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Sample records for simplest pyrrolizidine alcohols

  1. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stap...

  2. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment.

  3. The Simplest Demonstration on Acoustic Beats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Alessio; Ganci, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    The classical demonstration experiment on acoustic beats using two signal generators and a dual trace oscilloscope is an important ingredient in teaching the subject. This short laboratory note aims to point out what may be the simplest demonstrative experiment on acoustic beats to carry out in a classroom without employing any lab apparatus.

  4. The simplest demonstrations of quantum nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Dylan J.; Palsson, Matthew S.; Pryde, Geoff J.; Scott, Andrew J.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the complexity cost of demonstrating the key types of nonclassical correlations—Bell inequality violation, Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen (EPR)-steering, and entanglement—with independent agents, theoretically and in a photonic experiment. We show that the complexity cost exhibits a hierarchy among these three tasks, mirroring the recently discovered hierarchy for how robust they are to noise. For Bell inequality violations, the simplest test is the well-known Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt test, but for EPR-steering and entanglement the tests that involve the fewest number of detection patterns require nonprojective measurements. The simplest EPR-steering test requires a choice of projective measurement for one agent and a single nonprojective measurement for the other, while the simplest entanglement test uses just a single nonprojective measurement for each agent. In both of these cases, we derive our inequalities using the concept of circular two-designs. This leads to the interesting feature that in our photonic demonstrations, the correlation of interest is independent of the angle between the linear polarizers used by the two parties, which thus require no alignment.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  8. Graphic presentation of the simplest statistical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Tsvetan B.

    This paper presents graphically well known tests about change of population mean and standard deviation, about comparison of population means and standard deviations, as well as about significance of correlation and regression coefficients. The critical bounds and criteria for variability with statistical guaranty P=95 % and P=99 % are presented as dependences on the data number n. The graphs further give fast visual solutions of the direct problem (estimation of confidence interval for specified P and n), as well of the reverse problem (estimation of n, which is necessary for achieving a desired statistical guaranty of the result). The aim of the work is to present the simplest statistical tests in a comprehensible and convenient graphs, which will be always at hand. The graphs may be useful in the investigations of time series in astronomy, geophysics, ecology etc., as well as in the education.

  9. The simplest possible bouncing quantum cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Patrick; Vitenti, Sandro D. P.

    2016-06-01

    We present and expand the simplest possible quantum cosmological bouncing model already discussed in previous works: the trajectory formulation of quantum mechanics applied to cosmology (through the Wheeler-De Witt equation) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) minisuperspace without spatial curvature. The initial conditions that were previously assumed were such that the wave function would not change its functional form but instead provide a dynamics to its parameters. Here, we consider a more general situation, in practice consisting of modified Gaussian wave functions, aiming at obtaining a nonsingular bounce from a contracting phase. Whereas previous works consistently obtain very symmetric bounces, we find that it is possible to produce highly non-symmetric solutions, and even cases for which multiple bounces naturally occur. We also introduce a means of treating the shear in this category of models by quantizing in the Bianchi I minisuperspace.

  10. Solving the simplest theory of quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Flauger, Raphael; Gorbenko, Victor

    2012-09-01

    We solve what is quite likely the simplest model of quantum gravity, the worldsheet theory of an infinitely long, free bosonic string in Minkowski space. Contrary to naive expectations, this theory is non-trivial. We illustrate this by constructing its exact factorizable S-matrix. Despite its simplicity, the theory exhibits many of the salient features expected from more mature quantum gravity models, including the absence of local off-shell observables, a minimal length, as well as (integrable relatives of) black holes. All these properties follow from the exact S-matrix. We show that the complete finite volume spectrum can be reconstructed analytically from this S-matrix with the help of the thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz. We argue that considered as a UV complete relativistic 2-dimensional quantum field theory the model exhibits a new type of renormalization group flow behavior, "asymptotic fragility". Asymptotically fragile flows do not originate from a UV fixed point.

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  13. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  14. The simplest integrated multicellular organism unveiled.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Yoko; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Noga, Akira; Hirono, Masafumi; Olson, Bradley J S C; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Volvocine green algae represent the "evolutionary time machine" model lineage for studying multicellularity, because they encompass the whole range of evolutionary transition of multicellularity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to >500-celled Volvox. Multicellular volvocalean species including Gonium pectorale and Volvox carteri generally have several common morphological features to survive as integrated multicellular organisms such as "rotational asymmetry of cells" so that the cells become components of the individual and "cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos" to maintain the species-specific form of the multicellular individual before secretion of new extracellular matrix (ECM). However, these morphological features have not been studied in the four-celled colonial volvocine species Tetrabaena socialis that is positioned in the most basal lineage within the colonial or multicellular volvocine greens. Here we established synchronous cultures of T. socialis and carried out immunofluorescence microscopic and ultrastructural observations to elucidate these two morphological attributes. Based on immunofluorescence microscopy, four cells of the mature T. socialis colony were identical in morphology but had rotational asymmetry in arrangement of microtubular rootlets and separation of basal bodies like G. pectorale and V. carteri. Ultrastructural observations clearly confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos of T. socialis even after the formation of new flagella in each daughter protoplast within the parental ECM. Therefore, these two morphological attributes might have evolved in the common four-celled ancestor of the colonial volvocine algae and contributed to the further increase in cell number and complexity of the multicellular individuals of this model lineage. T. socialis is one of the simplest integrated multicellular organisms in which four identical cells constitute the individual.

  15. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium confusum Coincy.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Houari; Tomassini, Lamberto; Venditti, Alessandro; Marouf, Abderrazak; Bennaceur, Malika; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    Four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely 7-O-angeloyllycopsamine N-oxide 1, echimidine N-oxide 2, echimidine 3 and 7-O-angeloylretronecine 4, were isolated for the first time from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Echium confusum Coincy, through bioassay-guided approach. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. All the isolates compounds showed moderate activities in inhibiting AChE, with IC50 0.276-0.769.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  18. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  19. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis.

  20. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada.

  2. Is the simplest chemical reaction really so simple?

    PubMed

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F Javier

    2014-01-07

    Modern computational methods have become so powerful for predicting the outcome for the H + H2 → H2 + H bimolecular exchange reaction that it might seem further experiments are not needed. Nevertheless, experiments have led the way to cause theorists to look more deeply into this simplest of all chemical reactions. The findings are less simple.

  3. Is the simplest chemical reaction really so simple?

    PubMed Central

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N.; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C.; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Aoiz, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Modern computational methods have become so powerful for predicting the outcome for the H + H2 → H2 + H bimolecular exchange reaction that it might seem further experiments are not needed. Nevertheless, experiments have led the way to cause theorists to look more deeply into this simplest of all chemical reactions. The findings are less simple. PMID:24367084

  4. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  5. Glucuronidation, a new metabolic pathway for pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qi; Yang, Li; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yong; Fong, Alan; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Lu, Yan-Liu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) possess significant hepatotoxicity to humans and animals after metabolic activation by liver P450 enzymes. Metabolism pathways of PAs have been studied for several decades, including metabolic activation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and hydrolysis. However, the glucuronidation of intact PAs has not been investigated, although glucuronidation plays an important role in the elimination and detoxication of xenobiotics. In this study, PAs glucuronidation was investigated, and three important points were found. First, we demonstrated that senecionine (SEN)-a representative hepatotoxic PA-could be conjugated by glucuronic acid via an N-glucuronidation reaction catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase in human liver microsomes. Second, glucuronidation of SEN was catalyzed not only by human but also other animal species and showed significant species differences. Rabbits, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans showed the significantly higher glucuronidation activity than mice, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs on SEN. Kinetics of SEN glucuronidation in humans, pigs, and rabbits followed the one-site binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation, while cattle and sheep followed the two-sites binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Third, besides SEN, other hepatotoxic PAs including monocrotaline, adonifoline, and isoline also underwent N-glucuronidation in humans and several animal species such as rabbits, cattle, sheep, and pigs.

  6. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins. PMID:26959016

  7. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinmiao; Kang, Hong; Feng, Jun; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Zhu, Ruixin; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao; Cao, Zhiwei

    2016-03-07

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids (PAs) are currently one of the most important botanical hepatotoxic ingredients. Glutathion (GSH) metabolism is the most reported pathway involved in hepatotoxicity mechanism of PAs. We speculate that, for different PAs, there should be a common mechanism underlying their hepatotoxicity in GSH metabolism. Computational methods were adopted to test our hypothesis in consideration of the limitations of current experimental approaches. Firstly, the potential targets of 22 PAs (from three major PA types) in GSH metabolism were identified by reverse docking; Secondly, glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) targets pattern was found to be a special characteristic of toxic PAs with stepwise multiple linear regressions; Furthermore, the molecular mechanism underlying the interactions within toxic PAs and these two targets was demonstrated with the ligand-protein interaction analysis; Finally, GSTA1 and GPX1 were proved to be significant nodes in GSH metabolism. Overall, toxic PAs could be identified by GSTA1 and GPX1 targets pattern, which suggests their common hepatotoxicity mechanism: the interfering of detoxication in GSH metabolism. In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins.

  8. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. )

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  9. The anatomy of the simplest Duflo-Zuker mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Temis, Joel; Hirsch, Jorge G.; Zuker, Andrés P.

    2010-10-01

    The simplest version of the Duflo-Zuker mass model (due entirely to the late Jean Duflo) is described by following step by step the published computer code. The model contains six macroscopic monopole terms leading asymptotically to a Liquid Drop form, three microscopic terms supposed to mock configuration mixing (multipole) corrections to the monopole shell effects, and one term in charge of detecting deformed nuclei and calculating their masses. A careful analysis of the model suggests a program of future developments that includes a complementary approach to masses based on an independently determined monopole Hamiltonian, a better description of deformations and specific suggestions for the treatment of three body forces.

  10. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent liver toxins that have been identified in over 6,000 plants throughout the world. Alkaloids are nitrogen-based compounds with potent biological activity. About half of the identified PAs are toxic and several cause cancer (carcinogenic). PA-containing plants...

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing toxic plants (Scenecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium, and Echium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) containing plants are found throughout the world and are probably the most common plant cause of poisoning of livestock, wildlife and humans. PAs are potent liver toxins that under some conditions can be carcinogenic. The objective of this paper is to briefly introduce hi...

  12. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  13. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  14. Transport Processes from Mechanics: Minimal and Simplest Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunimovich, Leonid A.; Grigo, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We review the current state of a fundamental problem of rigorous derivation of transport processes in classical statistical mechanics from classical mechanics. Such derivations for diffusion and momentum transport (viscosities) were obtained for minimal models of these processes involving one and two particles respectively. However, a minimal model which demonstrates heat conductivity contains three particles. Its rigorous analysis is currently out of reach for existing mathematical techniques. The gas of localized balls is widely accepted as a basis for a simplest model for derivation of Fourier's law. We suggest a modification of the localized balls gas and argue that this gas of localized activated balls is a good candidate to rigorously prove Fourier's law. In particular, hyperbolicity is derived for a reduced version of this model.

  15. One qubit and one photon: The simplest polaritonic heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiao; Singh, Swati; Zhang, Keye; Zhang, Weiping; Meystre, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Hybrid quantum systems can often be described in terms of polaritons. These are quasiparticles formed of superpositions of their constituents, with relative weights depending on some control parameter in their interaction. In many cases, these constituents are coupled to reservoirs at different temperatures. This suggests a general approach to the realization of polaritonic heat engines where a thermodynamic cycle is realized by tuning this control parameter. Here we discuss what is arguably the simplest such engine, a single qubit coupled to a single photon. We show that this system can extract work from feeble thermal microwave fields. We also propose a quantum measurement scheme of the work and evaluate its backaction on the operation of the engine.

  16. Structure and prospects of the simplest SO(10) GUTs

    SciTech Connect

    Malinsky, Michal; Di Luzio, Luca

    2013-05-23

    We recapitulate the latest results on the class of the simplest SO(10) grand unified models in which the GUTscale symmetry breaking is triggered by an adjoint Higgs representation. We argue that the minimal survival approximation traditionally used in the GUT-and seesaw-scale estimates tends to be blind to very interesting parts of the parameter space in which some of the intermediate-scale states necessary for non-supersymmetric unification of the SM gauge couplings can be as light as to leave their imprints in the TeV domain. The stringent minimal-survival-based estimates of the B - L scale are shown to be relaxed by as much as four orders of magnitude, thus admitting for a consistent implementation of the standard seesaw mechanism even without excessive fine-tuning implied by the previous studies. The prospects of the minimal renormalizable SO(10) GUT as a potential candidate for a well-calculable theory of proton decay are discussed in brief.

  17. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  18. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. Suspected pyrrolizidine alkaloid hepatotoxicosis in wild southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Woolford, Lucy; Fletcher, Mary T; Boardman, Wayne S J

    2014-07-30

    Southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) inhabiting degraded habitat in South Australia were recently identified with extensive hair loss and dermatitis and were in thin to emaciated body condition. Pathological and clinicopathological investigations on affected juvenile wombats identified a toxic hepatopathy suggestive of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, accompanied by photosensitive dermatitis. Hepatic disease was suspected in additional wombats on the basis of serum biochemical analysis. Preliminary toxicological analysis performed on scats and gastrointestinal contents from wombats found in this degraded habitat identified a number of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids consistent with ingestion of Heliotropeum europaeum. Although unpalatable, ingestion may occur by young animals due to decreased availability of preferred forages in degraded habitats and the emergence of weeds around the time of weaning of naive animals. Habitat degradation leading to malnutrition and ingestion of toxic weed species is a significant welfare issue in this species.

  1. E/Z-Thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside, pyrrolizidine conjugates produced by grasses (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Koulman, Albert; Seeliger, Claudine; Edwards, Patrick J B; Fraser, Karl; Simpson, Wayne; Johnson, Linda; Cao, Mingshu; Rasmussen, Susanne; Lane, Geoffrey A

    2008-06-01

    Based on direct infusion mass spectrometry we identified a novel alkaloid as a major component of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Initial mass spectral data suggested it to be a pyrrolizidine conjugate. As this class of alkaloids has not been described before from grasses, we isolated it to elucidate its structure. The isolated alkaloid proved to be a mixture of two stereoisomers. The structures of the two compounds as determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, were E-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (1) and Z-thesinine-O-4'-alpha-rhamnoside (2). These identifications were supported by the characterisation by GC-MS and optical rotation of (+)-isoretronecanol as the necine base released on alkaline hydrolysis of these alkaloids. 1 and 2 together with the aglycone and a hexoside were also detected in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). This is the first report of pyrrolizidine alkaloids produced by grasses (Poaceae).

  2. Tissue distribution and biosynthesis of 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis hybrids (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Frölich, Cordula; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2006-07-01

    Phalaenopsis hybrids contain two 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine monoesters, T-phalaenopsine (necine base trachelanthamidine) and its stereoisomer Is-phalaenopsine (necine base isoretronecanol). T-Phalaenopsine is the major alkaloid accounting for more than 90% of total alkaloid. About equal amounts of alkaloid were genuinely present as free base and its N-oxide. The structures were confirmed by GC-MS. The quantitative distribution of phalaenopsine in various organs and tissues of vegetative rosette plants and flowering plants revealed alkaloid in all tissues. The highest concentrations were found in young and developing tissues (e.g., root tips and young leaves), peripheral tissues (e.g., of flower stalks) and reproductive organs (flower buds and flowers). Within flowers, parts that usually attract insect visitors (e.g., labellum with colorful crests as well as column and pollinia) show the highest alkaloid levels. Tracer feeding experiments with (14)C-labeled putrecine revealed that in rosette plants the aerial roots were the sites of phalaenopsine biosynthesis. However active biosynthesis was only observed in roots still attached to the plant but not in excised roots. There is a slow but substantial translocation of newly synthesized alkaloid from the roots to other plant organs. A long-term tracer experiment revealed that phalaenopsine shows neither turnover nor degradation. The results are discussed in the context of a polyphyletic molecular origin of the biosynthetic pathways of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in various scattered angiosperm taxa. The ecological role of the so called non-toxic 1,2-saturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids is discussed in comparison to the pro-toxic 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Evidence from the plant-insect interphase is presented indicating a substantial role of the 1,2-saturated alkaloids in plant and insect defense.

  3. Crotalaria medicaginea associated with horse deaths in northern Australia: new pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mary T; Hayes, Patricia Y; Somerville, Michael J; De Voss, James J

    2011-11-09

    Crotalaria medicaginea has been implicated in horse poisoning in grazing regions of central-west Queensland, which resulted in the deaths of more than 35 horses from hepatotoxicosis in 2010. Liver pathology was suggestive of pyrrolizidine alkaloidosis, and we report here the isolation of two previously uncharacterized pyrrolizidine alkaloids from C. medicaginea plant specimens collected from pastures where the horses died. The first alkaloid was shown by mass spectometric and NMR analyses to be 1β,2β-epoxy-7β-hydroxy-1α-methoxymethyl-8α-pyrrolizidine, which, like other alkaloids previously isolated from C. medicaginea, lacks the requisite functionality for hepatotoxcity. The second alkaloid isolated in this investigation was a new macrocyclic diester of otonecine, which we have named cromedine. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of cromedine were fully assigned by 2D NMR techniques and allowed the constitution of the macrocyclic diester to be assigned unambiguously. C. medicaginea specimens implicated in this investigation do not belong to any of the three recognized Australian varieties (C. medicaginea var. neglecta, C. medicaginea var. medicaginea, and C. medicaginea var. linearis) and appear to be a local variant or form, referred to here as C. medicaginea (chemotype cromedine).

