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Sample records for simplex virus-mediated human

  1. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Palella, T D; Silverman, L J; Schroll, C T; Homa, F L; Levine, M; Kelley, W N

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  2. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  3. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Palella, T D; Silverman, L J; Schroll, C T; Homa, F L; Levine, M; Kelley, W N

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin. Images PMID:2827006

  4. Human herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Fatahzadeh, M; Schwartz, R A

    2007-11-01

    Humans are the natural host for eight of more than 80 known herpes viruses. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are ubiquitous worldwide and highly transmissible. Herpes simplex labialis (HSL) is the best-recognized recrudescent infection of the lips and perioral tissues caused by HSV-1. Facial lesions of HSL may be unsightly, frequent outbreaks unpleasant, and the infection itself more severe locally and systemically in immunocompromised people. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic features and management issues for HSL.

  5. High-frequency intermolecular homologous recombination during herpes simplex virus-mediated plasmid DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2002-06-01

    Homologous recombination is a prominent feature of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 DNA replication. This has been demonstrated and traditionally studied in experimental settings where repeated sequences are present or are being introduced into a single molecule for subsequent genome isomerization. In the present study, we have designed a pair of unique HSV amplicon plasmids to examine in detail intermolecular homologous recombination (IM-HR) between these amplicon plasmids during HSV-mediated DNA replication. Our data show that IM-HR occurred at a very high frequency: up to 60% of the amplicon concatemers retrieved from virion particles underwent intermolecular homologous recombination. Such a high frequency of IM-HR required that both plasmids be replicated by HSV-mediated replication, as IM-HR events were not detected when either one or both plasmids were replicated by simian virus 40-mediated DNA replication, even with the presence of HSV infection. In addition, the majority of the homologous recombination events resulted in sequence replacement or targeted gene repair, while the minority resulted in sequence insertion. These findings imply that frequent intermolecular homologous recombination may contribute directly to HSV genome isomerization. In addition, HSV-mediated amplicon replication may be an attractive model for studying intermolecular homologous recombination mechanisms in general in a mammalian system. In this regard, the knowledge obtained from such a study may facilitate the development of better strategies for targeted gene correction for gene therapy purposes.

  6. Herpes simplex virus-mediated expression of Pax3 and MyoD in embryoid bodies results in lineage-Related alterations in gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Craft, April M; Krisky, David M; Wechuck, James B; Lobenhofer, Edward K; Jiang, Ying; Wolfe, Darren P; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2008-12-01

    The ability of embryonic stem cells to develop into multiple cell lineages provides a powerful resource for tissue repair and regeneration. Gene transfer offers a means to dissect the complex events in lineage determination but is limited by current delivery systems. We designed a high-efficiency replication-defective herpes simplex virus gene transfer vector (JDbetabeta) for robust and transient expression of the transcription factors Pax3 and MyoD, which are known to be involved in skeletal muscle differentiation. JDbetabeta-mediated expression of each gene in day 4 embryoid bodies (early-stage mesoderm) resulted in the induction of unique alterations in gene expression profiles, including the upregulation of known target genes relevant to muscle and neural crest development, whereas a control enhanced green fluorescent protein expression vector was relatively inert. This vector delivery system holds great promise for the use of gene transfer to analyze the impact of specific genes on both regulatory genetic events and commitment of stem cells to particular lineages.

  7. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  8. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses.

  9. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  10. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  11. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review.

  12. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  13. Broad-spectrum antiviral activity including human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses mediated by a novel retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative.

    PubMed

    Kesel, Andreas J

    2011-05-01

    Aromatic aldehyde-derived thiosemicarbazones 4-6, the S-substituted modified thiosemicarbazones 7/8, and a vitamin A-derived (retinoid) thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 were investigated as inhibitors of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic RNA replicon Huh7 ET (luc-ubi-neo/ET) replication. Compounds 4-6 and 12 were found to be potent suppressors of HCV RNA replicon replication. The trifluoromethoxy-substituted thiosemicarbazone 6 and the retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 were even superior in selectivity to the included reference agent recombinant human alpha-interferon-2b, showing potencies in the nanomolar range of concentration. In addition, compounds 5, 6, 8 and 12 were tested as inhibitors of cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and/or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Compounds 4-6, 8 and 12 were additionally examined as inhibitors of CPE induced by cowpox virus and vaccinia virus. Thiosemicarbazone 4 was inhibitory on cowpox and vaccinia virus replication comparable in potency and selectivity to the reference agent cidofovir. Retinoid thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 was active as micromolar inhibitor of VZV, HCMV, and, in addition, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These results indicate that thiosemicarbazone derivatives are appropriate lead structures to be evaluated in targeted antiviral therapies for hepatitis C (STAT-C), and that the vitamin A-related thiosemicarbazone derivative 12 emerges as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent, co-suppressing the multiplication of important RNA and DNA viruses.

  14. Recombinant avian adeno-associated virus-mediated oviduct-specific expression of recombinant human tissue kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Wang, A P; Sun, H C; Wang, J Y; Wang, Y J; Yuan, W F

    2008-04-01

    Human tissue kallikrein (hK1) plays an important role in regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte and glucose transport, and renal function. To evaluate the feasibility of viral vector-mediated expression of recombinant human tissue kallikrein (rhK1) in the egg white of laying hens, human tissue kallikrein gene (hKLK1) cDNA-expression cassette was subcloned into avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) transfer vector pAITR and transfected into AAV-293 cells with AAAV helper vector pcDNA-ARC and adenovirus helper vector pHelper. The recombinant viral particles with a typical AAAV morphology and relatively high titer were generated and identified by PCR and electron microscopy. After 1 intravenous injection of each laying hen with 2 x 10(10) viral particles, oviduct-specific expression of hKLK1 cDNA was demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR. Secretion of rhK1 into the egg white was detected by enzymatic assay from d 2, reaching the highest level of 107 U/mL in wk 3, and lasted for more than 6 wk after injection. Western blotting showed that the oviduct-expressed rhK1 had the same molecular mass with the natural enzyme. These data suggest that rAAAV can mediate high level and long-lasting transgene expression in oviduct cells, and the established expression system is useful for production of other recombinant proteins.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus function inhibits replication of herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.; Shiraki, K.; Rapp, F.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 h as well as a consistent, almost 3 log inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 h after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. Treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells with cycloheximide (100 ..mu..g/ml) for 3 or 24 h was demonstrated effective in blocking HCMV protein synthesis, as shown by immunoprecipitation with HCMV antibody-positive polyvalent serum. Cycloheximide treatment of HCMV-infected HEL cells and removal of the cycloheximide block before superinfection inhibited HSV-1 replication more efficiently than non-drug-treated superinfected controls. HCMV DNA-negative temperature-sensitive mutants restricted HSV as efficiently as wild-type HCMV suggesting that immediate-early and/or early events which occur before viral DNA synthesis are sufficient for inhibition of HSV. Inhibition of HSV-1 in HCMV-infected HEL cells was unaffected by elevated temperature (40.5/sup 0/C). However, prior UV irradiation of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HSV-2 replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Superinfection of HCMV-infected HEL cells with HSV-1 labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine provided evidence that the labeled virus could penetrate to the nucleus of cells after superinfection. Evidence for penetration of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was also provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in cells infected with HSV alone versus superinfected cell cultures at 0 and 48 h after superinfection.

  16. Adeno-associated virus-mediated human IL-10 gene transfer suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Kashiwakura, Y; Kusumi, N; Tamayose, K; Nasu, Y; Nagai, A; Shimada, T; Daida, H; Kumon, H

    2005-07-01

    Testicular germ cell-induced autoimmune orchitis is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration followed by disturbance of spermatogenesis. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is an animal model for human immunological male infertility; delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response plays a key role in its induction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a regulatory cytokine that is critical in preventing organ-specific autoimmune inflammation. To determine the effects on EAO of human IL-10 (hIL-10) gene transfer, C3H/He mice immunized by unilateral testicular injury were administered intramuscular (i.m.) injections of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-encoding hIL-10 on the day of immunization. Serum hIL-10 was detected beginning at 1 week postinjection, and peaked at 3 weeks. Histological examinations showed a significantly low incidence of orchitis and disturbance of spermatogenesis in AAV hIL-10-treated mice, and the DTH response to autologous testicular cells was significantly suppressed. Immunohistochemical analysis of IFN- and IL-2, T-cell-associated cytokines, in the spleen and testes revealed significantly fewer cytokine-expressing cells after treatment. We conclude that a single i.m. administration of AAV hIL-10 significantly suppresses EAO and hypospermatogenesis by regulating cell-mediated immunity in the testes.

