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Sample records for simplest pyrrolizidine alcohols

  1. World's simplest electric train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criado, C.; Alamo, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the physics of the "world's simplest electric train." The "train" consists of a AA battery with a strong magnet on each end that moves through a helical coil of copper wire. The motion of the train results from the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current in the wire and the magnetic field of the magnets. We calculate the force of this interaction and the terminal velocity of the train due to eddy currents and friction. Our calculations provide a good illustration of Faraday's and Lenz's laws, as well as of the concepts of the Lorentz force and eddy currents.

  2. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stap...

  3. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment.

  4. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  5. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  7. The simplest demonstrations of quantum nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Dylan J.; Palsson, Matthew S.; Pryde, Geoff J.; Scott, Andrew J.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the complexity cost of demonstrating the key types of nonclassical correlations—Bell inequality violation, Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR)-steering, and entanglement—with independent agents, theoretically and in a photonic experiment. We show that the complexity cost exhibits a hierarchy among these three tasks, mirroring the recently discovered hierarchy for how robust they are to noise. For Bell inequality violations, the simplest test is the well-known Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt test, but for EPR-steering and entanglement the tests that involve the fewest number of detection patterns require nonprojective measurements. The simplest EPR-steering test requires a choice of projective measurement for one agent and a single nonprojective measurement for the other, while the simplest entanglement test uses just a single nonprojective measurement for each agent. In both of these cases, we derive our inequalities using the concept of circular two-designs. This leads to the interesting feature that in our photonic demonstrations, the correlation of interest is independent of the angle between the linear polarizers used by the two parties, which thus require no alignment.

  8. The simplest possible bouncing quantum cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Patrick; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present and expand the simplest possible quantum cosmological bouncing model already discussed in previous works: the trajectory formulation of quantum mechanics applied to cosmology (through the Wheeler-De Witt equation) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) minisuperspace without spatial curvature. The initial conditions that were previously assumed were such that the wave function would not change its functional form but instead provide a dynamics to its parameters. Here, we consider a more general situation, in practice consisting of modified Gaussian wave functions, aiming at obtaining a nonsingular bounce from a contracting phase. Whereas previous works consistently obtain very symmetric bounces, we find that it is possible to produce highly non-symmetric solutions, and even cases for which multiple bounces naturally occur. We also introduce a means of treating the shear in this category of models by quantizing in the Bianchi I minisuperspace.

  9. Graphic presentation of the simplest statistical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Tsvetan B.

    This paper presents graphically well known tests about change of population mean and standard deviation, about comparison of population means and standard deviations, as well as about significance of correlation and regression coefficients. The critical bounds and criteria for variability with statistical guaranty P=95 % and P=99 % are presented as dependences on the data number n. The graphs further give fast visual solutions of the direct problem (estimation of confidence interval for specified P and n), as well of the reverse problem (estimation of n, which is necessary for achieving a desired statistical guaranty of the result). The aim of the work is to present the simplest statistical tests in a comprehensible and convenient graphs, which will be always at hand. The graphs may be useful in the investigations of time series in astronomy, geophysics, ecology etc., as well as in the education.

  10. Solving the simplest theory of quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Flauger, Raphael; Gorbenko, Victor

    2012-09-01

    We solve what is quite likely the simplest model of quantum gravity, the worldsheet theory of an infinitely long, free bosonic string in Minkowski space. Contrary to naive expectations, this theory is non-trivial. We illustrate this by constructing its exact factorizable S-matrix. Despite its simplicity, the theory exhibits many of the salient features expected from more mature quantum gravity models, including the absence of local off-shell observables, a minimal length, as well as (integrable relatives of) black holes. All these properties follow from the exact S-matrix. We show that the complete finite volume spectrum can be reconstructed analytically from this S-matrix with the help of the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz. We argue that considered as a UV complete relativistic 2-dimensional quantum field theory the model exhibits a new type of renormalization group flow behavior, "asymptotic fragility". Asymptotically fragile flows do not originate from a UV fixed point.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium confusum Coincy.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Houari; Tomassini, Lamberto; Venditti, Alessandro; Marouf, Abderrazak; Bennaceur, Malika; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    Four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely 7-O-angeloyllycopsamine N-oxide 1, echimidine N-oxide 2, echimidine 3 and 7-O-angeloylretronecine 4, were isolated for the first time from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Echium confusum Coincy, through bioassay-guided approach. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. All the isolates compounds showed moderate activities in inhibiting AChE, with IC50 0.276-0.769.

  12. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  13. Ornithine Decarboxylase, Polyamines, and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Senecio and Crotalaria

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Cohen, Eric J.; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here—using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors—endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence—with relatively very high levels of these compounds—in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence. PMID:16665870

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Perceptual crossing: the simplest online paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Auvray, Malika; Rohde, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. PMID:22723776

  16. The simplest integrated multicellular organism unveiled.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Yoko; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Noga, Akira; Hirono, Masafumi; Olson, Bradley J S C; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Volvocine green algae represent the "evolutionary time machine" model lineage for studying multicellularity, because they encompass the whole range of evolutionary transition of multicellularity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to >500-celled Volvox. Multicellular volvocalean species including Gonium pectorale and Volvox carteri generally have several common morphological features to survive as integrated multicellular organisms such as "rotational asymmetry of cells" so that the cells become components of the individual and "cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos" to maintain the species-specific form of the multicellular individual before secretion of new extracellular matrix (ECM). However, these morphological features have not been studied in the four-celled colonial volvocine species Tetrabaena socialis that is positioned in the most basal lineage within the colonial or multicellular volvocine greens. Here we established synchronous cultures of T. socialis and carried out immunofluorescence microscopic and ultrastructural observations to elucidate these two morphological attributes. Based on immunofluorescence microscopy, four cells of the mature T. socialis colony were identical in morphology but had rotational asymmetry in arrangement of microtubular rootlets and separation of basal bodies like G. pectorale and V. carteri. Ultrastructural observations clearly confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos of T. socialis even after the formation of new flagella in each daughter protoplast within the parental ECM. Therefore, these two morphological attributes might have evolved in the common four-celled ancestor of the colonial volvocine algae and contributed to the further increase in cell number and complexity of the multicellular individuals of this model lineage. T. socialis is one of the simplest integrated multicellular organisms in which four identical cells constitute the individual.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  20. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis.

  1. New records of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-feeding insects. Hemiptera and Coleoptera on Senecio brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Klitzke; Trigo

    2000-04-01

    New records are reported for a Hemipteran (Largus rufipennis) and a Coleopteran (Chauliognathus fallax) feeding on Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae) and sequestering pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Both insects are warningly colored and rejected by predators.

  2. Independent Recruitment of a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase for Safe Accumulation of Sequestered Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Grasshoppers and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants. PMID:22363737

  3. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  4. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  5. Variability for the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Crotolaria juncea L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiuhong; Khan, I; Mosjidis, J A; Wang, Hui; Livant, P

    2005-08-01

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is the most widely grown legume used as green manure in the tropics where it is also grown as a fiber and animal fodder crop. It has been reported that sunn hemp seeds contain several pyrrolizidine alkaloids that when ingested in sufficient amount can be toxic to animals and birds. No information is available regarding variability for the presences of the different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. The objective of this research was to analyze sunn hemp seeds of nine populations that originated in different parts of the world for several pyrrolizidine alkaloids to determine their level of variability for the presence of these compounds and to quantify the total amount of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the seeds. Of the nine pyrrolizidine alkaloids tested, the sunn hemp populations only had junceine and trichodesmine. PI 207657 had very low levels of both alkaloids and PI 314239, PI 322377, PI 346297, and the US cultivar Tropic Sun had very low levels of trichodesmine. Although juncein was present in higher amounts than trichodesmine in the seeds of most accessions, its value was deemed to be small. The amount of pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in the sunn hemp populations studied was low.

  6. The Number Behind the Simplest SIC-POVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Ingemar

    2017-08-01

    The simple concept of a SIC poses a very deep problem in algebraic number theory, as soon as the dimension of Hilbert space exceeds three. A detailed description of the simplest possible example is given.

  7. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. To determine whether the attraction of the butterflies to the plant is an accurate indicator of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides. The alkaloid fraction of a methanolic extract of G. spilanthoides was analysed using HPLC with electrospray ionisation MS and MS/MS. Two HPLC approaches were used, that is, a C18 reversed-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, and a porous graphitic carbon column with a basic mobile phase. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were confirmed, with the free base forms more prevalent than the N-oxides. The major alkaloids detected were lycopsamine and intermedine. The porous graphitic carbon HPLC column, with basic mobile phase conditions, resulted in better resolution of more pyrrolizidine alkaloids including rinderine, the heliotridine-based epimer of intermedine. Based on the MS/MS and high-resolution MS data, gymnocoronine was tentatively identified as an unusual C9 retronecine ester with 2,3-dihydroxy-2-propenylbutanoic acid. Among several minor-abundance monoester pyrrolizidines recognised, spilanthine was tentatively identified as an ester of isoretronecanol with the unusual 2-acetoxymethylbutanoic acid. The butterflies proved to be reliable indicators for the presence of pro-toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in G. spilanthoides, the first aquatic plant shown to produce these alkaloids. The presence of the anti-herbivory alkaloids may contribute to the plant's invasive capabilities and would certainly be a consideration in any risk assessment of deliberate utilisation of the plant. The prolific growth of the plant and the structural diversity of its pyrrolizidine alkaloids may make it ideal for investigating biosynthetic

  8. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  9. Efficient Computing Budget Allocation for Finding Simplest Good Designs

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qing-Shan; Zhou, Enlu; Chen, Chun-Hung

    2012-01-01

    In many applications some designs are easier to implement, require less training data and shorter training time, and consume less storage than the others. Such designs are called simple designs, and are usually preferred over complex ones when they all have good performance. Despite the abundant existing studies on how to find good designs in simulation-based optimization (SBO), there exist few studies on finding simplest good designs. We consider this important problem in this paper, and make the following contributions. First, we provide lower bounds for the probabilities of correctly selecting the m simplest designs with top performance, and selecting the best m such simplest good designs, respectively. Second, we develop two efficient computing budget allocation methods to find m simplest good designs and to find the best m such designs, respectively; and show their asymptotic optimalities. Third, we compare the performance of the two methods with equal allocations over 6 academic examples and a smoke detection problem in wireless sensor networks. We hope that this work brings insight to finding the simplest good designs in general. PMID:23687404

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  12. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Is the simplest chemical reaction really so simple?

    PubMed

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier

    2014-01-07

    Modern computational methods have become so powerful for predicting the outcome for the H + H2 → H2 + H bimolecular exchange reaction that it might seem further experiments are not needed. Nevertheless, experiments have led the way to cause theorists to look more deeply into this simplest of all chemical reactions. The findings are less simple.

  15. Is the simplest chemical reaction really so simple?

    PubMed Central

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N.; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C.; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Modern computational methods have become so powerful for predicting the outcome for the H + H2 → H2 + H bimolecular exchange reaction that it might seem further experiments are not needed. Nevertheless, experiments have led the way to cause theorists to look more deeply into this simplest of all chemical reactions. The findings are less simple. PMID:24367084

  16. Dynamical phase transition in the simplest molecular chain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshev, V. A.; Muzychka, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    We consider the dynamics of the simplest chain of a large number N of particles. In the double scaling limit, we find the partition of the parameter space into two domains: for one domain, the supremum over the time interval ( 0,∞) of the relative extension of the chain tends to 1 as N → ∞, and for the other domain, to infinity.

  17. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. )

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  18. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins. PMID:26959016

  19. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  20. Glucuronidation, a new metabolic pathway for pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qi; Yang, Li; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yong; Fong, Alan; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Lu, Yan-Liu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) possess significant hepatotoxicity to humans and animals after metabolic activation by liver P450 enzymes. Metabolism pathways of PAs have been studied for several decades, including metabolic activation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and hydrolysis. However, the glucuronidation of intact PAs has not been investigated, although glucuronidation plays an important role in the elimination and detoxication of xenobiotics. In this study, PAs glucuronidation was investigated, and three important points were found. First, we demonstrated that senecionine (SEN)-a representative hepatotoxic PA-could be conjugated by glucuronic acid via an N-glucuronidation reaction catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase in human liver microsomes. Second, glucuronidation of SEN was catalyzed not only by human but also other animal species and showed significant species differences. Rabbits, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans showed the significantly higher glucuronidation activity than mice, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs on SEN. Kinetics of SEN glucuronidation in humans, pigs, and rabbits followed the one-site binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation, while cattle and sheep followed the two-sites binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Third, besides SEN, other hepatotoxic PAs including monocrotaline, adonifoline, and isoline also underwent N-glucuronidation in humans and several animal species such as rabbits, cattle, sheep, and pigs.

  1. Selection of the simplest RNA that binds isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    LOZUPONE, CATHERINE; CHANGAYIL, SHANKAR; MAJERFELD, IRENE; YARUS, MICHAEL

    2003-01-01

    We have identified the simplest RNA binding site for isoleucine using selection-amplification (SELEX), by shrinking the size of the randomized region until affinity selection is extinguished. Such a protocol can be useful because selection does not necessarily make the simplest active motif most prominent, as is often assumed. We find an isoleucine binding site that behaves exactly as predicted for the site that requires fewest nucleotides. This UAUU motif (16 highly conserved positions; 27 total), is also the most abundant site in successful selections on short random tracts. The UAUU site, now isolated independently at least 63 times, is a small asymmetric internal loop. Conserved loop sequences include isoleucine codon and anticodon triplets, whose nucleotides are required for amino acid binding. This reproducible association between isoleucine and its coding sequences supports the idea that the genetic code is, at least in part, a stereochemical residue of the most easily isolated RNA–amino acid binding structures. PMID:14561881

  2. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent liver toxins that have been identified in over 6,000 plants throughout the world. Alkaloids are nitrogen-based compounds with potent biological activity. About half of the identified PAs are toxic and several cause cancer (carcinogenic). PA-containing plants...

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing toxic plants (Scenecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium, and Echium spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) containing plants are found throughout the world and are probably the most common plant cause of poisoning of livestock, wildlife and humans. PAs are potent liver toxins that under some conditions can be carcinogenic. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce hi...

  4. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  5. The anatomy of the simplest Duflo-Zuker mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Zuker, Andrés P.

    2010-10-01

    The simplest version of the Duflo-Zuker mass model (due entirely to the late Jean Duflo) is described by following step by step the published computer code. The model contains six macroscopic monopole terms leading asymptotically to a Liquid Drop form, three microscopic terms supposed to mock configuration mixing (multipole) corrections to the monopole shell effects, and one term in charge of detecting deformed nuclei and calculating their masses. A careful analysis of the model suggests a program of future developments that includes a complementary approach to masses based on an independently determined monopole Hamiltonian, a better description of deformations and specific suggestions for the treatment of three body forces.

  6. The Microwave Spectrum of Lactaldehyde, the Simplest Chiral Sugar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Guillemin, J.-C.; Alonso, José L.

    2017-06-01

    Among the sugar compounds whose conformations have been determined by different spectroscopic techniques the structure of the lactaldehyde (CH_3CH(OH)CHO), the simplest chiral sugar, is conspicuously absent. It is of great interest in the field of astrophysics, where the ongoing search in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been able to detect, based on the rotational spectra identification, the simplest C_{2} sugar glycoaldehyde. Lactaldehyde is a solid with high melting point and low vapor pressure, preventing easy measurements of its gas-phase spectra. Herein, crystalline DL-lactaldehyde samples have been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and the monomer and the non-centrosymmetric hemiacetal dimer have been revealed in a supersonic expansion by broadband Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy. This rotational study enables the search of the lactaldehyde in the ISM. Hollis JM; Lovas FJ; Jewell. Astrophys J. (2000), 540(2):L107-L110 Hollis JM; Jewell PR; Lovas FJ; Remijan A. Astrophys J. (2004), 613(1):L45-L48.

  7. One qubit and one photon: The simplest polaritonic heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiao; Singh, Swati; Zhang, Keye; Zhang, Weiping; Meystre, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid quantum systems can often be described in terms of polaritons. These are quasiparticles formed of superpositions of their constituents, with relative weights depending on some control parameter in their interaction. In many cases, these constituents are coupled to reservoirs at different temperatures. This suggests a general approach to the realization of polaritonic heat engines where a thermodynamic cycle is realized by tuning this control parameter. Here we discuss what is arguably the simplest such engine, a single qubit coupled to a single photon. We show that this system can extract work from feeble thermal microwave fields. We also propose a quantum measurement scheme of the work and evaluate its backaction on the operation of the engine.

  8. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  9. Simple, simpler, simplest: Spontaneous pattern formation in a commonplace system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strombom, Evelyn H.; Caicedo-Carvajal, Carlos E.; Thyagu, N. Nirmal; Palumbo, Daniel; Shinbrot, Troy

    2012-07-01

    In 1855, Lord Kelvin's brother, James Thomson, wrote a paper describing "certain curious motions" on liquid surfaces. In the present paper, we describe several curious motions produced in the simplest possible manner: by introducing a droplet of food coloring into a shallow dish of water. These motions include the spontaneous formation of labyrinthine stripes, the periodic pulsation leading to chaotic stretching and folding, and the formation of migrating slugs of coloring. We use this simple experiment to demonstrate that the formation of ordered macroscopic patterns is consistent with the requirement of the second law of Thermodynamics that microscopic disorder must increase. This system is suitable for undergraduate experimentation and can be modeled by advanced students in a straightforward finite difference simulation that reproduces the labyrinths and other patterns.

  10. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  11. The Structure of the Elusive Simplest Dipeptide Gly-Gly.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Carlos; Varela, Marcelino; Alonso, José L

    2017-06-01

    Among the hundreds of peptide compounds for which conformations have been determined by using different spectroscopic techniques, the structure of the simplest dipeptide glycylglycine (Gly-Gly) is conspicuously absent. Herein, for the first time, solid samples of Gly-Gly have been vaporized by laser ablation and three different structures have been revealed in a supersonic expansion by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions that stabilize the observed forms have been established based on the (14) N nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure. We have illustrated how conformer interconversion distorts the equilibrium conformational distribution, giving rise to missing conformers in the conformational landscape. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Towards the simplest hydrodynamic lattice-gas model.

    PubMed

    Boghosian, Bruce M; Love, Peter J; Meyer, David A

    2002-03-15

    It has been known since 1986 that it is possible to construct simple lattice-gas cellular automata whose hydrodynamics are governed by the Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. The simplest such model heretofore known has six bits of state per site on a triangular lattice. In this work, we demonstrate that it is possible to construct a model with only five bits of state per site on a Kagome lattice. Moreover, the model has a simple, deterministic set of collision rules and is easily implemented on a computer. In this work, we derive the equilibrium distribution function for this lattice-gas automaton and carry out the Chapman-Enskog analysis to determine the form of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  13. Repeated Evolution of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid–Mediated Defense System in Separate Angiosperm LineagesW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Andreas; Nurhayati, Niknik; Backenköhler, Anita; Ober, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Species of several unrelated families within the angiosperms are able to constitutively produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids as a defense against herbivores. In pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, homospermidine synthase (HSS) catalyzes the first specific step. HSS was recruited during angiosperm evolution from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 cDNA sequences coding for HSS and DHS of various angiosperm species revealed at least four independent recruitments of HSS from DHS: one within the Boraginaceae, one within the monocots, and two within the Asteraceae family. Furthermore, sequence analyses indicated elevated substitution rates within HSS-coding sequences after each gene duplication, with an increased level of nonsynonymous mutations. However, the contradiction between the polyphyletic origin of the first enzyme in PA biosynthesis and the structural identity of the final biosynthetic PA products needs clarification. PMID:15466410

  14. E/Z-Thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside, pyrrolizidine conjugates produced by grasses (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Koulman, Albert; Seeliger, Claudine; Edwards, Patrick J B; Fraser, Karl; Simpson, Wayne; Johnson, Linda; Cao, Mingshu; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey A

    2008-06-01

    Based on direct infusion mass spectrometry we identified a novel alkaloid as a major component of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Initial mass spectral data suggested it to be a pyrrolizidine conjugate. As this class of alkaloids has not been described before from grasses, we isolated it to elucidate its structure. The isolated alkaloid proved to be a mixture of two stereoisomers. The structures of the two compounds as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, were E-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (1) and Z-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (2). These identifications were supported by the characterisation by GC-MS and optical rotation of (+)-isoretronecanol as the necine base released on alkaline hydrolysis of these alkaloids. 1 and 2 together with the aglycone and a hexoside were also detected in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). This is the first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloids produced by grasses (Poaceae).

  15. Suspected pyrrolizidine alkaloid hepatotoxicosis in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Woolford, Lucy; Fletcher, Mary T; Boardman, Wayne S J

    2014-07-30

    Southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) inhabiting degraded habitat in South Australia were recently identified with extensive hair loss and dermatitis and were in thin to emaciated body condition. Pathological and clinicopathological investigations on affected juvenile wombats identified a toxic hepatopathy suggestive of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, accompanied by photosensitive dermatitis. Hepatic disease was suspected in additional wombats on the basis of serum biochemical analysis. Preliminary toxicological analysis performed on scats and gastrointestinal contents from wombats found in this degraded habitat identified a number of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids consistent with ingestion of Heliotropeum europaeum. Although unpalatable, ingestion may occur by young animals due to decreased availability of preferred forages in degraded habitats and the emergence of weeds around the time of weaning of naive animals. Habitat degradation leading to malnutrition and ingestion of toxic weed species is a significant welfare issue in this species.