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  5. Sensitive determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. by field-amplified, sample-stacking, sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Kun; Xu, Yi; Mu, Xiuni; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Lv, Junjiang

    2016-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the toxic components in Tussilago farfara L. Due to the lack of standard substances for quantitative analysis and traces of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in total alkaloids, the full quality control of Tussilago farfara L has been limited. In this study, we aimed to solve the difficulty of determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and identify more components in the total alkaloids. An on-line preconcentration method has been applied to improve determining sensitivity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L. in which included field-amplified sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The main parameters that affected separation and stacking efficiency were investigated in details. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors obtained by the developed method for the analytes were from 15- to 12-fold, the limits of detection of senkirkine and senecionine were 2∼5 μg/L. Senkirkine and senecionine have been detected in alkaloids (c) of Tussilago farfara L, along ferulic acid methyl ester and methyl caffeate. The developed method was also applied to the analysis of acid extraction (a) of Tussilago farfara L, and senkirkine could be detected directly. The results indicated that the developed method is feasible for the analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Tussilago farfara L with good recoveries.

  6. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Favre, Cécile; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0farcs2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  7. DETECTION OF THE SIMPLEST SUGAR, GLYCOLALDEHYDE, IN A SOLAR-TYPE PROTOSTAR WITH ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Jes K.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Favre, Cecile; Bourke, Tyler L.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus E-mail: suzanne@snm.ku.dk E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: schmalzl@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2012-09-20

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH{sub 2}OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0.''2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species-in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH{sub 3}OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  8. Highly enantioselective intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition: a route to piperidino-pyrrolizidines.

    PubMed

    Vidadala, Srinivasa Rao; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Daniliuc, Constantin-G; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-01-07

    Enantioselective catalytic intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are powerful methods for the synthesis of heterocycles. In contrast, intramolecular enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions are virtually unexplored. A highly enantioselective synthesis of natural-product-inspired pyrrolidino-piperidines by means of an intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with azomethine ylides is now reported. The method has a wide scope and yields the desired cycloadducts with four tertiary stereogenic centers with up to 99% ee. Combining the enantioselective catalytic intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a subsequent diastereoselective intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition yielded complex piperidino-pyrrolizidines with very high stereoselectivity in a one-pot tandem reaction.

  9. Covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K A; Seymour, J L; Hsia, M T; Allen, J R

    1977-09-01

    The covalent interaction of dehydroretronecine, a carcinogenic metabolite of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline, with cysteine and glutathione, has been investigated. Dehydroretronecine was allowed to react with cysteine and glutathione in an in vitro system of phosphate buffer solutions. The reaction products were identified structurally by chromatographic, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, ultraviolet, and mass-spectral analysis. These data indicate that the reaction products are the sulfhydryl-linked 7-thiocysteine-dehydroretronecine and 7-thioglutathione-dehydroretronecine. Active alkylation of sulfhydryl groups is a possible mechanism by which these alkaloids interact with cellular components.

  10. Identification and quantification of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Ethiopian medicinal plant Solanecio gigas (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Asres, K; Sporer, F; Wink, M

    2007-09-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of Solanecio gigas (Vatke) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae), an Ethiopian medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of colic, diarrhea, gout, otitis media, typhoid fever, and noted for its wound dressing and antiabortifacient activities was studied. The flower and leaf extracts contained 0.19% and 0.14% alkaloids (dry weight), respectively. GLC-MS analysis indicated that all the alkaloids in the flowers are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), whereas the leaves contain other type of alkaloids with PAs occurring in low concentrations. Roughly, 80% and 90% of the total PAs in the flowers and the leaves, respectively, were shown to occur as N-oxides. Eighteen alkaloids were detected in the flower extract with the retronecine type twelve-membered macrocyclic diesters integerrimine, senecionine and usaramine comprising 82% of the total PA content. Analysis of the PA profile of the leaves indicated that it has a simpler pattern than the one observed for the flowers. Only five PAs were detected in the leaves with integerrimine making up about 50% of the total PAs. Quantification of the PA content by GLC showed that the flowers and leaves contain 3321.21 and 84.84 microg per 10 g of dried plant material, respectively. These results indicate that users of this herb are at high risk of poisoning since the most toxic twelve membered macrocyclics of the retronecine type are the dominant PAs in the plant.

  11. 7-cysteine-pyrrole conjugate: A new potential DNA reactive metabolite of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Ma, Liang; Fu, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) require metabolic activation to exert cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. We previously reported that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts are responsible for PA-induced liver tumor formation in rats. In this study, we determined that metabolism of riddelliine and monocrotaline by human or rat liver microsomes produced 7-cysteine-DHP and DHP. The metabolism of 7-glutathionyl-DHP by human and rat liver microsomes also generated 7-cysteine-DHP. Further, reaction of 7-cysteine-DHP with calf thymus DNA in aqueous solution yielded the described DHP-derived DNA adducts. This study represents the first report that 7-cysteine-DHP is a new PA metabolite that can lead to DNA adduct formation.

  12. Quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in North American plants and honey by LC-MS: single laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Brown, Paula N

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of naturally occurring compounds produced by many flowering plants around the World. Their presence as contaminants in food systems has become a significant concern in recent years. For example, PAs are often found as contaminants in honey through pollen transfer. A validated method was developed for the quantification of four pyrrolizidine alkaloids and one pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide in plants and honey grown and produced in British Columbia. The method was optimised for extraction efficiency from the plant materials and then subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ and method linearity. The PA content in plants ranged from1.0 to 307.8 µg/g with repeatability precision between 3.8 and 20.8% RSD. HorRat values were within acceptable limits and ranged from 0.62 to 1.63 for plant material and 0.56-1.82 for honey samples. Method accuracy was determined through spike studies with recoveries ranging from 84.6 to 108.2% from the raw material negative control and from 82.1-106.0 % for the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in corn syrup. Based on the findings in this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of lycopsamine, senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, heliosupine and echimidine in common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), blueweed (Echium vulgare) and hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and for PA quantitation in honey and found that PA contaminants were present at low levels in BC honey.

  13. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the food chain: development, validation, and application of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till

    2013-11-27

    Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw.

  15. Simplest chronoscope. III. Further comparisons between reaction times obtained by meterstick versus machine.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The three classical Donders' reaction time (RT) tasks (simple, choice, and discriminative RTs) were employed to compare reaction time scores from college students obtained by use of Montare's simplest chronoscope (meterstick) methodology to scores obtained by use of a digital-readout multi-choice reaction timer (machine). Five hypotheses were tested. Simple RT, choice RT, and discriminative RT were faster when obtained by meterstick than by machine. The meterstick method showed higher reliability than the machine method and was less variable. The meterstick method of the simplest chronoscope may help to alleviate the longstanding problems of low reliability and high variability of reaction time performances; while at the same time producing faster performance on Donders' simple, choice and discriminative RT tasks than the machine method.

  16. A generalized simplest equation method and its application to the Boussinesq-Burgers equation.

    PubMed

    Sudao, Bilige; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized simplest equation method is proposed to seek exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). In the method, we chose a solution expression with a variable coefficient and a variable coefficient ordinary differential auxiliary equation. This method can yield a Bäcklund transformation between NLEEs and a related constraint equation. By dealing with the constraint equation, we can derive infinite number of exact solutions for NLEEs. These solutions include the traveling wave solutions, non-traveling wave solutions, multi-soliton solutions, rational solutions, and other types of solutions. As applications, we obtained wide classes of exact solutions for the Boussinesq-Burgers equation by using the generalized simplest equation method.

  17. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  18. Risk assessment for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detected in (herbal) teas and plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Mulder, Patrick P J; Louisse, Jochem; Peijnenburg, Ad; Wesseling, Sebas; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-03-27

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are plant metabolites present in some botanical preparations, with especially 1,2-unsaturated PAs being of concern because they are genotoxic carcinogens. This study presents an overview of tumour data on PAs and points of departure (PODs) derived from them, corroborating that the BMDL10 for lasiocarpine represents a conservative POD for risk assessment. A risk assessment using this BMDL10 and mean levels of PAs reported in literature for (herbal) teas, indicates that consumption of one cup of tea a day would result in MOE values lower than 10 000 for several types of (herbal) teas, indicating a priority for risk management for these products A refined risk assessment using interim relative potency (REP) factors showed that based on the mean PA levels, 7(54%) of 13 types of (herbal) teas and 1 (14%) of 7 types of plant food supplements (PFS) resulted in MOE values lower than 10 000, indicating a priority for risk management also for these products in particular. This includes both preparations containing PA-producing and non-PA-producing plants. Our study provides insight in the current state-of-the art and limitations in the risk assessment of PA-containing food products, especially (herbal) teas and PFS, indicating that PAs in food presents a field of interest for current and future risk management.

  19. Second site of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Comfrey boosts plant defense in floral stage.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Lars H; Stegemann, Thomas; Sievert, Christian; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-03-08

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxic secondary metabolites that are found in several, distantly related families of the angiosperms. The first specific step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS), which has been recruited several times independently by duplication of the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the post-translational activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. HSS shows highly diverse spatiotemporal gene expression in various PA-producing species. In Symphytum officinale (Boraginaceae), PAs are reported to be synthesized in the roots, with HSS being localized in cells of the root endodermis. Here, we show that S. officinale plants activate a second site of HSS expression when inflorescences start to develop. HSS has been localized in the bundle sheath cells of specific leaves. Tracer feeding experiments have confirmed that these young leaves not only express HSS, but the whole PA biosynthetic route. This second site of PA biosynthesis results in drastically increased PA levels within the inflorescences. The boost of PA biosynthesis is proposed to guarantee optimal protection especially of the reproductive structures.

  20. Hepatotoxicity associated with pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Crotalaria spp) ingestion in a horse on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Arzt, J; Mount, M E

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984, a significant number of privately owned and feral horses on Easter Island have died of a syndrome consisting of progressive anorexia, weight loss, obtundation, and other central nervous system abnormalities. A single horse experiencing clinical signs of the reported syndrome was identified, examined and necropsied. Clinical signs included inappetence, emaciation, ataxia and icterus. Gross necropsy findings included hepatic enlargement and mottling, ascites and gastric impaction. Histopathological lesions included hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis, periportal megalocytosis, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and multinucleate hepatocytes. Crotalaria grahamiana and C pallida, were identified in the pasture of the presenting horse, and found to be widespread on the island. Alkaloid fingerprinting identified grahamine, monocrotalin, and a grahamine analog in C grahamiana. A retrorsine analog and a senecionine analog were identified in C pallida. The highly characteristic lesions and the identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the 2 plants strongly suggest that ingestion of 1 or both of the Crotalaria species led to chronic liver damage and hepatic encephalopathy in the presenting horse. Widespread distribution of C grahamiana on the island and reported temporal and seasonal trends in incidence among horses and cattle suggest that C grahamiana may be responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality among horses and cattle on Easter Island.

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition influences cinnabar moth oviposition preferences in Jacobaea hybrids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; van der Meijden, Eddy; Mulder, Patrick P J; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2013-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that may be selective against herbivores. Yet, specialist herbivores may use PSMs as cues for host recognition, oviposition, and feeding stimulation, or for their own defense against parasites and predators. This summarizes a dual role of PSMs: deter generalists but attract specialists. It is not clear yet whether specialist herbivores are a selective force in the evolution of PSM diversity. A prerequisite for such a selective force would be that the preference and/or performance of specialists is influenced by PSMs. To investigate these questions, we conducted an oviposition experiment with cinnabar moths (Tyria jacobaeae) and plants from an artificial hybrid family of Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea aquatica. The cinnabar moth is a specialist herbivore of J. vulgaris and is adapted to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), defensive PSMs of these plants. The number of eggs and egg batches oviposited by the moths were dependent on plant genotype and positively correlated to concentrations of tertiary amines of jacobine-like PAs and some otosenine-like PAs. The other PAs did not correlate with oviposition preference. Results suggest that host plant PAs influence cinnabar moth oviposition preference, and that this insect is a potential selective factor against a high concentration of some individual PAs, especially those that are also involved in resistance against generalist herbivores.

  2. Optimisation of isolation procedure for pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Rindera umbellata Bunge.

    PubMed

    Mandić, Boris M; Vlajić, Marina D; Trifunović, Snežana S; Simić, Milena R; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; VuČković, Ivan M; Novaković, Miroslav M; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana D; Tešević, Vele V; Vajs, Vlatka V; Milosavljević, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Procedure for isolation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Rindera umbellata Bunge plant species was optimised. Different extraction media (methanol, ethanol and sulphuric acid), concentration and volume of sulphuric acid, pH of PA solution for alkaline extraction, extraction time and techniques (maceration, ultrasonic and overhead rotary mixer assisted extraction) were investigated. The yields of six PAs (7-angeloyl heliotridane, 7-angeloyl heliotridine, lindelofine, 7-angeloyl rinderine, punctanecine and heliosupine) were monitored by GC-MS/FID. The best results for the isolation all of six PAs were obtained when the extraction was performed with 1 M sulphuric acid (30 mL per 1.00 g of dried sample) by overhead rotary mixer during three days. Optimal pH value for alkaline extraction of PAs with CH₂Cl₂ was 9, and the extraction should be performed with four portions of 30 mL of CH₂Cl₂. This procedure could be also useful for a plant sample preparation for GC and LC analyses of PAs.

  3. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

    PubMed

    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range.

  4. Synergistic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and lipopolysaccharide on preterm delivery and intrauterine fetal death in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Ma, Zhenguo; Kou, Hao; Sun, Rongze; Yang, Hanxiao; Smith, Charles Vincent; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-29

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death for newborn infants, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used to induce preterm delivery in experimental animals. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread and occur in foods, herbs, and other plants. This study was to investigate the synergistic effects of LPS and two representative PAs, retrorsine (RTS) and monocrotaline (MCT), on preterm delivery and fetal death. Pregnant Kunming mice were divided into seven groups: control, RTS, MCT, LPS, RTS+LPS and two MCT+LPS groups. Animals in PAs and PAs+LPS groups were dosed intragastrically with RTS (10mg/kg) or MCT (20 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 9 to GD16; mice given LPS were injected intraperitoneally with 150 μg/kg on GD15.5. Latencies to delivery, numbers of pups live and dead at birth were recorded, and livers of live neonates were collected. The incidence of LPS-induced preterm birth was enhanced in dams pretreated with MCT, and combination of PAs and LPS increased fetal mortality from PAs. The enhancement of LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal demise in animals exposed chronically to PAs and other substances found in foods and beverages consumed widely by humans merits further focused investigation.

  5. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: their occurrence in Spanish honey collected from purple viper's bugloss (Echium spp.).

    PubMed

    Orantes-Bermejo, F J; Serra Bonvehí, J; Gómez-Pajuelo, A; Megías, M; Torres, C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and concentration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Echium spp. plant have been defined in 103 Spanish honey samples. Each sample was examined to determine total pollen content, the percentage of Echium spp. pollen, and simultaneous measurements of PAs and their N-oxides concentrations by the HPLC-ESI/MS method to identify the potential origin of PAs in honey. PAs were found in 94.2% of the raw honey samples analysed, in the range of 1-237 µg kg(-1) (average concentration = 48 µg kg(-1)). The PA pattern was clearly dominated by echimidine, lycopsamine and their N-oxides, representing the 97.8% of total ∑PAs, and only echimidine and echimidine-N-oxide surpassed the 87% of total ∑PA content. Others PAs, seneciphylline and heliotrine-N-oxide, appear to be reported in a lower incidence and concentration (average of 3 and 1 µg kg(-1), respectively). The Pearson Chi-squared test (p ≤ 0.01) confirms the non-correspondence between pollen plants and PA content. This study was also realised to generate a dataset in order to evaluate the potential risk of Spanish honeys containing PA plants belonging to the genera Echium.

  6. Quercetin Prevents Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Clivorine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Elevating Body Defense Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lili; Ma, Yibo; Wang, Zaiyong; Cai, Zhunxiu; Pang, Chun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin. PMID:24905073

  7. Dietary pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids and tissue distribution of copper and vitamin A in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huan, J; Cheeke, P R; Lowry, R R; Nakaue, H S; Snyder, S P; Whanger, P D

    1992-09-01

    The effect of feeding a diet containing 5% tansy ragwort (TR) (Senecio jacobaea), a poisonous plant containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), on the blood and liver levels of copper, zinc, iron and vitamin A in broiler chicks was examined. Serum and liver copper and liver iron concentrations were increased in chicks fed a diet with 5% TR, while serum and liver zinc and vitamin A decreased. When PA were removed from the diet, partial restoration of normal serum vitamin A level occurred, indicating that the ability to mobilize liver vitamin A is not irreversibly inhibited by PA. The decline in serum vitamin A occurred by 8 days of TR feeding with a concurrent decline in growth rate. When chicks were fed a diet high in vitamin A (25,000 IU/kg), followed by a basal diet containing TR, serum vitamin A levels were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased, while liver vitamin A level increased. This indicates that mobilization of previously stored vitamin A from the liver is impaired by PA. Prior feeding of a high vitamin A level resulted in protective effects against PA toxicity, as assessed by histopathology. This study shows that a dietary source of PA modifies metabolism and tissue distribution of minerals and vitamin A.