  17. Elastin-like polypeptide matrices for enhancing adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery to human neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-S; Chu, H S; Park, K I; Won, J-I; Jang, J-H

    2012-03-01

    The successful development of efficient and safe gene delivery vectors continues to be a major obstacle to gene delivery in stem cells. In this study, we have developed an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-mediated adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery system for transducing fibroblasts and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). AAVs have significant promise as therapeutic vectors because of their safety and potential for use in gene targeting in stem cell research. ELP has been recently employed as a biologically inspired 'smart' biomaterial that exhibits an inverse temperature phase transition, thereby demonstrating promise as a novel drug carrier. The ELP that was investigated in this study was composed of a repetitive penta-peptide with [Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly]. A novel AAV variant, AAV r3.45, which was previously engineered by directed evolution to enhance transduction in rat NSCs, was nonspecifically immobilized onto ELPs that were adsorbed beforehand on a tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS). The presence of different ELP quantities on the TCPS led to variations in surface morphology, roughness and wettability, which were ultimately key factors in the modulation of cellular transduction. Importantly, with substantially reduced viral quantities compared with bolus delivery, ELP-mediated AAV delivery significantly enhanced delivery efficiency in fibroblasts and hNSCs, which have great potential for use in tissue engineering applications and neurodegenerative disorder treatments, respectively. The enhancement of cellular transduction in stem cells, as well as the feasibility of ELPs for utilization in three-dimensional scaffolds, will contribute to the advancement of gene therapy for stem cell research and tissue regenerative medicine.

  18. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii: biological characteristics and pathogenetic potential in human anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Arizono, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Masahide

    2012-06-01

    Anisakiasis is one of the most common fishborne helminthic diseases in Japan, which is contracted by ingesting the larvae of the nematode Anisakis spp. carried by marine fish. Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii are the dominant species in fish caught offshore Japan. The present study aimed to identify the anisakid species infecting Japanese patients and determine whether there is any difference in the pathogenetic potential of A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii. In total, 41 and 301 Anisakis larvae were isolated from Japanese patients and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), respectively; these were subjected to molecular identification using polymerase chain reaction targeted at a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Chub mackerel larvae were further examined for survival in artificial gastric juice (pH 1.8) for 7 days and for invasiveness on 0.75% solid agar over a 24-h interval. All clinical isolates, including those of asymptomatic, acute, and chronic infections as well as those from the stomach, small intestine, colon, and stool, were identified as A. simplex (s.s.). Chub mackerel harbored A. simplex (s.s.) and A. pegreffii larvae, together with a few larvae of other anisakid species. A. simplex (s.s.) larvae from chub mackerel tolerated the artificial gastric juice better than A. pegreffii, with 50% mortality in 2.6 and 1.4 days, respectively. In addition, A. simplex (s.s.) penetrated the agar at significantly higher rates than A. pegreffii. These results show that A. simplex (s.s.) larvae have the potential to survive acidic gastric juice to some extent and penetrate the stomach, small intestine, or colon in infected humans.

  19. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Birch, J; Fink, C G; Skinner, G R; Thomas, G H; Jordan, J A

    1976-08-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ.

  20. Replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, J.; Fink, C. G.; Skinner, G. R.; Thomas, G. H.; Jordan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical tissue in organ culture was investigated. The temporal profile of virus replication was related to the initial virus inoculum; high input inocula induced a rapid increase in virus titre while lower multiplicities induced a more slow-rising increase in virus titre. Our evidence suggested that explants were capable of initiating and supporting virus replication for at least 2 weeks following establishment of the culture. Virus yields were optimal when explants were cultured at 37 degrees and in serum-supplemented medium. Explants also supported the replication of type 1 herpes simplex virus and a "non-human" herpes simplex virus (pseudo-rabies virus). The optimal conditions for replication of type 2 herpes simplex virus in human endocervical explants have been established and will provide a model permitting precise investigation of lytic or other virus-cervical cell interactions and their possible relationship to herpes virus-induced pre-invasive carcinoma of this organ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:183806

  1. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  2. Susceptibility of human iris stromal cells to herpes simplex virus 1 entry.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-04-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis.

  3. Surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    PubMed

    Arinze, Folasade; Shaver, Aaron; Raffanti, Stephen

    2017-05-15

    Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences. Our case highlights the importance of surgical excision as a treatment option in refractory herpes simplex virus anogenital infections.

  4. The interaction between herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Celum, Connie L

    2004-04-01

    Many studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) seropositivity increases the risk of acquiring HIV, with fewer studies also indicating that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of transmitting HIV. In a recent meta-analysis, HSV-2 infection increased the risk of HIV-acquisition two-fold. This increased risk may occur by HSV-2 reactivation disrupting the epithelial barrier and recruiting activated CD4 cells, which are target cells for HIV infection, into the lesion. In vivo and in vitro studies assessing the effect of HSV-2 on HIV transmission demonstrate that HIV-infected CD4 cells are recruited to HSV-infected lesions and that HSV regulatory proteins (ICP0, ICP4, VP16) may upregulate HIV replication, thus increasing the frequency and titre of mucosal HIV shedding. This may occur during both clinical and asymptomatic HSV reactivation. Plausibly, antiherpetic therapy could reduce HIV transmission by decreasing HIV plasma load and/or mucosal HIV shedding, but a proof-of-concept trial is needed to demonstrate this. It also appears that individuals co-infected with HIV and HSV-2 have more frequent HSV recurrences than individuals infected with HSV-2 alone. There is a strong correlation between decreasing CD4 count and increasing rates of HSV reactivation, suggesting that reactivation is linked to immunosuppression. The IHMF recommends that individuals with HIV should be serologically tested for HSV-2. HSV-2 infection should be targeted as a modifiable risk factor for HIV acquisition by testing, counselling and preventing acquisition through behavioural interventions, treatment and antiviral suppression.

  5. Antibodies to CD40 prevent Epstein-Barr virus-mediated human B-cell lymphomagenesis in severe combined immune deficient mice given human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, W J; Funakoshi, S; Beckwith, M; Rushing, S E; Conley, D K; Armitage, R J; Fanslow, W C; Rager, H C; Taub, D D; Ruscetti, F W

    1995-09-01

    CD40 is expressed on both normal and neoplastic B lymphocytes. Signal transduction through CD40 in vitro has been shown to exert stimulatory effects on normal B cells and inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell lymphoma lines and some other cell lines derived from patients with aggressive histology lymphoma. The transfer of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (huPBL) from EBV-seropositive donors into severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice has been previously shown to result in the generation of human B-cell lymphomas. These tumors are similar to the highly aggressive EBV-induced lymphomas that can arise clinically after transplantation or in the setting of immunodeficiency. Treatment of huPBL-SCID chimeric mice with anti-CD40 or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) significantly delayed the development of EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma. However, the effects of the two MoAb were mechanistically distinct. Anti-CD40 treatment prevented lymphoma generation, while still allowing for functional human B-cell engraftment in the huPBL-SCID mice compared with mice receiving no treatment, all of which succumbed to lymphoma. By contrast, treatment with anti-CD20 significantly inhibited total human B-cell engraftment in the SCID recipients, which accounted for the absence of lymphomas. In vitro assays examining the transformation of human B cells by EBV also indicated that anti-CD40 could directly inhibit EBV-transformation, whereas anti-CD20 antibodies had no effect. Thus, anti-CD40 exerts selective effects to allow for the engraftment of normal human B cells and prevent the emergence of EBV lymphomas. Stimulation of CD40 by antibodies or its physiologic ligand may, therefore, be of significant clinical use in the prevention of EBV-induced B lymphomas that may arise when EBV-seropositive individuals receive immunosuppressive regimens after transplantation or in immune deficiency states, such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  6. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yedowitz, Jamie C.; Blaho, John A. . E-mail: john.blaho@mssm.edu

    2005-11-25

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5 hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNF{alpha} plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-{kappa}B translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1.