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing toxic plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium, and Echium spp.).

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2011-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are found throughout the world and are probably the most common plant cause of poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs are potent liver toxins that under some conditions can be carcinogenic. This article briefly introduces high-risk North American PA-containing plants, summarizing their toxicity and subsequent pathology. Current diagnostic techniques, treatments, and strategies to avoid losses to PA poisoning are also reviewed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Tissue distribution and biosynthesis of 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis hybrids (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Frölich, Cordula; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2006-07-01

    Phalaenopsis hybrids contain two 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine monoesters, T-phalaenopsine (necine base trachelanthamidine) and its stereoisomer Is-phalaenopsine (necine base isoretronecanol). T-Phalaenopsine is the major alkaloid accounting for more than 90% of total alkaloid. About equal amounts of alkaloid were genuinely present as free base and its N-oxide. The structures were confirmed by GC-MS. The quantitative distribution of phalaenopsine in various organs and tissues of vegetative rosette plants and flowering plants revealed alkaloid in all tissues. The highest concentrations were found in young and developing tissues (e.g., root tips and young leaves), peripheral tissues (e.g., of flower stalks) and reproductive organs (flower buds and flowers). Within flowers, parts that usually attract insect visitors (e.g., labellum with colorful crests as well as column and pollinia) show the highest alkaloid levels. Tracer feeding experiments with (14)C-labeled putrecine revealed that in rosette plants the aerial roots were the sites of phalaenopsine biosynthesis. However active biosynthesis was only observed in roots still attached to the plant but not in excised roots. There is a slow but substantial translocation of newly synthesized alkaloid from the roots to other plant organs. A long-term tracer experiment revealed that phalaenopsine shows neither turnover nor degradation. The results are discussed in the context of a polyphyletic molecular origin of the biosynthetic pathways of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in various scattered angiosperm taxa. The ecological role of the so called non-toxic 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids is discussed in comparison to the pro-toxic 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Evidence from the plant-insect interphase is presented indicating a substantial role of the 1,2-saturated alkaloids in plant and insect defense.

  18. Crotalaria medicaginea associated with horse deaths in northern Australia: new pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mary T; Hayes, Patricia Y; Somerville, Michael J; De Voss, James J

    2011-11-09

    Crotalaria medicaginea has been implicated in horse poisoning in grazing regions of central-west Queensland, which resulted in the deaths of more than 35 horses from hepatotoxicosis in 2010. Liver pathology was suggestive of pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis, and we report here the isolation of two previously uncharacterized pyrrolizidine alkaloids from C. medicaginea plant specimens collected from pastures where the horses died. The first alkaloid was shown by mass spectometric and NMR analyses to be 1β,2β-epoxy-7β-hydroxy-1α-methoxymethyl-8α-pyrrolizidine, which, like other alkaloids previously isolated from C. medicaginea, lacks the requisite functionality for hepatotoxcity. The second alkaloid isolated in this investigation was a new macrocyclic diester of otonecine, which we have named cromedine. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of cromedine were fully assigned by 2D NMR techniques and allowed the constitution of the macrocyclic diester to be assigned unambiguously. C. medicaginea specimens implicated in this investigation do not belong to any of the three recognized Australian varieties (C. medicaginea var. neglecta, C. medicaginea var. medicaginea, and C. medicaginea var. linearis) and appear to be a local variant or form, referred to here as C. medicaginea (chemotype cromedine).

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  20. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries.

  1. The simplest walking model: stability, complexity, and scaling.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Chatterjee, A; Ruina, A; Coleman, M

    1998-04-01

    We demonstrate that an irreducibly simple, uncontrolled, two-dimensional, two-link model, vaguely resembling human legs, can walk down a shallow slope, powered only by gravity. This model is the simplest special case of the passive-dynamic models pioneered by McGeer (1990a). It has two rigid massless legs hinged at the hip, a point-mass at the hip, and infinitesimal point-masses at the feet. The feet have plastic (no-slip, no-bounce) collisions with the slope surface, except during forward swinging, when geometric interference (foot scuffing) is ignored. After nondimensionalizing the governing equations, the model has only one free parameter, the ramp slope gamma. This model shows stable walking modes similar to more elaborate models, but allows some use of analytic methods to study its dynamics. The analytic calculations find initial conditions and stability estimates for period-one gait limit cycles. The model exhibits two period-one gait cycles, one of which is stable when 0 < gamma < 0.015 rad. With increasing gamma, stable cycles of higher periods appear, and the walking-like motions apparently become chaotic through a sequence of period doublings. Scaling laws for the model predict that walking speed is proportional to stance angle, stance angle is proportional to gamma 1/3, and that the gravitational power used is proportional to v4 where v is the velocity along the slope.

  2. Structure and prospects of the simplest SO(10) GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Malinsky, Michal; Di Luzio, Luca

    2013-05-23

    We recapitulate the latest results on the class of the simplest SO(10) grand unified models in which the GUTscale symmetry breaking is triggered by an adjoint Higgs representation. We argue that the minimal survival approximation traditionally used in the GUT-and seesaw-scale estimates tends to be blind to very interesting parts of the parameter space in which some of the intermediate-scale states necessary for non-supersymmetric unification of the SM gauge couplings can be as light as to leave their imprints in the TeV domain. The stringent minimal-survival-based estimates of the B - L scale are shown to be relaxed by as much as four orders of magnitude, thus admitting for a consistent implementation of the standard seesaw mechanism even without excessive fine-tuning implied by the previous studies. The prospects of the minimal renormalizable SO(10) GUT as a potential candidate for a well-calculable theory of proton decay are discussed in brief.

  3. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  4. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  5. Covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K A; Seymour, J L; Hsia, M T; Allen, J R

    1977-09-01

    The covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione, has been investigated. Dehydroretronecine was allowed to react with cysteine and glutathione in an in vitro system of phosphate buffer solutions. The reaction products were identified structurally by chromatographic, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet, and mass-spectral analysis. These data indicate that the reaction products are the sulfhydryl-linked 7-thiocysteine-dehydroretronecine and 7-thioglutathione-dehydroretronecine. Active alkylation of sulfhydryl groups is a possible mechanism by which these alkaloids interact with cellular components.

  6. Highly enantioselective intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition: a route to piperidino-pyrrolizidines.

    PubMed

    Vidadala, Srinivasa Rao; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-01-07

    Enantioselective catalytic intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are powerful methods for the synthesis of heterocycles. In contrast, intramolecular enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are virtually unexplored. A highly enantioselective synthesis of natural-product-inspired pyrrolidino-piperidines by means of an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with azomethine ylides is now reported. The method has a wide scope and yields the desired cycloadducts with four tertiary stereogenic centers with up to 99% ee. Combining the enantioselective catalytic intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a subsequent diastereoselective intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition yielded complex piperidino-pyrrolizidines with very high stereoselectivity in a one-pot tandem reaction.

  7. Metabolic activation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids leading to phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity in human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Xia, Qingsu; Li, Meng; Wang, Shuguang; Zhao, Yuewei; Tolleson, William H; Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, produced by a large number of poisonous plants with wide global distribution, are associated with genotoxicity, tumorigenicity, and hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. Mammalian metabolism converts pyrrolizidine alkaloids to reactive pyrrolic metabolites (dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids) that form covalent protein and DNA adducts. Although a mechanistic understanding is currently unclear, pyrrolizidine alkaloids can cause secondary (hepatogenous) photosensitization and induce skin cancer. In this study, the phototoxicity of monocrotaline, riddelliine, dehydromonocrotaline, dehydroriddelliine, and dehydroretronecine (DHR) in human HaCaT keratinocytes under ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation was determined. UVA irradiation of HaCaT cells treated with dehydromonocrotaline, dehydroriddelline, and DHR resulted in increased release of lactate dehydrogenase and enhanced photocytotoxicity proportional to the UVA doses. UVA-induced photochemical DNA damage also increased proportionally with dehydromonocrotaline and dehydroriddelline. UVA treatment potentiated the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts induced by dehydromonocrotaline in HaCaT skin keratinocytes. Using electron spin resistance trapping, we found that UVA irradiation of dehydromonocrotaline and dehydroriddelliine generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and superoxide, and electron transfer reactions, indicating that cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of these compounds could be mediated by ROS. Our results suggest that dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids formed or delivered to the skin cause pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced secondary photosensitization and possible skin cancer.

  8. Identification and quantification of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Ethiopian medicinal plant Solanecio gigas (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Asres, K; Sporer, F; Wink, M

    2007-09-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of Solanecio gigas (Vatke) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae), an Ethiopian medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of colic, diarrhea, gout, otitis media, typhoid fever, and noted for its wound dressing and antiabortifacient activities was studied. The flower and leaf extracts contained 0.19% and 0.14% alkaloids (dry weight), respectively. GLC-MS analysis indicated that all the alkaloids in the flowers are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), whereas the leaves contain other type of alkaloids with PAs occurring in low concentrations. Roughly, 80% and 90% of the total PAs in the flowers and the leaves, respectively, were shown to occur as N-oxides. Eighteen alkaloids were detected in the flower extract with the retronecine type twelve-membered macrocyclic diesters integerrimine, senecionine and usaramine comprising 82% of the total PA content. Analysis of the PA profile of the leaves indicated that it has a simpler pattern than the one observed for the flowers. Only five PAs were detected in the leaves with integerrimine making up about 50% of the total PAs. Quantification of the PA content by GLC showed that the flowers and leaves contain 3321.21 and 84.84 microg per 10 g of dried plant material, respectively. These results indicate that users of this herb are at high risk of poisoning since the most toxic twelve membered macrocyclics of the retronecine type are the dominant PAs in the plant.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  10. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Favre, Cécile; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0farcs2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  11. DETECTION OF THE SIMPLEST SUGAR, GLYCOLALDEHYDE, IN A SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTAR WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Favre, Cecile; Bourke, Tyler L.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus E-mail: suzanne@snm.ku.dk E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: schmalzl@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-09-20

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH{sub 2}OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0.''2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species-in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH{sub 3}OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  12. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  13. The first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning in a gazelle (Gazella Subgutturosa) – histopathologic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Khordadmehr, Monireh; Ashrafi-Helan, Javad; Hosseini-Ghomi, Mir Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural phytotoxins found in thousands of plant species around the world. They are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. In the present study, PAs poisoning was investigated in a gazelle with hepatic encephalopathy associated with severe neurologic signs. The main clinical signs included head pressing, progressive depression and weakness, ataxia and reluctance to move, turn the head to the left and to paddle, hyperesthesia and decreased food intake. Histopathological examination revealed major lesions in the liver consisting of severe hepatocyte megalocytosis and hypertrophy with nuclei enlargement, mild bile duct hyperplasia, centriacinar fatty change and hepatocellular necrosis. Moreover, pulmonary congestion and edema with endothelium necrosis and alveolar septa thickening, severe congestion in vessels of the brain and meninges, and myocardial necrosis were observed. PMID:28652845

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in an overwintering population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in California.

    PubMed

    Stelljes, M E; Seiber, J N

    1990-05-01

    California overwintering monarch butterflies contain both pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and theirN-oxides. Analysis of 76 individual monarchs by TLC, HPLC, GLC, and GC-MS has shown the presence of three types of PAs, the saturated diester sarracine, the saturated monoester 7-angelylplatynecine, and the unsaturated dialcohol retronecine. Monarchs arriving at the overwintering site in Santa Cruz, California, showed a wide variation in both the type and amount of PA present. Those sampled after a PA-containing plant (Senecio mikanioides) had bloomed at the site showed an altered PA profile. While the plant was found to contain sarracine and 7-angelylplatynecine, which are nontoxic to mammals, the monarchs showed an increase in retronecine levels, a toxic PA, after the plant bloom. Apparently monarchs utilize PA-containing plants both en route to their overwintering site and at the site, and potentially alter those PAs to forms toxic to mammals.

  15. Quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in North American plants and honey by LC-MS: single laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Brown, Paula N

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of naturally occurring compounds produced by many flowering plants around the World. Their presence as contaminants in food systems has become a significant concern in recent years. For example, PAs are often found as contaminants in honey through pollen transfer. A validated method was developed for the quantification of four pyrrolizidine alkaloids and one pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide in plants and honey grown and produced in British Columbia. The method was optimised for extraction efficiency from the plant materials and then subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ and method linearity. The PA content in plants ranged from1.0 to 307.8 µg/g with repeatability precision between 3.8 and 20.8% RSD. HorRat values were within acceptable limits and ranged from 0.62 to 1.63 for plant material and 0.56-1.82 for honey samples. Method accuracy was determined through spike studies with recoveries ranging from 84.6 to 108.2% from the raw material negative control and from 82.1-106.0 % for the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in corn syrup. Based on the findings in this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of lycopsamine, senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, heliosupine and echimidine in common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), blueweed (Echium vulgare) and hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and for PA quantitation in honey and found that PA contaminants were present at low levels in BC honey.

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the food chain: development, validation, and application of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till

    2013-11-27

    Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw.

  17. The Simplest Motor Skill: Mechanisms and Applications of Reflex Operant Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Aiko K.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Operant conditioning protocols can gradually change spinal reflexes, which are the simplest behaviors. This article summarizes the evidence supporting two propositions: that these protocols provide excellent models for defining the substrates of learning; and that they can induce and guide plasticity to help restore skills such as locomotion that have been impaired by spinal cord injury or other disorders. PMID:24508738

  18. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  19. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  20. Differences in effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids on five generalist insect herbivore species.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; Bruinsma, Maaike; Dijkstra, Sander M; Ooijendijk, Tessa; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2005-07-01

    The evolution of the diversity in plant secondary compounds is often thought to be driven by insect herbivores, although there is little empirical evidence for this assumption. To investigate whether generalist insect herbivores could play a role in the evolution of the diversity of related compounds, we examined if (1) related compounds differ in their effects on generalists, (2) there is a synergistic effect among compounds, and (3) effects of related compounds differed among insect species. The effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were tested on five generalist insect herbivore species of several genera using artificial diets or neutral substrates to which PAs were added. We found evidence that structurally related PAs differed in their effects to the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, the aphid Myzus persicae, and the locust Locusta migratoria. The individual PAs had no effect on Spodoptera exigua and Mamestra brassicae caterpillars. For S. exigua, we found indications for synergistic deterrent effects of PAs in PA mixtures. The relative effects of PAs differed between insect species. The PA senkirkine had the strongest effect on the thrips, but had no effect at all on the aphids. Our results show that generalist herbivores could potentially play a role in the evolution and maintenance of the diversity of PAs.

  1. Second site of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Comfrey boosts plant defense in floral stage.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Lars H; Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several, distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the post-translational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that S. officinale plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves not only express HSS, but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures.

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: their occurrence in Spanish honey collected from purple viper's bugloss (Echium spp.).

    PubMed

    Orantes-Bermejo, F J; Serra Bonvehí, J; Gómez-Pajuelo, A; Megías, M; Torres, C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Echium spp. plant have been defined in 103 Spanish honey samples. Each sample was examined to determine total pollen content, the percentage of Echium spp. pollen, and simultaneous measurements of PAs and their N-oxides concentrations by the HPLC-ESI/MS method to identify the potential origin of PAs in honey. PAs were found in 94.2% of the raw honey samples analysed, in the range of 1-237 µg kg(-1) (average concentration = 48 µg kg(-1)). The PA pattern was clearly dominated by echimidine, lycopsamine and their N-oxides, representing the 97.8% of total ∑PAs, and only echimidine and echimidine-N-oxide surpassed the 87% of total ∑PA content. Others PAs, seneciphylline and heliotrine-N-oxide, appear to be reported in a lower incidence and concentration (average of 3 and 1 µg kg(-1), respectively). The Pearson Chi-squared test (p ≤ 0.01) confirms the non-correspondence between pollen plants and PA content. This study was also realised to generate a dataset in order to evaluate the potential risk of Spanish honeys containing PA plants belonging to the genera Echium.

  3. Synergistic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and lipopolysaccharide on preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Ma, Zhenguo; Kou, Hao; Sun, Rongze; Yang, Hanxiao; Smith, Charles Vincent; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-29

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death for newborn infants, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used to induce preterm delivery in experimental animals. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread and occur in foods, herbs, and other plants. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LPS and two representative PAs, retrorsine (RTS) and monocrotaline (MCT), on preterm delivery and fetal death. Pregnant Kunming mice were divided into seven groups: control, RTS, MCT, LPS, RTS+LPS and two MCT+LPS groups. Animals in PAs and PAs+LPS groups were dosed intragastrically with RTS (10mg/kg) or MCT (20 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD16; mice given LPS were injected intraperitoneally with 150 μg/kg on GD15.5. Latencies to delivery, numbers of pups live and dead at birth were recorded, and livers of live neonates were collected. The incidence of LPS-induced preterm birth was enhanced in dams pretreated with MCT, and combination of PAs and LPS increased fetal mortality from PAs. The enhancement of LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal demise in animals exposed chronically to PAs and other substances found in foods and beverages consumed widely by humans merits further focused investigation.

  4. Hepatotoxicity associated with pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Crotalaria spp) ingestion in a horse on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Arzt, J; Mount, M E

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984, a significant number of privately owned and feral horses on Easter Island have died of a syndrome consisting of progressive anorexia, weight loss, obtundation, and other central nervous system abnormalities. A single horse experiencing clinical signs of the reported syndrome was identified, examined and necropsied. Clinical signs included inappetence, emaciation, ataxia and icterus. Gross necropsy findings included hepatic enlargement and mottling, ascites and gastric impaction. Histopathological lesions included hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis, periportal megalocytosis, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and multinucleate hepatocytes. Crotalaria grahamiana and C pallida, were identified in the pasture of the presenting horse, and found to be widespread on the island. Alkaloid fingerprinting identified grahamine, monocrotalin, and a grahamine analog in C grahamiana. A retrorsine analog and a senecionine analog were identified in C pallida. The highly characteristic lesions and the identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the 2 plants strongly suggest that ingestion of 1 or both of the Crotalaria species led to chronic liver damage and hepatic encephalopathy in the presenting horse. Widespread distribution of C grahamiana on the island and reported temporal and seasonal trends in incidence among horses and cattle suggest that C grahamiana may be responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality among horses and cattle on Easter Island.

  5. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2017-01-01

    The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions. PMID:28611815

  6. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range.

  7. Quercetin Prevents Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Clivorine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Elevating Body Defense Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lili; Ma, Yibo; Wang, Zaiyong; Cai, Zhunxiu; Pang, Chun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin. PMID:24905073

  8. Dietary pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids and tissue distribution of copper and vitamin A in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huan, J; Cheeke, P R; Lowry, R R; Nakaue, H S; Snyder, S P; Whanger, P D

    1992-09-01

    The effect of feeding a diet containing 5% tansy ragwort (TR) (Senecio jacobaea), a poisonous plant containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), on the blood and liver levels of copper, zinc, iron and vitamin A in broiler chicks was examined. Serum and liver copper and liver iron concentrations were increased in chicks fed a diet with 5% TR, while serum and liver zinc and vitamin A decreased. When PA were removed from the diet, partial restoration of normal serum vitamin A level occurred, indicating that the ability to mobilize liver vitamin A is not irreversibly inhibited by PA. The decline in serum vitamin A occurred by 8 days of TR feeding with a concurrent decline in growth rate. When chicks were fed a diet high in vitamin A (25,000 IU/kg), followed by a basal diet containing TR, serum vitamin A levels were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased, while liver vitamin A level increased. This indicates that mobilization of previously stored vitamin A from the liver is impaired by PA. Prior feeding of a high vitamin A level resulted in protective effects against PA toxicity, as assessed by histopathology. This study shows that a dietary source of PA modifies metabolism and tissue distribution of minerals and vitamin A.

  9. Optimisation of isolation procedure for pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Rindera umbellata Bunge.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Boris M; Vlajić, Marina D; Trifunović, Snežana S; Simić, Milena R; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; VuČković, Ivan M; Novaković, Miroslav M; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana D; Tešević, Vele V; Vajs, Vlatka V; Milosavljević, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Procedure for isolation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Rindera umbellata Bunge plant species was optimised. Different extraction media (methanol, ethanol and sulphuric acid), concentration and volume of sulphuric acid, pH of PA solution for alkaline extraction, extraction time and techniques (maceration, ultrasonic and overhead rotary mixer assisted extraction) were investigated. The yields of six PAs (7-angeloyl heliotridane, 7-angeloyl heliotridine, lindelofine, 7-angeloyl rinderine, punctanecine and heliosupine) were monitored by GC-MS/FID. The best results for the isolation all of six PAs were obtained when the extraction was performed with 1 M sulphuric acid (30 mL per 1.00 g of dried sample) by overhead rotary mixer during three days. Optimal pH value for alkaline extraction of PAs with CH₂Cl₂ was 9, and the extraction should be performed with four portions of 30 mL of CH₂Cl₂. This procedure could be also useful for a plant sample preparation for GC and LC analyses of PAs.