  8. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine induced oxidative injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, LiLi; Liu, TianYu; Wang, ZhengTao

    2010-04-01

    Clivorine is an otonecine-type hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (HPAs), to which humans are exposed when consuming herbs containing such components. In the present study, we investigated clivorine-induced oxidative stress injury on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were treated with various concentrations of clivorine (1-100 microM) for 48 hours, and then cell viability was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined to evaluate the oxidative injury. The results of MTT assay showed that clivorine decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine also increased LPO amounts in rat hepatocytes at the concentrations of 50 microM and 100 microM. Further results showed that clivorine decreased GPx, GST and GR activities, which are all reduced glutathione (GSH)-related antioxidant enzymes. CAT and SOD are both important antioxidant enzymes, and the results showed that clivorine increased CAT activity at the low concentration of 5 muM and decreased cellular SOD activity at all concentrations. Taken together, our results demonstrated that clivorine induced toxicity on primary cultured rat hepatocytes by causing the damage on cellular redox balance.

  10. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  12. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  13. Neutrinos in the simplest little Higgs scenario and TeV leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Asmaa; Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2006-02-01

    The little Higgs scenario may provide an interesting framework to accommodate TeV scale leptogenesis, because a TeV Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino that we employ for the latter may find a natural place near the ultraviolet cutoff of the former. In this work we study how a light neutrino spectrum, generated radiatively, and TeV scale leptogenesis can be embedded in the simplest little Higgs framework. Alternatively, we highlight how the neutrino Yukawa textures of the latter are constrained.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-07

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H2O-CH2OO and D2O-CH2OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH2OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  15. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-01

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H2O-CH2OO and D2O-CH2OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH2OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  16. Characterization and screening of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and N-oxides from various parts of many botanicals and dietary supplements using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The UHPLC-QToF-MS analysis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from various parts of 37 botanicals and 7 dietary supplements was performed. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a gradient of water/acetonitrile each containing formic acid as the mobile phase. MS-MS detection was u...

  17. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  18. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics I. CW Laser Space-Time Frame Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Tyle; Harter, William

    2015-05-01

    Molecular spectroscopy makes very precise applications of quantum theory including GPS, BEC, and laser clocks. Now it can return the favor by shedding some light on modern physics mysteries by further unifying quantum theory and relativity. We first ask, ``What is the simplest molecule?'' Hydrogen H2 is the simplest stable molecule. Positronium is an electron-positron (e+e-) -pair. An even simpler ``molecule'' or ``radical'' is a photon-pair (γ, γ) that under certain conditions can create an (e+e-) -pair. To help unravel relativistic and quantum mysteries consider CW laser beam pairs or TE-waveguides. Remarkably, their wave interference immediately gives Minkowski space-time coordinates and clearly relates eight kinds of space-time wave dilations or contractions to shifts in Doppler frequency or wavenumber. Modern physics students may find this approach significantly simplifies and clarifies relativistic physics in space-time (x,ct) and inverse time-space (ω,ck). It resolves some mysteries surrounding super-constant c = 299,792,458 m/s by proving ``Evenson's Axiom'' named in honor of NIST metrologist Ken Evenson (1932-2002) whose spectroscopy established c to start a precision renaissance in spectroscopy and GPS metrology.

  19. Direct kinetic measurements of reactions between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and alkenes.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Jalan, Amrit; Middaugh, Joshua E; Green, William H

    2014-03-20

    The simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO), a well-known biradical formed in alkene ozonolysis, is known to add across double bonds. Here we report direct experimental rate measurements of the simplest Criegee Intermediate reacting with C2–C4 alkenes obtained using the laser flash photolysis technique probing the recently measured B(1)A′ ← X(1)A′ transition in CH2OO. The measured activation energy (298–494 K) for CH2OO + alkenes is Ea ≈ 3500 ± 1000 J mol(–1) for all alkyl substituted alkenes and Ea = 7000 ± 900 J mol(–1) for ethene. The measured Arrhenius pre-exponential factors (A) vary between (2 ± 1) × 10(–15) and (11 ± 3) × 10(–15) cm(3) molecule(–1) s(–1). Quantum chemical calculations of the corresponding rate coefficients reproduce qualitative reactivity trends but overestimate the absolute rate coefficients. Despite the small Ea's, the CH2OO + alkene rate coefficients are almost 2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of similar reactions between CH2OO and carbonyl compounds. Using the rate constants measured here, we estimate that, under typical atmospheric conditions, reaction with alkenes does not represent a significant sink of CH2OO. In environments rich in C═C double bonds, however, such as ozone-exposed rubber or emission plumes, these reactions can play a significant role.

  20. Gene expression changes induced by the tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid riddelliine in liver of Big Blue rats

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Nan; Guo, Lei; Liu, Ruqing; Fuscoe, James C; Chen, Tao

    2007-01-01

    Background Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are probably the most common plant constituents that poison livestock, wildlife, and humans worldwide. Riddelliine is isolated from plants grown in the western United States and is a prototype of genotoxic PAs. Riddelliine was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of PAs via analysis of gene expression in the target tissue of rats in this study. Previously we observed that the mutant frequency in the liver of rats gavaged with riddelliine was 3-fold higher than that in the control group. Molecular analysis of the mutants indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutational spectra from riddelliine-treated and control rats. Results Riddelliine-induced gene expression profiles in livers of Big Blue transgenic rats were determined. The female rats were gavaged with riddelliine at a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight 5 days a week for 12 weeks. Rat whole genome microarray was used to perform genome-wide gene expression studies. When a cutoff value of a two-fold change and a P-value less than 0.01 were used as gene selection criteria, 919 genes were identified as differentially expressed in riddelliine-treated rats compared to the control animals. By analysis with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Network, we found that these significantly changed genes were mainly involved in cancer, cell death, tissue development, cellular movement, tissue morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cellular growth and proliferation. We further analyzed the genes involved in metabolism, injury of endothelial cells, liver abnormalities, and cancer development in detail. Conclusion The alterations in gene expression were directly related to the pathological outcomes reported previously. These results provided further insight into the mechanisms involved in toxicity and carcinogenesis after exposure to riddelliine, and permitted us to investigate the interaction of gene products inside the signaling networks

  1. Phenotypic plasticity of Senecio vulgaris from contrasting habitat types: growth and pyrrolizidine alkaloid formation.

    PubMed

    Frischknecht, P M; Schuhmacher, K; Müller-Schärer, H; Baumann, T W

    2001-02-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), which postulates a physiological trade-off between growth and differentiation (morphological and chemical), has been tested almost exclusively for carbon-based secondary metabolites. Little attention has been paid to N-based compounds. In this study we aimed to test the predictions of the GDB hypothesis under field conditions for growth and pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) formation in Senecio vulgaris. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment at two sites differing widely in their nutrient supply. These included a conventionally managed vineyard (V) and a strip of local wild flowers between crop fields, which was established to promote species diversity in agroecosystems (C). No fertilizer or pesticides are allowed in such ecological compensation areas. In C, we expected lower growth but higher PA formation than in V. Due to differentiated selection regimes in the two habitat types with regard to nutrient (nitrogen) availability in the soil, we also expected different N-allocation patterns for the genotypes of the two collection sites. Plants of V produced more biomass and were taller than the plants of C. The relatively poor nitrogen conditions in C favored an earlier differentiation towards generative organs. In plants of C, higher concentrations of PAs were found than in plants of V. There exists a close negative correlation between growth and PA formation, indicating a trade-off. The origin of the plant material had only a little effect on PA formation. The observed phenotypic reaction of PA formation in S. vulgaris in the two habitats fits quite well the predictions of GDB theory. It is shown that this general response is overlaid by physiological factors leading to a pattern of PA accumulation, which is not readily predictable by nonmechanistic theories.

  2. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry. Direct kinetic measurement of the reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate with water vapor.

    PubMed

    Chao, Wen; Hsieh, Jun-Ting; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2015-02-13

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are important transient species formed in the reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone. Although direct detection of Criegee intermediates has recently been realized, the main atmospheric sink of Criegee intermediates remains unclear. We report ultraviolet absorption spectroscopic measurements of the lifetime of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, at various relative humidity levels up to 85% at 298 kelvin. An extremely fast decay rate of CH2OO was observed at high humidity. The observed quadratic dependence of the decay rate on water concentration implied a predominant reaction with water dimer. On the basis of the water dimer equilibrium constant, the effective rate coefficient of the CH2OO + (H2O)2 reaction was determined to be 6.5 (±0.8) × 10(-12) cubic centimeters per second. This work would help modelers to better constrain the atmospheric concentrations of CH2OO.

  4. Communication: Determination of the molecular structure of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2013-09-14

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO was detected in a discharged supersonic jet of a CH2Br2 and O2 gas mixture by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The experimentally determined rotational constants of CH2OO and its isotopologues enabled us to derive the geometrical structure. The determined OO and CO bond lengths, which are relevant to a discussion on its electronic structure, are 1.345(3) and 1.272(3) Å, respectively. The CO bond length is close to that of a typical double bond and is shorter than that of the OO bond by 0.07 Å, indicating that CH2OO has a more zwitterionic character H2C = O(⊕)-O(⊖) than biradical H2Ċ-O-O.

  5. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2013-04-12

    The Criegee intermediates are carbonyl oxides postulated to play key roles in the reactions of ozone with unsaturated hydrocarbons; these reactions constitute an important mechanism for the removal of unsaturated hydrocarbons and for the production of OH in the atmosphere. Here, we report the transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO, produced from CH2I + O2 in a flow reactor, using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer. The five observed bands provide definitive identification of this intermediate. The observed vibrational frequencies are more consistent with a zwitterion rather than a diradical structure of CH2OO. The direct IR detection of CH2OO should prove useful for kinetic and mechanistic investigations of the Criegee mechanism.

  6. Production of and Dissociative Electron Attachment to the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in an Afterglow.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Justin P; Shuman, Nicholas S; Viggiano, Albert A

    2015-02-05

    The simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has been produced in a flowing afterglow using a novel technique. CH2I is produced by dissociative electron attachment to CH2I2, leading to the established reaction CH2I + O2 → CH2OO + I. The presence of CH2OO is established by observation of dissociative electron attachment to yield O(-) using the variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) technique. The measurements establish the electron attachment rate coefficient of thermal electrons at 300 K to CH2OO as 1.2 ± 0.3 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1). Thermal electron attachment is solely dissociative and is not a promising route to producing stable CH2OO(-). The results open the possibility of measuring ion-molecule chemistry involving Criegee intermediates, as well as the reactivity of other unstable radicals produced in an analogous manner.

  7. UV absorption spectrum and photodissociation channels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Dawes, Richard; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Hua

    2015-01-14

    The lowest-lying singlet states of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) have been characterized along the O-O dissociation coordinate using explicitly correlated MRCI-F12 electronic structure theory and large active spaces. It is found that a high-level treatment of dynamic electron-correlation is essential to accurately describe these states. A significant well on the B-state is identified at the MRCI-F12 level with an equilibrium structure that differs substantially from that of the ground X-state. This well is presumably responsible for the apparent vibrational structure in some experimental UV absorption spectra, analogous to the structured Huggins band of the iso-electronic ozone. The B-state potential in the Franck-Condon region is sufficiently accurate that an absorption spectrum calculated with a one-dimensional model agrees remarkably well with experiment.

  8. H →ℓℓ' in the simplest little Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lami, Andrea; Roig, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    Little Higgs models are promising constructs to solve the hierarchy problem affecting the Higgs boson mass for generic new physics. However, their preservation of lepton universality forbids them to account for the H →τ μ CMS hint and at the same time respect (as they do) the severe limits on H →μ e inherited from the nonobservation of μ →e γ . We compute the predictions of the simplest little Higgs model for the H →ℓℓ' decays and conclude that the measurement of any of these decays at LHC (even with a much smaller rate than currently hinted) would, under reasonable assumptions, disfavor this model. This result is consistent with our earlier observation of very suppressed lepton flavor violating semileptonic tau decays within this model.

  9. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2017-01-01

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode. PMID:28224993

  10. The simplest chronoscope II: reaction time measured by meterstick versus machine.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Visual simple reaction time (SRT) scores measured in 31 college students of both sexes by use of the simplest chronoscope methodology (meterstick SRT) were compared to scores obtained by use of an electromechanical multi-choice reaction timer (machine SRT). Four hypotheses were tested. Results indicated that the previous mean value of meterstick SRT was replicated; meterstick SRT was significantly faster than long-standing population estimates of mean SRT; and machine SRT was significantly slower than the same long-standing mean SRT estimates for the population. Also, the mean meterstick SRT of 181 msec. was significantly faster than the mean machine SRT of 294 msec. It was theorized that differential visual information processing occurred such that the dorsal visual stream subserved meterstick SRT; whereas the ventral visual stream subserved machine SRT.

  11. Dynamical barrier and isotope effects in the simplest substitution reaction via Walden inversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2017-02-22

    Reactions occurring at a carbon atom through the Walden inversion mechanism are one of the most important and useful classes of reactions in chemistry. Here we report an accurate theoretical study of the simplest reaction of that type: the H+CH4 substitution reaction and its isotope analogues. It is found that the reaction threshold versus collision energy is considerably higher than the barrier height. The reaction exhibits a strong normal secondary isotope effect on the cross-sections measured above the reaction threshold, and a small but reverse secondary kinetic isotope effect at room temperature. Detailed analysis reveals that the reaction proceeds along a path with a higher barrier height instead of the minimum-energy path because the umbrella angle of the non-reacting methyl group cannot change synchronously with the other reaction coordinates during the reaction due to insufficient energy transfer from the translational motion to the umbrella mode.

  12. The Simplest Chronoscope V: A Theory of Dual Primary and Secondary Reaction Time Systems.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Extending work by Montare, visual simple reaction time, choice reaction time, discriminative reaction time, and overall reaction time scores obtained from college students by the simplest chronoscope (a falling meterstick) method were significantly faster as well as significantly less variable than scores of the same individuals from electromechanical reaction timers (machine method). Results supported the existence of dual reaction time systems: an ancient primary reaction time system theoretically activating the V5 parietal area of the dorsal visual stream that evolved to process significantly faster sensory-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from environmental objects in motion, and a secondary reaction time system theoretically activating the V4 temporal area of the ventral visual stream that subsequently evolved to process significantly slower sensory-perceptual-motor reactions to sudden stimulations arising from motionless colored objects.

  13. The simplest problem in the collective dynamics of neural networks: is synchrony stable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timme, Marc; Wolf, Fred

    2008-07-01

    For spiking neural networks we consider the stability problem of global synchrony, arguably the simplest non-trivial collective dynamics in such networks. We find that even this simplest dynamical problem—local stability of synchrony—is non-trivial to solve and requires novel methods for its solution. In particular, the discrete mode of pulsed communication together with the complicated connectivity of neural interaction networks requires a non-standard approach. The dynamics in the vicinity of the synchronous state is determined by a multitude of linear operators, in contrast to a single stability matrix in conventional linear stability theory. This unusual property qualitatively depends on network topology and may be neglected for globally coupled homogeneous networks. For generic networks, however, the number of operators increases exponentially with the size of the network. We present methods to treat this multi-operator problem exactly. First, based on the Gershgorin and Perron-Frobenius theorems, we derive bounds on the eigenvalues that provide important information about the synchronization process but are not sufficient to establish the asymptotic stability or instability of the synchronous state. We then present a complete analysis of asymptotic stability for topologically strongly connected networks using simple graph-theoretical considerations. For inhibitory interactions between dissipative (leaky) oscillatory neurons the synchronous state is stable, independent of the parameters and the network connectivity. These results indicate that pulse-like interactions play a profound role in network dynamical systems, and in particular in the dynamics of biological synchronization, unless the coupling is homogeneous and all-to-all. The concepts introduced here are expected to also facilitate the exact analysis of more complicated dynamical network states, for instance the irregular balanced activity in cortical neural networks.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: downstream contamination in the food chain caused by honey and pollen.