  7. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  8. [Complete human Klüver-Bucy syndrome after encephalitis caused by herpes simplex type 2].

    PubMed

    Bakchine, S; Chain, F; Lhermitte, F

    1986-01-01

    A case of complete Klüver-Bucy syndrome is reported. A 42 year-old man developed Herpes Simplex type II (H.S.V.II) encephalitis. Good sparing of language functions allowed thorough neuropsychological testing. The troubles usually described in Klüver-Bucy syndrome as psychic blindness, colour agnosia, prosopagnosia, auditive and tactile agnosia were present. The authors theorize that these symptoms are mainly correlated with the amnestic syndrome, which is constantly reported in human Klüver-Bucy syndrome. Unfortunately, after 8 weeks, the encephalitis recurred and the patient was left demented and untestable.

  9. High Efficiency Latency and Activation of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdahl, Brian L.; Scheck, Adrienne C.; de Clercq, Erik; Rapp, Fred

    1982-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) exists in humans in a latent form that can be activated. To characterize the molecular basis of the cell-virus interactions and to analyze the state of the latent HSV genome, an in vitro model system was established. In this system a large fraction of the latently infected cells contain an HSV genome that can be activated. Cell survival was reduced minimally after repression of high multiplicity HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection of human fibroblast cells with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in combination with human leukocyte interferon (IFN-α ). A minimum of 1 to 3 percent of the surviving cells contained an HSV genome that could be activated either by human cytomegalovirus superinfection or reduction in incubation temperature.

  10. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    PubMed

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia.

  11. Immune inhibition of virus release from herpes simplex virus-infected cells by human sera.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Hallworth, J; Desperbasques, M; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1988-01-01

    Human sera contain antibody (IVR antibody) which will inhibit the release of herpes simplex virus type 1 from virus-infected cells. This antibody activity was removed by adsorption of sera with virus-infected cell extract. There was a positive correlation between IVR and neutralizing antibody activity, particularly when measured by augmented neutralization test; measurement of IVR antibody was equally as sensitive as measurement of neutralizing antibody by augmented neutralization test. IVR antibody levels provided indication of a history of recurrent herpes labialis, the pattern of antibody response following primary herpetic infection, and indication of response to Skinner herpes vaccine in human subjects. It is suggested that consideration should be given to measurement of IVR antibody in both clinical and epidemiological studies of herpes and other virus infections.

  12. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  13. The potential application of a transcriptionally regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus for human cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miao, L; Fraefel, C; Sia, K C; Newman, J P; Mohamed-Bashir, S A; Ng, W H; Lam, P Y P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging studies have shown the potential benefit of arming oncolytic viruses with therapeutic genes. However, most of these therapeutic genes are placed under the regulation of ubiquitous viral promoters. Our goal is to generate a safer yet potent oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) for cancer therapy. Methods: Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering, a cell cycle-regulatable luciferase transgene cassette was replaced with the infected cell protein 6 (ICP6) coding region (encoded for UL39 or large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase) of the HSV-1 genome. These recombinant viruses, YE-PC8, were further tested for its proliferation-dependent luciferase gene expression. Results: The ability of YE-PC8 to confer proliferation-dependent transgene expression was demonstrated by injecting similar amount of viruses into the tumour-bearing region of the brain and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma of the same mouse. The results showed enhanced levels of luciferase activities in the tumour region but not in the normal brain parenchyma. Similar findings were observed in YE-PC8-infected short-term human brain patient-derived glioma cells compared with normal human astrocytes. intratumoural injection of YE-PC8 viruses resulted in 77% and 80% of tumour regression in human glioma and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, respectively. Conclusion: YE-PC8 viruses confer tumour selectivity in proliferating cells and may be developed further as a feasible approach to treat human cancers. PMID:24196790

  14. Adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of recombinant CBD-HepII polypeptide of human fibronectin inhibits metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Hui; Lei, Zhang; Zhen, Yan; Gong, Wei; Huang, Bo; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-01-01

    CH50, a recombinant CBD-HepII polypeptide of human fibronectin, was shown to suppress tumor metastasis in murine hepatocarcinoma and melanoma models. However, the effect of CH50 on human cancer cells is still not clear. Here we evaluated the efficiency of CH50 delivered by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector for breast cancer treatment. Infection of the two human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 with a rAAV2 vector encoding CH50 resulted in secretion of soluble CH50. In vitro rAAV-CH50 transduction inhibited adhesion to ECM molecules, and transwell migration and invasion of breast cancer cells induced by fibronectin. In both breast cancer cells, rAAV-CH50 targeted αVβ3 signaling, namely inhibited the expression of αVβ3, the activation of FAK, the upregulation of cdc2, and the production and activation of MMP-9 by ECM molecules stimulation. rAAV-mediated tail vein transfusion and stable expression of CH50 in the liver resulted in the long-term presence of CH50 in sera of nude mice. Sustained CH50 expression mediated by rAAV vector suppressed the growth and spontaneous metastasis of orthotopic breast cancer xenograft, experimental metastasis of circulating breast cancer cells, and improved the long-term survival of breast tumor-bearing mice. These findings suggest for the first time that rAAV-CH50 gene therapy may present a novel and promising strategy for treatment against metastatic breast cancer.

  15. Analysis of genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in human prostate cancer organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Passer, B J; Wu, C-l; Wu, S; Rabkin, S D; Martuza, R L

    2009-12-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses type 1 (oHSVs) such as G47Delta and G207 are genetically engineered for selective replication competence in cancer cells. Several factors can influence the overall effectiveness of oHSV tropism, including HSV-1 receptor expression, extracellular matrix milieu and cellular permissiveness. We have taken advantage of human prostate organ cultures derived from radical prostatectomies to investigate oHSV tropism. In this study, we show that both G47Delta and G207 specifically replicate in epithelial cells of the prostatic glands but not in the surrounding stroma. In contrast, both the epithelial and stromal cell compartments were readily infected by wild-type HSV-1. Analysis of oHSV replication in prostate surgical specimens 3 days post infection showed that G47Delta generated approximately 30-fold more viral progeny than did G207. This correlated with the enhanced expression of G47Delta-derived glycoprotein gB protein levels as compared with G207. In benign prostate tissues, G207 and G47Delta titers were notably reduced, whereas strain F titers were maintained at similar levels compared with prostate cancer specimens. Overall, our results show that these oncolytic herpes vectors show both target specificity and replication competence in human prostate cancer specimens and point to the utility of using human prostate organ cultures in assessing oHSV tropism and cellular specificity.

  16. Selective retention of herpes simplex virus-specific T cells in latently infected human trigeminal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; van Dun, Jessica M.; Poot, Angelique; Milikan, Johannes C.; Laman, Jon D.; Langerak, Anton W.; Kinchington, Paul R.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Primary infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in lifelong latent infections of neurons in sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal ganglia (TG). It has been postulated that T cells retained in TG inhibit reactivation of latent virus. The acquisition of TG specimens of individuals within hours after death offered the unique opportunity to characterize the phenotype and specificity of TG-resident T cells in humans. High numbers of activated CD8+ T cells expressing a late effector memory phenotype were found to reside in latently infected TG. The T cell infiltrate was oligoclonal, and T cells selectively clustered around HSV-1 but not VZV latently infected neurons. Neuronal damage was not observed despite granzyme B expression by the neuron-interacting CD8+ T cells. The TG-resident T cells, mainly CD8+ T cells, were directed against HSV-1 and not to VZV, despite neuronal expression of VZV proteins. The results implicate that herpesvirus latency in human TG is associated with a local, persistent T cell response, comprising activated late effector memory CD8+ T cells that appear to control HSV-1 latency by noncytolytic pathways. In contrast, T cells do not seem to be directly involved in controlling VZV latency in human TG. PMID:17360672

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into human primary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Elena; Calistri, Arianna; Salata, Cristiano; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that genital ulcer disease (GUD) pathogens are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and/or transmission. Among them, genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seems to play a relevant role. Indeed, the ability of HSV-2 to induce massive infiltration at the genital level of cells which are potential targets for HIV-1 infection may represent one of the mechanisms involved in this process. Here we show that infection of human primary macrophages (MDMs) by HSV-2 results in an increase of CCR5 expression levels on cell surface and allows higher efficiency of MDMs to support entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. This finding could strengthen, at the molecular level, the evidence linking HSV-2 infection to an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition.