  10. Transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various herbs to eggs and meat in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Patrick P J; de Witte, Susannah L; Stoopen, Geert M; van der Meulen, Jan; van Wikselaar, Piet G; Gruys, Erik; Groot, Maria J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the potential transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), laying hens were fed for 14 days with diets containing 0.5% of dried common ragwort, common groundsel, narrow-leaved ragwort or viper's bugloss, or 0.1% of common heliotrope. This resulted in total PA levels in feed of respectively 5.5, 11.1, 53.1, 5.9 and 21.7 mg kg(-)(1), with varying composition. PAs were transferred to eggs, in particular yolk, with steady-state levels of respectively 12, 21, 216, 2 and 36 µg kg(-)(1). Overall transfer rates for the sum of PAs were estimated between 0.02% and 0.23%, depending on the type of PAs in the feed. In animals slaughtered shortly after the last exposure, levels in meat were slightly lower than those in eggs, levels in livers somewhat higher. When switched to clean feed, levels in eggs gradually decreased, but after 14 days were still above detection limits in the hens exposed to higher PA levels. Similar was the case for meat and especially kidneys and livers. It is concluded that the intake of PA containing herbs by laying hens may result in levels in eggs and meat that could be of concern for consumers, and as such should be avoided.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition influences cinnabar moth oviposition preferences in Jacobaea hybrids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; van der Meijden, Eddy; Mulder, Patrick P J; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2013-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that may be selective against herbivores. Yet, specialist herbivores may use PSMs as cues for host recognition, oviposition, and feeding stimulation, or for their own defense against parasites and predators. This summarizes a dual role of PSMs: deter generalists but attract specialists. It is not clear yet whether specialist herbivores are a selective force in the evolution of PSM diversity. A prerequisite for such a selective force would be that the preference and/or performance of specialists is influenced by PSMs. To investigate these questions, we conducted an oviposition experiment with cinnabar moths (Tyria jacobaeae) and plants from an artificial hybrid family of Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea aquatica. The cinnabar moth is a specialist herbivore of J. vulgaris and is adapted to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), defensive PSMs of these plants. The number of eggs and egg batches oviposited by the moths were dependent on plant genotype and positively correlated to concentrations of tertiary amines of jacobine-like PAs and some otosenine-like PAs. The other PAs did not correlate with oviposition preference. Results suggest that host plant PAs influence cinnabar moth oviposition preference, and that this insect is a potential selective factor against a high concentration of some individual PAs, especially those that are also involved in resistance against generalist herbivores.

  12. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  13. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-03-27

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine induced oxidative injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, LiLi; Liu, TianYu; Wang, ZhengTao

    2010-04-01

    Clivorine is an otonecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (HPAs), to which humans are exposed when consuming herbs containing such components. In the present study, we investigated clivorine-induced oxidative stress injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of clivorine (1-100 microM) for 48 hours, and then cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The results of MTT assay showed that clivorine decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine also increased LPO amounts in rat hepatocytes at the concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. Further results showed that clivorine decreased GPx, GST and GR activities, which are all reduced glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes. CAT and SOD are both important antioxidant enzymes, and the results showed that clivorine increased CAT activity at the low concentration of 5 muM and decreased cellular SOD activity at all concentrations. Taken together, our results demonstrated that clivorine induced toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by causing the damage on cellular redox balance.

  15. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  16. A generalized simplest equation method and its application to the Boussinesq-Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method.

  17. Simplest chronoscope. III. Further comparisons between reaction times obtained by meterstick versus machine.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The three classical Donders' reaction time (RT) tasks (simple, choice, and discriminative RTs) were employed to compare reaction time scores from college students obtained by use of Montare's simplest chronoscope (meterstick) methodology to scores obtained by use of a digital-readout multi-choice reaction timer (machine). Five hypotheses were tested. Simple RT, choice RT, and discriminative RT were faster when obtained by meterstick than by machine. The meterstick method showed higher reliability than the machine method and was less variable. The meterstick method of the simplest chronoscope may help to alleviate the longstanding problems of low reliability and high variability of reaction time performances; while at the same time producing faster performance on Donders' simple, choice and discriminative RT tasks than the machine method.

  18. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from various parts of many botanicals and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 dietary supplements was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was u...

  19. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid variation in Senecio vulgaris populations from native and invasive ranges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Ge, Jiwen; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasion is regarded as one of the greatest environmental problems facilitated by globalization. Some hypotheses about the invasive mechanisms of alien invasive plants consider the plant-herbivore interaction and the role of plant defense in this interaction. For example, the "Shift Defense Hypothesis" (SDH) argues that introduced plants evolve higher levels of qualitative defense chemicals and decreased levels of quantitative defense, as they are released of the selective pressures from specialist herbivores but still face attack from generalists. Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris), originating from Europe, is a cosmopolitan invasive plant in temperate regions. As in other Senecio species, S. vulgaris contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as characteristic qualitative defense compounds. In this study, S. vulgaris plants originating from native and invasive ranges (Europe and China, respectively) were grown under identical conditions and harvested upon flowering. PA composition and concentration in shoot and root samples were determined using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the differences between native and invasive S. vulgaris populations with regard to quantitative and qualitative variation of PAs. We identified 20 PAs, among which senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, integerrimine N-oxide and seneciphylline N-oxide were dominant in the roots. In the shoots, in addition to the 4 PAs dominant in roots, retrorsine N-oxide, spartioidine N-oxide and 2 non-identified PAs were also prevalent. The roots possessed a lower PA diversity but a higher total PA concentration than the shoots. Most individual PAs as well as the total PA concentration were strongly positively correlated between the roots and shoots. Both native and invasive S. vulgaris populations shared the pattern described above. However, there was a slight trend indicating lower PA diversity and lower total PA concentration in invasive S. vulgaris

  1. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-06-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  2. Phenotypic plasticity of Senecio vulgaris from contrasting habitat types: growth and pyrrolizidine alkaloid formation.

    PubMed

    Frischknecht, P M; Schuhmacher, K; Müller-Schärer, H; Baumann, T W

    2001-02-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), which postulates a physiological trade-off between growth and differentiation (morphological and chemical), has been tested almost exclusively for carbon-based secondary metabolites. Little attention has been paid to N-based compounds. In this study we aimed to test the predictions of the GDB hypothesis under field conditions for growth and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) formation in Senecio vulgaris. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment at two sites differing widely in their nutrient supply. These included a conventionally managed vineyard (V) and a strip of local wild flowers between crop fields, which was established to promote species diversity in agroecosystems (C). No fertilizer or pesticides are allowed in such ecological compensation areas. In C, we expected lower growth but higher PA formation than in V. Due to differentiated selection regimes in the two habitat types with regard to nutrient (nitrogen) availability in the soil, we also expected different N-allocation patterns for the genotypes of the two collection sites. Plants of V produced more biomass and were taller than the plants of C. The relatively poor nitrogen conditions in C favored an earlier differentiation towards generative organs. In plants of C, higher concentrations of PAs were found than in plants of V. There exists a close negative correlation between growth and PA formation, indicating a trade-off. The origin of the plant material had only a little effect on PA formation. The observed phenotypic reaction of PA formation in S. vulgaris in the two habitats fits quite well the predictions of GDB theory. It is shown that this general response is overlaid by physiological factors leading to a pattern of PA accumulation, which is not readily predictable by nonmechanistic theories.

  3. Gene expression changes induced by the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine in liver of Big Blue rats

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Liu, Ruqing; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Background Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are probably the most common plant constituents that poison livestock, wildlife, and humans worldwide. Riddelliine is isolated from plants grown in the western United States and is a prototype of genotoxic PAs. Riddelliine was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of PAs via analysis of gene expression in the target tissue of rats in this study. Previously we observed that the mutant frequency in the liver of rats gavaged with riddelliine was 3-fold higher than that in the control group. Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutational spectra from riddelliine-treated and control rats. Results Riddelliine-induced gene expression profiles in livers of Big Blue transgenic rats were determined. The female rats were gavaged with riddelliine at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Rat whole genome microarray was used to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. When a cutoff value of a two-fold change and a P-value less than 0.01 were used as gene selection criteria, 919 genes were identified as differentially expressed in riddelliine-treated rats compared to the control animals. By analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Network, we found that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in cancer, cell death, tissue development, cellular movement, tissue morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular growth and proliferation. We further analyzed the genes involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, liver abnormalities, and cancer development in detail. Conclusion The alterations in gene expression were directly related to the pathological outcomes reported previously. These results provided further insight into the mechanisms involved in toxicity and carcinogenesis after exposure to riddelliine, and permitted us to investigate the interaction of gene products inside the signaling networks

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-07

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H2O-CH2OO and D2O-CH2OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH2OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-01

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H2O-CH2OO and D2O-CH2OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH2OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  6. Neutrinos in the simplest little Higgs scenario and TeV leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Asmaa; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2006-02-01

    The little Higgs scenario may provide an interesting framework to accommodate TeV scale leptogenesis, because a TeV Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino that we employ for the latter may find a natural place near the ultraviolet cutoff of the former. In this work we study how a light neutrino spectrum, generated radiatively, and TeV scale leptogenesis can be embedded in the simplest little Higgs framework. Alternatively, we highlight how the neutrino Yukawa textures of the latter are constrained.

  7. Finite-time synchronization of fractional-order simplest two-component chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, Romanic; Tchitnga, Robert; Mezatio, Anicet; Fomethe, Anaclet; Litak, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    The problem of finite-time synchronization of fractional-order simplest two-component chaotic oscillators operating at high frequency and application to digital cryptography is addressed. After the investigation of numerical chaotic behavior in the system, an adaptive feedback controller is designed to achieve the finite-time synchronization of two oscillators, based on the Lyapunov function. This controller could find application in many other fractional-order chaotic circuits. Applying synchronized fractional-order systems in digital cryptography, a well secured key system is obtained. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate and verify the analytic results.

  8. Direct kinetic measurements of reactions between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and alkenes.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Jalan, Amrit; Middaugh, Joshua E; Green, William H

    2014-03-20

    The simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO), a well-known biradical formed in alkene ozonolysis, is known to add across double bonds. Here we report direct experimental rate measurements of the simplest Criegee Intermediate reacting with C2–C4 alkenes obtained using the laser flash photolysis technique probing the recently measured B(1)A′ ← X(1)A′ transition in CH2OO. The measured activation energy (298–494 K) for CH2OO + alkenes is Ea ≈ 3500 ± 1000 J mol(–1) for all alkyl substituted alkenes and Ea = 7000 ± 900 J mol(–1) for ethene. The measured Arrhenius pre-exponential factors (A) vary between (2 ± 1) × 10(–15) and (11 ± 3) × 10(–15) cm(3) molecule(–1) s(–1). Quantum chemical calculations of the corresponding rate coefficients reproduce qualitative reactivity trends but overestimate the absolute rate coefficients. Despite the small Ea's, the CH2OO + alkene rate coefficients are almost 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of similar reactions between CH2OO and carbonyl compounds. Using the rate constants measured here, we estimate that, under typical atmospheric conditions, reaction with alkenes does not represent a significant sink of CH2OO. In environments rich in C═C double bonds, however, such as ozone-exposed rubber or emission plumes, these reactions can play a significant role.

  9. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations and Bell correlations in the simplest scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li

    2017-06-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is an intermediate type of quantum nonlocality which sits between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. A set of correlations is Bell nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable (LHV) model, while it is EPR nonlocal if it does not admit a local hidden variable-local hidden state (LHV-LHS) model. It is interesting to know what states can generate EPR-nonlocal correlations in the simplest nontrivial scenario, that is, two projective measurements for each party sharing a two-qubit state. Here we show that a two-qubit state can generate EPR-nonlocal full correlations (excluding marginal statistics) in this scenario if and only if it can generate Bell-nonlocal correlations. If full statistics (including marginal statistics) is taken into account, surprisingly, the same scenario can manifest the simplest one-way steering and the strongest hierarchy between steering and Bell nonlocality. To illustrate these intriguing phenomena in simple setups, several concrete examples are discussed in detail, which facilitates experimental demonstration. In the course of study, we introduce the concept of restricted LHS models and thereby derive a necessary and sufficient semidefinite-programming criterion to determine the steerability of any bipartite state under given measurements. Analytical criteria are further derived in several scenarios of strong theoretical and experimental interest.

  10. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  11. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  12. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: downstream contamination in the food chain caused by honey and pollen.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Schönfeld, K; Cramer, L; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a steadily growing number of published data on pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen. This raises the question whether honey and/or pollen used as ingredients in food processing might provoke a downstream contamination in the food chain. Here we addressed two different facets in connection with PAs in honey and pollen. First, we analysed the PA content of several food types such as mead (n = 19), candy (n = 10), fennel honey (n = 9), soft drinks (n = 5), power bars and cereals (n = 7), jelly babies (n = 3), baby food (n = 3), supplements (n = 3) and fruit sauce (n = 1) that contained honey as an ingredient in the range of 5% to approximately 37%. Eight out of 60 retail samples were tested as being PA-positive, corresponding to 13%. Positive samples were found in mead, candy and fennel honey, and the average PA content was calculated to be 0.10 µg g(-1) retronecine equivalents (ranging from 0.010 to 0.484 µg g(-1)). Furthermore, we investigated the question whether and how PAs from PA pollen are transferred from pollen into honey. We conducted model experiments with floral pollen of Senecio vernalis and PA free honey and tested the influence of the quantity of PA pollen, contact time and a simulated honey filtration on the final PA content of honey. It could clearly be demonstrated that the PA content of honey was directly proportional to the amount of PA pollen in honey and that the transfer of PAs from pollen to honey was a rather quick process. Consequently, PA pollen represents a major source for the observed PA content in honey. On the other hand, a good portion remains in the pollen. This fraction is not detected by the common analytical methods, but will be ingested, and it represents an unknown amount of 'hidden' PAs. In addition, the results showed that a technically and legally possible honey filtration (including the removal of all pollen) would not be an option to reduce the PA level of the final product

  14. The simplest chronoscope II: reaction time measured by meterstick versus machine.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Visual simple reaction time (SRT) scores measured in 31 college students of both sexes by use of the simplest chronoscope methodology (meterstick SRT) were compared to scores obtained by use of an electromechanical multi-choice reaction timer (machine SRT). Four hypotheses were tested. Results indicated that the previous mean value of meterstick SRT was replicated; meterstick SRT was significantly faster than long-standing population estimates of mean SRT; and machine SRT was significantly slower than the same long-standing mean SRT estimates for the population. Also, the mean meterstick SRT of 181 msec. was significantly faster than the mean machine SRT of 294 msec. It was theorized that differential visual information processing occurred such that the dorsal visual stream subserved meterstick SRT; whereas the ventral visual stream subserved machine SRT.

  15. Production of and Dissociative Electron Attachment to the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in an Afterglow.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Justin P; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A

    2015-02-05

    The simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been produced in a flowing afterglow using a novel technique. CH2I is produced by dissociative electron attachment to CH2I2, leading to the established reaction CH2I + O2 → CH2OO + I. The presence of CH2OO is established by observation of dissociative electron attachment to yield O(-) using the variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) technique. The measurements establish the electron attachment rate coefficient of thermal electrons at 300 K to CH2OO as 1.2 ± 0.3 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1). Thermal electron attachment is solely dissociative and is not a promising route to producing stable CH2OO(-). The results open the possibility of measuring ion-molecule chemistry involving Criegee intermediates, as well as the reactivity of other unstable radicals produced in an analogous manner.

  16. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.

    2017-02-01

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry. Direct kinetic measurement of the reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate with water vapor.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wen; Hsieh, Jun-Ting; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2015-02-13

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are important transient species formed in the reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone. Although direct detection of Criegee intermediates has recently been realized, the main atmospheric sink of Criegee intermediates remains unclear. We report ultraviolet absorption spectroscopic measurements of the lifetime of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, at various relative humidity levels up to 85% at 298 kelvin. An extremely fast decay rate of CH2OO was observed at high humidity. The observed quadratic dependence of the decay rate on water concentration implied a predominant reaction with water dimer. On the basis of the water dimer equilibrium constant, the effective rate coefficient of the CH2OO + (H2O)2 reaction was determined to be 6.5 (±0.8) × 10(-12) cubic centimeters per second. This work would help modelers to better constrain the atmospheric concentrations of CH2OO.

  18. Communication: Determination of the molecular structure of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2013-09-14

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected in a discharged supersonic jet of a CH2Br2 and O2 gas mixture by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The experimentally determined rotational constants of CH2OO and its isotopologues enabled us to derive the geometrical structure. The determined OO and CO bond lengths, which are relevant to a discussion on its electronic structure, are 1.345(3) and 1.272(3) Å, respectively. The CO bond length is close to that of a typical double bond and is shorter than that of the OO bond by 0.07 Å, indicating that CH2OO has a more zwitterionic character H2C = O(⊕)-O(⊖) than biradical H2Ċ-O-O.

  19. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2013-04-12

    The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides postulated to play key roles in the reactions of ozone with unsaturated hydrocarbons; these reactions constitute an important mechanism for the removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons and for the production of OH in the atmosphere. Here, we report the transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO, produced from CH2I + O2 in a flow reactor, using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer. The five observed bands provide definitive identification of this intermediate. The observed vibrational frequencies are more consistent with a zwitterion rather than a diradical structure of CH2OO. The direct IR detection of CH2OO should prove useful for kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the Criegee mechanism.

  20. UV absorption spectrum and photodissociation channels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Dawes, Richard; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2015-01-14

    The lowest-lying singlet states of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) have been characterized along the O-O dissociation coordinate using explicitly correlated MRCI-F12 electronic structure theory and large active spaces. It is found that a high-level treatment of dynamic electron-correlation is essential to accurately describe these states. A significant well on the B-state is identified at the MRCI-F12 level with an equilibrium structure that differs substantially from that of the ground X-state. This well is presumably responsible for the apparent vibrational structure in some experimental UV absorption spectra, analogous to the structured Huggins band of the iso-electronic ozone. The B-state potential in the Franck-Condon region is sufficiently accurate that an absorption spectrum calculated with a one-dimensional model agrees remarkably well with experiment.

  1. The Simplest Chronoscope V: A Theory of Dual Primary and Secondary Reaction Time Systems.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Extending work by Montare, visual simple reaction time, choice reaction time, discriminative reaction time, and overall reaction time scores obtained from college students by the simplest chronoscope (a falling meterstick) method were significantly faster as well as significantly less variable than scores of the same individuals from electromechanical reaction timers (machine method). Results supported the existence of dual reaction time systems: an ancient primary reaction time system theoretically activating the V5 parietal area of the dorsal visual stream that evolved to process significantly faster sensory-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from environmental objects in motion, and a secondary reaction time system theoretically activating the V4 temporal area of the ventral visual stream that subsequently evolved to process significantly slower sensory-perceptual-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from motionless colored objects.

  2. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2017-02-22

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode.

  3. H →ℓℓ' in the simplest little Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, Andrea; Roig, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Little Higgs models are promising constructs to solve the hierarchy problem affecting the Higgs boson mass for generic new physics. However, their preservation of lepton universality forbids them to account for the H →τ μ CMS hint and at the same time respect (as they do) the severe limits on H →μ e inherited from the nonobservation of μ →e γ . We compute the predictions of the simplest little Higgs model for the H →ℓℓ' decays and conclude that the measurement of any of these decays at LHC (even with a much smaller rate than currently hinted) would, under reasonable assumptions, disfavor this model. This result is consistent with our earlier observation of very suppressed lepton flavor violating semileptonic tau decays within this model.

  4. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2017-01-01

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode. PMID:28224993

  5. The simplest problem in the collective dynamics of neural networks: is synchrony stable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timme, Marc; Wolf, Fred

    2008-07-01

    For spiking neural networks we consider the stability problem of global synchrony, arguably the simplest non-trivial collective dynamics in such networks. We find that even this simplest dynamical problem—local stability of synchrony—is non-trivial to solve and requires novel methods for its solution. In particular, the discrete mode of pulsed communication together with the complicated connectivity of neural interaction networks requires a non-standard approach. The dynamics in the vicinity of the synchronous state is determined by a multitude of linear operators, in contrast to a single stability matrix in conventional linear stability theory. This unusual property qualitatively depends on network topology and may be neglected for globally coupled homogeneous networks. For generic networks, however, the number of operators increases exponentially with the size of the network. We present methods to treat this multi-operator problem exactly. First, based on the Gershgorin and Perron-Frobenius theorems, we derive bounds on the eigenvalues that provide important information about the synchronization process but are not sufficient to establish the asymptotic stability or instability of the synchronous state. We then present a complete analysis of asymptotic stability for topologically strongly connected networks using simple graph-theoretical considerations. For inhibitory interactions between dissipative (leaky) oscillatory neurons the synchronous state is stable, independent of the parameters and the network connectivity. These results indicate that pulse-like interactions play a profound role in network dynamical systems, and in particular in the dynamics of biological synchronization, unless the coupling is homogeneous and all-to-all. The concepts introduced here are expected to also facilitate the exact analysis of more complicated dynamical network states, for instance the irregular balanced activity in cortical neural networks.