    PubMed

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Schönfeld, K; Cramer, L; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a steadily growing number of published data on pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey and pollen. This raises the question whether honey and/or pollen used as ingredients in food processing might provoke a downstream contamination in the food chain. Here we addressed two different facets in connection with PAs in honey and pollen. First, we analysed the PA content of several food types such as mead (n = 19), candy (n = 10), fennel honey (n = 9), soft drinks (n = 5), power bars and cereals (n = 7), jelly babies (n = 3), baby food (n = 3), supplements (n = 3) and fruit sauce (n = 1) that contained honey as an ingredient in the range of 5% to approximately 37%. Eight out of 60 retail samples were tested as being PA-positive, corresponding to 13%. Positive samples were found in mead, candy and fennel honey, and the average PA content was calculated to be 0.10 µg g(-1) retronecine equivalents (ranging from 0.010 to 0.484 µg g(-1)). Furthermore, we investigated the question whether and how PAs from PA pollen are transferred from pollen into honey. We conducted model experiments with floral pollen of Senecio vernalis and PA free honey and tested the influence of the quantity of PA pollen, contact time and a simulated honey filtration on the final PA content of honey. It could clearly be demonstrated that the PA content of honey was directly proportional to the amount of PA pollen in honey and that the transfer of PAs from pollen to honey was a rather quick process. Consequently, PA pollen represents a major source for the observed PA content in honey. On the other hand, a good portion remains in the pollen. This fraction is not detected by the common analytical methods, but will be ingested, and it represents an unknown amount of 'hidden' PAs. In addition, the results showed that a technically and legally possible honey filtration (including the removal of all pollen) would not be an option to reduce the PA level of the final product

  15. Computational and Genetic Reduction of a Cell Cycle to Its Simplest, Primordial Components

    PubMed Central

    Fumeaux, Coralie; Viollier, Patrick H.; Howard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    What are the minimal requirements to sustain an asymmetric cell cycle? Here we use mathematical modelling and forward genetics to reduce an asymmetric cell cycle to its simplest, primordial components. In the Alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, cell cycle progression is believed to be controlled by a cyclical genetic circuit comprising four essential master regulators. Unexpectedly, our in silico modelling predicted that one of these regulators, GcrA, is in fact dispensable. We confirmed this experimentally, finding that ΔgcrA cells are viable, but slow-growing and elongated, with the latter mostly due to an insufficiency of a key cell division protein. Furthermore, suppressor analysis showed that another cell cycle regulator, the methyltransferase CcrM, is similarly dispensable with simultaneous gcrA/ccrM disruption ameliorating the cytokinetic and growth defect of ΔgcrA cells. Within the Alphaproteobacteria, gcrA and ccrM are consistently present or absent together, rather than either gene being present alone, suggesting that gcrA/ccrM constitutes an independent, dispensable genetic module. Together our approaches unveil the essential elements of a primordial asymmetric cell cycle that should help illuminate more complex cell cycles. PMID:24415923

  16. Detection of Formamide, the Simplest but Crucial Amide, in a Solar-type Protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahane, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Faure, A.; Caux, E.

    2013-02-01

    Formamide (NH2CHO), the simplest possible amide, has recently been suggested to be a central species in the synthesis of metabolic and genetic molecules, the chemical basis of life. In this Letter, we report the first detection of formamide in a protostar, IRAS 16293-2422, which may be similar to the Sun and solar system progenitor. The data combine spectra from the millimeter and submillimeter TIMASSS survey with recent, more sensitive observations at the IRAM 30 m telescope. With an abundance relative to H2 of ~10-10, formamide appears as abundant in this solar-type protostar as in the two high-mass star-forming regions, Orion-KL and SgrB2, where this species has previously been detected. Given the largely different UV-illuminated environments of the three sources, the relevance of UV photolysis of interstellar ices in the synthesis of formamide is therefore questionable. Assuming that this species is formed in the gas phase via the neutral-neutral reaction between the radical NH2 and H2CO, we predict an abundance in good agreement with the value derived from our observations. The comparison of the relative abundance [NH2CHO]/[H2O] in IRAS 16293-2422 and in the coma of the comet Hale-Bopp supports the similarity between interstellar and cometary chemistry. Our results thus suggest that the abundance of some cometary organic volatiles could reflect gas phase rather than grain-surface interstellar chemistry.

  17. Direct Determination of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Self Reaction Rate.

    PubMed

    Buras, Zachary J; Elsamra, Rehab M I; Green, William H

    2014-07-03

    The rate of self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, is of importance in many current laboratory experiments where CH2OO concentrations are high, such as flash photolysis and alkene ozonolysis. Using laser flash photolysis while simultaneously probing both CH2OO and I atom by direct absorption, we can accurately determine absolute CH2OO concentrations as well as the UV absorption cross section of CH2OO at our probe wavelength (λ = 375 nm), which is in agreement with a recently published value. Knowing absolute concentrations we can accurately measure kself = 6.0 ± 2.1 × 10(-11)cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 297 K. We are also able to put an upper bound on the rate coefficient for CH2OO + I of 1.0 × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Both of these rate coefficients are at least a factor of 5 smaller than other recent measurements of the same reactions.

  18. Ultraviolet spectrum and photochemistry of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO.

    PubMed

    Beames, Joseph M; Liu, Fang; Lu, Lu; Lester, Marsha I

    2012-12-12

    Ozonolysis of alkenes in the troposphere produces Criegee intermediates, which have eluded detection in the gas phase until very recently. This laboratory has synthesized the simplest Criegee intermediate within a quartz capillary tube affixed to a pulsed valve to cool and isolate CH(2)OO in a supersonic expansion. UV excitation resonant with the B (1)A' ← X (1)A' transition depletes the ground-state population of CH(2)OO, which is detected by single-photon ionization at 118 nm. The large UV-induced depletion (approaching 100%) near the peak of the profile at 335 nm is indicative of rapid dissociation, consistent with the repulsive B (1)A' potential along the O-O coordinate computed theoretically. The experimental spectrum is in very good accord with the absorption spectrum calculated using the one-dimensional reflection principle. The B ← X spectrum is combined with the solar actinic flux to estimate an atmospheric lifetime for CH(2)OO at midday on the order of ∼1 s with respect to photodissociation.

  19. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-07-28

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD2OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD2I2, N2, and O2 (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH2OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm(-1) are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinct in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD2OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD2OO at 1318 cm(-1) is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH2OO at 1286 cm(-1); this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm(-1), observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD2 wagging mode of CD2IOO.

  20. Infrared absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Witek, Henryk A.; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2016-07-01

    We report a transient infrared (IR) absorption spectrum of the simplest deuterated Criegee intermediate CD2OO recorded using a step-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer coupled with a multipass absorption cell. CD2OO was produced from photolysis of flowing mixtures of CD2I2, N2, and O2 (13 or 87 Torr) with laser light at 308 nm. The recorded spectrum shows close structural similarity with the spectrum of CH2OO reported previously [Y.-T. Su et al., Science 340, 174 (2013)]. The four bands observed at 852, 1017, 1054, and 1318 cm-1 are assigned to the OO stretching mode, two distinct in-plane OCD bending modes, and the CO stretching mode of CD2OO, respectively, according to vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities, rotational contours, and deuterium-isotopic shifts predicted with extensive quantum-chemical calculations. The CO-stretching mode of CD2OO at 1318 cm-1 is blue shifted from the corresponding band of CH2OO at 1286 cm-1; this can be explained by a mechanism based on mode mixing and isotope substitution. A band near 936 cm-1, observed only at higher pressure (87 Torr), is tentatively assigned to the CD2 wagging mode of CD2IOO.

  1. Verification of Optimal Control Strategy Search Using a Simplest 3-D PWR Xenon Oscillation Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2006-07-01

    Power spatial oscillations due to the transient xenon spatial distribution are well known as xenon oscillation in large PWRs. When the reactor size becomes larger than the current design, then even radial oscillations can be also divergent. Even if the radial oscillation is convergent, when some control rods malfunction occurs, it is necessary to suppress the oscillation in as short time as possible. In such cases, optimal control strategy is required. Generally speaking the optimality search based on the modern control theory requires a lot of calculation for the evaluation of state variables. In the case of control rod malfunctions the xenon oscillation could be three dimensional. In such case, direct core calculations would be inevitable. From this point of view a very simple model, only four point reactor model, has been developed and verified. In this paper, an example of a procedure and the validity of the results for optimal control strategy search are presented by comparing it with the result by a three dimensional nuclear design code The simplest simulator can predict optimal strategy in less than 10 seconds on a PC. Thus it is recommended that a strategy generator, which is quick in analyzing and easy to use, might be installed in a monitoring system or in an operator guiding system. (author)

  2. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality.

    PubMed

    Petralia, Ronald S; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2014-07-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathways hinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms.

  3. Simplest method for creating micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS with UV light.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chang-Ying; Zhang, Wei; Choo, Wan Hui Stella; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2011-11-15

    The fabrication of micropatterned structures on PDMS is a critical step in soft lithography, microfluidics, and many other PDMS-based applications. To substitute traditional mold-casting methods, we develop a simple method to create micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS in one step. After exposing a flat PDMS surface to a UV pen lamp through a photomask (such as a TEM grid), micropatterned nanostructures can be formed readily on the PDMS surface. We also demonstrate that fabricated PDMS can be used for the microcontact printing of protein immunoglobulin (IgG) on solid surfaces. This method is probably the simplest method of creating micropatterned nanostructures on PDMS reported so far because it does not need casting, surface coating, or chemical reagents. Only a UV pen lamp and a photomask are required, and this method can be performed under ambient conditions without vacuum. We expect that this method will greatly benefit researchers who use PDMS regularly in various applications such as soft lithography and microfluidics.

  4. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality

    PubMed Central

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathwayshinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms. PMID:24910306

  5. Synthesis of Pyrrolidines and Pyrrolizidines with α-Pseudoquaternary Centers by Copper-Catalyzed Condensation of α-Diazodicarbonyl Compounds and Aryl γ-Lactams.

    PubMed

    Goudedranche, Sébastien; Besnard, Céline; Egger, Léo; Lacour, Jérôme

    2016-10-24

    N-aryl γ-lactams react intermolecularly with acceptor-acceptor diazo reagents, usually dicarbonyl compounds, in a copper-catalyzed process to yield functionalized pyrrolidines with α-pseudoquaternary centers. As 1,2-acyl or -phosphoryl migration is preferred, single regioisomers are obtained. Furthermore, in the presence of a Lewis acid, subsequent Friedel-Crafts reactions yield tricyclic pyrrolizidines in excellent yields (90-96 %) and diastereoselectivities (up to >20:1).

  6. Evolutionary recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for the detoxification of host plant-acquired pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the alkaloid-defended arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Claudia; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    Larvae of Tyria jacobaeae feed solely upon the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plant Senecio jacobaea. Ingested pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which are toxic to unspecialized insects and vertebrates, are efficiently N-oxidized in the hemolymph of T. jacobaeae by senecionine N-oxygenase (SNO), a flavin-dependent monooxygenase (FMO) with a high substrate specificity for PAs. Peptide microsequences obtained from purified T. jacobaeae SNO were used to clone the corresponding cDNA, which was expressed in active form in Escherichia coli. T. jacobaeae SNO possesses a signal peptide characteristic of extracellular proteins, and it belongs to a large family of mainly FMO-like sequences of mostly unknown function, including two predicted Drosophila melanogaster gene products. The data indicate that the gene for T. jacobaeae SNO, highly specific for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, was recruited from a preexisting insect-specific FMO gene family of hitherto unknown function. The enzyme allows the larvae to feed on PA-containing plants and to accumulate predation-deterrent PAs in the hemolymph. PMID:11972041

  7. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM(˜)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with “linear mixture” (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM(˜) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM(˜) there were reproduced two-dimensional remarkable (“banana-like”) structure of two-phase region P — T diagram and the characteristic non-monotonic shape of caloric phase enthalpy-temperature diagram, similar to the non-congruent evaporation of reactive plasma products in high-temperature heating with the uranium-oxygen system. The parameters of critical points (CP) line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of ions 0 < X < 1, including two reference values, when CP coincides with a point of extreme temperature and extreme pressure, XT and Xp. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated the low-temperature property of non-congruent gas-liquid transition — “distillation”, which is weak in chemically reactive plasmas.

  8. Radiative Yukawa couplings in the simplest left-right symmetric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, Emidio; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti

    2017-02-01

    We revisit a recent solution to the flavor hierarchy problem based on the paradigm that Yukawa couplings are, rather than fundamental constants, effective low energy couplings radiatively generated by interactions in a hidden sector of the theory. In the present paper we show that the setup required by this scenario can be set by gauge invariance alone, provided that the standard model gauge group be extended to the left-right symmetric group of S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )Y. The simplest scheme in which Yukawa couplings are forbidden at the tree-level organises the right-handed fermions into doublets and presents an additional Higgs S U (2 )R doublet, responsible for the spontaneous breaking of the S U (2 )R gauge sector. The flavor and chiral symmetry breaking induced by the S U (2 )R breaking is transferred at the one-loop level to the standard model via the dynamics of the hidden sector, which effectively regulates the spread of the effective Yukawa couplings. The emerging left-right symmetric framework recovers additional appealing features typical of these models, allowing for instance to identify the hypercharges of the involved fermions with their B -L charges and offering a straightforward solution to the strong C P problem. The scheme gives rise to a distinguishing phenomenology that potentially can be tested at the LHC and future colliders through the same interactions that result in the radiative generation of Yukawa couplings, as well as by exploiting the properties of the additional S U (2 )R Higgs doublet.

  9. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  10. Mathematical models of the simplest fuzzy PI/PD controllers with skewed input and output fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, B M; Sinha, Arpita

    2008-07-01

    This paper unveils mathematical models for fuzzy PI/PD controllers which employ two skewed fuzzy sets for each of the two-input variables and three skewed fuzzy sets for the output variable. The basic constituents of these models are Gamma-type and L-type membership functions for each input, trapezoidal/triangular membership functions for output, intersection/algebraic product triangular norm, maximum/drastic sum triangular conorm, Mamdani minimum/Larsen product/drastic product inference method, and center of sums defuzzification method. The existing simplest fuzzy PI/PD controller structures derived via symmetrical fuzzy sets become special cases of the mathematical models revealed in this paper. Finally, a numerical example along with its simulation results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the simplest fuzzy PI controllers.

  11. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  12. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  13. A new approach for simultaneous screening and quantification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in some potential pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants by using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Na; Choi, Franky Fung-Kei; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Liu, Xin; Cai, Zong-Wei; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-11-29

    A rapid, but sensitive and selective method for simultaneous screening and quantification of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) by ultra performance liquid-chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQ-MS) is described. This was accomplished by incorporating the precursor ion scan (PIS) acquisition and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition in the same UPLC-MS/MS run. Notably, the developed PIS approach for detecting two pairs of characteristic product ions at m/z 120/138 or 168/150, allowed specific identification of toxic retronecine and otonecine types PAs. This PIS method is highly sensitive with over 10-fold sensitivity improvement upon previously published LC-MS method. Moreover, this new approach is suitable for high sample throughput and was applied to the screening and quantifying toxic PAs in 22 samples collected from seven Parasenecio species and four Senecio species. In addition, coupling the MRM with PIS approach generated quantitative results equivalent to those obtained by conventional MRM-only approach. This coupled MRM with PIS approach could provide both qualitative and quantitative results without the need of repetitive analyses.

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  15. Evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Phalaenopsis orchids and other monocotyledons: identification of deoxyhypusine synthase, homospermidine synthase and related pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Nurhayati, Niknik; Gondé, Daniela; Ober, Dietrich

    2009-03-01

    In order to study the evolution of pathways of plant secondary metabolism, we use the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) as a model system. PAs are regarded as part of the plant's constitutive defense against herbivores. Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis. The gene encoding HSS has been recruited from the gene encoding deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) from primary metabolism at least four times independently during angiosperm evolution. One of these recruitment occurred within the monocot lineage. We have used the PA-producing orchid Phalaenopsis to identify the cDNAs encoding HSS, DHS and the substrate protein for DHS, i.e., the precursor of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A. A cDNA identified from maize was unequivocally characterized as DHS. From our study of Phalaenopsis, several pseudogenes emerged, of which one was shown to be a "processed pseudogene", and others to be transcribed. Sequence comparison of the HSS- and DHS-encoding sequences from this investigation with those of monocot species taken from the databases suggest that HSS and probably the ability to produce PAs is an old feature within the monocot lineage. This result is discussed with respect to the recent discovery of structural related PAs within grasses.

  16. The Role of Astrocytes in Metabolism and Neurotoxicity of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Monocrotaline, the Main Toxin of Crotalaria retusa

    PubMed Central

    Pitanga, Bruno Penas Seara; Nascimento, Ravena P.; Silva, Victor Diógenes A.; Costa, Silvia L.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic interactions and signaling between neurons and glial cells are necessary for the development and maintenance of brain functions and structures and for neuroprotection, which includes protection from chemical attack. Astrocytes are essential for cerebral detoxification and present an efficient and specific cytochrome P450 enzymatic system. Whilst Crotalaria (Fabaceae, Leguminosae) plants are used in popular medicine, they are considered toxic and can cause damage to livestock and human health problems. Studies in animals have shown cases of poisoning by plants from the genus Crotalaria, which induced damage to the central nervous system. This finding has been attributed to the toxic effects of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) monocrotaline (MCT). The involvement of P450 enzymatic systems in MCT hepatic and pulmonary metabolism and toxicity has been elucidated, but little is known about the pathways implicated in the bioactivation of these systems and the direct contribution of these systems to brain toxicity. This review will present the main toxicological aspects of the Crotalaria genus that are established in the literature and recent findings describing the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic effects of MCT, which was extracted from Crotalaria retusa, and its interaction with neurons in isolated astrocytes. PMID:22876233

  17. UPLC TOF MS for sensitive quantification of naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Petasites hybridus extract (Ze 339).

    PubMed

    Schenk, Alexander; Siewert, Beate; Toff, Stephan; Drewe, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Due to increasing regulatory awareness of their hepatotoxic, genotoxic and possibly carcinogenic potential, pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) content has to be thoroughly monitored in herbal medicinal preparations. Recently, new very low PA regulatory threshold concentrations have been requested by the authorities. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reproducible UPLC TOF MS method for the quantification of the PAs senkirkine, senecionine, seneciphylline, senecionine-N-oxide and seneciphylline-N-oxide in a CO2-extract of Petasites hybridus leaves (Ze 339) has been developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2ppb for all PAs. Recovery at the LOQ was between 88.9 and 141.9%, the repeatability precision between 3.5 and 13.6%. Linearity of the five PAs showed correlation coefficients between 0.9995 and 0.9998 and coefficients of variation between 7.44 and 8.56%. A working range between 2 ppb and 200 ppb could be fixed. In the tested batches of the P. hybridus extract Ze 339, the absence of PAs could be demonstrated. In conclusion, this assay allows to determine trace PA concentrations in P. hybridus extract Ze 339, making it suitable for analytical PA monitoring in accordance with regulatory requirements.

