporating water as the cooling mechanism. The results, which are applicable to any open-cycle configuration, show that the ideal conversion efficiencies of both heated and cooled natural convection towers are linear functions of height. The performance of a heated tower in an adiabatic atmosphere ideally approaches the Carnot efficiency limit of approx. = 3.4%/km (1.0%/1000 ft). Including water pumping requirements, the ideal limit to cooled tower performance is approx. = 2.75%/km (0.85%/1000 ft). Ambient atmospheric conditions such as vertical temperature gradient (lapse rate) and relative humidity can have significantly adverse effects on natural convection tower performance. The combined effects of lapse rate and ambient relative humidity are especially important to cooled natural convection towers.

  11. Research and theoretical analysis of new fiber Bragg grating sensor demodulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaocheng; Wang, Hai-tong; Wang, Ping

    2015-02-01

    In order to measure high-precision and large scale sensing signal and solve two-values question in signal detecting of strain sensor, we design a new kind of FBG matching demodulation system based on fiber Bragg grating matching demodulation principle. Through paralleling connection two groups of grating-matching whose center wavelength equal to sensing grating's, and then analyzing reflectance spectrum, we could get the relationship of strain and optical power detected by photoelectric detector. Then we can set up the theoretical model and complete system simulation. The simulation results show that the scheme is feasible. The scheme not only can solve the problem of double values and can simultaneously detect the positive and negative strain. The sensor measurement range can be up to952ue.

  12. Theoretical and experimental analysis of air cooling for intracavitary microwave hyperthermia applicators.

    PubMed

    Yeh, M M; Trembly, B S; Douple, E B; Ryan, T P; Hoopes, P J; Jonsson, E; Heaney, J A

    1994-09-01

    An intracavitary microwave antenna array system has been developed and tested for the hyperthermia treatment of prostate cancer at Thayer School of Engineering and Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. The antenna array consists of a choked dipole antenna inserted into the urethra and a choked dipole antenna eccentrically embedded in a Teflon obturator inserted into the rectum. To prevent unnecessary heating of the healthy tissue that surrounds each applicator, an air cooling system has been incorporated into the rectal applicator. The air cooling system was designed and modeled theoretically using a numerical solution of heat and momentum equations within the applicator, and an analytical solution of the Pennes bioheat equation in tissue surrounding the applicator. The 3-D temperature distribution produced by the air-cooled rectal applicator was measured in a perfused canine prostate.

  13. Theoretical analysis of [5.5.6]cyclacenes: electronic properties, strain energies and substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Esser, Birgit

    2015-03-21

    A novel class of cyclic conjugated molecules, composed of annelated five- and six-membered rings, is proposed and theoretically investigated using density functional theory and multireference methods with regards to their structures, strain energies, aromaticity (NICS values), electronic ground states, band gaps, and the effect of substituents. These [5.5.6]ncyclacenes are predicted to be low band gap materials (below 1 eV) with, depending on their size, closed-shell singlet ground states. The strain energies from n = 4 upwards lie in the range of the synthetically known [n]cycloparaphenylenes. An investigation of the effect of rim-substitution by methyl, alkynyl, thiomethyl or phenyl groups on the electronic ground states showed that thiomethyl-substitution leads to [5.5.6]ncyclacenes with closed-shell singlet ground states for all sizes n investigated.

  14. Theoretical analysis of the focusing of acoustic waves by two-dimensional sonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bikash C.; Ye, Zhen

    2003-03-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment on acoustic lenses, we perform numerical calculations based on a multiple scattering technique to investigate the focusing of acoustic waves with sonic crystals formed by rigid cylinders in air. The focusing effects for crystals of various shapes are examined. The dependence of the focusing length on the filling factor is also studied. It is observed that both the shape and filling factor play a crucial role in controlling the focusing. Furthermore, the robustness of the focusing against disorders is studied. The results show that the sensitivity of the focusing behavior depends on the strength of positional disorders. The theoretical results compare favorably with the experimental observations, reported by Cervera, et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023902 (2002)].

  15. Cardiovascular alterations in Macaca monkeys exposed to stationary magnetic fields: experimental observations and theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Gaffey, C.T.; Moyer, B.R.; Budinger, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the intraarterial blood pressure of adult male Macaca monkeys during acute exposure to homogeneous stationary magnetic fields ranging in strength up to 1.5 tesla. An instantaneous, field strength-dependent increase in the ECG signal amplitude at the locus of the T wave was observed in fields greater than 0.1 tesla. The temporal sequence of this signal in the ECG record and its reversibility following termination of the magnetic field exposure are consistent with an earlier suggestion that it arises from a magnetically induced aortic blood flow potential superimposed on the native T-wave signal. No measurable alterations in blood pressure resulted from exposure to fields up to 1.5 tesla. This experimental finding is in agreement with theoretical calculations of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on blood flow in the major arteries of the cardiovascular system. 27 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Theoretical analysis of H-Horn annular phased array system for heating deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Tianquan, D; Zheng, L; Wei, R