  18. Molecular mimicry in virus infection: crossreaction of measles virus phosphoprotein or of herpes simplex virus protein with human intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, R S; Oldstone, M B; Wroblewska, Z; Frankel, M E; Koprowski, H

    1983-01-01

    Using monoclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein of measles virus and a protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 crossreact with an intermediate filament protein of human cells. This intermediate filament protein, probably vimentin, has a molecular weight of 52,000, whereas the molecular weights of the measles viral phosphoprotein and the herpes virus protein are 70,000 and 146,000, respectively. Crossreactivity was shown by immunofluorescent staining of infected and uninfected cells and by immunoblotting. The monoclonal antibody against measles virus phosphoprotein did not react with herpes simplex virus protein and vice versa, indicating that these monoclonal antibodies recognize different antigenic determinants on the intermediate filament molecule. The significance of these results in explaining the appearance of autoantibodies during virus infections in humans is discussed. Images PMID:6300911

  19. Genome-wide prediction of vaccine targets for human herpes simplex viruses using Vaxign reverse vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most common infectious agents of humans. No safe and effective HSV vaccines have been licensed. Reverse vaccinology is an emerging and revolutionary vaccine development strategy that starts with the prediction of vaccine targets by informatics analysis of genome sequences. Vaxign (http://www.violinet.org/vaxign) is the first web-based vaccine design program based on reverse vaccinology. In this study, we used Vaxign to analyze 52 herpesvirus genomes, including 3 HSV-1 genomes, one HSV-2 genome, 8 other human herpesvirus genomes, and 40 non-human herpesvirus genomes. The HSV-1 strain 17 genome that contains 77 proteins was used as the seed genome. These 77 proteins are conserved in two other HSV-1 strains (strain F and strain H129). Two envelope glycoproteins gJ and gG do not have orthologs in HSV-2 or 8 other human herpesviruses. Seven HSV-1 proteins (including gJ and gG) do not have orthologs in all 40 non-human herpesviruses. Nineteen proteins are conserved in all human herpesviruses, including capsid scaffold protein UL26.5 (NP_044628.1). As the only HSV-1 protein predicted to be an adhesin, UL26.5 is a promising vaccine target. The MHC Class I and II epitopes were predicted by the Vaxign Vaxitop prediction program and IEDB prediction programs recently installed and incorporated in Vaxign. Our comparative analysis found that the two programs identified largely the same top epitopes but also some positive results predicted from one program might not be positive from another program. Overall, our Vaxign computational prediction provides many promising candidates for rational HSV vaccine development. The method is generic and can also be used to predict other viral vaccine targets. PMID:23514126

  20. Overcoming drug-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by a humanized antibody

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Arndt, Michaela A. E.; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Weichert, Wilko; Giebel, Bernd; Dittmer, Ulf; Hengel, Hartmut; Jäger, Dirk; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Roggendorf, Michael; Krauss, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of antiviral chemotherapy, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infections remain a severe global health problem. Of particular concern is the growing incidence of drug resistance in immunocompromised patients, which stresses the urgency to develop new effective treatment alternatives. We have developed a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb hu2c) that completely abrogates viral cell-to-cell spread, a key mechanism by which HSV-1/2 escapes humoral immune surveillance. Moreover, mAb hu2c neutralized HSV fully independent of complement and/or immune effector cell recruitment in a highly efficient manner. Prophylactic and therapeutic administration of mAb hu2c completely prevented infection-related mortality of severely immunodeficient mice being challenged with a lethal dose of HSV-1. The high neutralization capacity of mAb hu2c was fully maintained toward clinical HSV isolates being multiresistant to standard antiviral drugs, and infection was fully resolved in 7/8 nonobese diabetic/SCID mice being infected with a multidrug resistant HSV-1 patient isolate. Immunohistochemical studies revealed no significant cross-reactivity of the antibody toward human tissues. These features warrant further clinical development of mAb hu2c as an immunotherapeutic compound for the management of severe and particularly drug-resistant HSV infections. PMID:23569258

  1. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.

  2. Role of bovine mammillitis virus towards preparation of an alternative vaccine against herpes simplex virus infections of human subjects.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Buchan, A; Durham, J; Cowan, M; Davies, J; Brookes, K; Castrucci, G

    1987-03-01

    Bovine mammillitis virus (BMV) cross-reacted in neutralization and radioimmune assay with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pre-immunization with BMV protected against challenge by type 2 HSV. There was no evidence to suggest a pathogenic role for BMV as adjudged by a literature search or field enquiry and BMV specific antibody was not detected in 21 human sera or in four sera from personnel engaged in research with BMV; in addition there was no replication or antigen synthesis by BMV in explants of human tissue or cell lines of human origin. It is proposed that BMV might provide an alternative vaccine against HSV infections of human subjects.

  3. Herpes simplex virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances human papillomavirus type 16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Skeate, Joseph G.; Porras, Tania B.; Woodham, Andrew W.; Jang, Julie K.; Taylor, Julia R.; Brand, Heike E.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Jung, Jae U.; Da Silva, Diane M.; Yuan, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was originally implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer, and although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is now the accepted causative agent, the epidemiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers persists. The annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) has been shown to mediate infectious HPV type 16 (HPV16) uptake by human keratinocytes, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous A2t ligand, inhibits HPV16 uptake and infection. Interestingly, HSV infection induces a sustained downregulation of SLPI in epithelial cells, which we hypothesized promotes HPV16 infection through A2t. Here, we show that in vitro infection of human keratinocytes with HSV-1 or HSV-2, but not with an HSV-1 ICP4 deletion mutant that does not downregulate SLPI, leads to a >70 % reduction of SLPI mRNA and a >60 % decrease in secreted SLPI protein. Consequently, we observed a significant increase in the uptake of HPV16 virus-like particles and gene transduction by HPV16 pseudovirions (two- and 2.5-fold, respectively) in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected human keratinocyte cell cultures compared with uninfected cells, whereas exogenously added SLPI reversed this effect. Using a SiMPull (single-molecule pulldown) assay, we demonstrated that endogenously secreted SLPI interacts with A2t on epithelial cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These results suggested that ongoing HSV infection and resultant downregulation of local levels of SLPI may impart a greater susceptibility for keratinocytes to HPV16 infection through the host cell receptor A2t, providing a mechanism that may, in part, provide an explanation for the aetiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers. PMID:26555393

  4. [The relationship between herpes simplex virus II, human papillomavirus infection and infertility after artificial abortion].

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, T; Zhang, Z

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the relationship between infection of sexually transmitted virus Herpes simplex virus II (HSV2), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and female infertility after artificial abortion, we collected 60 genital samples from infertile women who had accepted artificial abortions and 39 genital samples from normal women. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HSV2 and HPV. The results were compared by x2. The positive rate of HSV2 in infertile and normal women were 80.0% and 25.6% respectively, there was a significant difference (P < 0.01); but that of HPV were 53.5% and 33.3%, which slowed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Mixed infection rates of HSV2 and HPV were 43.3% and 23.1% in infertile and normal women, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was statistically calculated. The results showed that there was a relationship between infertility after artificial abortion and genital infection of HSV2 and HPV or mited infection of HSV 2 and HPV. Taking total 99 genital samples into calculation, the mired infection rate of HSV 2 was 35.35%, a significant relatedness of HSV2 and HPV infection to infertility was proved by chi 2, chi 2 = 12.5, P < 0.01.