  6. Topology Trivialization and Large Deviations for the Minimum in the Simplest Random Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Le Doussal, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Finding the global minimum of a cost function given by the sum of a quadratic and a linear form in N real variables over (N-1)-dimensional sphere is one of the simplest, yet paradigmatic problems in Optimization Theory known as the "trust region subproblem" or "constraint least square problem". When both terms in the cost function are random this amounts to studying the ground state energy of the simplest spherical spin glass in a random magnetic field. We first identify and study two distinct large-N scaling regimes in which the linear term (magnetic field) leads to a gradual topology trivialization, i.e. reduction in the total number {N}_{tot} of critical (stationary) points in the cost function landscape. In the first regime {N}_{tot} remains of the order N and the cost function (energy) has generically two almost degenerate minima with the Tracy-Widom (TW) statistics. In the second regime the number of critical points is of the order of unity with a finite probability for a single minimum. In that case the mean total number of extrema (minima and maxima) of the cost function is given by the Laplace transform of the TW density, and the distribution of the global minimum energy is expected to take a universal scaling form generalizing the TW law. Though the full form of that distribution is not yet known to us, one of its far tails can be inferred from the large deviation theory for the global minimum. In the rest of the paper we show how to use the replica method to obtain the probability density of the minimum energy in the large-deviation approximation by finding both the rate function and the leading pre-exponential factor.

  7. Synthesis of Pyrrolidines and Pyrrolizidines with α-Pseudoquaternary Centers by Copper-Catalyzed Condensation of α-Diazodicarbonyl Compounds and Aryl γ-Lactams.

    PubMed

    Goudedranche, Sébastien; Besnard, Céline; Egger, Léo; Lacour, Jérôme

    2016-10-24

    N-aryl γ-lactams react intermolecularly with acceptor-acceptor diazo reagents, usually dicarbonyl compounds, in a copper-catalyzed process to yield functionalized pyrrolidines with α-pseudoquaternary centers. As 1,2-acyl or -phosphoryl migration is preferred, single regioisomers are obtained. Furthermore, in the presence of a Lewis acid, subsequent Friedel-Crafts reactions yield tricyclic pyrrolizidines in excellent yields (90-96 %) and diastereoselectivities (up to >20:1).

  8. Evolutionary recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for the detoxification of host plant-acquired pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the alkaloid-defended arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Claudia; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    Larvae of Tyria jacobaeae feed solely upon the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plant Senecio jacobaea. Ingested pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which are toxic to unspecialized insects and vertebrates, are efficiently N-oxidized in the hemolymph of T. jacobaeae by senecionine N-oxygenase (SNO), a flavin-dependent monooxygenase (FMO) with a high substrate specificity for PAs. Peptide microsequences obtained from purified T. jacobaeae SNO were used to clone the corresponding cDNA, which was expressed in active form in Escherichia coli. T. jacobaeae SNO possesses a signal peptide characteristic of extracellular proteins, and it belongs to a large family of mainly FMO-like sequences of mostly unknown function, including two predicted Drosophila melanogaster gene products. The data indicate that the gene for T. jacobaeae SNO, highly specific for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, was recruited from a preexisting insect-specific FMO gene family of hitherto unknown function. The enzyme allows the larvae to feed on PA-containing plants and to accumulate predation-deterrent PAs in the hemolymph. PMID:11972041

  9. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ... alcohol in it than beer, malt liquor, or wine. These drink sizes have about the same amount ...

  11. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  12. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  13. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A.; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-07-01

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD2OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD2I2, N2, and O2 (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH2OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm-1 are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinct in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD2OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD2OO at 1318 cm-1 is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH2OO at 1286 cm-1; this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm-1, observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD2 wagging mode of CD2IOO.

  14. Direct Determination of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Self Reaction Rate.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Green, William H

    2014-07-03

    The rate of self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, is of importance in many current laboratory experiments where CH2OO concentrations are high, such as flash photolysis and alkene ozonolysis. Using laser flash photolysis while simultaneously probing both CH2OO and I atom by direct absorption, we can accurately determine absolute CH2OO concentrations as well as the UV absorption cross section of CH2OO at our probe wavelength (λ = 375 nm), which is in agreement with a recently published value. Knowing absolute concentrations we can accurately measure kself = 6.0 ± 2.1 × 10(-11)cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 297 K. We are also able to put an upper bound on the rate coefficient for CH2OO + I of 1.0 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Both of these rate coefficients are at least a factor of 5 smaller than other recent measurements of the same reactions.

  15. The simplest non-minimal matter-geometry coupling in the f( R, T) cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    f( R, T) gravity is an extended theory of gravity in which the gravitational action contains general terms of both the Ricci scalar R and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor T. In this way, f( R, T) models are capable of describing a non-minimal coupling between geometry (through terms in R) and matter (through terms in T). In this article we construct a cosmological model from the simplest non-minimal matter-geometry coupling within the f( R, T) gravity formalism, by means of an effective energy-momentum tensor, given by the sum of the usual matter energy-momentum tensor with a dark energy contribution, with the latter coming from the matter-geometry coupling terms. We apply the energy conditions to our solutions in order to obtain a range of values for the free parameters of the model which yield a healthy and well-behaved scenario. For some values of the free parameters which are submissive to the energy conditions application, it is possible to predict a transition from a decelerated period of the expansion of the universe to a period of acceleration (dark energy era). We also propose further applications of this particular case of the f( R, T) formalism in order to check its reliability in other fields, rather than cosmology.

  16. Verification of Optimal Control Strategy Search Using a Simplest 3-D PWR Xenon Oscillation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2006-07-01

    Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in as short time as possible. In such cases, optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view a very simple model, only four point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the validity of the results for optimal control strategy search are presented by comparing it with the result by a three dimensional nuclear design code The simplest simulator can predict optimal strategy in less than 10 seconds on a PC. Thus it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or in an operator guiding system. (author)

  17. The terahertz dynamics of simplest fluids probed by inelastic X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Cunsolo, Alessandro

    2017-06-12

    More than two decades of inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) studies on noble gases and alkali metals are reviewed to illustrate the advances they prompted in our understanding of the terahertz dynamics of simplest systems. The various literature results outline a remarkably coherent picture of common and distinctive behaviours of liquids and their crystalline counterparts. Furthermore, they draw a consistent and comprehensive picture of the evolution of collective modes at the crossover between the hydrodynamic and the single particle regime, their coupling with fast (sub-ps) relaxation processes and their gradual disappearance upon approaching microscopic scales. The gradual transition of the spectrummore » towards the single particle limit along with its coupling with collisional relaxations will be discussed in some detail. Lastly, less understood emerging topics will be discussed as the occurrence of polyamorphic crossovers, the onset of non-hydrodynamic modes and quantum effects on the spectrum, as well as recent IXS results challenging our vision of the supercritical phase as an intrinsically homogeneous thermodynamic domain.« less

  18. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality.

    PubMed

    Petralia, Ronald S; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2014-07-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathways hinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms.

  19. Ultraviolet spectrum and photochemistry of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Beames, Joseph M; Liu, Fang; Lu, Lu; Lester, Marsha I

    2012-12-12

    Ozonolysis of alkenes in the troposphere produces Criegee intermediates, which have eluded detection in the gas phase until very recently. This laboratory has synthesized the simplest Criegee intermediate within a quartz capillary tube affixed to a pulsed valve to cool and isolate CH(2)OO in a supersonic expansion. UV excitation resonant with the B (1)A' ← X (1)A' transition depletes the ground-state population of CH(2)OO, which is detected by single-photon ionization at 118 nm. The large UV-induced depletion (approaching 100%) near the peak of the profile at 335 nm is indicative of rapid dissociation, consistent with the repulsive B (1)A' potential along the O-O coordinate computed theoretically. The experimental spectrum is in very good accord with the absorption spectrum calculated using the one-dimensional reflection principle. The B ← X spectrum is combined with the solar actinic flux to estimate an atmospheric lifetime for CH(2)OO at midday on the order of ∼1 s with respect to photodissociation.

  20. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-07-28

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD2OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD2I2, N2, and O2 (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH2OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm(-1) are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinct in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD2OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD2OO at 1318 cm(-1) is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH2OO at 1286 cm(-1); this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm(-1), observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD2 wagging mode of CD2IOO.

  1. Computational and Genetic Reduction of a Cell Cycle to Its Simplest, Primordial Components

    PubMed Central

    Fumeaux, Coralie; Viollier, Patrick H.; Howard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the minimal requirements to sustain an asymmetric cell cycle? Here we use mathematical modelling and forward genetics to reduce an asymmetric cell cycle to its simplest, primordial components. In the Alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell cycle progression is believed to be controlled by a cyclical genetic circuit comprising four essential master regulators. Unexpectedly, our in silico modelling predicted that one of these regulators, GcrA, is in fact dispensable. We confirmed this experimentally, finding that ΔgcrA cells are viable, but slow-growing and elongated, with the latter mostly due to an insufficiency of a key cell division protein. Furthermore, suppressor analysis showed that another cell cycle regulator, the methyltransferase CcrM, is similarly dispensable with simultaneous gcrA/ccrM disruption ameliorating the cytokinetic and growth defect of ΔgcrA cells. Within the Alphaproteobacteria, gcrA and ccrM are consistently present or absent together, rather than either gene being present alone, suggesting that gcrA/ccrM constitutes an independent, dispensable genetic module. Together our approaches unveil the essential elements of a primordial asymmetric cell cycle that should help illuminate more complex cell cycles. PMID:24415923

  2. Detection of Formamide, the Simplest but Crucial Amide, in a Solar-type Protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahane, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Faure, A.; Caux, E.

    2013-02-01

    Formamide (NH2CHO), the simplest possible amide, has recently been suggested to be a central species in the synthesis of metabolic and genetic molecules, the chemical basis of life. In this Letter, we report the first detection of formamide in a protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, which may be similar to the Sun and solar system progenitor. The data combine spectra from the millimeter and submillimeter TIMASSS survey with recent, more sensitive observations at the IRAM 30 m telescope. With an abundance relative to H2 of ~10-10, formamide appears as abundant in this solar-type protostar as in the two high-mass star-forming regions, Orion-KL and SgrB2, where this species has previously been detected. Given the largely different UV-illuminated environments of the three sources, the relevance of UV photolysis of interstellar ices in the synthesis of formamide is therefore questionable. Assuming that this species is formed in the gas phase via the neutral-neutral reaction between the radical NH2 and H2CO, we predict an abundance in good agreement with the value derived from our observations. The comparison of the relative abundance [NH2CHO]/[H2O] in IRAS 16293-2422 and in the coma of the comet Hale-Bopp supports the similarity between interstellar and cometary chemistry. Our results thus suggest that the abundance of some cometary organic volatiles could reflect gas phase rather than grain-surface interstellar chemistry.

  3. Spectroscopic Characterization of the Reaction Products Between HCl and the Simplest Criegee Intermediate CH_{2}OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Endo, Yasuki

    2017-06-01

    Carbonyl oxides (R_{1}R_{2}COO), also known as Criegee intermediates (CIs), react quickly with many trace atmospheric gases, including inorganic gases such as HCl, which are present in polluted urban atmospheres. A theoretical investigation of the reaction between the simplest CI, CH_{2}OO, with HCl suggests the formation of chloromethyl hydroperoxide (CMHP) through an insertion mechanism. To gain some insight, we have interrogated the reaction system containing CH_{2}OO and HCl through pure rotational spectroscopy. In our experiment, CH_{2}OO molecules have been generated in the discharged plasma of a CH_{2}I_{2}/O_{2} mixture, which containg a small amount of HCl enough to react with CH_{2}OO. The resulting products (including CH_{2}OO) were characterized by Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy. Rotational transitions in the 6-40 GHz frequency range were observed by FTMW spectroscopy together with FTMW-mmW and MW-MW double-resonance techniques. The observed species was identified with the help of quantum chemical calculations as the most stable conformer of CMHP. The non observation of other different reaction products together with the absence of spectral features of the complex between HCl and CH_{2}OO enable us to understand the pathway of the HCl+CH_{2}OO reaction.

  4. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality

    PubMed Central

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathwayshinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms. PMID:24910306

  5. Simplest method for creating micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS with UV light.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Wei; Choo, Wan Hui Stella; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2011-11-15

    The fabrication of micropatterned structures on PDMS is a critical step in soft lithography, microfluidics, and many other PDMS-based applications. To substitute traditional mold-casting methods, we develop a simple method to create micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS in one step. After exposing a flat PDMS surface to a UV pen lamp through a photomask (such as a TEM grid), micropatterned nanostructures can be formed readily on the PDMS surface. We also demonstrate that fabricated PDMS can be used for the microcontact printing of protein immunoglobulin (IgG) on solid surfaces. This method is probably the simplest method of creating micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS reported so far because it does not need casting, surface coating, or chemical reagents. Only a UV pen lamp and a photomask are required, and this method can be performed under ambient conditions without vacuum. We expect that this method will greatly benefit researchers who use PDMS regularly in various applications such as soft lithography and microfluidics.

  6. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM(˜)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with “linear mixture” (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM(˜) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM(˜) there were reproduced two-dimensional remarkable (“banana-like”) structure of two-phase region P — T diagram and the characteristic non-monotonic shape of caloric phase enthalpy-temperature diagram, similar to the non-congruent evaporation of reactive plasma products in high-temperature heating with the uranium-oxygen system. The parameters of critical points (CP) line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of ions 0 < X < 1, including two reference values, when CP coincides with a point of extreme temperature and extreme pressure, XT and Xp. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated the low-temperature property of non-congruent gas-liquid transition — “distillation”, which is weak in chemically reactive plasmas.

  7. Infrared Absorption Spectrum of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate CH_{2}OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Witek, Henryk; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2013-06-01

    The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides postulated to play key roles in the reactions of ozone with unsaturated hydrocarbons; these reactions constitute an important mechanism for the removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons and for the production of OH in the atmosphere. Here we report the transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH_{2}OO, produced from CH_{2}I + O_{2} in a flow reactor, using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a mulitpass absorption cell. CH_{2}I was produced on photolysis of CH_{2}I_{2} with laser light at 248 nm. The five bands observed near 1435, 1286, 1241, 908, and 848 cm^{-1} provide definitive identification of this intermediate on comparison of anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers and relative IR intensities predicted using quadratic force field obtained with the NEVPT2 method implemented in the MOLPRO quantum chemistry package using the CASSCF(8,8) reference wave function. Observed rotational contours also agree with those simulated based on rotational constants predicted with the B3LYP method. Observation of the out-of-plane CH_{2}-wagging (ν _{8}) mode near 848 cm^{-1} with a characteristic {c}-type structure showing a prominent Q-branch further supports the assignment of the observed features to a planar CH_{2}OO. The observed vibrational frequencies are more consistent with a zwitterion rather than a diradical structure of CH_{2}OO. The direct IR detection of CH_{2}OO should prove useful for kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the Criegee mechanism.

  8. Radiative Yukawa couplings in the simplest left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Emidio; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2017-02-01

    We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the standard model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )Y. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs S U (2 )R doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the S U (2 )R gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the S U (2 )R breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the standard model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric framework recovers additional appealing features typical of these models, allowing for instance to identify the hypercharges of the involved fermions with their B -L charges and offering a straightforward solution to the strong C P problem. The scheme gives rise to a distinguishing phenomenology that potentially can be tested at the LHC and future colliders through the same interactions that result in the radiative generation of Yukawa couplings, as well as by exploiting the properties of the additional S U (2 )R Higgs doublet.

  9. DETECTION OF FORMAMIDE, THE SIMPLEST BUT CRUCIAL AMIDE, IN A SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kahane, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Faure, A.

    2013-02-01

    Formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO), the simplest possible amide, has recently been suggested to be a central species in the synthesis of metabolic and genetic molecules, the chemical basis of life. In this Letter, we report the first detection of formamide in a protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, which may be similar to the Sun and solar system progenitor. The data combine spectra from the millimeter and submillimeter TIMASSS survey with recent, more sensitive observations at the IRAM 30 m telescope. With an abundance relative to H{sub 2} of {approx}10{sup -10}, formamide appears as abundant in this solar-type protostar as in the two high-mass star-forming regions, Orion-KL and SgrB2, where this species has previously been detected. Given the largely different UV-illuminated environments of the three sources, the relevance of UV photolysis of interstellar ices in the synthesis of formamide is therefore questionable. Assuming that this species is formed in the gas phase via the neutral-neutral reaction between the radical NH{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO, we predict an abundance in good agreement with the value derived from our observations. The comparison of the relative abundance [NH{sub 2}CHO]/[H{sub 2}O] in IRAS 16293-2422 and in the coma of the comet Hale-Bopp supports the similarity between interstellar and cometary chemistry. Our results thus suggest that the abundance of some cometary organic volatiles could reflect gas phase rather than grain-surface interstellar chemistry.

  10. A new approach for simultaneous screening and quantification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in some potential pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants by using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Na; Choi, Franky Fung-Kei; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Xin; Cai, Zong-Wei; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-11-29

    A rapid, but sensitive and selective method for simultaneous screening and quantification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) by ultra performance liquid-chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQ-MS) is described. This was accomplished by incorporating the precursor ion scan (PIS) acquisition and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition in the same UPLC-MS/MS run. Notably, the developed PIS approach for detecting two pairs of characteristic product ions at m/z 120/138 or 168/150, allowed specific identification of toxic retronecine and otonecine types PAs. This PIS method is highly sensitive with over 10-fold sensitivity improvement upon previously published LC-MS method. Moreover, this new approach is suitable for high sample throughput and was applied to the screening and quantifying toxic PAs in 22 samples collected from seven Parasenecio species and four Senecio species. In addition, coupling the MRM with PIS approach generated quantitative results equivalent to those obtained by conventional MRM-only approach. This coupled MRM with PIS approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need of repetitive analyses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    PubMed Central

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  12. UPLC TOF MS for sensitive quantification of naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Petasites hybridus extract (Ze 339).

    PubMed

    Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements.

  13. The Role of Astrocytes in Metabolism and Neurotoxicity of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Monocrotaline, the Main Toxin of Crotalaria retusa

    PubMed Central

    Pitanga, Bruno Penas Seara; Nascimento, Ravena P.; Silva, Victor Diógenes A.; Costa, Silvia L.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic interactions and signaling between neurons and glial cells are necessary for the development and maintenance of brain functions and structures and for neuroprotection, which includes protection from chemical attack. Astrocytes are essential for cerebral detoxification and present an efficient and specific cytochrome P450 enzymatic system. Whilst Crotalaria (Fabaceae, Leguminosae) plants are used in popular medicine, they are considered toxic and can cause damage to livestock and human health problems. Studies in animals have shown cases of poisoning by plants from the genus Crotalaria, which induced damage to the central nervous system. This finding has been attributed to the toxic effects of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) monocrotaline (MCT). The involvement of P450 enzymatic systems in MCT hepatic and pulmonary metabolism and toxicity has been elucidated, but little is known about the pathways implicated in the bioactivation of these systems and the direct contribution of these systems to brain toxicity. This review will present the main toxicological aspects of the Crotalaria genus that are established in the literature and recent findings describing the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic effects of MCT, which was extracted from Crotalaria retusa, and its interaction with neurons in isolated astrocytes. PMID:22876233

  14. Detection and Toxicity Evaluation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Medicinal Plants Gynura bicolor and Gynura divaricata Collected from Different Chinese Locations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Lü, Han; Fang, Lian-Xiang; Li, Wei-Lin; Verschaeve, Luc; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert; Mangelinckx, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of Gynura species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyze the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two Gynura species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC/MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre-column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester-type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high-throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in Gynura species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of Gynura species requires caution. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis orchids and other monocotyledons: identification of deoxyhypusine synthase, homospermidine synthase and related pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Nurhayati, Niknik; Gondé, Daniela; Ober, Dietrich

    2009-03-01

    In order to study the evolution of pathways of plant secondary metabolism, we use the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as a model system. PAs are regarded as part of the plant's constitutive defense against herbivores. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis. The gene encoding HSS has been recruited from the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) from primary metabolism at least four times independently during angiosperm evolution. One of these recruitment occurred within the monocot lineage. We have used the PA-producing orchid Phalaenopsis to identify the cDNAs encoding HSS, DHS and the substrate protein for DHS, i.e., the precursor of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. A cDNA identified from maize was unequivocally characterized as DHS. From our study of Phalaenopsis, several pseudogenes emerged, of which one was shown to be a "processed pseudogene", and others to be transcribed. Sequence comparison of the HSS- and DHS-encoding sequences from this investigation with those of monocot species taken from the databases suggest that HSS and probably the ability to produce PAs is an old feature within the monocot lineage. This result is discussed with respect to the recent discovery of structural related PAs within grasses.