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a type of annular phased array system--H-Horn APA. The phase and amplitude control of power deposition patterns for this system are theoretically analyzed at a frequency of 200 MHz. The formulas for calculating E-field and SAR for this APA system are derived, and can be applied to other type APA systems. Models of computerized tomography (CT) scans from liver and lung regions have been used, respectively, for predicting optimization of E-field and SAR patterns in the case of the relative phase and amplitude changes. It is shown that the techniques of the phase and amplitude control of SAR patterns result in more selectively and effectively heating of tumors situated eccentrically and deeply within bodies of patients. The APA hyperthermia described in this paper shows great promise, and it looks very useful for developing clinical applications.

  17. Theoretical analysis of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a porous-film waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicevic, Nevena; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Petrovic, Jovana

    2015-05-01

    Here we present a comprehensive theoretical study of a porous-film sensor of fluid in Mach-Zehnder configuration. It is found that the penetration of a fluid into the film pores causes amplitude and phase modulation of the interferometer output signal, maximizing the sensitivity at a certain value of the fluid refractive index. We define the Fisher information for this interferometer and show that it is a good measure of its sensitivity, hence suitable as an evaluation function in sensor optimization. We propose the sensor structure and design thin films that maximize its sensitivity to water, alcohol solutions and oils. The estimated sensitivity of the order of {{10}-5} RIU to the fluid refractive index and of 5 pm to the changes in the film thickness indicate the potential of this sensor for applications in biomedicine, chemistry and environmental protection, and as a tool for the film characterization.

  18. Using a Simple Binomial Model to Assess Improvement in Predictive Capability: Sequential Bayesian Inference, Hypothesis Testing, and Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sigeti, David E.; Pelak, Robert A.

    2012-09-11

    We present a Bayesian statistical methodology for identifying improvement in predictive simulations, including an analysis of the number of (presumably expensive) simulations that will need to be made in order to establish with a given level of confidence that an improvement has been observed. Our analysis assumes the ability to predict (or postdict) the same experiments with legacy and new simulation codes and uses a simple binomial model for the probability, {theta}, that, in an experiment chosen at random, the new code will provide a better prediction than the old. This model makes it possible to do statistical analysis with an absolute minimum of assumptions about the statistics of the quantities involved, at the price of discarding some potentially important information in the data. In particular, the analysis depends only on whether or not the new code predicts better than the old in any given experiment, and not on the magnitude of the improvement. We show how the posterior distribution for {theta} may be used, in a kind of Bayesian hypothesis testing, both to decide if an improvement has been observed and to quantify our confidence in that decision. We quantify the predictive probability that should be assigned, prior to taking any data, to the possibility of achieving a given level of confidence, as a function of sample size. We show how this predictive probability depends on the true value of {theta} and, in particular, how there will always be a region around {theta} = 1/2 where it is highly improbable that we will be able to identify an improvement in predictive capability, although the width of this region will shrink to zero as the sample size goes to infinity. We show how the posterior standard deviation may be used, as a kind of 'plan B metric' in the case that the analysis shows that {theta} is close to 1/2 and argue that such a plan B should generally be part of hypothesis testing. All the analysis presented in the paper is done with a general

  19. Theoretical analysis of breakdown probabilities and jitter in single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. L.; Ong, D. S.; Yow, H. K.

    2007-08-01

    A simple random ionization path length model is used to investigate the breakdown probabilities and jitter in single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) with submicron multiplication widths. The simulation results show that increasing the multiplication width may not necessarily increase the breakdown probability relative to the breakdown voltage, as the effect of dead space becomes more dominant in thinner multiplication regions at realistic ionization threshold energies for GaAs. On the other hand, reducing the multiplication width results in smaller breakdown time and jitter, despite the increased dead space. The effect of dead space in degrading breakdown time and jitter is relatively weak and further compensated by the stronger influence of large feedback ionization at high fields. Thus, SPAD designs that can minimize the dark count rate may potentially benefit from enhanced breakdown probability, breakdown time, and jitter by reducing the thickness of the multiplication region.

  20. Theoretical and experimental analysis of injection seeding a Q-switched alexandrite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. R.; Lee, H. S.; Glesne, T. R.; Monosmith, B.; Schwemmer, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 MHz in the output of broadband, tunable, solid state lasers. Dye lasers, CW and pulsed diode lasers, and other solid state lasers have been used as injection seeders. By optimizing the fundamental laser parameters of pump energy, Q-switched pulse build-up time, injection seed power and mode matching, one can achieve significant improvements in the spectral purity of the Q-switched output. These parameters are incorporated into a simple model for analyzing spectral purity and pulse build-up processes in a Q-switched, injection-seeded laser. Experiments to optimize the relevant parameters of an alexandrite laser show good agreement.