  18. Metabolic Profiling of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Foliage of Two Echium spp. Invaders in Australia—A Case of Novel Weapons?

    PubMed Central

    Skoneczny, Dominik; Weston, Paul A.; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Gurr, Geoff M.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Weston, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic profiling allows for simultaneous and rapid annotation of biochemically similar organismal metabolites. An effective platform for profiling of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides (PANOs) was developed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry. Field-collected populations of invasive Australian weeds, Echium plantagineum and E. vulgare were raised under controlled glasshouse conditions and surveyed for the presence of related PAs and PANOs in leaf tissues at various growth stages. Echium plantagineum possessed numerous related and abundant PANOs (>17) by seven days following seed germination, and these were also observed in rosette and flowering growth stages. In contrast, the less invasive E. vulgare accumulated significantly lower levels of most PANOs under identical glasshouse conditions. Several previously unreported PAs were also found at trace levels. Field-grown populations of both species were also evaluated for PA production and highly toxic echimidine N-oxide was amongst the most abundant PANOs in foliage of both species. PAs in field and glasshouse plants were more abundant in the more widely invasive species, E. plantagineum, and may provide competitive advantage by increasing the plant’s capacity to deter natural enemies in its invaded range through production of novel weapons. PMID:26561809

  19. The two facies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: the role of the tertiary amine and its N-oxide in chemical defense of insects with acquired plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindigkeit, R; Biller, A; Buch, M; Schiebel, H M; Boppré, M; Hartmann, T

    1997-05-01

    Larvae of Creatonotos transiens (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae) and Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera, Pyrgomorphidae) ingest 14C-labeled senecionine and its N-oxide with the same efficiency but sequester the two tracers exclusively as N-oxide. Larvae of the non-sequestering Spodoptera littoralis eliminate efficiently the ingested alkaloids. During feeding on the two alkaloidal forms transient levels of senecionine (but not of the N-oxide) are built up in the haemolymph of S. littoralis larvae. Based on these results, senecionine [18O]N-oxide was fed to C. transiens larvae and Z. variegatus adults. The senecionine N-oxide recovered from the haemolymph of the two insects shows an almost complete loss of 18O label, indicating reduction of the orally fed N-oxide in the guts, uptake of the tertiary alkaloid and its re-N-oxidation in the haemolymph. The enzyme responsible for N-oxidation is a soluble mixed function monooxygenase. It was isolated from the haemolymph of the sequestering arctiid Tyria jacobaeae and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme is a flavoprotein with a native Mr of 200000 and a subunit Mr of 51000. It shows a pH optimum at 7.0, has its maximal activity at a temperature of 40-45 degrees C and an isoelectric point at pH 4.9. The reaction is strictly NADPH-dependent (Km 1.3 microM). From 20 pyrrolizidine alkaloids so far tested as substrates, the enyzme N-oxidizes only alkaloids with structural elements which are essential for hepatotoxic and genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (i.e. 1,2-double bond, esterification of the allylic hydroxyl group, presence of a second free or esterified hydroxyl group at carbon 7). A great variety of related alkaloids and xenobiotics were tested as substrate, none was accepted. The Km values of senecionine, monocrotaline and heliotrine, representing the three main types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, are 1.3 microM, 12.5 microM and 290 microM, respectively. The novel enzyme was named senecionine N-oxygenase (SNO). The

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of the complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-04-07

    The hydrogen-bonded complex between water and the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO was detected by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy under a jet-cooled condition. Both a-type and b-type rotational transitions were observed for H{sub 2}O–CH{sub 2}OO and D{sub 2}O–CH{sub 2}OO. The determined rotational constants enable us to conclude that the complex has an almost planar ring structure with the terminal oxygen atom of CH{sub 2}OO being a strong proton acceptor.

  1. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  2. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  3. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  4. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  5. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  6. Testing the generalist-specialist dilemma: the role of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in resistance to invertebrate herbivores in Jacobaea species.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xianqin; Vrieling, Klaas; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (SMs) to protect them from generalist herbivores. On the other hand, specialist herbivores use SMs for host plant recognition, feeding and oviposition cues, and even sequester SMs for their own defense. Therefore, plants are assumed to face an evolutionary dilemma stemming from the contrasting effects of generalist and specialist herbivores on SMs. To test this hypothesis, bioassays were performed with F2 hybrids from Jacobaea species segregating for their pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), using a specialist flea beetle (Longitarsus jacobaeae) and a generalist slug (Deroceras invadens). Our study demonstrated that while slug feeding damage was negatively correlated with the concentration of total PAs and that of senecionine-like PAs, flea beetle feeding damage was not affected by PAs. It was positively correlated though, with leaf fresh weight. The generalist slug was deterred by senecionine-like PAs but the specialist flea beetle was adapted to PAs in its host plant. Testing other herbivores in the same plant system, it was observed that the egg number of the specialist cinnabar moth was positively correlated with jacobine-like PAs, while the silver damage of generalist thrips was negatively correlated with senecionine- and jacobine-like PAs, and the pupae number of generalist leaf miner was negatively correlated with otosenine-like PAs. Therefore, while the specialist herbivores showed no correlation whatsoever with PA concentration, the generalist herbivores all showed a negative correlation with at least one type of PA. We concluded that the generalist herbivores were deterred by different structural groups of PAs while the specialist herbivores were attracted or adapted to PAs in its host plants.

  7. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt.

  8. Interim relative potency factors for the toxicological risk assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Merz, Karl-Heinz; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-11-30

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent natural toxins occurring in a broad spectrum of plant species from various families. Recently, findings of considerable contamination of teas/herbal infusions prepared from non-PA plants have been reported. These are obviously due to cross-contamination with minor amounts of PA plants and can affect both food and herbal medicines. Another source of human exposure is honey collected from PA plants. These findings illustrate the requirement for a comprehensive risk assessment of PAs, hampered by the enormous number of different PA congeners occurring in nature. Up to now, risk assessment is based on the carcinogenicity of certain PAs after chronic application to rats using the sum of detected PAs as dose metric. Because of the well-documented large structure-dependent differences between sub-groups of PA congeners with respect to their genotoxicity and (cyto)toxicity, however, this procedure is inadequate. Here we provide an overview of recent attempts to assess the risk of PA exposure and the available literature on the toxic effects and potencies of different congeners. Based on these considerations, we have derived interim Relative Potency (REP) factors for a number of abundant PAs suggesting a factor of 1.0 for cyclic di-esters and open-chain di-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.3 for mono-esters with 7S configuration, of 0.1 for open-chain di-esters with 7R configuration and of 0.01 for mono-esters with 7R configuration. For N-oxides we suggest to apply the REP factor of the corresponding PA. We are confident that the use of these values can provide a more scientific basis for PA risk assessment until a more detailed experimental analysis of the potencies of all relevant congeners can be carried out.

  9. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  10. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  11. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  13. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  14. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  15. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  16. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Ndengue, Steve; Li, Jun; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  17. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua-Gen; Ndengue, Steve; Li, Jun; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2015-08-28

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  18. Observation of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate CH_2OO in the Gas-Phase Ozonolysis of Ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, Carrie; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Brown, Gordon G.; Field, Robert W.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2015-06-01

    Criegee intermediates (R_1R_2COO) are understood to be critical intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, but their high reactivity has traditionally made them very difficult to study directly. Although the smallest Criegee intermediates have now been generated in the laboratory using a diiodomethane photolysis scheme, numerous questions still remain about the product branching ratios of Criegee intermediates formed directly from ozonolysis. This talk will discuss our recent detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH_2OO, in the ozonolysis of ethylene, using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy and a modified pulsed nozzle. Nine other product species of the reaction were also detected, in abundances that qualitatively support the published mechanisms and rate constants.

  19. The Simplest Criegee Intermediate (H_2C=O-O): Equilibrium Structure and Possible Formation from Atmospheric Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Cheng, Lan; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Martinez, Oscar, Jr.; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Womack, Carrie; Stanton, John F.

    2014-06-01

    Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in combination with double-resonance techniques has been used to detect the rotational spectra of all five singly-substituted isotopic species of H_2C=O-O, the simplest Criegee intermediate. By correcting the rotational constants of these species and those of four others previously reported by Nakajima and Endo (J. Chem. Phys. 39, 101103, 2013) for zero-point vibrational motion calculated theoretically, a highly precise equilibrium structure is reported for this important atmospheric intermediate. In contrast to the production method employed by most other groups, which has emphasized the use of halogenated percursors, we find that H_2C=O-O is produced in good yield and fairly selectively by passing a mixture of methane and excess molecular oxygen through an electrical discharge. For this reason H_2C=O-O may be produced in the direct vicinity of atmospheric lightning.

  20. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  1. Structure-activity relationships of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in insect chemical defense against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karina Lucas; Trigo, José Roberto

    2002-04-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to protect Arctiidae moths and Danainae and Ithomiinae butterflies against the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Araneidae, Tetragnathinae), which liberates adults of these insects unharmed from its web. We tested against this spider the role of eight PAs and one derived structure [an 89:11 mixture of the 12-membered macrocyclic diester free base integerrimine and senecionine and the respective N-oxide; two hydrolysis products from this mixture (the necine base retronecine, its respective N-oxide, and a mixture of integerriminic and senecionic necic acids); the 12-membered macrocyclic senkirkine; the 9-O-monoester free base senecioylretronecine and its respective N-oxide; and the 9-O-monoester free base callimorphine (a PA biosynthesized only by insects from retronecine)]. The mixture integerrimine-senecionine N-oxide seems to be more active than the respective free base [LibD50 (liberation dose 50) = 0.042 and 0.153 microg/dry weight of prey, respectively], but the difference in activity between the N-oxide and free base of the 9-O-monoester senecioylretronecine was slight (LibD50 = 0.167 and 0.104, respectively). Senkirkine, an otonecine base PA that does not form N-oxide and is not found in insects, was the less active, showing the highest LibD50 (0.354). The difference in antipredator activity between N-oxides and free bases from macrocyclic diesters and monoesters may be correlated with physicochemical properties of these molecules in interaction with the Nephila receptors. For the active structures, there was a significant correlation between dosage and antipredator activity. Both forms of retronecine and a necic acid mixture were inactive, supporting the hypothesis that PAs biosynthesized by insects from retronecine were originally produced and stored in order to optimize chemical defense. Comparison of dose/activity data with reported amounts of PAs in butterflies suggested that, in general, PA

  2. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  4. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  5. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  6. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  7. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. The simplest equivalent circuit of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge and the determination of the gas gap charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipa, A. V.; Koskulics, J.; Brandenburg, R.; Hoder, T.

    2012-11-01

    The concept of the simplest equivalent circuit for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is critically reviewed. It is shown that the approach is consistent with experimental data measured either in large-scale sinusoidal-voltage driven or miniature pulse-voltage driven DBDs. An expression for the charge transferred through the gas gap q(t) is obtained with an accurate account for the displacement current and the values of DBD reactor capacitance. This enables (i) the significant reduction of experimental error in the determination of q(t) in pulsed DBDs, (ii) the verification of the classical electrical theory of ozonizers about maximal transferred charge qmax, and (iii) the development of a graphical method for the determination of qmax from charge-voltage characteristics (Q-V plots, often referred as Lissajous figures) measured under pulsed excitation. The method of graphical presentation of qmax is demonstrated with an example of a Q-V plot measured under pulsed excitation. The relations between the discharge current jR(t), the transferred charge q(t), and the measurable parameters are presented in new forms, which enable the qualitative interpretation of the measured current and voltage waveforms without the knowledge about the value of the dielectric barrier capacitance Cd. Whereas for quantitative evaluation of electrical measurements, the accurate estimation of the Cd is important.

  11. Pseudoscalar boson and standard model-like Higgs boson productions at the LHC in the simplest little Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Han Xiaofang

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the simplest little Higgs model, we perform a comprehensive study for the pair productions of the pseudoscalar boson {eta} and standard model-like Higgs boson h at LHC, namely gg(bb){yields}{eta}{eta}, gg(qq){yields}{eta}h, and gg(bb){yields}hh. These production processes provide a way to probe the couplings between Higgs bosons. We find that the cross section of gg{yields}{eta}{eta} always dominates over that of bb{yields}{eta}{eta}. When the Higgs boson h which mediates these two processes is on-shell, their cross sections can reach several thousand fb and several hundred fb, respectively. When the intermediate state h is off-shell, those two cross sections are reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The cross sections of gg{yields}{eta}h and qq{yields}{eta}h are about in the same order of magnitude, which can reach O(10{sup 2} fb) for a light {eta} boson. Besides, compared with the standard model prediction, the cross section of a pair of standard model-like Higgs bosons production at LHC can be enhanced sizably. Finally, we briefly discuss the observable signatures of {eta}{eta}, {eta}h, and hh at the LHC.

  12. Dynamics of coupled simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits and its potential application to random bit generation

    SciTech Connect

    Modeste Nguimdo, Romain; Tchitnga, Robert; Woafo, Paul

    2013-12-15

    We numerically investigate the possibility of using a coupling to increase the complexity in simplest chaotic two-component electronic circuits operating at high frequency. We subsequently show that complex behaviors generated in such coupled systems, together with the post-processing are suitable for generating bit-streams which pass all the NIST tests for randomness. The electronic circuit is built up by unidirectionally coupling three two-component (one active and one passive) oscillators in a ring configuration through resistances. It turns out that, with such a coupling, high chaotic signals can be obtained. By extracting points at fixed interval of 10 ns (corresponding to a bit rate of 100 Mb/s) on such chaotic signals, each point being simultaneously converted in 16-bits (or 8-bits), we find that the binary sequence constructed by including the 10(or 2) least significant bits pass statistical tests of randomness, meaning that bit-streams with random properties can be achieved with an overall bit rate up to 10×100 Mb/s =1Gbit/s (or 2×100 Mb/s =200 Megabit/s). Moreover, by varying the bias voltages, we also investigate the parameter range for which more complex signals can be obtained. Besides being simple to implement, the two-component electronic circuit setup is very cheap as compared to optical and electro-optical systems.

  13. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and its O–O photodissociation channels

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M.; Lester, Marsha I. E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu; Subotnik, Joseph E. E-mail: subotnik@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-10-07

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S{sub 2} (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S{sub 2} (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H{sub 2}CO (X {sup 1}A{sub 1}) and O ({sup 1}D) fragments. The remaining ∼95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H{sub 2}CO (a {sup 3}A″) and O ({sup 3}P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  14. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and isoprene.

    PubMed

    Decker, Z C J; Au, K; Vereecken, L; Sheps, L

    2017-03-13

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15-100 Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10(-15) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. This reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.

  15. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and its O-O photodissociation channels.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M; Lester, Marsha I; Subotnik, Joseph E

    2014-10-07

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S2 (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S2 (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H2CO (X (1)A1) and O ((1)D) fragments. The remaining ∼95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H2CO (a (3)A″) and O ((3)P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  16. Quantum dynamical investigation of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and its O-O photodissociation channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Kousik; Beames, Joseph M.; Lester, Marsha I.; Subotnik, Joseph E.

    2014-10-01

    The singlet electronic potential energy surfaces for the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO are computed over a two-dimensional reduced subspace of coordinates, and utilized to simulate the photo-initiated dynamics on the S2 (B) state leading to dissociation on multiple coupled excited electronic states. The adiabatic electronic potentials are evaluated using dynamically weighted state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field theory. Quasi-diabatic states are constructed from the adiabatic states by maximizing the charge separation between the states. The dissociation dynamics are then simulated on the diabatically coupled excited electronic states. The B ← X electronic transition with large oscillator strength was used to initiate dynamics on the S2 (B) excited singlet state. Diabatic coupling of the B state with other dissociative singlet states results in about 5% of the population evolving to the lowest spin-allowed asymptote, generating H2CO (X 1A1) and O (1D) fragments. The remaining ˜95% of the population remains on repulsive B state and dissociates to H2CO (a 3A″) and O (3P) products associated with a higher asymptotic limit. Due to the dissociative nature of the B state, the simulated electronic absorption spectrum is found to be broad and devoid of any vibrational structure.

  17. Submillimeter-wave Spectrum of Aminoacetonitrile and its Deuterated Isotopologues, Possible Precursors of the Simplest Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoki, Yuta; Tsunoda, Yukari; Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    Aminoacetonitrile, CH2NH2CN, has been considered one of the important precursors of glycine, the simplest amino acid, and was identified in Sgr B2(N) by Belloche et al. based on their reanalysis of previous laboratory measurements. However, these laboratory measurements were limited to the 1 mm wavelength region even for the normal species, and recent new radio telescopes like ALMA require rest frequencies in a higher frequency range. Therefore, we have extended the pure rotational spectra of aminoacetonitrile and its amino-hydrogen-deuterated isotopologues (NHDCH2CN and ND2CH2CN) up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively. Belloche et al. indicated that the normal species may have been misassigned in a previous microwave study by Bogey et al. We found that two more b-type spectral transitions were misassigned, and all b-type transition frequencies above Ka = 2 had to be remeasured. For isotopologues, spectra above 40 GHz were observed for the first time and higher order centrifugal distortion constants have been determined. The extension of the measurements helped improve the molecular constants. The errors in the frequency catalog data of normal and deuterated isotopologues are on the order of 100 kHz up to 1.2 THz and 0.6 THz, respectively, which are precise enough for the future astronomical observations.