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 2 modulates the susceptibility of human bladder cells to uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Superti, F; Longhi, C; Di Biase, A M; Tinari, A; Marchetti, M; Pisani, S; Gallinelli, C; Chiarini, F; Seganti, L

    2001-09-01

    The present study analyses the susceptibility of human bladder-derived cells (HT-1376) to the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as to the adhesiveness of uropathogenic bacteria. HT-1376 cells were efficiently infected by HSV-2 strain 333, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining of viral antigens, titration of cytopathic effect, and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. This cell model was also prone to C. trachomatis (serovar E, Bour strain) replication and to the adherence of clinical uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcus faecalis. The pre-infection of HT-1376 cells with HSV-2 caused a tenfold increased adherence of an E. coli strain (U1), isolated from a patient affected by severe haemorrhagic cystitis, whereas in HSV-2 pre-infected cells the number of C. trachomatis inclusion bodies was significantly reduced. Our findings indicate that these cells are a suitable in vitro model for studying infection and super-infection of the lower urinary tract by viruses and bacteria.

  6. Human gastric hyperinfection by Anisakis simplex: A severe and unusual presentation and a brief review.

    PubMed

    Baptista-Fernandes, Teresa; Rodrigues, Manuel; Castro, Isabel; Paixão, Paulo; Pinto-Marques, Pedro; Roque, Lidia; Belo, Silvana; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Mansinho, Kamal; Toscano, Cristina

    2017-09-04

    Anisakiasis is an emerging marine food-borne zoonosis resulting from the accidental ingestion of Anisakis larvae, through the consumption of raw or undercooked infected seafood products. The first case of human gastric hyperinfection by Anisakis simplex with an unusual and severe presentation, occurring in a Portuguese woman, is described in this article. Over 140 anisakid larvae were removed by gastroscopy. Massive infection is uncommon in areas where the consumption of raw fish is not part of the traditional diet, as is the case in Portugal. The increased consumption of raw seafood products is considered a health determinant in the rise in cases of anisakiasis. However, clinicians should be aware of the emergence of these infections, not only because of the new dietary habits of the population, but also because of the high prevalence of Anisakis larvae in the different fish species usually consumed by the population, collected on the Portuguese coast. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Antibody responses in humans to individual proteins of herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, S C; Docherty, J J; Rawls, W E

    1981-01-01

    Sera from 231 women were used to examine their frequency of precipitation of various herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) proteins and to determine if there was a rank order of immune responsiveness of humans to these HSV antigens. Radiolabeled viral proteins were reacted with serum and immune complexes isolated with staphylococcal protein A. Individual antigens were resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by fluorography. As a group, these sera precipitated 31 HSV-1 and 27 HSV-2 proteins. HSV-1 polypeptides with molecular weights of 133,000, 99,000, and 82,000, as well as HSV-2 polypeptides with molecular weights of 131,000 and 101,000, were precipitated by essentially all sera that contained antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. When attempts were made to order the viral proteins by constructing precipitation profiles ranking the antigens in patterns according to their frequency of precipitation, it was observed that the antigens were generally not ordered. Demographic analysis of the sera suggested that the differences in the number of proteins precipitated were associated with differences in age, education, age at first marriage, and income, which collectively may reflect the frequency of exposure to the virus. PMID:6277791

  8. Divergent effects of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus-1 on cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vastag, Livia; Koyuncu, Emre; Grady, Sarah L; Shenk, Thomas E; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of the host cell to provide energy and macromolecular precursors to fuel viral replication. Here we used mass spectrometry to examine the impact of two related herpesviruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), on the metabolism of fibroblast and epithelial host cells. Each virus triggered strong metabolic changes that were conserved across different host cell types. The metabolic effects of the two viruses were, however, largely distinct. HCMV but not HSV-1 increased glycolytic flux. HCMV profoundly increased TCA compound levels and flow of two carbon units required for TCA cycle turning and fatty acid synthesis. HSV-1 increased anapleurotic influx to the TCA cycle through pyruvate carboxylase, feeding pyrimidine biosynthesis. Thus, these two related herpesviruses drive diverse host cells to execute distinct, virus-specific metabolic programs. Current drugs target nucleotide metabolism for treatment of both viruses. Although our results confirm that this is a robust target for HSV-1, therapeutic interventions at other points in metabolism might prove more effective for treatment of HCMV.

  9. The cycle of human herpes simplex virus infection: virus transport and immune control.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Diefenbach, Russell J; Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Bosnjak, Lidija; Kim, Min; Jones, Cheryl; Douglas, Mark W

    2006-09-15

    After infection of skin or mucosa, herpes simplex virus enters the sensory nerve endings and is conveyed by retrograde axonal transport to the dorsal root ganglion, where the virus develops lifelong latency. Intermittent reactivation, which is spontaneous in humans, leads to anterograde transport of virus particles and proteins to the skin or mucosa, where the virus is shed and/or causes disease. Immune control of viral infection and replication occurs at the level of skin or mucosa during initial or recurrent infection and also within the dorsal root ganglion, where immune mechanisms control latency and reactivation. This article examines current views on the mechanisms of retrograde and anterograde transport of the virus in axons and the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity that control infection in the skin or mucosa and in the dorsal root ganglion--in particular, the role of interferons, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and interferon- gamma and other cytokines, including their significance in the development of vaccines for genital herpes.

  10. Enhanced replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.S.; Smith, K.O. )

    1991-02-01

    The effects of DNA-damaging agents on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were assessed in vitro. Monolayers of human lung fibroblast cell lines were exposed to DNA-damaging agents (methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS), ultraviolet light (UV), or gamma radiation (GR)) at specific intervals, before or after inoculation with low levels of HSV-1. The ability of cell monolayers to support HSV-1 replication was measured by direct plaque assay and was compared with that of untreated control samples. In this system, monolayers of different cell lines infected with identical HSV-1 strains demonstrated dissimilar levels of recovery of the infectious virus. Exposure of DNA-repair-competent cell cultures to DNA-damaging agents produced time-dependent enhanced virus replication. Treatment with agent before virus inoculation significantly (p less than 0.025) increased the number of plaques by 10 to 68%, compared with untreated control cultures, while treatment with agent after virus adsorption significantly increased (p less than 0.025) the number of plaques by 7 to 15%. In a parallel series of experiments, cells deficient in DNA repair (xeroderma pigmentosum) failed to support enhanced virus replication. These results suggest that after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, fibroblasts competent in DNA repair amplify the replication of HSV-1, and that DNA-repair mechanisms that act on a variety of chromosomal lesions may be involved in the repair and biological activation of HSV-1 genomes.

  11. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  12. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  13. Comparison of an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line with Vero cells in the isolation of Herpes simplex virus-1 for the laboratory diagnosis of Herpes simplex keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Athmanathan, Sreedharan; B Reddy, Sesha; Nutheti, Rishita; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2002-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a sight threatening ocular infection often requiring a specific and prompt laboratory diagnosis. Isolation of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in culture provides the most reliable and specific method and is considered as the "Gold Standard" in the laboratory diagnosis of HSK in spite of its low sensitivity. Using "cell lines of corneal origin" for virus isolation may be beneficial under such circumstances, since these cells have been shown to be excellent substrates for the growth of HSV-1 isolated from the cornea. We report a comparative study of a novel human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE) and the Vero cell line in the isolation of HSV-1 from corneal scrapings employing a shell vial assay. Methods Corneal scrapings were obtained from 17 patients with a clinical diagnosis of HSK. All the cases were confirmed by virological investigations (PCR and viral antigen detection positive, n = 15, PCR positive, n = 1, Viral antigen positive, n = 1). Scrapings obtained from 10 patients with infectious keratitis of non-viral origin were included as controls. All the scrapings were simultaneously inoculated into shell vials of HCE and Vero cells. Cultures were terminated at 24 h post-infection. Isolation of HSV-1 was confirmed using an indirect immunofluorescence/ immunoperoxidase assay. Results Virus could be isolated using both or either of the cell lines in 10/17 (58.82%) patients with HSK. HSV-1 was isolated from 10/ 17 (58.82%) and 4/17(23.52%) specimens in HCE and Vero cells, respectively (P = 0.036). None of the controls yielded HSV-1. While all the 10 (100%) strains were isolated in HCE, Vero yielded only 4/10 (40%) strains in the shell vial culture (P = 0.014). Conclusions HCE showed a statistically significant difference in the virus isolation rate with respect to Vero cells. HCE may be an excellent alternative cell line for the isolation of HSV-1, especially from corneal scrapings, for the laboratory diagnosis of HSK