  16. The two facies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: the role of the tertiary amine and its N-oxide in chemical defense of insects with acquired plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindigkeit, R; Biller, A; Buch, M; Schiebel, H M; Boppré, M; Hartmann, T

    1997-05-01

    Larvae of Creatonotos transiens (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) and Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera, Pyrgomorphidae) ingest 14C-labeled senecionine and its N-oxide with the same efficiency but sequester the two tracers exclusively as N-oxide. Larvae of the non-sequestering Spodoptera littoralis eliminate efficiently the ingested alkaloids. During feeding on the two alkaloidal forms transient levels of senecionine (but not of the N-oxide) are built up in the haemolymph of S. littoralis larvae. Based on these results, senecionine [18O]N-oxide was fed to C. transiens larvae and Z. variegatus adults. The senecionine N-oxide recovered from the haemolymph of the two insects shows an almost complete loss of 18O label, indicating reduction of the orally fed N-oxide in the guts, uptake of the tertiary alkaloid and its re-N-oxidation in the haemolymph. The enzyme responsible for N-oxidation is a soluble mixed function monooxygenase. It was isolated from the haemolymph of the sequestering arctiid Tyria jacobaeae and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme is a flavoprotein with a native Mr of 200000 and a subunit Mr of 51000. It shows a pH optimum at 7.0, has its maximal activity at a temperature of 40-45 degrees C and an isoelectric point at pH 4.9. The reaction is strictly NADPH-dependent (Km 1.3 microM). From 20 pyrrolizidine alkaloids so far tested as substrates, the enyzme N-oxidizes only alkaloids with structural elements which are essential for hepatotoxic and genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (i.e. 1,2-double bond, esterification of the allylic hydroxyl group, presence of a second free or esterified hydroxyl group at carbon 7). A great variety of related alkaloids and xenobiotics were tested as substrate, none was accepted. The Km values of senecionine, monocrotaline and heliotrine, representing the three main types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, are 1.3 microM, 12.5 microM and 290 microM, respectively. The novel enzyme was named senecionine N-oxygenase (SNO). The

  17. Mathematical models of the simplest fuzzy PI/PD controllers with skewed input and output fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, B M; Sinha, Arpita

    2008-07-01

    This paper unveils mathematical models for fuzzy PI/PD controllers which employ two skewed fuzzy sets for each of the two-input variables and three skewed fuzzy sets for the output variable. The basic constituents of these models are Gamma-type and L-type membership functions for each input, trapezoidal/triangular membership functions for output, intersection/algebraic product triangular norm, maximum/drastic sum triangular conorm, Mamdani minimum/Larsen product/drastic product inference method, and center of sums defuzzification method. The existing simplest fuzzy PI/PD controller structures derived via symmetrical fuzzy sets become special cases of the mathematical models revealed in this paper. Finally, a numerical example along with its simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simplest fuzzy PI controllers.

  18. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  19. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  20. Survey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in seven varieties of Lappula squarrosa: An alternative source of heart-healthy vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Horn, Gert; Beuerle, Till

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for heart-healthy omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is putting stress on wild fish stocks. There is now a compelling need for new and novel sources of non-traditional seed oils containing high stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA and DHA, to reduce this demand. The seed oil of Lappula squarrosa is one of the richest sources of SDA, however, the plant has been found to contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). In this study, the PA concentrations of seven varieties (A-G) of Lappula squarrosa were analysed to determine the most suitable varieties for commercial seed oil production. Whilst the clean-up procedure for the PAs in the roots, flowers and leaves was on diatomaceous earth columns and finally analysed with GC-EI-MS, that of the seeds was through SCX-SPE and a more sensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method was used in the analysis. Altogether six PAs (supinine, amabiline, intermedine, lycopsamine and 3'-acetylintermedine) including one unknown retronecine-type PA were identified with variety C recording the lowest total PA concentration (4.64 mg seneciphylline equivalents (SE)/g dry weight (d.w.)). Besides, the total PA concentrations in the seeds of Lappula squarrosa varieties ranged between 2.88 μg PA/g and 10.36 μg PA/g d.w. Based solely on overall PA concentrations and PA distribution, variety D (5.95 mg SE/g d.w.) was found to be a potential candidate for commercial seed oil cultivation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Testing the generalist-specialist dilemma: the role of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in resistance to invertebrate herbivores in Jacobaea species.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianqin; Vrieling, Klaas; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (SMs) to protect them from generalist herbivores. On the other hand, specialist herbivores use SMs for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition cues, and even sequester SMs for their own defense. Therefore, plants are assumed to face an evolutionary dilemma stemming from the contrasting effects of generalist and specialist herbivores on SMs. To test this hypothesis, bioassays were performed with F2 hybrids from Jacobaea species segregating for their pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), using a specialist flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) and a generalist slug (Deroceras invadens). Our study demonstrated that while slug feeding damage was negatively correlated with the concentration of total PAs and that of senecionine-like PAs, flea beetle feeding damage was not affected by PAs. It was positively correlated though, with leaf fresh weight. The generalist slug was deterred by senecionine-like PAs but the specialist flea beetle was adapted to PAs in its host plant. Testing other herbivores in the same plant system, it was observed that the egg number of the specialist cinnabar moth was positively correlated with jacobine-like PAs, while the silver damage of generalist thrips was negatively correlated with senecionine- and jacobine-like PAs, and the pupae number of generalist leaf miner was negatively correlated with otosenine-like PAs. Therefore, while the specialist herbivores showed no correlation whatsoever with PA concentration, the generalist herbivores all showed a negative correlation with at least one type of PA. We concluded that the generalist herbivores were deterred by different structural groups of PAs while the specialist herbivores were attracted or adapted to PAs in its host plants.

  3. Occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal- and plant-derived food: Results of a survey across Europe.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Patrick P J; López Sanchez, Patricia; Castelari, Massimo; Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2017-09-25

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and in particular in tea. In order to get a comprehensive overview on the PA-content in animal- and plant-derived food from the European market, and to provide a basis for future risk analysis, a total of 1105 samples were collected in 2014 and 2015. The investigation comprised milk and milk products, eggs, meat and meat products, (herbal) teas and (herbal) food supplements collected in supermarkets, retail shops and via internet. PAs were detected in a large proportion of plant-derived foods: 91% of the (herbal) teas and 60% of the food supplements contained at least one individual PA. All types of (herbal) teas investigated were found to contain PAs, with a mean concentration of 460 µg kg(-1) dry tea (corresponding to 6.13 µg L(-1) in (herbal) tea infusion). The highest mean concentrations were found in rooibos tea (599 µg kg(-1) dry tea, 7.99 µg L(-1) tea infusion) and the lowest in camomile tea (274 µg kg(-1) dry tea, 3.65 µg L(-1) tea infusion). Occurrence of PAs in food supplements was found to be highly variable but in comparable ranges as for (herbal) tea. The highest concentrations were present in supplements containing plant material from known PA-producing plants. In contrast only 2% of the animal-derived products, in particular 6% of milk samples and 1% of egg samples, contained PAs. Determined levels in milk ranged between 0.05 and 0.17 µg L(-1) relatively low and only trace amounts of 0.10-0.12 µg kg(-1) were found in eggs. No PAs were detected in the other animal-derived products.

  4. Interim relative potency factors for the toxicological risk assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Merz, Karl-Heinz; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-11-30

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent natural toxins occurring in a broad spectrum of plant species from various families. Recently, findings of considerable contamination of teas/herbal infusions prepared from non-PA plants have been reported. These are obviously due to cross-contamination with minor amounts of PA plants and can affect both food and herbal medicines. Another source of human exposure is honey collected from PA plants. These findings illustrate the requirement for a comprehensive risk assessment of PAs, hampered by the enormous number of different PA congeners occurring in nature. Up to now, risk assessment is based on the carcinogenicity of certain PAs after chronic application to rats using the sum of detected PAs as dose metric. Because of the well-documented large structure-dependent differences between sub-groups of PA congeners with respect to their genotoxicity and (cyto)toxicity, however, this procedure is inadequate. Here we provide an overview of recent attempts to assess the risk of PA exposure and the available literature on the toxic effects and potencies of different congeners. Based on these considerations, we have derived interim Relative Potency (REP) factors for a number of abundant PAs suggesting a factor of 1.0 for cyclic di-esters and open-chain di-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.3 for mono-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.1 for open-chain di-esters with 7R configuration and of 0.01 for mono-esters with 7R configuration. For N-oxides we suggest to apply the REP factor of the corresponding PA. We are confident that the use of these values can provide a more scientific basis for PA risk assessment until a more detailed experimental analysis of the potencies of all relevant congeners can be carried out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-07

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H{sub 2}O–CH{sub 2}OO and D{sub 2}O–CH{sub 2}OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH{sub 2}OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  6. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  7. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  8. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  9. Structure-activity relationships of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in insect chemical defense against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karina Lucas; Trigo, José Roberto

    2002-04-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to protect Arctiidae moths and Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Araneidae, Tetragnathinae), which liberates adults of these insects unharmed from its web. We tested against this spider the role of eight PAs and one derived structure [an 89:11 mixture of the 12-membered macrocyclic diester free base integerrimine and senecionine and the respective N-oxide; two hydrolysis products from this mixture (the necine base retronecine, its respective N-oxide, and a mixture of integerriminic and senecionic necic acids); the 12-membered macrocyclic senkirkine; the 9-O-monoester free base senecioylretronecine and its respective N-oxide; and the 9-O-monoester free base callimorphine (a PA biosynthesized only by insects from retronecine)]. The mixture integerrimine-senecionine N-oxide seems to be more active than the respective free base [LibD50 (liberation dose 50) = 0.042 and 0.153 microg/dry weight of prey, respectively], but the difference in activity between the N-oxide and free base of the 9-O-monoester senecioylretronecine was slight (LibD50 = 0.167 and 0.104, respectively). Senkirkine, an otonecine base PA that does not form N-oxide and is not found in insects, was the less active, showing the highest LibD50 (0.354). The difference in antipredator activity between N-oxides and free bases from macrocyclic diesters and monoesters may be correlated with physicochemical properties of these molecules in interaction with the Nephila receptors. For the active structures, there was a significant correlation between dosage and antipredator activity. Both forms of retronecine and a necic acid mixture were inactive, supporting the hypothesis that PAs biosynthesized by insects from retronecine were originally produced and stored in order to optimize chemical defense. Comparison of dose/activity data with reported amounts of PAs in butterflies suggested that, in general, PA

  10. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Ndengue, Steve; Li, Jun; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  11. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Ndengue, Steve; Li, Jun; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2015-08-28

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  12. Observation of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate CH_2OO in the Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, Carrie; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Brown, Gordon G.; Field, Robert W.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2015-06-01

    Criegee intermediates (R_1R_2COO) are understood to be critical intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, but their high reactivity has traditionally made them very difficult to study directly. Although the smallest Criegee intermediates have now been generated in the laboratory using a diiodomethane photolysis scheme, numerous questions still remain about the product branching ratios of Criegee intermediates formed directly from ozonolysis. This talk will discuss our recent detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH_2OO, in the ozonolysis of ethylene, using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and a modified pulsed nozzle. Nine other product species of the reaction were also detected, in abundances that qualitatively support the published mechanisms and rate constants.

  13. The Simplest Criegee Intermediate (H_2C=O-O): Equilibrium Structure and Possible Formation from Atmospheric Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Cheng, Lan; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Martinez, Oscar, Jr.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Womack, Carrie; Stanton, John F.

    2014-06-01

    Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in combination with double-resonance techniques has been used to detect the rotational spectra of all five singly-substituted isotopic species of H_2C=O-O, the simplest Criegee intermediate. By correcting the rotational constants of these species and those of four others previously reported by Nakajima and Endo (J. Chem. Phys. 39, 101103, 2013) for zero-point vibrational motion calculated theoretically, a highly precise equilibrium structure is reported for this important atmospheric intermediate. In contrast to the production method employed by most other groups, which has emphasized the use of halogenated percursors, we find that H_2C=O-O is produced in good yield and fairly selectively by passing a mixture of methane and excess molecular oxygen through an electrical discharge. For this reason H_2C=O-O may be produced in the direct vicinity of atmospheric lightning.

  14. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  15. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  16. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24099 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  18. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO and isoprene

    DOE PAGES

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; ...

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100more » Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.« less

  19. Production and decays of the light pseudoscalar boson {eta} at the CERN LHC in the simplest little Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Yan Qishu; Song, Jeonghyeon; Tseng Poyan

    2008-09-01

    In many extensions of the standard model, the Higgs sector often contains an additional pseudoscalar boson. A good example is the SU(3) simplest little Higgs model, which accommodates a light pseudoscalar boson {eta} with quite different characteristics from those in other multi-Higgs-doublet models. We study various phenomenological signatures of the {eta} at the CERN LHC. In particular, we calculate in details both production and decays in the Drell-Yan type channel qq{yields}Z/Z{sup '}{yields}h{eta}, and in the associated production with a tt pair, gg(qq){yields}tt{eta}. We emphasize the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} decay mode of the {eta} boson when its mass is below the bb threshold. We show that tt{eta} production is in fact large enough to give a sizable number of events while suppressing the backgrounds. We also comment on the direct gluon fusion process and the indirect decay from the heavy T quark (T{yields}t{eta})

  20. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and isoprene

    DOE PAGES

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; ...

    2017-03-07

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100more » Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.« less

  1. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and its O–O photodissociation channels

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M.; Lester, Marsha I. E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu; Subotnik, Joseph E. E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-10-07

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S{sub 2} (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S{sub 2} (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H{sub 2}CO (X {sup 1}A{sub 1}) and O ({sup 1}D) fragments. The remaining ∼95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H{sub 2}CO (a {sup 3}A″) and O ({sup 3}P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  2. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and isoprene.

    PubMed

    Decker, Z C J; Au, K; Vereecken, L; Sheps, L

    2017-03-13

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15-100 Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.

  3. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and its O-O photodissociation channels.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M; Lester, Marsha I; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2014-10-07

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S2 (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S2 (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H2CO (X (1)A1) and O ((1)D) fragments. The remaining ∼95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H2CO (a (3)A″) and O ((3)P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  4. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and its O-O photodissociation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M.; Lester, Marsha I.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2014-10-01

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S2 (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S2 (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H2CO (X 1A1) and O (1D) fragments. The remaining ˜95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H2CO (a 3A″) and O (3P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  5. Pseudoscalar boson and standard model-like Higgs boson productions at the LHC in the simplest little Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Han Xiaofang

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the simplest little Higgs model, we perform a comprehensive study for the pair productions of the pseudoscalar boson {eta} and standard model-like Higgs boson h at LHC, namely gg(bb){yields}{eta}{eta}, gg(qq){yields}{eta}h, and gg(bb){yields}hh. These production processes provide a way to probe the couplings between Higgs bosons. We find that the cross section of gg{yields}{eta}{eta} always dominates over that of bb{yields}{eta}{eta}. When the Higgs boson h which mediates these two processes is on-shell, their cross sections can reach several thousand fb and several hundred fb, respectively. When the intermediate state h is off-shell, those two cross sections are reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The cross sections of gg{yields}{eta}h and qq{yields}{eta}h are about in the same order of magnitude, which can reach O(10{sup 2} fb) for a light {eta} boson. Besides, compared with the standard model prediction, the cross section of a pair of standard model-like Higgs bosons production at LHC can be enhanced sizably. Finally, we briefly discuss the observable signatures of {eta}{eta}, {eta}h, and hh at the LHC.

  6. Dynamics of coupled simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits and its potential application to random bit generation

    SciTech Connect

    Modeste Nguimdo, Romain; Tchitnga, Robert; Woafo, Paul

    2013-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibility of using a coupling to increase the complexity in simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits operating at high frequency. We subsequently show that complex behaviors generated in such coupled systems, together with the post-processing are suitable for generating bit-streams which pass all the NIST tests for randomness. The electronic circuit is built up by unidirectionally coupling three two-component (one active and one passive) oscillators in a ring configuration through resistances. It turns out that, with such a coupling, high chaotic signals can be obtained. By extracting points at fixed interval of 10 ns (corresponding to a bit rate of 100 Mb/s) on such chaotic signals, each point being simultaneously converted in 16-bits (or 8-bits), we find that the binary sequence constructed by including the 10(or 2) least significant bits pass statistical tests of randomness, meaning that bit-streams with random properties can be achieved with an overall bit rate up to 10×100 Mb/s =1Gbit/s (or 2×100 Mb/s =200 Megabit/s). Moreover, by varying the bias voltages, we also investigate the parameter range for which more complex signals can be obtained. Besides being simple to implement, the two-component electronic circuit setup is very cheap as compared to optical and electro-optical systems.

  7. The simplest equivalent circuit of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge and the determination of the gas gap charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipa, A. V.; Koskulics, J.; Brandenburg, R.; Hoder, T.

    2012-11-01

    The concept of the simplest equivalent circuit for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is critically reviewed. It is shown that the approach is consistent with experimental data measured either in large-scale sinusoidal-voltage driven or miniature pulse-voltage driven DBDs. An expression for the charge transferred through the gas gap q(t) is obtained with an accurate account for the displacement current and the values of DBD reactor capacitance. This enables (i) the significant reduction of experimental error in the determination of q(t) in pulsed DBDs, (ii) the verification of the classical electrical theory of ozonizers about maximal transferred charge qmax, and (iii) the development of a graphical method for the determination of qmax from charge-voltage characteristics (Q-V plots, often referred as Lissajous figures) measured under pulsed excitation. The method of graphical presentation of qmax is demonstrated with an example of a Q-V plot measured under pulsed excitation. The relations between the discharge current jR(t), the transferred charge q(t), and the measurable parameters are presented in new forms, which enable the qualitative interpretation of the measured current and voltage waveforms without the knowledge about the value of the dielectric barrier capacitance Cd. Whereas for quantitative evaluation of electrical measurements, the accurate estimation of the Cd is important.

  8. Submillimeter-wave Spectrum of Aminoacetonitrile and its Deuterated Isotopologues, Possible Precursors of the Simplest Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoki, Yuta; Tsunoda, Yukari; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    Aminoacetonitrile, CH2NH2CN, has been considered one of the important precursors of glycine, the simplest amino acid, and was identified in Sgr B2(N) by Belloche et al. based on their reanalysis of previous laboratory measurements. However, these laboratory measurements were limited to the 1 mm wavelength region even for the normal species, and recent new radio telescopes like ALMA require rest frequencies in a higher frequency range. Therefore, we have extended the pure rotational spectra of aminoacetonitrile and its amino-hydrogen-deuterated isotopologues (NHDCH2CN and ND2CH2CN) up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively. Belloche et al. indicated that the normal species may have been misassigned in a previous microwave study by Bogey et al. We found that two more b-type spectral transitions were misassigned, and all b-type transition frequencies above Ka = 2 had to be remeasured. For isotopologues, spectra above 40 GHz were observed for the first time and higher order centrifugal distortion constants have been determined. The extension of the measurements helped improve the molecular constants. The errors in the frequency catalog data of normal and deuterated isotopologues are on the order of 100 kHz up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively, which are precise enough for the future astronomical observations.

  9. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  10. Alcohol Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your drinks The rate and amount of alcohol consumption Your tolerance level Complications Severe complications can result ... pressure and fast heart rate. Seizures. Your blood sugar level may drop low enough to cause seizures. ...

  11. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  12. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  13. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcoholic hepatitis include: Fluid accumulation in your abdomen (ascites) Confusion and behavior changes due to a buildup ... is life-threatening and requires immediate medical care. Ascites. Fluid that accumulates in the abdomen might become ...

  14. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... clear liquid commonly used as a germ killer (antiseptic). This article discusses poisoning from swallowing propyl alcohol. ... Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine) Blood and urine ...

  15. The simplest quantum model supporting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of topological defect production: Landau-Zener transitions from a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Damski, Bogdan

    2005-07-15

    It can be shown that the dynamics of the Landau-Zener model can be accurately described in terms of the Kibble-Zurek theory of the topological defect production in nonequilibrium phase transitions. The simplest quantum model exhibiting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is presented. A new intuitive description of Landau-Zener dynamics is found.

  16. The Simplest Quantum Model Supporting the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism of Topological Defect Production: Landau-Zener Transitions from a New Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan

    2005-07-15

    It can be shown that the dynamics of the Landau-Zener model can be accurately described in terms of the Kibble-Zurek theory of the topological defect production in nonequilibrium phase transitions. The simplest quantum model exhibiting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is presented. A new intuitive description of Landau-Zener dynamics is found.

  17. [Alcohol experience, alcohol knowledge, and alcohol expectancy in early adolescents].

    PubMed

    Tak, Young-Ran; Yun, E-hwa; An, Ji-Yeon

    2007-02-01

    This study was to explore the prevalence of alcohol experiences and to identify the expectancy on the effects of alcohol and alcohol knowledge in early adolescents. The cross-sectional survey of 1854 students from seven middle schools in one district of Seoul was conducted by convenience sampling. Alcohol experience and early onset of alcohol use were measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Alcohol expectancy was measured by an Alcohol Effects Questionnaire. Over sixty five percent of adolescents reported that they had previous drinking experiences. The participants with no alcohol drinking experience had a lower level of alcohol knowledge than those with experience(t=2.73, p=.007). In expectancy on effects of alcohol, girls had a more positive alcohol expectation than boys(t=-2.54, p=.011). Alcohol knowledge negatively correlated with alcohol expectancy(r=-.40 p=.000). In regression of alcohol expectancy, gender and alcohol knowledge were significant predictors explaining 17%. The results support that alcohol expectancy is an important link with early drinking experiences and alcohol knowledge, focusing on the importance of gender differences. Therefore, an alcohol prevention program in early adolescence is needed and should be focused on multidimensionality of the alcohol expectancy with developmental and psychosocial factors for early adolescents.

  18. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  19. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.