  18. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO and isoprene

    DOE PAGES

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; ...

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100more » Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.« less

  19. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO and isoprene

    DOE PAGES

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; ...

    2017-03-07

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100more » Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.« less

  20. The simplest quantum model supporting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of topological defect production: Landau-Zener transitions from a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Damski, Bogdan

    2005-07-15

    It can be shown that the dynamics of the Landau-Zener model can be accurately described in terms of the Kibble-Zurek theory of the topological defect production in nonequilibrium phase transitions. The simplest quantum model exhibiting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is presented. A new intuitive description of Landau-Zener dynamics is found.

  1. The Simplest Quantum Model Supporting the Kibble-Zurek Mechanism of Topological Defect Production: Landau-Zener Transitions from a New Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, Bogdan

    2005-07-15

    It can be shown that the dynamics of the Landau-Zener model can be accurately described in terms of the Kibble-Zurek theory of the topological defect production in nonequilibrium phase transitions. The simplest quantum model exhibiting the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is presented. A new intuitive description of Landau-Zener dynamics is found.

  2. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  3. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  4. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  9. Spectroscopy of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO: simulation of the first bands in its electronic and photoelectron spectra.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Mok, Daniel K W; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J; Osborn, David L; Taatjes, Craig A; Dyke, John M

    2012-09-24

    CH(2)OO, the simplest Criegee intermediate, and ozone are isoelectronic. They both play very important roles in atmospheric chemistry. Whilst extensive experimental studies have been made on ozone, there were no direct gas-phase studies on CH(2)OO until very recently when its photoionization spectrum was recorded and kinetics studies were made of some reactions of CH(2)OO with a number of molecules of atmospheric importance, using photoionization mass spectrometry to monitor CH(2)OO. In order to encourage more direct studies on CH(2)OO and other Criegee intermediates, the electronic and photoelectron spectra of CH(2)OO have been simulated using high level electronic structure calculations and Franck-Condon factor calculations, and the results are presented here. Adiabatic and vertical excitation energies of CH(2)OO were calculated with TDDFT, EOM-CCSD, and CASSCF methods. Also, DFT, QCISD and CASSCF calculations were performed on neutral and low-lying ionic states, with single energy calculations being carried out at higher levels to obtain more reliable ionization energies. The results show that the most intense band in the electronic spectrum of CH(2) OO corresponds to the B(1)A' ← X(1)A' absorption. It is a broad band in the region 250-450 nm showing extensive structure in vibrational modes involving O-O stretching and C-O-O bending. Evidence is presented to show that the electronic absorption spectrum of CH(2)OO has probably been recorded in earlier work, albeit at low resolution. We suggest that CH(2)OO was prepared in this earlier work from the reaction of CH(2)I with O(2) and that the assignment of the observed spectrum solely to CH(2)IOO is incorrect. The low ionization energy region of the photoelectron spectrum of CH(2)OO consists of two overlapping vibrationally structured bands corresponding to one-electron ionizations from the highest two occupied molecular orbitals of the neutral molecule. In each case, the adiabatic component is the most intense

  10. New LUX and PandaX-II results illuminating the simplest Higgs-portal dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Tandean, Jusak

    2016-12-01

    Direct searches for dark matter (DM) by the LUX and PandaX-II Collaborations employing xenon-based detectors have recently come up with the most stringent limits to date on the spin-independent elastic scattering of DM off nucleons. For Higgs-portal scalar DM models, the new results have precluded any possibility of accommodating low-mass DM as suggested by the DAMA and CDMS II Si experiments utilizing other target materials, even after invoking isospin-violating DM interactions with nucleons. In the simplest model, SM+D, which is the standard model plus a real singlet scalar named darkon acting as the DM candidate, the LUX and PandaX-II limits rule out DM masses roughly from 4 to 450 GeV, except a small range around the resonance point at half of the Higgs mass where the interaction cross-section is near the neutrino-background floor. In the THDM II+D, which is the type-II two-Higgs-doublet model combined with a darkon, the region excluded in the SM+D by the direct searches can be recovered due to suppression of the DM effective interactions with nucleons at some values of the ratios of Higgs couplings to the up and down quarks, making the interactions significantly isospin-violating. However, in either model, if the 125-GeV Higgs boson is the portal between the dark and SM sectors, DM masses less than 50 GeV or so are already ruled out by the LHC constraint on the Higgs invisible decay. In the THDM II+D, if the heavier CP -even Higgs boson is the portal, theoretical restrictions from perturbativity, vacuum stability, and unitarity requirements turn out to be important instead and exclude much of the region below 100 GeV. For larger DM masses, the THDM II+D has plentiful parameter space that corresponds to interaction cross-sections under the neutrino-background floor and therefore is likely to be beyond the reach of future direct searches without directional sensitivity.

  11. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis Orchids: Developmental Expression of Alkaloid-Specific Homospermidine Synthase in Root Tips and Young Flower Buds1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression. PMID:18701671

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids: developmental expression of alkaloid-specific homospermidine synthase in root tips and young flower buds.

    PubMed

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression.

  13. Bioactivity Studies of β-Lactam Derived Polycyclic Fused Pyrroli-Dine/Pyrrolizidine Derivatives in Dentistry: In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Studies

    PubMed Central

    Winfred, Sofi Beaula; Mannivanan, Bhavani; Bhoopalan, Hemadev; Shankar, Venkatesh; Sekar, Sathiya; Venkatachalam, Deepa Parvathi; Pitani, Ravishankar; Nagendrababu, Venkateshbabu; Thaiman, Malini; Devivanayagam, Kandaswamy; Jayaraman, Jeyakanthan; Ragavachary, Raghunathan; Venkatraman, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of β-lactam derived polycyclic fused pyrrolidine/pyrrolizidine derivatives synthesized by 1, 3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction was evaluated against microbes involved in dental infection. Fifteen compounds were screened; among them compound 3 showed efficient antibacterial activity in an ex vivo dentinal tubule model and in vivo mice infectious model. In silico docking studies showed greater affinity to penicillin binding protein. Cell damage was observed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) which was further proved by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and quantified using Flow Cytometry by PI up-take. Compound 3 treated E. faecalis showed ROS generation and loss of membrane integrity was quantified by flow cytometry. Compound 3 was also found to be active against resistant E. faecalis strains isolated from failed root canal treatment cases. Further, compound 3 was found to be hemocompatible, not cytotoxic to normal mammalian NIH 3T3 cells and non mutagenic. It was concluded that β-lactam compound 3 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against E. faecalis involved in root canal infections and the mechanism of action was deciphered. The results of this research can be further implicated in the development of potent antibacterial medicaments with applications in dentistry. PMID:26185985

  14. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  16. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  17. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  18. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  19. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  20. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  1. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  3. High-Level, First-Principles, Full-Dimensional Quantum Calculation of the Ro-vibrational Spectrum of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO).

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Carter, Stuart; Bowman, Joel M; Dawes, Richard; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2014-07-03

    The ro-vibrational spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) has been determined quantum mechanically based on nine-dimensional potential energy and dipole surfaces for its ground electronic state. The potential energy surface is fitted to more than 50 000 high-level ab initio points with a root-mean-square error of 25 cm(-1), using a recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial neural network method. The calculated rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, and spectral intensities of CH2OO are in excellent agreement with experiment. The potential energy surface provides a valuable platform for studying highly excited vibrational and unimolecular reaction dynamics of this important molecule.

  4. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  5. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  6. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  8. Distinct Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase Involved in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Three Species of the Boraginales1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant’s chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature. PMID:22566491

  9. Involvement of Bcl-xL degradation and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway in pyrrolizidine alkaloids-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Lili; Chen Ying; Liu Tianyu; Wang Zhengtao

    2008-09-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural hepatotoxins with worldwide distribution in more than 6000 high plants including medicinal herbs or teas. The aim of this study is to investigate the signal pathway involved in PAs-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results showed that clivorine, isolated from Ligularia hodgsonii Hook, decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in L-02 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Western-blot results showed that clivorine induced caspase-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL in a time (8-48 h)- and concentration (1-100 {mu}M)-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibitors of pan-caspase, caspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly inhibited clivorine-induced apoptosis and rescued clivorine-decreased cell viability. Polyubiquitination of Bcl-xL was detected after incubation with 100 {mu}M clivorine for 40 h in the presence of proteasome specific inhibitor MG132, indicating possible degradation of Bcl-xL protein. Furthermore, pretreatment with MG132 or calpain inhibitor I for 2 h significantly enhanced clivorine-decreased Bcl-xL level and cell viability. All the other tested PAs such as senecionine, isoline and monocrotaline decreased mouse hepatocytes viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Clivorine (10 {mu}M) induced caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL was also confirmed in mouse hepatocytes. Meanwhile, another PA senecionine isolated from Senecio vulgaris L also induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activation and decreased Bcl-xL in mouse hepatocytes. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAs may share the same hepatotoxic signal pathway, which involves degradation of Bcl-xL protein and thus leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.

  10. Investigation of targeted pyrrolizidine alkaloids in traditional Chinese medicines and selected herbal teas sourced in Ireland using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Caroline T; Gosetto, Francesca; Danaher, Martin; Sabatini, Stefano; Furey, Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Publications linking hepatotoxicity to the use of herbal preparations are escalating. Herbal teas, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and dietary supplements have been shown to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). Acute PA toxicosis of the liver can result in sinusoidal-obstruction syndrome, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD). This paper describes a sensitive and robust method for the detection of targeted PAs and their N-oxides (PANOs) in herbal products (selected herbal teas and TCMs) sourced within Ireland. The sample preparation includes a simple acidic extraction with clean-up via solid-phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were accurately analysed by using LC-ESI-MS/MS applying for the first time a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) core-shell column to the chromatographic separation of PAs and PANOs. The method was validated for selectivity, taking into consideration matrix effects, specificity, linearity, precision and trueness. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were quantified for all PAs and PANOs ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 µg kg⁻¹ and from 1.3 to 6.3 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. In this study 10 PAs and four PANOs were targeted because they are commercially available as reference standards. Therefore, this study can only report the levels of these PAs and PANOs analysed in the herbal teas and TCMs. The results reported represent the minimum levels of PAs and PANOs present in the samples analysed; commercially available herbal teas (n = 18) and TCMs (n = 54). A total of 50% herbal teas and 78% Chinese medicines tested positive for one or more PAs and/or PANOs included within this study, ranging from 10 to 1733 and from 13 to 3668 µg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  11. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  12. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  13. Comparison of the anti-inflammatory active constituents and hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Senecio plants and their preparations by LC-UV and LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pinghong; Wang, Yi; Chen, Lulin; Jiang, Wei; Niu, Yan; Shao, Qing; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Quancheng; Yan, Licheng; Wang, Shufang

    2015-11-10

    Two Senecio plants, Senecio cannabifolius Less. and its variety S. cannabifolius Less. var. integrifolius (Kiodz.) Kidam., were both used as the raw material of Feining granule, a traditional Chinese medicine product for treating respiratory diseases. In this study, the chemical profiles of these two plants were investigated and compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). A total number of 83 constituents, including 55 organic acids, 11 flavonoids, 4 alkaloids, 3 terpenes and 10 other types of compounds, were characterized. The results indicated that the levels of most flavonoids were higher in S. cannabifolius than in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, however, the levels of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were higher in S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in S. cannabifolius. Fifteen constituents were evaluated on lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced RAW 264.7 cells, and eleven of them showed inhibition effect against nitric oxide (NO) production. Finally, the levels of ten major constituents (including seven anti-inflammatory active ones) and two PAs in Feining granule from two Senecio plants were determined and compared by the LC-UV and LC-MS methods, respectively. It was found that one organic acid (homogentisic acid) and two PAs (seneciphylline and senecionine) had higher contents in the preparation of S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius than in that of S. cannabifolius, however, the situations were inverse for the levels of four organic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and isochlorogenic acid B). Based on the above results, S. cannabifolius might be a better raw material for Feining granule than S. cannabifolius var. integrifolius, because it contained more anti-inflammatory constituents and less hepatotoxic PAs than the latter. However, more pharmacological evaluations should be carried out to support the selection. The results in this study were helpful

  14. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  16. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  18. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  20. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  1. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  2. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  4. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  5. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  6. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  7. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  8. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  11. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  12. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  13. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  14. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  15. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  16. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  17. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  20. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. Relatively Selective Production of the Simplest Criegee Intermediate in a CH4/O2 Electric Discharge: Kinetic Analysis of a Plausible Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; McCarthy, Michael C; Stanton, John F

    2015-07-16

    High -accuracy coupled cluster methods in combination with microcanonical semiclassical transition state theory are used to investigate a plausible formation mechanism of the simplest Criegee intermediate in a CH4/O2 discharge experiment. Our results suggest that the Criegee intermediate is produced in a three-step process: (i) production of methyl radical by cleavage of a C-H bond of CH4; (ii) association of methyl radical with molecular oxygen to form a vibrationally excited methyl peroxy, which is in a rapid microequilibrium with the reactants; and finally, (iii) H-abstraction of CH3OO by O2, which results in the formation of cool CH2OO, which has insufficient internal energy to rearrange to dioxirane.

  3. Vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH{sub 2}OO) from full-dimensional Lanczos, MCTDH, and MULTIMODE calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Gen E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Ndengue, Steve; Dawes, Richard E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua E-mail: dawesr@mst.edu

    2015-08-28

    Accurate vibrational energy levels of the simplest Criegee intermediate (CH{sub 2}OO) were determined on a recently developed ab initio based nine-dimensional potential energy surface using three quantum mechanical methods. The first is the iterative Lanczos method using a conventional basis expansion with an exact Hamiltonian. The second and more efficient method is the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method in which the potential energy surface is refit to conform to the sums-of-products requirement of MCTDH. Finally, the energy levels were computed with a vibrational self-consistent field/virtual configuration interaction method in MULTIMODE. The low-lying levels obtained from the three methods are found to be within a few wave numbers of each other, although some larger discrepancies exist at higher levels. The calculated vibrational levels are very well represented by an anharmonic effective Hamiltonian.

  4. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  5. Alcohol and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hufford, M R

    2001-07-01

    Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.

  6. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A

    1985-12-01

    Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.

  7. Effective application of freezing lipid precipitation and SCX-SPE for determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in high lipid foodstuffs by LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soo Hwan; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Hyun Mee; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Yong Moon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Hong, Jongki

    2015-06-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are naturally occurring plant toxins associated with serious hepatic disease in humans and animals. In this study, rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of 9 toxic PAs in popularly high lipid foodstuffs by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PAs in lipid foodstuff were effectively purified by freezing lipid precipitation (FLP) and strong cation exchange (SCX)-solid-phase extraction (SPE). Especially, FLP could easily remove the large amounts of triacylglycerols in the lipid sample extract and effectively combine with SPE cleanup. During the FLP procedure, over 77% of the lipids in the foodstuff extracts were rapidly eliminated without any significant loss of the PAs with over 81% recovery. The elimination efficiency of lipids by FLP was tested with LC-atmospheric chemical ionization (APCI)-MS. For further purification, SCX-SPE cartridge could successfully purify PAs from the remaining interfering substances by the variation pH with 5% NH4OH in methanol. For precise quantification and confirmation of PAs in complicate sample matrices, appropriate transition ions in LC-MS/MS-multiple-ion reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were selected on the basis of MS/MS fragmentation pathways of PAs. The established analytical method was validated in terms of the linearity, limits of detection (LOD), and quantification (LOQ), precision, and accuracy. The method was deemed satisfactory by inter- and intra-day validation and exhibited both high accuracy and precision (relative standard deviation<11.06%). Overall limits of detection and quantitation of PAs were approximately 0.06-0.60ng/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 and were about 0.20-1.99ng/mL at a S/N of 10 for all foodstuffs. The established method was successfully applied for the monitoring of toxic PAs in several types of high lipid foodstuffs such as soybeans, seed oil, milk, and margarine.

  8. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  9. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  10. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  11. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  12. Alcohol use and menopause.

    PubMed

    Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2016-04-01

    Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.

  13. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  15. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.


Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

  17. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  18. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  19. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...

  20. The simplest model of jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvio; Parisi, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We study a well known neural network model—the perceptron—as a simple statistical physics model of jamming of hard objects. We exhibit two regimes: (1) a convex optimization regime where jamming is hypostatic and non-critical; (2) a non-convex optimization regime where jamming is isostatic and critical. We characterize the critical jamming phase through exponents describing the distribution laws of forces and gaps. Surprisingly we find that these exponents coincide with the corresponding ones recently computed in high dimensional hard spheres. In addition, modifying the perceptron to a random linear programming problem, we show that isostaticity is not a sufficient condition for singular force and gap distributions. For that, fragmentation of the space of solutions (replica symmetry breaking) appears to be a crucial ingredient. We hypothesize universality for a large class of non-convex constrained satisfaction problems with continuous variables.