  14. Temporal morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected and brefeldin A-treated human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helle L.; Norrild, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insights in the herpesvirus-cell interactions are of general cell biology interest, especially to studies of intracellular transport, and of considerable significance in the efforts to generate drugs, vaccines, and gene therapy. However, the pathway of virus particle egress and maturation is a contentious issue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The intracellular transport was inhibited in cultured herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected human fibroblasts by brefeldin A (BFA). The virus-cell interactions including the viral envelopment, transport of HSV-1 virions, and transport of viral glycoprotein D (gD-1) and glycoprotein C (gC-1) were studied by titration assay, immunoblot, immunofluorescence light microscopy, and immunogold electron microscopy of cryosections. RESULTS: gD-1 and gC-1 were synthesized and normally transported to the plasma membranes of untreated HSV-1 infected host cells. BFA (1 microg/ml medium) effectively blocked the transport of the glycoproteins to the plasma membranes and affected the tubulin and vimentin of the cytoskeleton. Viral particles and glycoproteins accumulated in the perinuclear space and the endoplasmic reticulum of BFA treated cells. Withdrawal of BFA influence up to 9 hr resulted in restored tubulin and vimentin, transport of glycoproteins to the plasma membranes, and steady release of infectious viral particles to the extracellular space superior to the cellular assembly of new virions. The ultrastructural data presented support that the primary envelopment of viral particles occur at the nuclear membranes containing immature glycoproteins followed by multiple de-envelopments and re-envelopments of the virions during the transport and maturation in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. CONCLUSIONS: BFA-induced changes include the cytoskeleton with significant effect on HSV-1 maturation and egress. The data support a multiple-step envelopment of HSV-1 in a common pathway of glycoprotein synthesis and virion

  15. Griffithsin and Carrageenan Combination To Target Herpes Simplex Virus 2 and Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Levendosky, Keith; Mizenina, Olga; Martinelli, Elena; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Bonnaire, Thierry; Robbiani, Melissa; Zydowsky, Thomas M.; O'Keefe, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive preclinical evaluation of griffithsin (GRFT) has identified this lectin to be a promising broad-spectrum microbicide. We set out to explore the antiviral properties of a GRFT and carrageenan (CG) combination product against herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as well as determine the mechanism of action (MOA) of GRFT against both viruses. We performed the experiments in different cell lines, using time-of-addition and temperature dependence experiments to differentiate inhibition of viral attachment from entry and viral receptor internalization. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to assess GRFT binding to viral glycoproteins, and immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemistry were used to identify the specific glycoprotein involved. We determined the antiviral activity of GRFT against HSV-2 to be a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 230 nM and provide the first evidence that GRFT has moderate anti-HPV activity (EC50 = 0.429 to 1.39 μM). GRFT blocks the entry of HSV-2 and HPV into target cells but not the adsorption of HSV-2 and HPV onto target cells. The results of the SPR, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry analyses of HSV-2 combined suggest that GRFT may block viral entry by binding to HSV-2 glycoprotein D. Cell-based assays suggest anti-HPV activity through α6 integrin internalization. The GRFT-CG combination product but not GRFT or CG alone reduced HSV-2 vaginal infection in mice when given an hour before challenge (P = 0.0352). While GRFT significantly protected mice against vaginal HPV infection when dosed during and after HPV16 pseudovirus challenge (P < 0.026), greater CG-mediated protection was afforded by the GRFT-CG combination for up to 8 h (P < 0.0022). These findings support the development of the GRFT-CG combination as a broad-spectrum microbicide. PMID:26369967

  16. Herpes simplex and human papillomavirus genital infections: controversy over obstetric management.

    PubMed

    Osborne, N G; Adelson, M D

    1990-12-01

    Plasma inhibitory factors, high levels of sex hormones, and depression of cell-mediated immunity may interfere with the natural host resistance to viral infections during pregnancy. It is apparent that hormonal, immunologic, and vascular changes in pregnancy may account for increased replication of herpes and for enhanced growth of condylomatous lesions. The challenge is to develop a rational plan of management for pregnant patients with herpes simplex or human papilloma virus infection. There has been a reevaluation of previous recommendations for the management of herpes in pregnancy. Although the consequences of neonatal infection are severe or fatal, the value of routine weekly screening is questionable. This regimen is a poor predictor of neonatal exposure to herpes since only one fourth of women shedding virus at the time of delivery can be identified by routine cultures. The mode of delivery should therefore be based on the presence or absence of lesions at the time of confinement. Cesarean section should be reserved for patients with lesions or with prodromal symptoms of recurrent disease at the time of delivery. Patients with ruptured membranes and active genital lesions should also be delivered by cesarean section. The spectrum of HPV-related diseases in pregnancy is poorly understood. Many questions remain unanswered. It may not be practical to treat very large or extensive genital warts during pregnancy. A cesarean section may be the best choice in these cases. It may be premature to recommend cesarean section for delivery of all pregnant women with symptomatic genital HPV infection. More data are needed. We recommend laser ablation of condylomatous lesions when discovered during pregnancy. Laser vaporization is associated with minimal morbidity when used by experienced surgeons. Trichloroacetic acid is excellent for minimal disease or for treatment of recurrences in pregnancy. Since the immune system seems to play an important role in control of viral

  17. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks ... type 2 is the usual cause of genital herpes, but it also can infect the mouth. HSV spreads through direct contact. Some people have ...

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus II. Lack of Relatedness to DNA of Herpes Simplex I and II, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Nonhuman Strains of Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eng-Shang; Pagano, Joseph S.

    1974-01-01

    The purified DNA of human cytomegalovirus, radiolabeled in vitro, was examined for homology to Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex type I and II, and simian and murine cytomegalovirus DNA by DNA-DNA reassociation kinetics analyses with the S1 enzyme differential digestion technique. Cross-matching of the DNAs showed no relatedness or less than 5% detectable homology. PMID:4362866

  19. Antibody activity to type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus in human cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, B M; Skinner, G R

    1977-08-01

    Neutralizing antibody activity in cervical mucus to type 1 herpes virus was detected in 24 of 28 patients, and to type 2 herpes simplex virus in 18 of 24 patients. The neutralizing antibody activity resisted heat inactivation for 30 minutes at 56 degrees C, was independent of complement and followed first order kinetics. There was evidence of antibody against both virus types in immunoglobulin fractions IgG and IgA, the latter containing approximately threefold greater neutralizing antibody activity per unit of immunoglobulin concentration. Type 1 and type 2 neutralizing antibody activity showed a positive but weak correlation and type 2 neutralizing antibody activity showed a positive but weak correlation and a type-common immunoprecipitin was identified in all concentrated pooled mucus samples. However, type-specific neutralizing antibody against both virus types was identified in pooled mucus samples by heterologous absorption techniques. There was a relatively higher average type 2 neutralizing antibody activity in the mucus than in the serum and there was no correlation between serum and mucus antibody levels for either virus type. These observations support the concept of an independent local antibody system for herpes simplex virus in the uterine cervix.

  20. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lichen simplex chronicus; Atopic dermatitis - lichen simplex chronicus; Psoriasis - lichen simplex chronicus ... people who have: Skin allergies Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Psoriasis Nervousness, anxiety, depression, and other emotional problems The ...

  1. [Herpes simplex type I virus observed in the superior cervical ganglion from human cadavers and autopsy materials].

    PubMed

    Simşek, C; Us, D; Ilgi, S; Ustaçelebi, S; Akşit, D

    1990-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Type I (HSV I) causes some infections such as herpes labialis, encephalitis, keratoconjunctivitis and also some cranial nerve syndromes such as acute vestibular neuritis, migraine and Meniere's disease in human. We used 4 fixated and 16 fresh cadavers to isolate HSV I virus from the Superior Cervical Ganglia. The ganglia materials are inoculated to PRK (primary rabbit kidney), VERO (African Green Monkey Kidney) and BHK 21 (Baby Hamster Kidney) cell lines in order to isolate the virus. We isolated HSV I virus from 12 fresh cadavers' cervical ganglia (75%) and neutralisation test is performed in order to characterize HSV I. But we could not isolate the virus from any of the fixated cadavers.