  20. Bioactivity Studies of β-Lactam Derived Polycyclic Fused Pyrroli-Dine/Pyrrolizidine Derivatives in Dentistry: In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Studies

    PubMed Central

    Winfred, Sofi Beaula; Mannivanan, Bhavani; Bhoopalan, Hemadev; Shankar, Venkatesh; Sekar, Sathiya; Venkatachalam, Deepa Parvathi; Pitani, Ravishankar; Nagendrababu, Venkateshbabu; Thaiman, Malini; Devivanayagam, Kandaswamy; Jayaraman, Jeyakanthan; Ragavachary, Raghunathan; Venkatraman, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of β-lactam derived polycyclic fused pyrrolidine/pyrrolizidine derivatives synthesized by 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction was evaluated against microbes involved in dental infection. Fifteen compounds were screened; among them compound 3 showed efficient antibacterial activity in an ex vivo dentinal tubule model and in vivo mice infectious model. In silico docking studies showed greater affinity to penicillin binding protein. Cell damage was observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) which was further proved by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and quantified using Flow Cytometry by PI up-take. Compound 3 treated E. faecalis showed ROS generation and loss of membrane integrity was quantified by flow cytometry. Compound 3 was also found to be active against resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from failed root canal treatment cases. Further, compound 3 was found to be hemocompatible, not cytotoxic to normal mammalian NIH 3T3 cells and non mutagenic. It was concluded that β-lactam compound 3 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against E. faecalis involved in root canal infections and the mechanism of action was deciphered. The results of this research can be further implicated in the development of potent antibacterial medicaments with applications in dentistry. PMID:26185985

  1. Identification of a Second Site of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Comfrey to Boost Plant Defense in Floral Stage1,2[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase, an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In comfrey (Symphytum officinale; Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that comfrey plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves express not only HSS but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures. PMID:28275146

  2. An outbreak of hepatic veno-occlusive disease in Western afghanistan associated with exposure to wheat flour contaminated with pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; van Egmond, Hans P; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad

    2010-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alakloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6-168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  3. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis Orchids: Developmental Expression of Alkaloid-Specific Homospermidine Synthase in Root Tips and Young Flower Buds1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression. PMID:18701671

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids: developmental expression of alkaloid-specific homospermidine synthase in root tips and young flower buds.

    PubMed

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression.

  5. A Balanced Risk–Benefit Analysis to Determine Human Risks Associated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PA)—The Case of Tea and Herbal Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Habs, Michael; Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Müller, Karolina; Ernst, Brigitte; Valentini, Luzia; Koller, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) through different sources, mainly from contaminated foodstuff. Teas and herbal infusions (T&HI) can be contaminated by PA producing weed. PA can possess toxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic properties. Thus, possible health risks for the general population are under debate. There is a strong safety record for T&HI and additionally epidemiological evidence for the preventive effects of regular tea consumption on cardiovascular events and certain types of cancer. There is no epidemiological evidence, however, for human risks of regular low dose PA exposure. Recommended regulatory PA-threshold values are based on experimental data only, accepting big uncertainties. If a general risk exists through PA contaminated T&HI, it must be small compared to other frequently accepted risks of daily living and the proven health effects of T&HI. Decision making should be based on a balanced riskbenefit analysis. Based on analyses of the scientific data currently available, it is concluded that the benefits of drinking T&HI clearly outweigh the negligible health risk of possible PA contamination. At the same time, manufacturers must continue their efforts to secure good product quality and to be transparent on their measures of quality control and risk communication. PMID:28686224

  6. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  7. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  8. New LUX and PandaX-II results illuminating the simplest Higgs-portal dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Tandean, Jusak

    2016-12-01

    Direct searches for dark matter (DM) by the LUX and PandaX-II Collaborations employing xenon-based detectors have recently come up with the most stringent limits to date on the spin-independent elastic scattering of DM off nucleons. For Higgs-portal scalar DM models, the new results have precluded any possibility of accommodating low-mass DM as suggested by the DAMA and CDMS II Si experiments utilizing other target materials, even after invoking isospin-violating DM interactions with nucleons. In the simplest model, SM+D, which is the standard model plus a real singlet scalar named darkon acting as the DM candidate, the LUX and PandaX-II limits rule out DM masses roughly from 4 to 450 GeV, except a small range around the resonance point at half of the Higgs mass where the interaction cross-section is near the neutrino-background floor. In the THDM II+D, which is the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model combined with a darkon, the region excluded in the SM+D by the direct searches can be recovered due to suppression of the DM effective interactions with nucleons at some values of the ratios of Higgs couplings to the up and down quarks, making the interactions significantly isospin-violating. However, in either model, if the 125-GeV Higgs boson is the portal between the dark and SM sectors, DM masses less than 50 GeV or so are already ruled out by the LHC constraint on the Higgs invisible decay. In the THDM II+D, if the heavier CP -even Higgs boson is the portal, theoretical restrictions from perturbativity, vacuum stability, and unitarity requirements turn out to be important instead and exclude much of the region below 100 GeV. For larger DM masses, the THDM II+D has plentiful parameter space that corresponds to interaction cross-sections under the neutrino-background floor and therefore is likely to be beyond the reach of future direct searches without directional sensitivity.

  9. Spectroscopy of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO: simulation of the first bands in its electronic and photoelectron spectra.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A; Dyke, John M

    2012-09-24

    CH(2)OO, the simplest Criegee intermediate, and ozone are isoelectronic. They both play very important roles in atmospheric chemistry. Whilst extensive experimental studies have been made on ozone, there were no direct gas-phase studies on CH(2)OO until very recently when its photoionization spectrum was recorded and kinetics studies were made of some reactions of CH(2)OO with a number of molecules of atmospheric importance, using photoionization mass spectrometry to monitor CH(2)OO. In order to encourage more direct studies on CH(2)OO and other Criegee intermediates, the electronic and photoelectron spectra of CH(2)OO have been simulated using high level electronic structure calculations and Franck-Condon factor calculations, and the results are presented here. Adiabatic and vertical excitation energies of CH(2)OO were calculated with TDDFT, EOM-CCSD, and CASSCF methods. Also, DFT, QCISD and CASSCF calculations were performed on neutral and low-lying ionic states, with single energy calculations being carried out at higher levels to obtain more reliable ionization energies. The results show that the most intense band in the electronic spectrum of CH(2) OO corresponds to the B(1)A' ← X(1)A' absorption. It is a broad band in the region 250-450 nm showing extensive structure in vibrational modes involving O-O stretching and C-O-O bending. Evidence is presented to show that the electronic absorption spectrum of CH(2)OO has probably been recorded in earlier work, albeit at low resolution. We suggest that CH(2)OO was prepared in this earlier work from the reaction of CH(2)I with O(2) and that the assignment of the observed spectrum solely to CH(2)IOO is incorrect. The low ionization energy region of the photoelectron spectrum of CH(2)OO consists of two overlapping vibrationally structured bands corresponding to one-electron ionizations from the highest two occupied molecular orbitals of the neutral molecule. In each case, the adiabatic component is the most intense

  10. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be triggered by ...

  13. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  14. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  16. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  17. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  18. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  19. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang

    2015-11-10

    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  20. Chemical fingerprinting identifies Echium vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum and Senecio spp. as plant species mainly responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in bee-collected pollen.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Reinhard, Hans; Droz, Benoit; Lucchetti, Matteo Angelo; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Zoller, Otmar

    2017-09-28

    Various studies have shown that bee-collected pollen sold as nutritional supplements may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and, thus, pose a potential health risk for consumers. The level of contamination may vary according to its geographical and botanical origin. Here, the PA content of pollen produced in Switzerland was studied and 32 commercially available bee-collected pollen supplements produced between 2010 and 2014 were analysed. In addition, at what time period bees collect PA-containing pollen was investigated. Hence, this study looked into the occurrence of PAs in pollen samples collected daily during two-to-three consecutive seasons. Furthermore, the PA spectrum in pollen was compared to the spectrum found in flower heads of PA-plants to unambiguously identify plants responsible for PA contamination of pollen. The PA concentration of commercial and daily collected pollen was determined by target analysis using an HPLC-MS/MS system, allowing the detection of 18 different PAs and PA N-oxides found in the genera Echium, Eupatorium and Senecio, while the comparison of the PA spectrum in pollen and flower heads was performed by LC-HR-MS, allowing the detection of all PA types in a sample, including saturated, non-carcinogenic PAs. Of the commercially available pollen, 31% contained PAs with a mean concentration of 319 ng/g, mainly Echium- and Eupatorium-type PAs, while the PA concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in 69% of the pollen samples. Bees collected pollen containing Echium-type PAs mainly in June and July, while they gathered pollen containing Eupatorium-type PAs from mid-July to August. Senecio-type PAs appeared from June to September. Comparison of the PA array in pollen and plants identified E. vulgare and E. cannabinum as the main plants responsible for PA contamination of Swiss bee-collected pollen, and to a lesser extent also identified plants belonging to the genus Senecio.

  1. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Lili; Chen Ying; Liu Tianyu; Wang Zhengtao

    2008-09-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  2. Clivorine, an otonecine pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Ligularia species, impairs neuronal differentiation via NGF-induced signaling pathway in cultured PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Aizhen; Yan, Artemis Lu; Bi, Cathy W C; Lam, Kelly Y C; Chan, Gallant K L; Lau, Kitty K M; Dong, Tina T X; Lin, Huangquan; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-08-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are commonly found in many plants including those used in medical therapeutics. The hepatotoxicities of PAs have been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro; however, the neurotoxicities of PAs are rarely mentioned. In this study, we aimed to investigate in vitro neurotoxicities of clivorine, one of the PAs found in various Ligularia species, in cultured PC12 cells. PC12 cell line was employed to first elucidate the neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of clivorine, including cell viability and morphology change, neuronal differentiation marker and signaling pathway. PC12 cells were challenged with series concentrations of clivorine and/or nerve growth factor (NGF). The cell lysates were collected for MTT assay, trypan blue staining, immunocytofluorescent staining, qRT-PCR and western blotting. Clivorine inhibited cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation evidenced by MTT assay and dose-dependently reducing neurite outgrowth, respectively. In addition, clivorine decreased the level of mRNAs encoding for neuronal differentiation markers, e.g. neurofilaments and TrkA (NGF receptor). Furthermore, clivorine reduced the NGF-induced the phosphorylations of TrkA, protein kinase B and cAMP response element-binding protein in cultured PC12 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that clivorine might possess neurotoxicities in PC12 cells via down-regulating the NGF/TrkA/Akt signaling pathway. PAs not only damage the liver, but also possess neurotoxicities, which could possibly result in brain disorders, such as depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Distinct Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase Involved in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Three Species of the Boraginales1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant’s chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature. PMID:22566491

  4. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  5. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg(-1). The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg(-1) respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg(-1)), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg(-1)), a tarragon (3300 µg kg(-1)) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg(-1)). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  6. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  7. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  8. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  9. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  10. High-Level, First-Principles, Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculation of the Ro-vibrational Spectrum of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Carter, Stuart; Bowman, Joel M; Dawes, Richard; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-03

    The ro-vibrational spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) has been determined quantum mechanically based on nine-dimensional potential energy and dipole surfaces for its ground electronic state. The potential energy surface is fitted to more than 50 000 high-level ab initio points with a root-mean-square error of 25 cm(-1), using a recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial neural network method. The calculated rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, and spectral intensities of CH2OO are in excellent agreement with experiment. The potential energy surface provides a valuable platform for studying highly excited vibrational and unimolecular reaction dynamics of this important molecule.

  11. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders with similar signs and symptoms. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders The range of consequences from drinking alcohol during pregnancy are collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, as not all signs and symptoms are ...

  13. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin ... Cortisol also has a role in cognition, including learning and memory. In particular, it has been found ...

  14. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. Effective application of freezing lipid precipitation and SCX-SPE for determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in high lipid foodstuffs by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soo Hwan; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyun Mee; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Yong Moon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Hong, Jongki

    2015-06-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are naturally occurring plant toxins associated with serious hepatic disease in humans and animals. In this study, rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of 9 toxic PAs in popularly high lipid foodstuffs by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PAs in lipid foodstuff were effectively purified by freezing lipid precipitation (FLP) and strong cation exchange (SCX)-solid-phase extraction (SPE). Especially, FLP could easily remove the large amounts of triacylglycerols in the lipid sample extract and effectively combine with SPE cleanup. During the FLP procedure, over 77% of the lipids in the foodstuff extracts were rapidly eliminated without any significant loss of the PAs with over 81% recovery. The elimination efficiency of lipids by FLP was tested with LC-atmospheric chemical ionization (APCI)-MS. For further purification, SCX-SPE cartridge could successfully purify PAs from the remaining interfering substances by the variation pH with 5% NH4OH in methanol. For precise quantification and confirmation of PAs in complicate sample matrices, appropriate transition ions in LC-MS/MS-multiple-ion reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were selected on the basis of MS/MS fragmentation pathways of PAs. The established analytical method was validated in terms of the linearity, limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ), precision, and accuracy. The method was deemed satisfactory by inter- and intra-day validation and exhibited both high accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation<11.06%). Overall limits of detection and quantitation of PAs were approximately 0.06-0.60ng/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 and were about 0.20-1.99ng/mL at a S/N of 10 for all foodstuffs. The established method was successfully applied for the monitoring of toxic PAs in several types of high lipid foodstuffs such as soybeans, seed oil, milk, and margarine.

  17. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  18. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  19. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  20. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  4. Modeling, stability analysis, and computational aspects of some simplest nonlinear fuzzy two-term controllers derived via center of area/gravity defuzzification.

    PubMed

    Arun, N K; Mohan, B M

    2017-09-01

    The mathematical models reported in the literature so far have been found using Center of Sums (CoS) defuzzification method only. It appears that no one has found models using Center of Area (CoA) or Center of Gravity (CoG) defuzzification method. Although there have been some works reported to deal with modeling of fuzzy controllers via Centroid method, all of them have in fact used CoS method only. In this paper, for the first time mathematical models of the simplest Mamdani type fuzzy Proportional Integral (PI)/Proportional Derivative (PD) controllers via CoG defuzzification are presented. L-type and Γ-type membership functions over different Universes of Discourse (UoDs) are considered for the input variables. L-type, Π-type and Γ-type membership functions are considered for the output variable. Three linear fuzzy control rules relating all four input fuzzy sets to three output fuzzy sets are chosen. Two triangular norms namely Algebraic Product (AP) and Minimum (Min), Maximum (Max) triangular co-norm, and two inference methods, Larsen Product (LP) and Mamdani Minimum (MM), are used. Properties of the models are studied. Stability analysis of closed-loop systems containing one of these controller models in the loop is done using the Small Gain theorem. Since digital controllers are implemented using digital processors, computational and memory requirements of these fuzzy controllers and conventional (nonfuzzy) controllers are compared. A rough estimate of the computational time taken by the digital computer while implementing any of these discrete-time fuzzy controllers is given. Two nonlinear plants are considered to show the superiority of the simplest fuzzy controller obtained using CoA or CoG defuzzification method over the simplest fuzzy controller obtained using CoS method and reported recently. Real-time implementation of one of the developed controller models is done on coupled tank experimental setup to show the feasibility of the developed model

  5. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  6. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH{sub 2}OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Ndengue, Steve; Dawes, Richard E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu

    2015-08-28

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH{sub 2}OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  7. Relatively Selective Production of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in a CH4/O2 Electric Discharge: Kinetic Analysis of a Plausible Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; McCarthy, Michael C; Stanton, John F

    2015-07-16

    High -accuracy coupled cluster methods in combination with microcanonical semiclassical transition state theory are used to investigate a plausible formation mechanism of the simplest Criegee intermediate in a CH4/O2 discharge experiment. Our results suggest that the Criegee intermediate is produced in a three-step process: (i) production of methyl radical by cleavage of a C-H bond of CH4; (ii) association of methyl radical with molecular oxygen to form a vibrationally excited methyl peroxy, which is in a rapid microequilibrium with the reactants; and finally, (iii) H-abstraction of CH3OO by O2, which results in the formation of cool CH2OO, which has insufficient internal energy to rearrange to dioxirane.

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  9. The biochemistry of alcohol and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Palmer, T N

    1989-01-01

    The vast majority of the adult population of most societies consume alcohol to some degree. In the U.K., although average alcohol consumption is moderate, it is not generally appreciated that the per capita consumption varies markedly within the population: approximately one-twentieth of the adult population accounts for half of the total alcohol consumed. Alcohol abuse is consequently a major health problem affecting 1-1.5 million people in this country. The most obvious effects of excessive alcohol consumption are on the central nervous system and on social behaviour. However, alcohol is metabolized predominantly in the liver and it can impair and impede the liver's capacity to metabolize other substances including nutrients, steroids, vitamins, and certain organic compounds foreign to the body (referred to as xenobiotics). It is possible therefore, from the biochemical perspective, to explain many of the effects of alcohol on the body on the basis of its interaction with essential liver metabolism. What remains obscure is the mechanism whereby chronic alcohol abuse leads to permanent damage to the liver and other organs. Recent research suggests that acetaldehyde (a metabolite of alcohol) may play a key role in this process.

  10. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  11. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  12. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  16. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  17. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  19. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  20. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self-esteem Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol can put ... or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  1. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  2. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  4. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  5. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  6. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  7. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  10. Antidepressants and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressive disorder) Why is it bad to mix antidepressants and alcohol? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. It's best to avoid combining antidepressants and alcohol. It may worsen your symptoms, and ...

  11. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcohol URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcohol.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  12. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  13. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  14. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  15. The simplest model of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We study a well known neural network model—the perceptron—as a simple statistical physics model of jamming of hard objects. We exhibit two regimes: (1) a convex optimization regime where jamming is hypostatic and non-critical; (2) a non-convex optimization regime where jamming is isostatic and critical. We characterize the critical jamming phase through exponents describing the distribution laws of forces and gaps. Surprisingly we find that these exponents coincide with the corresponding ones recently computed in high dimensional hard spheres. In addition, modifying the perceptron to a random linear programming problem, we show that isostaticity is not a sufficient condition for singular force and gap distributions. For that, fragmentation of the space of solutions (replica symmetry breaking) appears to be a crucial ingredient. We hypothesize universality for a large class of non-convex constrained satisfaction problems with continuous variables.

  16. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  18. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  19. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  20. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  2. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  3. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  4. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  5. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  6. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. On-line ultrasonic velocity monitoring of alcoholic fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Resa, Pablo; Elvira, Luis; de Espinosa, Francisco Montero; González, Ramón; Barcenilla, José

    2009-04-01

    In this work, fundamental aspects on the ultrasonic velocity monitoring of alcoholic fermentations in synthetic broths (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and natural media (must and wort) are reported. Results are explained in terms of monosaccharide catabolism, polysaccharide hydrolysis, gas production and microorganism growth. The effect of each one of these subprocesses upon ultrasonic velocity has been independently studied. It is shown that, regarding the sound propagation, the simplest systems behave as ternary dissolutions of sugar and ethanol in water, where, in the course of time, substrates are transformed into metabolites according to the fermentation reaction. A semi-empirical approach, based on the excess volume concept and the density and velocity measurements of binary mixtures, has been used to calculate these magnitudes in the ternary mixtures and to obtain the concentrations of the main solutes throughout the fermentations, reaching a good correlation (especially for the media of simplest composition). In all the processes analyzed, the data obtained from the ultrasonic measurements followed the changes caused by the yeast metabolism, asserting the potential of mechanical waves to monitor fermentations and, in general, biotechnological processes.

  9. Children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Adler, R; Raphael, B

    1983-03-01

    The familial nature of alcoholism is well established, but the interaction of nature and nurture remains unresolved. Other effects of alcoholic parents on the psychopathology of their children are poorly documented, with studies variably claiming that there is no discernible impact or that there is a significantly higher incidence of problems, particularly in the area of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. The relative importance of family disharmony and disruption which so often accompanies alcohol abuse, as against the impact of the alcohol abuse itself, is rarely considered. The literature on the psychopathology of children of alcoholic parents is reviewed and the relevance of the last two issues explored.

  10. Infrared spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm-1 and new assignments of bands 2ν9 and ν5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-06-01

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO is important in atmospheric chemistry. It has been detected in the reaction of CH2I + O2 with various spectral methods, including infrared spectroscopy; infrared absorption of CH2OO was recorded at resolution 1.0 cm-1 in our laboratory. We have improved our system and recorded the infrared spectrum of CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm-1 with rotational structures partially resolved. Observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities are improved from those of the previous report and agree well with those predicted with quantum-mechanical calculations using the MULTIMODE method on an accurate potential energy surface. Observed rotational structures also agree with the simulated spectra according to theoretical predictions. In addition to derivation of critical vibrational and rotational parameters of the vibrationally excited states to confirm the assignments, the spectrum with improved resolution provides new assignments for bands 2ν9 at 1234.2 cm-1 and ν5 at 1213.3 cm-1; some hot bands and combination bands are also tentatively assigned.