  1. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  2. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  3. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  6. Alcoholism in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutzell, Sture

    1994-01-01

    Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…

  7. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...

  8. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  9. Homocysteine and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J

    2000-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.

  10. Alcoholic hepatitis: current management.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.

  11. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  12. Influence of silicon defects on the adsorption of thiophene-like compounds on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a theoretical study using thiophene + coronene as the simplest model.

    PubMed

    Galano, Annia

    2007-03-08

    Physisorption and chemisorption processes of thiophene on coronene and 2Si-coronene have been studied using density functional theory and MP2 methods. These systems have been chosen as the simplest models to describe the adsorption of thiophene-like compounds on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The calculated data suggest that the presence of silicon atoms in PAHs could favor their interaction with thiophene and similar compounds. Small stabilization energies have been found for several physisorbed complexes. The thiophene chemisorption on coronene seems very unlikely to occur, while that on 2Si-coronene leads to addition products which are very stable, with respect to the isolated reactants. These chemisorption processes were found to be exoergic (DeltaG < 0) in the gas phase and in the nonpolar liquid phase. The results reported in this work suggest that silicon defects on extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as graphite, soot, and large-diameter carbon nanotubes, could make them useful in the removal processes of aromatic sulfur compounds from oil hydrocarbons.

  13. Infrared spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm-1 and new assignments of bands 2ν9 and ν5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-06-01

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO is important in atmospheric chemistry. It has been detected in the reaction of CH2I + O2 with various spectral methods, including infrared spectroscopy; infrared absorption of CH2OO was recorded at resolution 1.0 cm-1 in our laboratory. We have improved our system and recorded the infrared spectrum of CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm-1 with rotational structures partially resolved. Observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities are improved from those of the previous report and agree well with those predicted with quantum-mechanical calculations using the MULTIMODE method on an accurate potential energy surface. Observed rotational structures also agree with the simulated spectra according to theoretical predictions. In addition to derivation of critical vibrational and rotational parameters of the vibrationally excited states to confirm the assignments, the spectrum with improved resolution provides new assignments for bands 2ν9 at 1234.2 cm-1 and ν5 at 1213.3 cm-1; some hot bands and combination bands are also tentatively assigned.

  14. Infrared spectrum of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm(-1) and new assignments of bands 2ν9 and ν5.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Li, Jun; Guo, Hua; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-06-07

    The simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO is important in atmospheric chemistry. It has been detected in the reaction of CH2I + O2 with various spectral methods, including infrared spectroscopy; infrared absorption of CH2OO was recorded at resolution 1.0 cm(-1) in our laboratory. We have improved our system and recorded the infrared spectrum of CH2OO at resolution 0.25 cm(-1) with rotational structures partially resolved. Observed vibrational wavenumbers and relative intensities are improved from those of the previous report and agree well with those predicted with quantum-mechanical calculations using the MULTIMODE method on an accurate potential energy surface. Observed rotational structures also agree with the simulated spectra according to theoretical predictions. In addition to derivation of critical vibrational and rotational parameters of the vibrationally excited states to confirm the assignments, the spectrum with improved resolution provides new assignments for bands 2ν9 at 1234.2 cm(-1) and ν5 at 1213.3 cm(-1); some hot bands and combination bands are also tentatively assigned.

  15. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  17. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  18. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  19. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  1. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  2. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  4. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  6. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... relate to alcohol use. 1 Racial and Ethnic Minority Stress Stress also can arise as a result of a person’s minority status, especially as it pertains to prejudice and discrimination. Such stress may range from mild (e.g., hassles such ...

  7. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  9. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  10. Alcohol-related symptoms in heterogeneous families of hospitalized alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1988-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.

  11. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  12. Detailed mechanism of the CH2I + O2 reaction: Yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2014-09-01

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ˜30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  13. Detailed mechanism of the CH₂I + O₂ reaction: yield and self-reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH₂OO.

    PubMed

    Ting, Wei-Lun; Chang, Chun-Hung; Lee, Yu-Fang; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2014-09-14

    The application of a new reaction scheme using CH2I + O2 to generate the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, has stimulated lively research; the Criegee intermediates are extremely important in atmospheric chemistry. The detailed mechanism of CH2I + O2 is hence important in understanding kinetics involving CH2OO. We employed ultraviolet absorption to probe simultaneously CH2I2, CH2OO, CH2I, and IO in the reaction system of CH2I + O2 upon photolysis at 248 nm of a flowing mixture of CH2I2, O2, and N2 (or SF6) in the pressure range 7.6-779 Torr to investigate the reaction kinetics. With a detailed mechanism to model the observed temporal profiles of CH2I, CH2OO, and IO, we found that various channels of the reaction CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I play important roles; an additional decomposition channel of CH2I + O2 to form products other than CH2OO or ICH2OO becomes important at pressure less than 60 Torr. The pressure dependence of the derived rate coefficients of various channels of reactions of CH2I + O2 and CH2OO + I has been determined. We derived a rate coefficient also for the self-reaction of CH2OO as k = (8 ± 4) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 295 K. The yield of CH2OO from CH2I + O2 was found to have a pressure dependence on N2 and O2 smaller than in previous reports; for air under 1 atm, the yield of ~30% is about twice of previous estimates.

  14. Direct experimental probing and theoretical analysis of the reaction between the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO and isoprene

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Z. C. J.; Au, K.; Vereecken, L.; Sheps, L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the spectroscopy of Criegee intermediates (CI) have enabled direct kinetic studies of these highly reactive chemical species. The impact of CI chemistry is currently being incorporated into atmospheric models, including their reactions with trace organic and inorganic compounds. Isoprene, C5H8, is a doubly-unsaturated hydrocarbon that accounts for the largest share of all biogenic emissions around the globe and is also a building block of larger volatile organic compounds. We report direct measurements of the reaction of the simplest CI (CH2OO) with isoprene, using time-resolved cavity-enhanced UV absorption spectroscopy. We find the reaction to be pressure-independent between 15–100 Torr, with a rate coefficient that varies from (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at room temperature to (23 ± 2) × 10–15 cm3 molecule–1 s–1 at 540 K. Quantum chemical and transition-state theory calculations of 16 unique channels for CH2OO + isoprene somewhat underpredict the observed T-dependence of the total reaction rate coefficient, but are overall in good agreement with the experimental measurements. Finally, this reaction is broadly similar to those with smaller alkenes, proceeding by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to one of the two conjugated double bonds of isoprene.

  15. Testing five of the simplest upper mantle anisotropic velocity parameterizations using teleseismic S and SKS data from the Billings, Montana PASSCAL array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; Dueker, Ken; Schutt, Derek L.

    2008-03-01

    Five of the simplest parameterizations of upper mantle anisotropy are tested and ranked for a data set collected on a dense temporary PASSCAL seismic array located 100-km NE of Yellowstone. These hexagonal symmetry anisotropy models possess either one or two layers with either flat or dipping fast velocity axis (FVA). Recordings from fifteen high quality direct-S and SKS arrivals are stacked to provide accurate waveform and error estimates. Source normalization is accomplished using the cross-convolution technique. A direct Monte Carlo Neighborhood Algorithm is used to map the posteriori model probability density (PPD) volume. Using the F test, we find that models with purely flat FVA can be rejected at >97% probability. Our best model (P5) is a two layer dipping FVA parameterization, albeit the two layer model with one flat and one dipping FVA can only be rejected at 80% probability. The best model has a lower layer with a N65°E FVA strike and a -12° dip (down to the southwest), and an upper layer with a N20°W FVA strike and a -47° FVA dip (down to the southeast). The bottom asthenospheric layer FVA strikes parallel to North America's absolute plate motion direction and dips opposite to what passive plate shear of the asthenosphere would predict. The upper lithospheric layer is consistent with LPO accretion associated with north directed drift of the North American plate during the Mesozoic. Comparison between the SKS-and direct S-wave data sets shows that the direct S waves improve resolution of the double layer anisotropic model parameters.

  16. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  17. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  19. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...

  20. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  1. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15201626 . Definitions Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUD is a medical ... or more days in the past month. NIAAA’s Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing AUD: ...

  2. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  4. Alcohol Use Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...

  5. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?

  6. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  7. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■󈧒:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution

  8. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  9. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.

  10. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  11. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  12. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  13. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  14. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  15. Etiologic heterogeneity in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R

    1987-01-01

    Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the

  16. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  17. Alcohol expectancies, alcohol use, and hostility as longitudinal predictors of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2012-09-01

    The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.

  18. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.

  19. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  20. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  1. Stress, epigenetics, and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.

  2. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  3. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  4. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  7. Alcohol fuels for aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Schauffler, P.

    1982-06-01

    The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.

  8. [Alcohol and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B

    1988-10-01

    Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.

  9. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  10. [Does acamprosate diminish the appetite for alcohol in weaned alcoholics?].

    PubMed

    Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M

    1996-01-01

    A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.

  11. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J

    1990-01-01

    There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.

  12. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  13. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  14. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  15. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  16. Experimental alcohol blastopathy.

    PubMed

    Sandor, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated

  17. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10485 - Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...

  3. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow ...

  4. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem, don't blame yourself. continue How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? If you live with a parent ... needs to get help from a treatment center. Alcoholism affects family members just as much as it ...

  5. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  6. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  7. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    MedlinePlus

    ... crashes, other injuries, high blood pressure, stroke, violence, suicide, and certain types of cancer. What is a ... than those of male alcoholics, including deaths from suicides, alcohol-related accidents, heart disease and stroke, and ...

  8. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  9. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cloninger, C R

    1987-04-24

    Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.

  10. Comparison of metabolism-mediated effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a HepG2/C3A cell-S9 co-incubation system and quantification of their glutathione conjugates.

    PubMed

    Tamta, Hemlata; Pawar, Rahul S; Wamer, Wayne G; Grundel, Erich; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-10-01

    1. Toxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) largely depends on their metabolic activation by hepatic enzymes, including cytochrome P450s, to become chemically reactive pyrrolic derivatives. These then spontaneously release the esterifying acids to generate carbonium ions that form covalent adducts with cellular nucleophiles to exhibit toxicity. 2. In our investigation, metabolism-mediated toxicity of monocrotaline, retrorsine, lycopsamine, echimidine (retronecine-type PAs), heliotrine (a heliotridine-type PA) and senkirkine (an otonecine-type PA) was studied using an in vitro co-incubation assay. 3. Human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2/C3A) cells were incubated with PAs in the presence and absence of rat liver S9 fraction and the toxicity was assessed as lowered mitochondrial activity. 4. Bioactivation potential was measured by incubating PAs with rat liver S9 fraction, NADPH and GSH in a cell free system. Pyrrolic metabolites generated were entrapped as glutathione conjugates (7-GSH-DHP and 7,9-di-GSHDHP) which were quantified using LC-MS-MS analysis. 5. Our results indicated that PAs were metabolized by rat liver S9 fraction into reactive pyrrolic derivatives which were toxic to HepG2/C3A cells. This approach can be used to determine and compare bioactivation potential and metabolism-mediated toxicity of various PAs.

  11. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  12. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  13. African-Americans and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…

  14. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  15. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  16. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  17. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  18. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  19. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....

  20. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...

  1. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  2. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  3. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  4. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  5. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  6. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  8. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  9. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  10. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  11. Targeting Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-duty service members reported binge drinking, a rate that compares unfavorably with that of their civilian counterparts. DoD has invested considerable resources in universal sexual assault prevention programs and social media campaigns, but evaluation results are not yet available, and the effectiveness of these programs is unclear. Research on civilian populations—particularly college students, who share some characteristics with junior enlisted personnel—could provide insights for DoD. For example, the research indicates a connection between alcohol and aggression, including sexual aggression. Alcohol can also have a range of effects on the risk of victimization—from a reduced awareness of risk indicators to incapacitation or unconsciousness. An extensive review of the existing research provides some guidance for how DoD can implement and evaluate efforts to reduce alcohol misuse as part of a larger strategy to reduce the incidence of sexual assault among members of the armed forces. PMID:28083353

  12. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  13. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  14. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  15. Systems Genetics of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Sayarath, Vicki; Moore, Jason H.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual’s entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes1) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene–gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions. PMID:23584748

  16. Loneliness and Adolescent Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1988-01-01

    Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)

  17. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  19. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  20. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  1. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  2. Alcohol Can Be a Risky Guest At Holiday Parties

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services. More Health News on: Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  3. Alcohol Use: If You Drink, Keep It Moderate

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...

  4. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  5. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  6. Gasoline from alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, C. R.; Warner, J. P.; Yurchak, S.

    1981-03-01

    This paper discusses laboratory and vehicle performance test results obtained from gasoline produced by the Mobil methanol conversion process. Antiknock qualities, driveability performance, exhaust emission levels, plus other in-car and laboratory characterization tests show the gasoline to compare very favorably with conventional petroleum derived high-octane unleaded gasolines. The methanol conversion process, and its advantages relative to the blending of alcohol-containing fuels, also is discussed briefly.

  7. Alcoholic parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Mandel, L; Hamele-Bena, D

    1997-10-01

    Alcoholism is a primary cause of sialadenosis, which is an asymptomatic, bilateral enlargement of the parotid glands. The authors outline the pathogenesis, symptoms and testing involved in diagnosing sialadenosis. Recognizing sialadenosis is important because it may point to the unsuspected presence of underlying systemic disease. Therefore, dental practitioners need to be able to differentiate sialadenosis from an inflammatory or neoplastic process to prevent unnecessary treatment.

  8. Methadone and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Freedman, L Z

    1976-01-01

    We have demonstrated the dangers of alcoholism that complicate methadone treatment of heroin addiction. In future papers, we will attempt to identify contributory factors and suggest interventionist techniques. In the final analysis, however, rehabilitation programs, vocational programs, and, above all, alleviation of the dreadful socioeconomic deprivations related to, among other factors, the racial bias under which most of these people have been born and have suffered during their lives will, in the long run, prove the most satisfactory means of reducing the heroin problem, except for a minority whose psychologic problems will then provide the irreducible minimum from which the majority of the addicts will come. As has so often been stated, the great drug problem in this country is alcoholism. We know that legal prohibition does not prevent the rise of alcoholism, and we know to our sorrow that not only does it give rise to enormous wealth and power to criminals and criminal gangs but that some of them are now also profiting from the great wealth to be made by dealing in heroin.

  9. Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (i.e., the age-group between 16 and 20 years) is characterized by significant changes in neurological and cognitive processes, behavioral and social functioning, and relational and physical contexts as the individual moves toward adulthood. In this age-group, major role transitions affect almost every aspect of life. Moreover, brain development continues—and with it the development of cognitive functions, working memory, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and decisionmaking. The adolescent’s social and emotional development also continues to evolve, affecting interactions with parents, siblings, peers, and first romantic relationships. All of these changes impact drinking behavior during late adolescence, and, in fact, alcohol use, binge drinking, and heavy drinking are particularly prevalent in youth ages 16–20. Determining the common trajectories of drinking behavior in this age–group is important for understanding how adolescent alcohol use helps shape adult outcomes and for identifying risk and protective factors. It also is important to study the short- and long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol use and abuse, including alcohol’s effects on the developing adolescent brain and accomplishment of important developmental tasks of this age. PMID:23104446

  10. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  11. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  12. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  13. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  14. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  15. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  16. The Epigenetic Landscape of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harish R.; Sakharkar, Amul J.; Teppen, Tara L.; Berkel, Tiffani D.M.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure, but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, holds great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism. PMID:25131543

  17. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  18. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 59406

  19. Radicals and molecular products from the gas-phase pyrolysis of lignin model compounds. Cinnamyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Xu, Meng-xia; Wu, Ang-jian; Pechagin, Mikhail; Asatryan, Rubik

    2016-01-01

    The experimental results on detection and identification of intermediate radicals and molecular products from gas-phase pyrolysis of cinnamyl alcohol (CnA), the simplest non-phenolic lignin model compound, over the temperature range of 400–800 °C are reported. The low temperature matrix isolation – electron paramagnetic resonance (LTMI-EPR) experiments along with the theoretical calculations, provided evidences on the generation of the intermediate carbon and oxygen centered as well as oxygen-linked, conjugated radicals. A mechanistic analysis is performed based on density functional theory to explain formation of the major products from CnA pyrolysis; cinnamaldehyde, indene, styrene, benzaldehyde, 1-propynyl benzene, and 2-propenyl benzene. The evaluated bond dissociation patterns and unimolecular decomposition pathways involve dehydrogenation, dehydration, 1,3-sigmatropic H-migration, 1,2-hydrogen shift, C—O and C—C bond cleavage processes. PMID:28344372

  20. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  1. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the

  2. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content....

  3. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  4. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  5. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  6. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  7. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  8. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  9. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  10. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  11. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  12. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  13. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. [Assessment of problematic alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Rumpf, H-J; Bischof, G; Freyer-Adam, J; Coder, B

    2009-11-01

    An overview with respect to the identification of patients with risky drinking, alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence is given. As a first step, a simple screening questionnaire should be used. Self-statements in standardized questionnaires are more valid than standard laboratory markers. A useful instrument is for example BASIC. In screening positive patients, an in-depth diagnosis is necessary and helps to distinguish between different forms of problematic alcohol use. Depending on the severity of the alcohol problem, brochures, internet-programs, counselling or referral to treatment services is helpful.