  2. Mucosal Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in a Humanized Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Kwant-Mitchell, Amanda; Ashkar, Ali A.; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Genital herpes, caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide and a risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although many vaccine candidates have shown promising results in animal models, they have failed to be effective in human trials. In this study, a humanized mouse strain was evaluated as a potential preclinical model for studying human immune responses to HSV-2 infection and vaccination. Immunodeficient mouse strains were examined for their abilities to develop human innate and adaptive immune cells after transplantation of human umbilical cord stem cells. A RAG2−/− γc−/− mouse strain with a BALB/c background was chosen as the most appropriate model and was then examined for its ability to mount innate and adaptive immune responses to intravaginal HSV-2 infection and immunization. After primary infection, human cells in the lymph nodes were able to generate a protective innate immune response and produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ). After intravaginal immunization and infection, human T cells and NK cells were found in the genital tract and iliac lymph nodes. In addition, human T cells in the spleen, lymph nodes, and vaginal tract were able to respond to stimulation with HSV-2 antigens by replicating and producing IFN-γ. Human B cells were also able to produce HSV-2-specific immunoglobulin G. These adaptive responses were also shown to be protective and reduce local viral replication in the genital tract. This approach provides a means for studying human immune responses in vivo using a small-animal model and may become an important preclinical tool. PMID:19656896

  3. Entry Pathways of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 into Human Keratinocytes Are Dynamin- and Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mei-Ju; Rixon, Frazer J.; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can enter cells via endocytic pathways or direct fusion at the plasma membrane depending on the cell line and receptor(s). Most studies into virus entry have used cultured fibroblasts but since keratinocytes represent the primary entry site for HSV-1 infection in its human host, we initiated studies to characterize the entry pathway of HSV-1 into human keratinocytes. Electron microscopy studies visualized free capsids in the cytoplasm and enveloped virus particles in vesicles suggesting viral uptake both by direct fusion at the plasma membrane and by endocytic vesicles. The ratio of the two entry modes differed in primary human keratinocytes and in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Inhibitor studies further support a role for endocytosis during HSV-1 entry. Infection was inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which demonstrates the requirement for host cholesterol during virus entry. Since the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore and overexpression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutant blocked infection, we conclude that the entry pathways into keratinocytes are dynamin-mediated. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that virus uptake is completely blocked when the GTPase activity of dynamin is inhibited. Ex vivo infection of murine epidermis that was treated with dynasore further supports the essential role of dynamin during entry into the epithelium. Thus, we conclude that HSV-1 can enter human keratinocytes by alternative entry pathways that require dynamin and host cholesterol. PMID:22022400

  4. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 gene expression by herpes simplex virus type 1 viral transactivators and a phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Gius, D.; Laimins, L.A.

    1989-02-01

    Several viral trans-activators and a tumor promoter were examined for the ability to activate human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) gene expression. A plasmid containing the HPV-18 noncoding region placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was cotransfected with different herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes into several cell lines. Both HSV-1 TIF and ICPO activated HPV-18 expression; however, activation by TIF was observed only in epithelial cells, while ICPO stimulated expression in a wide variety of cells. The element activated by both TIF and ICOP was mapped to a 229-base-pair fragment which also contains an HPV-18 epithelial cell-preferred enhancer. The inclusion of a papillomavirus E2 trans-activator with TIF and ICOP further increased HPV-18 expression. In contrast, the HSV-1 ICP4 and ICP27 genes, as well as the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat genes, were found to have no effect on HPV-18 expression. In transient assays, the addition of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) also activated HPV-18 expression. The region of HPV-18 activated by TPA was localized to a sequence which is homologous to other TPA-responsive elements.

  5. Imaging herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon vector-mediated gene expression in human glioma spheroids.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine; Winkeler, Alexandra; Richter, Raphaela; Sauer, Heinrich; Hescheler, Jürgen; Fraefel, Cornel; Wartenberg, Maria; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2011-06-01

    Vectors derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have great potential for transducing therapeutic genes into the central nervous system; however, inefficient distribution of vector particles in vivo may limit their therapeutic potential in patients with gliomas. This study was performed to investigate the extent of HSV-1 amplicon vector-mediated gene expression in a three-dimensional glioma model of multicellular spheroids by imaging highly infectious HSV-1 virions expressing green fluorescent protein (HSV-GFP). After infection or microscopy-guided vector injection of glioma spheroids at various spheroid sizes, injection pressures and injection times, the extent of HSV-1 vector-mediated gene expression was investigated via laser scanning microscopy. Infection of spheroids with HSV-GFP demonstrated a maximal depth of vector-mediated GFP expression at 70 to 80 μm. A > 80% transduction efficiency was reached only in small spheroids with a diameter of < 150 μm. Guided vector injection into the spheroids showed transduction efficiencies ranging between < 10 and > 90%. The results demonstrated that vector-mediated gene expression in glioma spheroids was strongly dependent on the mode of vector application-injection pressure and injection time being the most important parameters. The assessment of these vector application parameters in tissue models will contribute to the development of safe and efficient gene therapy protocols for clinical application.

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tropism for Human Sensory Ganglion Neurons in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Model of Neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xibing; Reichelt, Mike; Qiao, Yanli; Gu, Haidong; Arvin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The tropism of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for human sensory neurons infected in vivo was examined using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) xenografts maintained in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). In contrast to the HSV-1 lytic infectious cycle in vitro, replication of the HSV-1 F strain was restricted in human DRG neurons despite the absence of adaptive immune responses in SCID mice, allowing the establishment of neuronal latency. At 12 days after DRG inoculation, 26.2% of human neurons expressed HSV-1 protein and 13.1% expressed latency-associated transcripts (LAT). Some infected neurons showed cytopathic changes, but HSV-1, unlike varicella-zoster virus (VZV), only rarely infected satellite cells and did not induce fusion of neuronal and satellite cell plasma membranes. Cell-free enveloped HSV-1 virions were observed, indicating productive infection. A recombinant HSV-1-expressing luciferase exhibited less virulence than HSV-1 F in the SCID mouse host, enabling analysis of infection in human DRG xenografts for a 61-day interval. At 12 days after inoculation, 4.2% of neurons expressed HSV-1 proteins; frequencies increased to 32.1% at 33 days but declined to 20.8% by 61 days. Frequencies of LAT-positive neurons were 1.2% at 12 days and increased to 40.2% at 33 days. LAT expression remained at 37% at 61 days, in contrast to the decline in neurons expressing viral proteins. These observations show that the progression of HSV-1 infection is highly restricted in human DRG, and HSV-1 genome silencing occurs in human neurons infected in vivo as a consequence of virus-host cell interactions and does not require adaptive immune control. PMID:23269807

  7. Herpes simplex virus 1 tropism for human sensory ganglion neurons in the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model of neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zerboni, Leigh; Che, Xibing; Reichelt, Mike; Qiao, Yanli; Gu, Haidong; Arvin, Ann

    2013-03-01

    The tropism of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for human sensory neurons infected in vivo was examined using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) xenografts maintained in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). In contrast to the HSV-1 lytic infectious cycle in vitro, replication of the HSV-1 F strain was restricted in human DRG neurons despite the absence of adaptive immune responses in SCID mice, allowing the establishment of neuronal latency. At 12 days after DRG inoculation, 26.2% of human neurons expressed HSV-1 protein and 13.1% expressed latency-associated transcripts (LAT). Some infected neurons showed cytopathic changes, but HSV-1, unlike varicella-zoster virus (VZV), only rarely infected satellite cells and did not induce fusion of neuronal and satellite cell plasma membranes. Cell-free enveloped HSV-1 virions were observed, indicating productive infection. A recombinant HSV-1-expressing luciferase exhibited less virulence than HSV-1 F in the SCID mouse host, enabling analysis of infection in human DRG xenografts for a 61-day interval. At 12 days after inoculation, 4.2% of neurons expressed HSV-1 proteins; frequencies increased to 32.1% at 33 days but declined to 20.8% by 61 days. Frequencies of LAT-positive neurons were 1.2% at 12 days and increased to 40.2% at 33 days. LAT expression remained at 37% at 61 days, in contrast to the decline in neurons expressing viral proteins. These observations show that the progression of HSV-1 infection is highly restricted in human DRG, and HSV-1 genome silencing occurs in human neurons infected in vivo as a consequence of virus-host cell interactions and does not require adaptive immune control.