  11. Infrared spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm(-1) and new assignments of bands 2ν9 and ν5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-06-07

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO is important in atmospheric chemistry. It has been detected in the reaction of CH2I + O2 with various spectral methods, including infrared spectroscopy; infrared absorption of CH2OO was recorded at resolution 1.0 cm(-1) in our laboratory. We have improved our system and recorded the infrared spectrum of CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm(-1) with rotational structures partially resolved. Observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities are improved from those of the previous report and agree well with those predicted with quantum-mechanical calculations using the MULTIMODE method on an accurate potential energy surface. Observed rotational structures also agree with the simulated spectra according to theoretical predictions. In addition to derivation of critical vibrational and rotational parameters of the vibrationally excited states to confirm the assignments, the spectrum with improved resolution provides new assignments for bands 2ν9 at 1234.2 cm(-1) and ν5 at 1213.3 cm(-1); some hot bands and combination bands are also tentatively assigned.

  12. High resolution quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, between 1273 cm-1 and 1290 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Merer, Anthony J.; Chang, Hsun-Hui; Jhang, Li-Ji; Chao, Wen; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    The region 1273-1290 cm-1 of the ν4 fundamental of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been measured using a quantum cascade laser transient absorption spectrometer, which offers greater sensitivity and spectral resolution (<0.004 cm-1) than previous works based on thermal light sources. Gas phase CH2OO was generated from the reaction of CH2I + O2 at 298 K and 4 Torr. The analysis of the absorption spectrum has provided precise values for the vibrational frequency and the rotational constants, with fitting errors of a few MHz. The determined ratios of the rotational constants, A'/A″ = 0.9986, B'/B″ = 0.9974, and C'/C″ = 1.0010, and the relative intensities of the a- and b-type transitions, 90:10, are in good agreement with literature values from a theoretical calculation using the MULTIMODE approach, based on a high-level ab initio potential energy surface. The low-K (=Ka) lines can be fitted extremely well, but rotational perturbations by other vibrational modes disrupt the structure for K = 4 and K ≥ 6. Not only the spectral resolution but also the detection sensitivity of CH2OO IR transitions has been greatly improved in this work, allowing for unambiguous monitoring of CH2OO in kinetic studies at low concentrations.

  13. Influence of silicon defects on the adsorption of thiophene-like compounds on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a theoretical study using thiophene + coronene as the simplest model.

    PubMed

    Galano, Annia

    2007-03-08

    Physisorption and chemisorption processes of thiophene on coronene and 2Si-coronene have been studied using density functional theory and MP2 methods. These systems have been chosen as the simplest models to describe the adsorption of thiophene-like compounds on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The calculated data suggest that the presence of silicon atoms in PAHs could favor their interaction with thiophene and similar compounds. Small stabilization energies have been found for several physisorbed complexes. The thiophene chemisorption on coronene seems very unlikely to occur, while that on 2Si-coronene leads to addition products which are very stable, with respect to the isolated reactants. These chemisorption processes were found to be exoergic (DeltaG < 0) in the gas phase and in the nonpolar liquid phase. The results reported in this work suggest that silicon defects on extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as graphite, soot, and large-diameter carbon nanotubes, could make them useful in the removal processes of aromatic sulfur compounds from oil hydrocarbons.

  14. Exactly soluble local bosonic cocycle models, statistical transmutation, and simplest time-reversal symmetric topological orders in 3+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2017-05-01

    We propose a generic construction of exactly soluble local bosonic models that realize various topological orders with gappable boundaries. In particular, we construct an exactly soluble bosonic model that realizes a (3+1)-dimensional [(3+1)D] Z2-gauge theory with emergent fermionic Kramers doublet. We show that the emergence of such a fermion will cause the nucleation of certain topological excitations in space-time without pin+ structure. The exactly soluble model also leads to a statistical transmutation in (3+1)D. In addition, we construct exactly soluble bosonic models that realize 2 types of time-reversal symmetry-enriched Z2 topological orders in 2+1 dimensions, and 20 types of simplest time-reversal symmetry-enriched topological (SET) orders which have only one nontrivial pointlike and stringlike topological excitation. Many physical properties of those topological states are calculated using the exactly soluble models. We find that some time-reversal SET orders have pointlike excitations that carry Kramers doublet, a fractionalized time-reversal symmetry. We also find that some Z2 SET orders have stringlike excitations that carry anomalous (nononsite) Z2 symmetry, which can be viewed as a fractionalization of Z2 symmetry on strings. Our construction is based on cochains and cocycles in algebraic topology, which is very versatile. In principle, it can also realize emergent topological field theory beyond the twisted gauge theory.

  15. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  16. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  17. [Alcohol induced cognitive deficits].

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Singewald, Evelin M; Ruepp, Beatrix; Marksteiner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies could show a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and cognition but also with processes of ageing both social and biological. Acute effects of alcohol during intoxication include clinical signs such as excitation and reduced inhibition, slurred speech, and increased reaction time but also cognitive dysfunction, especially deficits in memory functions. However, these cognitive deficits during alcohol intoxication are reversible while patients with alcohol addiction and chronic alcohol intake show severe impairments of cognitive functions especially deficits in executive functions. Frontal executive impairments in these patients include deficits in problem solving, abstraction, planning, organizing, and working memory.Additionally, gender specific deficits are relevant for the course of the disease and its concomitant health problems with female alcoholics showing a higher vulnerability for cognitive dysfunction and brain atrophy at earlier stages of alcoholism history.

  18. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  19. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  20. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  3. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  4. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  5. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  6. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABAA, glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca2+ channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  7. Alcohol and alcohol problems research. 17. Malta.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, A M

    1991-08-01

    This article is an enquiry into the current status of alcohol in Maltese culture. The responses of society to alcoholism depend on the way members of the community perceive the problems incurred by the use and abuse of a dependence producing substance like alcohol. These perceptions and subsequent responses are very much influenced by prevailing attitudes and beliefs. Malta is a melting point of cultures. This factor, together with a high density population and Malta's geopolitical strategic position, combine to make Malta a tolerant society. There is a laissez-faire response to alcoholism, at least partly due to the present inability to identify the need to take appropriate measures. The police force, medical profession and politicians still do not feel the responsibility or the need to provide effective laws and regulations, specialized treatment services or educative programmes on alcohol-related issues. A systematic enquiry is needed urgently to determine the severity and degree of the problems posed by alcohol abuse among the Maltese. Such an enquiry should be followed by a well planned national policy which includes local approaches and interventions. Finally, these interventions must be evaluated frequently and developed to achieve better results in the future.

  8. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  9. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO and isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; Sheps, L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100 Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.

  12. Hydration of the simplest α-keto acid: a rotational spectroscopic and ab initio study of the pyruvic acid-water complex.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Seifert, Nathan A; Ghosh, Supriya; Thomas, Javix; Xu, Yunjie; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2017-02-08

    Intermolecular interactions between pyruvic acid, the simplest α-keto acid, and water are important in bio- and atmospheric chemistry. In this context, the pure rotational spectrum of the pyruvic acid-water complex was measured from 7 to 15 GHz using a cavity-based Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. In the detected isomer, water acts as a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, bridging the acidic hydrogen and the keto oxygen. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed; however, c-type transitions were not observed, due to vibrational averaging of the effectively barrier-less wagging motion of the free hydrogen of the water subunit, which results in an effective ground state structure with a plane of symmetry. The mass distribution out of the ab-plane, corrected for the out-of-plane hydrogen atoms of the methyl group, confirms that the complex has a plane of symmetry. The observed transitions exhibit splittings due to internal rotations of the water subunit and the methyl group. The proposed internal rotation of water nominally breaks one hydrogen bond, so it is remarkable that the barrier was calculated to be as low as 5.2 kJ mol(-1); however, a non-covalent interactions analysis indicates that water rotation has surprisingly little effect on the interactions between the water and pyruvic acid subunits. The barrier to methyl internal rotation was determined to be about 4.6 kJ mol(-1) experimentally, significantly higher than that of the pyruvic acid monomer. In general, the structure and dynamics investigated here provide insights into the interactions between pyruvic acid and water that dictate the fate of pyruvic acid in aqueous aerosols and living cells.

  13. Detailed mechanism of the CH2I + O2 reaction: Yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2014-09-01

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ˜30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  14. Detailed mechanism of the CH₂I + O₂ reaction: yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH₂OO.

    PubMed

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2014-09-14

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ~30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  15. Testing five of the simplest upper mantle anisotropic velocity parameterizations using teleseismic S and SKS data from the Billings, Montana PASSCAL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Dueker, Ken; Schutt, Derek L.

    2008-03-01

    Five of the simplest parameterizations of upper mantle anisotropy are tested and ranked for a data set collected on a dense temporary PASSCAL seismic array located 100-km NE of Yellowstone. These hexagonal symmetry anisotropy models possess either one or two layers with either flat or dipping fast velocity axis (FVA). Recordings from fifteen high quality direct-S and SKS arrivals are stacked to provide accurate waveform and error estimates. Source normalization is accomplished using the cross-convolution technique. A direct Monte Carlo Neighborhood Algorithm is used to map the posteriori model probability density (PPD) volume. Using the F test, we find that models with purely flat FVA can be rejected at >97% probability. Our best model (P5) is a two layer dipping FVA parameterization, albeit the two layer model with one flat and one dipping FVA can only be rejected at 80% probability. The best model has a lower layer with a N65°E FVA strike and a -12° dip (down to the southwest), and an upper layer with a N20°W FVA strike and a -47° FVA dip (down to the southeast). The bottom asthenospheric layer FVA strikes parallel to North America's absolute plate motion direction and dips opposite to what passive plate shear of the asthenosphere would predict. The upper lithospheric layer is consistent with LPO accretion associated with north directed drift of the North American plate during the Mesozoic. Comparison between the SKS-and direct S-wave data sets shows that the direct S waves improve resolution of the double layer anisotropic model parameters.

  16. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  17. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects.

  18. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  19. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  20. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  1. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  2. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  3. Alcohol and coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Oda, H; Suzuki, M; Oniki, T; Kishi, Y; Numano, F

    1994-03-01

    Alcohol is known to sometimes cause coronary spasm, the mechanism of which is still unknown. The authors monitored changes in plasma levels of prostanoids (thromboxane [TX B2], 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha [PGF1 alpha]), catecholamines (CA), serotonin (5-HT), cyclic nucleotides (cyclic adenosine monophosphate--cAMP, cyclic guanosine monophosphate--cGMP), and platelet aggregation after alcohol ingestion (Japanese rice wine 400 mL) in 8 patients with alcohol-induced variant angina and 8 healthy men as controls. Coronary spasm was confirmed to have been induced in 4 patients nine hours after alcohol challenge (VA[+]), when their plasma ethanol levels had already returned to a null level. Neither CA nor 5-HT levels showed any change after alcohol ingestion either in patients or controls, though controls showed high levels of CA during alcohol ingestion. TX B2 in VA(+) patients increased gradually after alcohol ingestion to reach up to a statistically significantly high level just before attack, as compared with those of controls and VA(-) patients, who, on the contrary, did not show such changes. The levels of 6-keto PGF1 alpha, however, which were significantly lower in patients than in controls before the test, exhibited a gradual increase in VA(+) patients in parallel with the increase in TX B2. No significant changes in cAMP levels between either controls or patients were present. On the contrary, cGMP levels had a gradual decrease in patients after alcohol ingestion. Especially six hours after alcohol ingestion, cGMP levels in VA(+) patients decreased so much as to make a statistically significant difference, as compared with the level in controls. Platelet aggregability in controls showed a decrease after alcohol ingestion, in spite of no change or even increase in patients. These data suggest that low levels of PGF1 alpha and the decrease of cGMP levels from alcohol ingestion play important roles in the mechanism of coronary spasm induced by alcohol ingestion.

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  6. Alcohol: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    González, Ricardo A

    2011-10-01

    Popular belief has it that alcohol, particularly red wine, protects against atherosclerosis and associated cardio- and cerebrovascular conditions. That presumption motivates this paper, which describes the mechanisms underlying the J-shaped risk curve for alcohol use, with benefits for vascular disease risk at low consumption levels and harmful effects--both directly on the user and indirectly on the bystander--at higher levels. The importance of further exploring alcohol use in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and of intervening to modify non-social use of alcohol to prevent serious adverse health consequences is also addressed.

  7. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  8. Continuing Education about Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Signe S.; Murphy, Julianne

    1978-01-01

    Describes a statewide continuing education program for emergency room nurses on the care of alcohol abusers. Covers planning and scheduling, resources, format and content, participants, and evaluation. (EM)

  9. Comparison of metabolism-mediated effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a HepG2/C3A cell-S9 co-incubation system and quantification of their glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Tamta, Hemlata; Pawar, Rahul S; Wamer, Wayne G; Grundel, Erich; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-10-01

    1. Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) largely depends on their metabolic activation by hepatic enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, to become chemically reactive pyrrolic derivatives. These then spontaneously release the esterifying acids to generate carbonium ions that form covalent adducts with cellular nucleophiles to exhibit toxicity. 2. In our investigation, metabolism-mediated toxicity of monocrotaline, retrorsine, lycopsamine, echimidine (retronecine-type PAs), heliotrine (a heliotridine-type PA) and senkirkine (an otonecine-type PA) was studied using an in vitro co-incubation assay. 3. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2/C3A) cells were incubated with PAs in the presence and absence of rat liver S9 fraction and the toxicity was assessed as lowered mitochondrial activity. 4. Bioactivation potential was measured by incubating PAs with rat liver S9 fraction, NADPH and GSH in a cell free system. Pyrrolic metabolites generated were entrapped as glutathione conjugates (7-GSH-DHP and 7,9-di-GSHDHP) which were quantified using LC-MS-MS analysis. 5. Our results indicated that PAs were metabolized by rat liver S9 fraction into reactive pyrrolic derivatives which were toxic to HepG2/C3A cells. This approach can be used to determine and compare bioactivation potential and metabolism-mediated toxicity of various PAs.

  10. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  11. Parental alcoholism in opioid addicts.

    PubMed

    Kosten, T R; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1985-08-01

    Using the family history method, the authors examined the relationships of parental alcoholism to alcoholism, depression, and antisocial personality disorder among 638 opioid addicts. It was concluded that, compared to addicts without parental alcoholism; addicts with parental alcoholism were more frequently concurrent alcoholics; addicts with parental alcoholism not only had alcoholism more often, but also depression and antisocial personality disorder; among alcoholic addicts, those with parental alcoholism had more severe problems with alcohol abuse; and addicts with parental alcoholism reported more disruptive childhood events. The independent additive effects of disruptive childhood events and parental alcoholism on the severity of addict disorders including alcoholism were also examined. Although alcoholic addicts had experienced more disruptive childhood events than nonalcoholic addicts, these events did not substantially contribute to increasing the severity of alcohol-related problems. Similar results were obtained for depression and antisocial behaviors in these addicts. The conclusions concerning addicts supported some of those described for "familial alcoholism" among nonaddict alcoholics, but other characteristics of alcoholics with familial alcoholism were not found among addicts.

  12. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  13. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of divalent aryl transition-metal complexes of the simplest dialkylamide, NMe(2): rare T-shaped coordination at chromium.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chengbao; Long, Gary J; Grandjean, Fernande; Power, Philip P

    2009-12-21

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of first-row aryl transition metal derivatives of the simplest dialkylamido ligand NMe(2) are reported. The complexes Cr{Ar'Cr(mu-NMe(2))(2)}(2) (1) and {Ar'M(mu-NMe(2))}(2) (M = Mn (2), Fe (3); Ar' = C(6)H(3)-2,6-(C(6)H(3)-2,6-(i)Pr(2))(2)) were obtained by reaction of the aryl metal halides {Ar'M(mu-X)}(2) (M = Cr, X = Cl; M = Fe, X = Br) or {Li(THF)Ar'MnI(2)}(2) with LiNMe(2) in a 1:2 ratio. A similar reaction of {Ar(#)Co(mu-I)}(2) (Ar(#) = C(6)H(3)-2,6-(C(6)H(2)-2,4,6-Me(3))(2)) and LiNMe(2) in hexanes gave the unusual complex {Ar(#)Co(mu-I)(eta(1)-CH(2) horizontal lineNCH(3))}(2) (4), in which the NMe(2) ligand is dehydrogenated to afford a complexed imine. Complexes 1-4 were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. In the unique trinuclear complex 1, the central chromium(II) ion is bound to four NMe(2) groups in a square planar fashion. The NMe(2) groups also bridge to the two outer chromium(II) ions, which are bound to a terminal Ar' group to yield a rare example of three-coordinate T-shaped geometry at these atoms. In the dimers 2 and 3, each metal center is coordinated to a terminal terphenyl ligand and two bridging NMe(2) groups to give a distorted trigonal planar geometry. In contrast, the reaction of LiNMe(2) with {Ar(#)Co(mu-I)}(2) in a 2:1 ratio did not yield an amido product; instead, the NMe(2) ligand underwent hydrogen elimination. As a result, in the dimeric structure of 4, each cobalt ion is coordinated to a terphenyl ligand, two bridging iodides, and a neutral methylimine ligand, CH(2) horizontal lineNCH(3), to yield a very distorted tetrahedral cobalt(II) coordination environment. The magnetic properties of 1-4 revealed antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the metal ions with J = -47(1) cm(-1) and J(13) = -25(1) cm(-1) for 1, J = -38(1) cm(-1) for 2, J = -75(3) cm(-1) for 3, and J = -32(4) cm(-1) for 4; the latter compound exhibited an unusually

  15. Alcoholism in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…

  16. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  17. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  18. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  2. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  3. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  4. Colby Alcohol Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitzinger, Janice

    Due to a variety of internal and external events the Student Affairs Committee of Colby College (Maine) studied alcohol use on campus and recommended solutions in two major areas, educational and social. Five educational strategies were recommended: (1) development of clear policies regarding alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforcement of…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amit; Ikonen, Risto; Keinonen, Tuula; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Rising trends in alcohol consumption and early drinking initiation pose serious health risks especially for adolescents. Learner's prior knowledge about alcohol gained from the social surroundings and the media are important sources that can impact the learning outcomes in health education. The purpose of this paper is to map adolescents'…

  7. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcoholism: A conflict of models.

    PubMed

    Dean, J C

    1987-12-01

    Adherents to the traditional model of alcoholism explain alcoholic behavior as a consequence of alcoholism. Alcoholism is identified as an unseen, unmeasured entity inherent in alcoholics. This concept parallels the thinking of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton, who believed in an unseen, unmeasurable creator behind the physical world. These traditional approaches contrast with the emergent model of alcoholism and twentieth-century scientific thought. Emergent scientific model adherents explain alcoholic behavior without resort to unseen factors. Since the traditional and emergent scientific models begin with different assumptions, model adherents experience communication difficulties. Future developments with determine which model will dominate the field of alcohol studies and treatment.

  10. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption?

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  12. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer D.; Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    Forty years ago, alcohol was not commonly recognized as a teratogen, an agent that can disrupt the development of a fetus. Today, we understand that prenatal alcohol exposure induces a variety of adverse effects on physical, neurological, and behavioral development. Research supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has contributed to the identification of the range and prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), as well as methods for prevention and treatment of FASD. The worldwide prevalence and high personal and societal costs of FASD speak to the importance of this research. This article briefly examines some of the ways that NIAAA has contributed to our understanding of FASD, the challenges that we still face, and how this research is translated into changes in public policy. PMID:23579942

  14. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  15. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  16. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  17. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), which are physical, behavioral, and intellectual ... as possible report drinking alcohol. 100% Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are completely preventable. Problem Alcohol can harm ...

  1. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  2. Alcohol and psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Bukstein, Oscar; Salloum, Ihsan; Clark, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Comorbid psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUDs) are common among alcoholics (Regier, Farmer, Rae, Locke, Keith, Judd, & Goodwin, 1990; Kessler, McGonagle, Zhao, Nelson, Hughes, Eshleman, Wittchen, & Kendler, 1994). These comorbid disorders often predict a shorter time to relapse of alcoholism (Greenfield, Weiss, Muenz, Vagge, Kelly, Bello, & Michael, 1998). However, despite the prevalence and the adverse effects of this comorbidity, few controlled treatment studies have been conducted involving this dual diagnosis population (Litten & Allen, 1999). To date, most of these few studies of alcoholics with comorbid disorders have been restricted to studies of alcoholics with either comorbid major depression or comorbid anxiety disorders (Litten & Allen, 1995). The results of these trials suggest efficacy for SSRI antidepressants and tricyclic antidepressants for treating alcoholics with comorbid major depression and suggest efficacy for buspirone for treating alcoholics with comorbid anxiety disorders (Mason, Kocsis, Ritvo, & Cutler, 1996; Cornelius, Salloum, Ehler, Jarrett, Cornelius, Perel, Thase, & Black, 1997; Kranzler, Burleson, Del Boca, Babor, Korner, Brown, & Bohn, 1994). However, controlled treatment studies involving alcoholics with other comorbid disorders are almost totally lacking. Consequently, to date, no empirically proven treatment exists for most of these comorbid disorders.

  3. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  4. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  5. Alcohol-related symptoms in heterogeneous families of hospitalized alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1988-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.

  6. Cerebrovascular Alterations in Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Psychiatric Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-19

    19-12-2005 article 12003-04; 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cerebrovascular alterations in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. 5b...University Responsible publisher is the Dean of the Faculty Printed in the Printing offices of the Faculty 47 CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS IN ALCOHOLIC...The US vs. Hungarian group comparison confimned the cerebrovascular alteration in Hun- garian alcoholic group. Elevated KEG values in alcoholics may

  7. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  8. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) includes the psychiatric diagnosis, Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated ... common to the IOM medical diagnoses and the DSM–5 psychiatric diagnosis are prenatal alcohol exposure and ...