  15. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    PubMed Central

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical features help to establish an alcoholic etiology. These features and the use of liver biopsy are discussed, and a practical guideline for diagnosis and follow-up is offered. PMID:21267299

  16. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975–2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  17. Alcohol, athletic performance and recovery.

    PubMed

    Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  18. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.

  19. Alcohol Control and Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Cuellar, Alison; Conrad, Ryan M.; Grossman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parental alcohol consumption is often associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse. As consumption is related to price, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the propensity for increases in the full price of alcohol to influence entry rates and the length of time spent in foster care. Using alcoholic beverage prices and a measure of availability in combination with data on foster care cases, we find that higher alcohol prices are not effective in reducing foster care entry rates; however, once in foster care, the duration of stay may be shortened by higher prices and reduced availability. PMID:25506296

  20. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  1. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  2. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  3. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  5. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  6. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  7. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  9. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  10. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  11. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of...

  12. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  14. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD...

  15. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  16. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081, Rockville,...

  17. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  18. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  19. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., PhD Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  20. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  1. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review...

  2. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance...

  3. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301- 443-6076....

  4. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  5. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  6. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  7. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  8. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  9. 77 FR 47654 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism..., National Institute of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  10. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes Of Health, National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane,...

  11. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  12. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861....

  13. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  14. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  15. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  17. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD...

  18. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  19. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  20. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017,...

  1. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852,...

  2. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  4. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 12-13, 2013. Closed: June 12, 2013. Time: 5:00 p.m. to 7:30...

  5. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-6076....

  6. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room...

  7. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville,...

  8. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda,...

  9. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Alcohol Research ] Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  10. Harmful alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Gmel, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol misuse can harm people other than the drinker, and can have negative consequences for society as a whole. It is commonly believed to play a role in decreased worker productivity, increased unintentional injuries, aggression and violence against others, and child and spouse abuse. Research findings support the idea that drinking is involved in or associated with many of these social harms, but do not offer evidence that it causes these effects. Methodological flaws characterize much of the research in this area. Use of better design and statistical methodology is necessary in order to clarify the relationship between drinking and the harmful consequences it is believed to cause.

  11. NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASES OF ALCOHOL ADDICTION.

    PubMed

    Matošić, Ana; Marušić, Srđan; Vidrih, Branka; Kovak-Mufić, Ana; Cicin-Šain, Lipa

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol addiction is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder according to both phenotype and etiology. Difference in phenotype characteristics manifests in the manner the addiction arises, history of the alcoholic and history of drinking, comorbid disorders, and the phenomenon of abstinence difficulties. Concerning the etiology of alcoholism, the disease itself is considered to be a consequence of an interactive influence of the environment and genetic factors. Numerous researches conducted in the last decades discovered many aspects of the biochemical, cell and molecular bases of alcohol addiction, leading to a conclusion that alcoholism is, like many other addictions, a brain disease. By recognizing alcoholism as a disease which basically implies changes of the neurobiological mechanisms, as well as a clear genetic basis, it was supposed that the disease, having its basis solely in the symptomatology, is essentially heterogeneous. By trying to solve the problem of a clinically heterogeneous nature of the disease during the last fifty years, various sub-classifications of such patients have been suggested. According to Cloninger, subtypes of alcoholism differ also according to changes in the brain neurotransmission systems, i.e. it is supposed that patients suffering from alcoholism type 1 have a more pronounced dopaminergic transmission deficit, while dopaminergic transmission is not disturbed significantly in patients diagnosed with alcoholism type 2, who, however, have a significant lack of serotonergic transmission. In such a way, Cloninger actually presented the basis of the so-called neurobiological alcoholism model. Since he has connected differences in neurotransmission with differences in personality characteristics, this model is also known as the psychobiological model of alcoholism. The characteristic of alcoholism type 1 is avoiding damage (Harm Avoidance, HA) decreased dopamine transmission and increased serotonin transmission, while the significant

  12. Health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol expectancies are developed, in part, through exposure to health messages, the understanding of which may be influenced by health literacy. This study explores the relationships among health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens. Methods We studied alcohol use behaviors in the past six months in youths aged 14–19 recruited from two adolescent medicine clinics. We assessed covariate-adjusted bivariate relationships between HL, expectancies, and four measures of alcohol use and tested health literacy as a moderator of the relationship between expectancies and use. Results Of the 293 study teens, 45 percent reported use of alcohol in the past six months. Use behaviors were positively associated with higher health literacy and positive expectancies. Our moderation model suggested that health literacy moderates the relationship between expectancies and use, with the expectancy/use relationship being significantly stronger in higher literacy teens. Conclusion Findings suggest that health literacy can influence alcohol expectancies and behaviors. Practice implications: Health literacy should be explicitly considered in the design of alcohol prevention messages. PMID:25085549

  13. Children of Alcoholics: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials for professionals working with children of alcoholics. The information is divided into four sections: (1) prevention materials that include coping with an alcoholic or drug-abusing parent, kids talking to kids, and networking; (2) curricula including learning to live drug free, and resources for the…

  14. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  15. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  16. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  17. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Other Psychiatric Disorders In this Section ...

  18. Alcoholism and the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    PubMed

    Freed, E X

    1979-07-01

    Research with the Bender-Gestalt Test and alcoholism has focused on possible organic deficits in alcoholics and elucidation of hypothesized alcoholic personality characteristics. The evidence for both is equivocal.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol ... 000 children worldwide are born each year with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a new report finds. The syndrome refers ...

  20. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... spectrum disorders are completely preventable. Problem Alcohol can harm a developing baby before a woman knows she ... aware that any level of alcohol use could harm their baby. All types of alcohol can be ...

  2. Alcohol and the Brain: Neuropsychological Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Igor

    1987-01-01

    Considers neuropsychological changes associated with alcohol abuse and touches on related neuropathological and neuroradiological research. Describes neuropsychological research on recently detoxified alcoholic men, long-term abstainers, and animals. Sources of neuropsychological variability including family history of alcoholism, developmental…

  3. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  4. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too much alcohol might forget things that happened when they were ...

  5. An Involuntary Therapeutic Group for Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, David F.; Beck, Terrence

    1984-01-01

    Describes a therapy program for student alcohol abusers conducted by an alcohol treatment specialist. Describes objectives and content of the eight sessions. Follow-up data on the Alcohol Intervention Program suggest it can have positive results. (JAC)

  6. Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Swahn, Monica H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states’ alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Methods We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0–100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization. Results Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84–0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions. Conclusions Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship. PMID:26469950

  7. Characteristics of Male Alcohol Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Katharine G.; Ellis, Thomas E.

    Because most studies investigating psychological profiles of subjects convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) have been conducted at the time of arrest or treatment, it is unclear whether subjects' anxiety, depression, and hostility represent "trait" characteristics central to alcohol abuse or "state"…

  8. The Aging and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jacob A.

    Demographic data suggest that alcohol abuse among the elderly will increase in proportion to the population growth of that group. Four factors which may cause the elderly to be a highly susceptible group for alcohol problems are: (1) retirement and its boredom, role changes, and financial problems; (2) increased concern with death and losses of…

  9. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  10. Supporting Adolescent Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emshoff, James; Valentine, Leanne

    2006-01-01

    While some children may experience negative consequences as the result of growing up with an alcoholic parent, the majority will never develop any difficulties. This article examines how adolescent children of alcoholics can be supported by using positive, strengths-based approaches which focus on existing skills and abilities, rather than…

  11. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... also use other drugs. Despite what happens, most children of alcoholics love their parents and worry about something bad happening to them. ... there are lots of support groups to help children of alcoholics cope with the problem. What If a Parent Doesn't See a Problem? Drinking too much ...

  12. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  13. Alcohol, signaling, and ECM turnover.

    PubMed

    Seth, Devanshi; D'Souza El-Guindy, Nympha B; Apte, Minoti; Mari, Montserrat; Dooley, Steven; Neuman, Manuela; Haber, Paul S; Kundu, Gopal C; Darwanto, Agus; de Villiers, Willem J; Vonlaufen, A; Xu, Z; Phillips, P; Yang, S; Goldstein, D; Pirola, R M; Wilson, J S; Moles, Anna; Fernández, Anna; Colell, Anna; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C; Meyer, Christoph; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is recognized as a direct hepatotoxin, but the precise molecular pathways that are important for the initiation and progression of alcohol-induced tissue injury are not completely understood. The current understanding of alcohol toxicity to organs suggests that alcohol initiates injury by generation of oxidative and nonoxidative ethanol metabolites and via translocation of gut-derived endotoxin. These processes lead to cellular injury and stimulation of the inflammatory responses mediated through a variety of molecules. With continuing alcohol abuse, the injury progresses through impairment of tissue regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover, leading to fibrogenesis and cirrhosis. Several cell types are involved in this process, the predominant being stellate cells, macrophages, and parenchymal cells. In response to alcohol, growth factors and cytokines activate many signaling cascades that regulate fibrogenesis. This mini-review brings together research focusing on the underlying mechanisms of alcohol-mediated injury in a number of organs. It highlights the various processes and molecules that are likely involved in inflammation, immune modulation, susceptibility to infection, ECM turnover and fibrogenesis in the liver, pancreas, and lung triggered by alcohol abuse.

  14. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  15. Children of Alcoholics/Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    The purpose of this booklet is to raise the awareness of teachers and other school personnel about the needs and characteristics of the children of alcoholics and addicts and to explain what schools can do to help. The booklet discusses: (1) risk factors for children of alcoholics and substance abusers, including the psychological, emotional, and…

  16. Training Alcoholism Trainers. Participant Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This workbook is to be used in conjunction with the Trainer Manual entitled Training Alcoholism Trainers. The program was developed to upgrade training design and delivery skills of inservice trainers in the field of alcoholism. The workbook contains all the handout sheets necessary for participant sessions. (Author/BMW)

  17. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  18. Gender Commitment and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Categorized 179 college students as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Found gender orientations related to overall quantity-frequency index of alcohol consumption and beverage type. Androgynous respondents consumed less total alcohol than other groups; undifferentiated subjects drank more than feminine or androgynous subjects;…

  19. Alcoholic Women on Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sandra C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined women (N=20) who were receiving alcoholism treatment in the skid-row area of Portland, Oregon. Women had histories of problem drinking and extensive treatment for alcoholism. Most had been married and had children. Despite transiency, the majority maintained contact with friends and relatives. Compared these women to New York City's…

  20. Coping within the Alcoholic Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Joseph F.

    This book considers the dynamics and characteristics of the alcoholic family. The first part examines the alcoholic family. Needs such as security, love, and self-esteem, and defenses such as denial, rationalization, projection, regression, fantasy, displacement, and avoidance are discussed. Common denominators in the personalities of enablers…

  1. Children of Alcoholics: School Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Judith A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the influences of parental alcoholism on children's daily lives, generally, and learning problems, absenteeism, and adjustment problems, specifically. Suggests that schools are one of the most promising settings for identifying and intervening with children of alcoholics as a target group. (DST)

  2. Alcohol-Sensitive Generalized Dystonia.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Federico; Uribe-Roca, Claudia; Saenz-Farret, Michel

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient with a generalized and progressive dystonia that led him unable to stand. Multiple antidystonic treatments were tried without benefit. Alcohol test was positive with a dramatic improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of generalized dystonia without other clinical manifestations sensitive to alcohol.

  3. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  4. Handbook for the Alcoholism Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Health Dept., MD. Alcoholism Center.

    Beginning in 1963, concerned people in the city of Baltimore began to hold workshops and seminars dealing with the problems of alcoholism. Their main emphasis was on an educational program which would make accurate information about alcoholism and its treatment available to the general public. This led to a National Institute of Mental Health…

  5. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  6. Alcohol breeds empty goal commitments.

    PubMed

    Sevincer, A Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    According to alcohol-myopia theory (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990), alcohol leads individuals to disproportionally focus on the most salient aspects of a situation and to ignore peripheral information. The authors hypothesized that alcohol leads individuals to strongly commit to their goals without considering information about the probability of goal attainment. In Study 1, participants named their most important interpersonal goal, indicated their expectations of successfully attaining it, and then consumed either alcohol or a placebo. In contrast to participants who consumed a placebo, intoxicated participants felt strongly committed to their goals despite low expectations of attaining them. In Study 2, goal-directed actions were measured over time. Once sober again, intoxicated participants with low expectations did not follow up on their strong commitments. Apparently, when prospects are bleak, alcohol produces empty goal commitments, as commitments are not based on individuals' expectations of attaining their goals and do not foster goal striving over time.

  7. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol.

  8. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  9. Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Alcoholism and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dominic T.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Stanton, Mark E.; Desmond, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder that can take a significant toll on health and professional and personal relationships. Excessive alcohol consumption can have a serious impact on both drinkers and developing fetuses, leading to long-term learning impairments. Decades of research in laboratory animals and humans have demonstrated the value of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) as a well-characterized model system to study the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Behavioral EBC studies in adults with alcohol use disorders and in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders report a clear learning deficit in these two patient populations, suggesting alcohol-related damage to the cerebellum and associated structures. Insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these learning impairments has largely stemmed from laboratory animal studies. In this mini-review, we present and discuss exemplary animal findings and data from patient and neuroimaging studies. An improved understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying learning deficits in EBC related to alcoholism and prenatal alcohol exposure has the potential to advance the diagnoses, treatment, and prevention of these and other pediatric and adult disorders. PMID:26578987

  10. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  11. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. II. Studies in alcoholic families

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Hampe, C.L.; Parsian, A.; Cloninger, C.R.

    1995-10-09

    Thirty-five alcoholic families have been studied to investigate the relationship between DNA markers at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) loci and (1) platelet activity levels and (2) alcoholism. A quantitative linkage analysis failed to reveal any evidence that the variation in activity levels cosegregates with the DNA markers. A sib-pair analysis did not reveal a significant excess of MAO haplotype sharing among alcoholic sibs, although the deviation from random sharing was in the direction consistent with an X-linked component. A reanalysis of platelet MAO activity levels in a subset of these families revealed that the lower levels previously found in alcoholics is more likely due to the differences between males and females. Only among males and only when a {open_quotes}broad{close_quotes} definition of alcoholism is used (and MAO activity levels are transformed to normality) does it appear that alcoholics have depressed activities compared to nonalcoholics. Finally, when the confounding due to gender difference is removed, no differences between type I and type II alcoholics are found in these families. 63 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Neuroendocrine, fluid balance, and thirst responses to alcohol in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Collins, G B; Brosnihan, K B; Zuti, R A; Messina, M; Gupta, M K

    1992-04-01

    This study simultaneously evaluated multiple circulating neurohormones, osmolality, thirst, and fluid balance in eight actively drinking, alcoholic males and seven controls before and 12 hr after an ethanol challenge. Basal levels of serum osmolality and thirst were significantly higher in alcoholics compared with controls, yet actively drinking alcoholics at the start of the study had normal vasopressin (AVP) levels, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II), plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone (Aldo), and plasma catecholamines. In response to ethanol, serum osmolalities rose significantly higher while plasma AVP levels became significantly suppressed in alcoholics. After the ethanol stimulus, plasma Ang II levels of alcoholics were significantly higher than those of controls at 11 AM (12.15 +/- 4.49 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.6 pg/ml, p less than 0.02) and 12 noon (14.93 +/- 6.81 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.17 pg/ml, p less than 0.04). Neither plasma renin activity nor Aldo changed in accordance with the elevated plasma Ang II in alcoholics. Diuresis in the alcoholics, assessed by the sum of urine output following the challenge dose, was significantly less than that of controls. Thirst scores and fluid intakes after the ethanol challenge did not differ between alcoholics and controls. The lack of an Ang II-mediated increase in plasma Aldo or thirst response suggests that ethanol may have a specific blunting effect on Ang II receptors. This study demonstrates that ethanol can be used as a provocative test in chronic alcoholics to uncover aberrant hormonal responses for two systems, namely, Ang II and AVP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource: Banking Tissues for Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Daunais, JB; Davenport, AT; Helms, CM; Gonzales, SW; Hemby, SE; Friedman, DP; Farro, JP; Baker, EJ; Grant, KA

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is co-morbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of EtOH and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. Methods The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates (NHPs), specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent/day) over long periods of time (12–30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the ethanol-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. Results The MATRR is a unique post-mortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer ethanol using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. Conclusions This resource provides a translational

  14. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  15. Images and realities of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sulkunen, P

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the relationship between the images of alcohol and society, on one hand, and the reality of drinking and drinking problems on the other hand, from the point of view of policy-relevant research. Images of alcohol influence policy but they also depend on the social and cultural environment of policy-making. The epidemiological total consumption theory of alcohol-related problems is used as an example. The theory is embedded in the modern welfare state's ideals and its policy relevance presupposes that these ideals--universalism, consequentialism and public planning--are respected. If the approach today receives less attention by policy-makers than its empirical validity merits, it may be due to an erosion of these ideals, not of the epidemiological model itself. Images of alcohol influence behaviour and drinking problems but they also articulate the social context in which the images are constructed. This paper demonstrates the point, applying Lévi-Straussian cultural theory to an analysis of a recent beer advertisement addressed to young people. The advertisement not only reflects the images associated with youthful drinking but also the ambiguous status of youth as non-adults in contemporary society. The author stresses that for social and cultural research alcohol is a two-way window, to look at society through alcohol and to look at alcohol through society. Both directions are necessary for policy-relevant research.

  16. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols.

  17. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  18. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  19. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  20. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.