  10. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  11. Alcohol and lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sozio, Margaret; Crabb, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Many new mechanisms for alcoholic steatosis have been suggested by work reported in the last five years. These include alterations of transcriptional controls of lipid metabolism, better understanding of the effects of abnormal methionine metabolism on the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, unraveling of the basis for sensitization of the Kupffer cell to lipopolysaccharide, a better understanding of the role of cytokines and adipokines in alcoholic liver disease, and implication of the innate immune and complement systems in responses to alcohol. Much of this work has been facilitated by work with knockout mice. Undoubtedly, there are interrelationships among these various pathogenic mechanisms that ultimately will provide a more cohesive picture of how heavy alcohol use deranges hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:18349117

  12. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common recreational drugs, such as cocaine or crystal methamphetamine ("meth," "speed"), can leave your body dehydrated and ... and safer sex Many drugs, including alcohol and methamphetamine, may affect your ability to make decisions. Even ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of alcohol in the air you breathe out (exhale). How the Test is Performed There are many ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  15. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  16. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  17. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...

  18. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  19. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  20. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■󈧒:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution

  1. Alcohol-use disorders.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-05-24

    Essential facts [Figure: see text] According to recent statistics from NHS Digital, there were an estimated 1.1 million hospital admissions where alcohol was the primary or secondary issue in 2015-16. In the UK, it is estimated that 24% of adults drink in a hazardous or harmful way, while around 9% of men and 4% of women show signs of alcohol dependence.

  2. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  3. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  4. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.

  5. Alcohol congener analysis and the source of alcohol: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Luke N; Beyer, Jochen; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2013-06-01

    For many decades traditional alcohol congener analysis has provided the concentrations of fermentation by-product congeners found in blood, to ascertain if the claims of an individual regarding the alcoholic beverage(s) they have consumed were feasible, assisting in cases where after-drinking is involved. However, this technique does not provide information on the exact alcoholic beverage(s) consumed. More recently, ingredient biomarker congeners specific to certain alcoholic beverages have been detected in blood, making it possible to identify the particular alcoholic beverage consumed and therefore the source of alcohol (albeit only for a limited number of beverages). This novel approach may reduce current limitations that exist with traditional methods of detecting fermentation by-product congeners, which restrict the use of alcohol congener analysis internationally and for other medico-legal scenarios. This review examines the forensic application of alcohol congener analysis in determining the source of alcohol and other techniques.

  6. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  7. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be...

  9. Etiologic heterogeneity in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the

  10. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  11. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  12. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2012-09-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.

  13. Alcohol Expectancies, Alcohol Use, and Hostility as Longitudinal Predictors of Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Homish, Gregory G.; Quigley, Brian M.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in hostility however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The extent to which findings may vary depending upon whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior are discussed. PMID:22004128

  14. The alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Wiese, J G; Shlipak, M G; Browner, W S

    2000-06-06

    To review the cause, pathophysiologic characteristics, cost, and treatment of alcohol-induced hangover. A MEDLINE search of English-language reports (1966 to 1999) and a manual search of bibliographies of relevant papers. Related experimental, clinical, and basic research studies. Data in relevant articles were reviewed, and relevant clinical information was extracted. The alcohol hangover is characterized by headache, tremulousness, nausea, diarrhea, and fatigue combined with decreased occupational, cognitive, or visual-spatial skill performance. In the United States, related absenteeism and poor job performance cost $148 billion annually (average annual cost per working adult, $2000). Although hangover is associated with alcoholism, most of its cost is incurred by the light-to-moderate drinker. Patients with hangover may pose substantial risk to themselves and others despite having a normal blood alcohol level. Hangover may also be an independent risk factor for cardiac death. Symptoms of hangover seem to be caused by dehydration, hormonal alterations, dysregulated cytokine pathways, and toxic effects of alcohol. Physiologic characteristics include increased cardiac work with normal peripheral resistance, diffuse slowing on electroencephalography, and increased levels of antidiuretic hormone. Effective interventions include rehydration, prostaglandin inhibitors, and vitamin B6. Screening for hangover severity and frequency may help early detection of alcohol dependency and substantially improve quality of life. Recommended interventions include discussion of potential therapies and reminders of the possibility for cognitive and visual-spatial impairment. No evidence suggests that alleviation of hangover symptoms leads to further alcohol consumption, and the discomfort caused by such symptoms may do so. Therefore, treatment seems warranted. Hangover, a common disorder, has substantial morbidity and societal cost. Appropriate management may relieve symptoms in many

  15. Verbal reasoning deficits in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Yohman, J R; Parsons, O A

    1987-04-01

    The Conceptual Level Analogies Test (CLAT), a well-constructed test of analogical reasoning, was given to groups of middle-aged male alcoholics and control subjects in two separate studies. As predicted, the alcoholics had lower CLAT scores than nonalcoholics in both studies. These results support the generalized-diffuse model of the neuropsychological effects of alcoholism. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics differed from control subjects as much on the easy analogies as they did on the hard analogies, which suggested that alcoholics differ both qualitatively and quantitatively from nonalcoholics in cognitive impairment. Finally, in two of three studies in our laboratory, familial alcoholics had significantly lower CLAT scores than nonfamilial alcoholics. These findings emphasize the importance of considering familial history of alcoholism when studying the neuropsychological functioning of alcoholics.

  16. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  17. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  18. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  19. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  20. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.

  1. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  2. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  3. Alcoholic patients with secondary depression.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M

    1983-06-01

    This study of alcoholic patients with and without secondary depression showed that the two groups were almost identical in demographic characteristics, early-life antisocial problems, quantity and frequency of drinking, and family history of affective disorder. The depressed patients reported slightly more alcoholism in their first-degree male relatives and tended to have more alcohol-related life problems. The only significant difference between the two groups was that the depressed patients were heavier users of drugs other than alcohol. Thus severe depression in alcoholics may be related to a greater intake of drugs in addition to alcohol.

  4. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin ... blacked out during that time. The students reported learning later that they had participated in a wide ...

  7. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  8. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  9. [Alcohol and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B

    1988-10-01

    Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.

  10. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2014-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been clearly shown, and only limited studies have been performed. Sex differences exist in the effect of alcohol on fibrosis as well as on the severity of hepatitis C. Alcohol use has been reported to be associated with lower responses to therapy and, in some studies, higher HCV RNA levels and increased HCV quasi-species. Few studies address the treatment of hepatitis C in the alcoholic individual or determine the effect of continued light or moderate alcohol use on the outcome of treatment response. In summary, many critical questions remain regarding the interactions between alcohol and hepatitis C. Currently, the evidence from the literature shows that heavy alcohol intake worsens the outcome of HCV infection. The literature is inadequate to provide definitive recommendations regarding the effect of light to moderate alcohol use in patients with hepatitis C. PMID:12407597

  11. [Does acamprosate diminish the appetite for alcohol in weaned alcoholics?].

    PubMed

    Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M

    1996-01-01

    A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.

  12. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  13. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  14. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  15. A comparison of blood alcohol concentration using non-alcohol- and alcohol-containing skin antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, T M; Schaber, D

    1982-12-01

    We simultaneously obtained blood samples in emergency patients for ethanol content from both antecubital fossae using an alcohol prep pad on one arm and a non-alcohol-containing germicidal solution on the other. Fifty patients with ethanol concentrations greater than zero were statistically analyzed. Twenty patients surveyed had no measurable alcohol level by either technique. There was no significant difference in the blood alcohol concentration obtained by either method of skin preparation in both groups (P less than .01). Blood alcohol concentration incidentally obtained in the emergency department by routine isopropyl alcohol skin preparation is an accurate laboratory parameter.

  16. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  17. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  2. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  3. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  4. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  5. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  8. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  9. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. ... drinking include: distorted vision, hearing, and coordination altered perceptions and emotions impaired judgment, which can lead to ...

  10. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alcohol abuse may be more addicted to nicotine. As a result, they often smoke more cigarettes. ... alcoholism treatment.You may be more addicted to nicotine than other smokers, but very few people succeed ...

  11. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  12. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1987-04-24

    Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.

  13. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  14. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FASD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that ...

  16. Multiple and exact soliton solutions of the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries equation of long surface waves in a convective fluid via Painlevé analysis, factorization, and simplest equation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selima, Ehab S.; Yao, Xiaohua; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the surface waves of a horizontal fluid layer open to air under gravity field and vertical temperature gradient effects are studied. The governing equations of this model are reformulated and converted to a nonlinear evolution equation, the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (pKdV) equation. We investigate the latter equation, which includes dispersion, diffusion, and instability effects, in order to examine the evolution of long surface waves in a convective fluid. Dispersion relation of the pKdV equation and its properties are discussed. The Painlevé analysis is applied not only to check the integrability of the pKdV equation but also to establish the Bäcklund transformation form. In addition, traveling wave solutions and a general form of the multiple-soliton solutions of the pKdV equation are obtained via Bäcklund transformation, the simplest equation method using Bernoulli, Riccati, and Burgers' equations as simplest equations, and the factorization method.

  17. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  18. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  19. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  20. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  1. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  2. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  3. A Clinical Approach to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Gooderham, M. E. W.

    1977-01-01

    There are three fundamental objectives in therapy for alcoholism: to obtain and maintain control over patients' behavior; to eliminate payoffs resulting from the alcoholic behavior, and to establish payoffs for non-alcoholic behavior. These objectives apply equally to patients and the important people in their lives. PMID:21304868

  4. Alcohol Risk Management Survey Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.; Anderson, David S.

    Results of the Alcohol Risk Management Survey, which was completed by 325 college chief student affairs officers at four-year institutions, are presented. Adapted from the "Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide," the survey assesses the management of alcohol-related activities on the college campus, with a focus on policy, procedure,…

  5. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  6. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be...

  7. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content....

  9. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  10. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content....

  11. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  12. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  15. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  16. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  17. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  18. Systems Genetics of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Sayarath, Vicki; Moore, Jason H.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual’s entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes1) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene–gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions. PMID:23584748

  19. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  20. Targeting Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-duty service members reported binge drinking, a rate that compares unfavorably with that of their civilian counterparts. DoD has invested considerable resources in universal sexual assault prevention programs and social media campaigns, but evaluation results are not yet available, and the effectiveness of these programs is unclear. Research on civilian populations—particularly college students, who share some characteristics with junior enlisted personnel—could provide insights for DoD. For example, the research indicates a connection between alcohol and aggression, including sexual aggression. Alcohol can also have a range of effects on the risk of victimization—from a reduced awareness of risk indicators to incapacitation or unconsciousness. An extensive review of the existing research provides some guidance for how DoD can implement and evaluate efforts to reduce alcohol misuse as part of a larger strategy to reduce the incidence of sexual assault among members of the armed forces. PMID:28083353

  1. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  2. Loneliness and Adolescent Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)

  3. Detecting Alcoholism in Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, John K.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach, using the most reliable and valid instruments available, allowing a clinician to quickly and accurately diagnose or rule out the presence of alcoholism in a client. Accurate diagnosis allows proper treatment of this disorder, affecting about 6.7 percent of all people. (Author)

  4. Anion solvation in alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jonah, C.D.; Xujia, Zhang; Lin, Yi

    1996-03-01

    Anion solvation is measured in alcohols using pump-probe pulse radiolysis and the activation energy of solvation is determined. Solvation of an anion appears to be different than excited state solvation. The continuum dielectric model does not appear to explain the results.

  5. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  6. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 calories for a 12-ounce (355 mL) glass Light beer, about 100 calories for a 12-ounce (355 mL) glass Wine, about 100 calories for a 5-ounce (145 mL) glass Distilled alcohol (gin, rum, vodka, whiskey), about 100 ...

  7. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins…

  8. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  9. Outcomes in Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambul, Harriet B.; Armor, David J.

    Alcoholism researchers in the past 35 years have emphasized abstinence as the major criterion of treatment success. In recent years, however, this emphasis has been questioned and from the current debate over treatment goals and outcome measures at least two areas of controversy have emerged. The first, called the "abstention-moderation"…

  10. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  11. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  12. Loneliness and Adolescent Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)

  13. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  14. Saying No to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  15. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus. PMID:24233448

  16. Alcohol-induced stress in painful alcoholic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dina, Olayinka A; Khasar, Sachia G; Alessandri-Haber, Nicole; Green, Paul G; Messing, Robert O; Levine, Jon D

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption induces a painful small-fiber peripheral neuropathy, the severity of which increases during alcohol withdrawal. Chronic alcohol consumption also produces a sustained increase in stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone, that is exacerbated during alcohol withdrawal. We report that adrenal medullectomy and administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone (RU 38486), both prevented and reversed a model of painful peripheral neuropathy in alcohol binge-drinking rats. Chronic administration of stress levels of epinephrine to rats that had undergone adrenal medullectomy and were being fed the alcohol diet reconstituted this phenotype. Intrathecal administration of oligodeoxynucleotides antisense to the beta(2)-adrenergic- or glucocorticoid-receptor also prevented and reversed the pro-nociceptive effects of ethanol. Our results suggest a convergence of the effects of mediators of the hypothalamic-pituitary- and sympathoadrenal-stress axes on sensory neurons in the induction and maintenance of alcohol-induced painful peripheral neuropathy.

  17. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  19. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  20. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  1. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  2. Genetically selected alcohol preferring rats to model human alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have been successfully developed to mimic and study alcoholism. These models have the unique feature of allowing the researcher to control for the genetic characteristics of the animal, alcohol exposure and environment. Moreover, these animal models allow pharmacological, neurochemical and behavioural manipulations otherwise impossible. Unquestionably, one of the major contributions to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of alcoholism comes from data that have been obtained from the study of genetically selected alcohol-preferring rat lines and from the consequences that alcohol drinking and environmental manipulations (/i.e., protracted alcohol drinking, intoxication, exposure to stress etc) have on them. In fact, if on the one hand genetic factors may account for about 50–60% of the risk of developing alcohol dependence, on the other hand protracted alcohol exposure is a necessary precondition to actually develop the disease, while environmental vulnerability factors may be crucial for disease progression. The present article will offer an overview of the different genetically selected alcohol preferring rat lines developed and used to study alcoholism. The predictive, face and construct validity of these animal models and the translational significance of findings achieved through their use will be critically discussed. PMID:22328453

  3. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  4. Alcohol Can Be a Risky Guest At Holiday Parties

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. More Health News on: Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  5. Alcohol Use: If You Drink, Keep It Moderate

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...

  6. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  7. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  8. Radicals and molecular products from the gas-phase pyrolysis of lignin model compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Xu, Meng-xia; Wu, Ang-jian; Pechagin, Mikhail; Asatryan, Rubik

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results on detection and identification of intermediate radicals and molecular products from gas-phase pyrolysis of cinnamyl alcohol (CnA), the simplest non-phenolic lignin model compound, over the temperature range of 400–800 °C are reported. The low temperature matrix isolation – electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI-EPR) experiments along with the theoretical calculations, provided evidences on the generation of the intermediate carbon and oxygen centered as well as oxygen-linked, conjugated radicals. A mechanistic analysis is performed based on density functional theory to explain formation of the major products from CnA pyrolysis; cinnamaldehyde, indene, styrene, benzaldehyde, 1-propynyl benzene, and 2-propenyl benzene. The evaluated bond dissociation patterns and unimolecular decomposition pathways involve dehydrogenation, dehydration, 1,3-sigmatropic H-migration, 1,2-hydrogen shift, C—O and C—C bond cleavage processes. PMID:28344372

  9. Alcoholic parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandel, L; Hamele-Bena, D

    1997-10-01

    Alcoholism is a primary cause of sialadenosis, which is an asymptomatic, bilateral enlargement of the parotid glands. The authors outline the pathogenesis, symptoms and testing involved in diagnosing sialadenosis. Recognizing sialadenosis is important because it may point to the unsuspected presence of underlying systemic disease. Therefore, dental practitioners need to be able to differentiate sialadenosis from an inflammatory or neoplastic process to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  10. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  11. [Acute alcoholic hepatitis: treatments].

    PubMed

    Naveau, S

    2001-06-09

    Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is a severe form of alcohol-related liver disease with a high short-term mortality that can reach 50%. Long-term outcome depends on definitive weaning from alcohol and the development of cirrhosis. Abstention from alcohol is the number one therapeutic measure required for treating AAH. Abstention must be total and definitive. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in AAH have led to close assessment of numerous treatment protocols. Thirty-three randomized trials have evaluated drug treatments based on various strategies: antiinflammatory action using corticosteroids or colchicine; reduction of the hypermetabolism using propylthiouracil; hepatoprotective effect against oxidative stress using cyanidalol, alpha lipoid acid, silymarine, amlopidine, malotilate; vasodilatation to improve oxygenation of the centrolublular region using a calcium channel inhibitor, amlopidine; increased liver regeneration using anabolism steroids, intravenous perfusion combining insulin and glucagon; antifibrosis action using colchicine, D penicillamine; improved microcirculation due to increased deformability of the red cells and inhibition of TNF-alpha using pentoxifyllin. Eleven therapeutic trials have investigated the effect of parenteral or enteral artificial nutrition. Among all these strategies, the only one with a proven efficacy is corticosteroid therapy. Four trials have demonstrated the effect of corticosteroid therapy on short-term survival and 3 of the 4 meta-analyses devoted to the topic have demonstrated the usefulness of corticosteroid therapy in severe forms defined by a Maddrey index > or = 32: bilirubin in mumol per liter/17 + 4.6 (patient's PT in seconds--control PT in seconds) and the presence or not of encephalopathy. The gold standard treatment for severe AAH is oral prednisolone 40 mg/d for 1 month (excluding contraindications). Despite the effect of corticosteroid therapy, mortality at 2 months in severe AAH is still about 30%. Recent

  12. Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (i.e., the age-group between 16 and 20 years) is characterized by significant changes in neurological and cognitive processes, behavioral and social functioning, and relational and physical contexts as the individual moves toward adulthood. In this age-group, major role transitions affect almost every aspect of life. Moreover, brain development continues—and with it the development of cognitive functions, working memory, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and decisionmaking. The adolescent’s social and emotional development also continues to evolve, affecting interactions with parents, siblings, peers, and first romantic relationships. All of these changes impact drinking behavior during late adolescence, and, in fact, alcohol use, binge drinking, and heavy drinking are particularly prevalent in youth ages 16–20. Determining the common trajectories of drinking behavior in this age–group is important for understanding how adolescent alcohol use helps shape adult outcomes and for identifying risk and protective factors. It also is important to study the short- and long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol use and abuse, including alcohol’s effects on the developing adolescent brain and accomplishment of important developmental tasks of this age. PMID:23104446

  13. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methadone and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L Z

    1976-01-01

    We have demonstrated the dangers of alcoholism that complicate methadone treatment of heroin addiction. In future papers, we will attempt to identify contributory factors and suggest interventionist techniques. In the final analysis, however, rehabilitation programs, vocational programs, and, above all, alleviation of the dreadful socioeconomic deprivations related to, among other factors, the racial bias under which most of these people have been born and have suffered during their lives will, in the long run, prove the most satisfactory means of reducing the heroin problem, except for a minority whose psychologic problems will then provide the irreducible minimum from which the majority of the addicts will come. As has so often been stated, the great drug problem in this country is alcoholism. We know that legal prohibition does not prevent the rise of alcoholism, and we know to our sorrow that not only does it give rise to enormous wealth and power to criminals and criminal gangs but that some of them are now also profiting from the great wealth to be made by dealing in heroin.

  15. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  16. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  17. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  18. Alcohol, vitamin A, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2005-04-01

    Chronic and excessive alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers (e.g., oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, liver, lung, colorectal, and breast). Retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) are known to exert profound effects on cellular growth, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis, thereby controlling carcinogenesis. Lower hepatic vitamin A levels have been well documented in alcoholics. Substantial research has been done, investigating the mechanisms by which excessive alcohol interferes with retinoid metabolism. More specifically, (1) alcohol acts as a competitive inhibitor of vitamin A oxidation to retinoic acid involving alcohol dehydrogenases and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases; (2) alcohol-induced cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP), particularly CYP2E1, enhance catabolism of vitamin A and retinoic acid; and (3) alcohol alters retinoid homeostasis by increasing vitamin A mobilization from liver to extrahepatic tissues. As a consequence, long-term and excessive alcohol intake results in impaired status of retinoic acid, the most active derivative of vitamin A and a ligand for both retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors. Moreover, this alcohol-impaired retinoic acid homeostasis interferes with (1) retinoic acid signaling (e.g., down-regulates retinoid target gene expression) and (2) retinoic acid "cross-talk" with the mitogen-activated protein kinase [(MAPK), including Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 kinase] signaling pathway. In addition, restoration of retinoic acid homeostasis by retinoic acid supplementation restored the normal status of both retinoid and MAPK signaling, thereby maintaining normal cell proliferation and apoptosis in alcohol-fed animals. These observations would have implications for the prevention of alcohol-promoted liver (and peripheral tissue) carcinogenesis. However, a better understanding of the alcohol-retinoid interaction and the molecular mechanisms involved is

  19. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  20. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.