  8. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-01-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes. Images PMID:2536838

  9. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-03-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes.

  10. Structure of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Bound to the Human Receptor Nectin-1

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Arjun K.; Luftig, Micah A.; Lou, Huan; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Krummenacher, Claude; Carfi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Binding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) to a cell surface receptor is required to trigger membrane fusion during entry into host cells. Nectin-1 is a cell adhesion molecule and the main HSV receptor in neurons and epithelial cells. We report the structure of gD bound to nectin-1 determined by x-ray crystallography to 4.0 Å resolution. The structure reveals that the nectin-1 binding site on gD differs from the binding site of the HVEM receptor. A surface on the first Ig-domain of nectin-1, which mediates homophilic interactions of Ig-like cell adhesion molecules, buries an area composed by residues from both the gD N- and C-terminal extensions. Phenylalanine 129, at the tip of the loop connecting β-strands F and G of nectin-1, protrudes into a groove on gD, which is otherwise occupied by C-terminal residues in the unliganded gD and by N-terminal residues in the gD/HVEM complex. Notably, mutation of Phe129 to alanine prevents nectin-1 binding to gD and HSV entry. Together these data are consistent with previous studies showing that gD disrupts the normal nectin-1 homophilic interactions. Furthermore, the structure of the complex supports a model in which gD-receptor binding triggers HSV entry through receptor-mediated displacement of the gD C-terminal region. PMID:21980294

  11. Positive associations between infections of Toxoplasma gondii and seropositivity with Anisakis simplex in human patients suffering from chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, V; Rodero, M; Valls, A; De Frutos, C; Daschner, A; Cuéllar, C

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a food-borne and orofecal microorganism which produces chronic infection, and attempts have been made to prove its negative association with atopy in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite associated with chronic urticaria (CU) in endemic regions. We analysed the relationship between both infectious agents in CU. We included 42 patients with chronic urticaria (18 patients with CU associated with A. simplex sensitization and 24 not sensitized CU patients). Patients were assessed for atopy by a skin prick test (SPT) against common aeroallergens and for respiratory symptoms. Anisakis simplex sensitization was assessed by SPT and specific IgE by CAP fluoro-enzyme immunoassay (CAP-FEIA). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CU patients were analysed with respect to T. gondii seropositivity, A. simplex sensitization, atopy and immigrant status. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 40.5% in CU patients and 42.1% in the control group. Immigrants were more frequently infected by T. gondii (41.2% versus 12%; P =0.036). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were associated with past A. simplex parasitism (odds ratio 6.73; P =0.03) and independently with atopic sensitization (odds ratio 5.85; P =0.04). In CU patients, T. gondii has no protective effect on atopic sensitization or A. simplex sensitization.

  12. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Access to Nectin Favors Herpes Simplex Virus Infection at the Apical Surface of Polarized Human Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Galen, Benjamin; Cheshenko, Natalia; Tuyama, Ana; Ramratnam, Bharat; Herold, Betsy C.

    2006-01-01

    Viral entry may preferentially occur at the apical or the basolateral surfaces of polarized cells, and differences may impact pathogenesis, preventative strategies, and successful implementation of viral vectors for gene therapy. The objective of these studies was to examine the polarity of herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry using several different human epithelial cell lines. Human uterine (ECC-1), colonic (CaCo-2), and retinal pigment (ARPE-19) epithelial cells were grown on collagen-coated inserts, and the polarity was monitored by measuring the transepithelial cell resistance. Controls were CaSki cells, a human cervical cell line that does not polarize in vitro. The polarized cells, but not CaSki cells, were 16- to 50-fold more susceptible to HSV infection at the apical surface than at the basolateral surface. Disruption of the tight junctions by treatment with EGTA overcame the restriction on basolateral infection but had no impact on apical infection. No differences in binding at the two surfaces were observed. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that nectin-1, the major coreceptor for HSV entry, sorted preferentially to the apical surface, overlapping with adherens and tight junction proteins. Transfection with small interfering RNA specific for nectin-1 resulted in a significant reduction in susceptibility to HSV at the apical surface but had little impact on basolateral infection. Infection from the apical but not the basolateral surface triggered focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and led to nuclear transport of viral capsids and viral gene expression. These studies indicate that access to nectin-1 contributes to preferential apical infection of these human epithelial cells by HSV. PMID:17005657

  14. Herpes simplex virus Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Weed, Darin J; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation. Two experimental methods, the transient cell-cell fusion approach and fusion from without, are useful surrogate assays of HSV fusion. These five fusion processes are considered in terms of their requirements, mechanism, and regulation. The execution and modulation of these events require distinct yet often overlapping sets of viral proteins and host cell factors. The core machinery of HSV gB, gD, and the heterodimer gH/gL is required for most if not all of the HSV fusion mechanisms.

  15. Efficient KRT14 Targeting and Functional Characterization of Transplanted Human Keratinocytes for the Treatment of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Petek, Lisa M; Fleckman, Philip; Miller, Daniel G

    2010-01-01

    Inherited skin blistering conditions collectively named epidermolysis bullosa (EB) cause significant morbidity and mortality due to the compromise of the skin's barrier function, the pain of blisters, inflammation, and in some cases scaring and cancer. The simplex form of EB is usually caused by dominantly inherited mutations in KRT5 or KRT14. These mutations result in the production of proteins with dominant-negative activity that disrupt polymerization of intermediate filaments in the basal keratinocyte layer and result in a weak epidermal–dermal junction. The genome of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can recombine with chromosomal sequence so that mutations can be corrected, or production of proteins with dominant-negative activity can be disrupted. We demonstrate a clinically feasible strategy for efficient targeting of the KRT14 gene in normal and EB-affected human keratinocytes. Using a gene-targeting vector with promoter trap design, targeted alteration of one allele of KRT14 occurred in 100% of transduced cells and transduction frequencies ranged from 0.1 to 0.6% of total cells. EBS patient keratinocytes with precise modifications of the mutant allele are preferentially recovered from targeted cell populations. Single epidermal stem cell clones produced histologically normal skin grafts after transplantation to athymic mice and could generate a sufficient number of cells to transplant the entire skin surface of an individual. PMID:20571545

  16. Amplification of Herpes simplex type 1 and Human Herpes type 5 viral DNA from formalin-fixed Alzheimer brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, John D; Royall, Donald; Daum, Luke T; Kagan-Hallet, Kathleen; Chambers, James P

    2005-12-16

    It is known that nucleic acids from formalin-fixed tissues are not nearly as good templates for DNA amplification as those extracted from fresh tissues. However, specimens stored in most pathologic archives are initially fixed in formalin. The possibility of an infectious etiology of several diseases including Alzheimer's underscores the usefulness of archived tissue in assessing the association of infectious agents with specific pathology. In this report, we describe in detail a method resulting in robust amplification of HSV1 and Human Herpes type (HHV) 5 viral DNA targets using formalin-fixed Alzheimer brain frontal and temporal tissue as source of amplification template. Herpes simplex type 2 viral DNA was not detected in the limited samples examined in this study. Amplicons were verified by sequence analysis. Brain tissue stored in formalin longer than 1 year prior to post-formalin-fixation analysis gave rise to significantly shorter amplicons consistent with the observation that template DNA integrity decreases significantly with increasing time of storage in formalin. Thus, this report should be useful in PCR-based investigations assessing the regional presence of viral DNAs in formalin-fixed brain tissue.

  17. Herpes simplex virus type-2 and human immunodeficiency virus infections in a rural population in Kilimanjaro Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mmbaga, Elia John; Leyna, Germana Henry; Stray-Pedersen, Babil; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years with permanent address in the village. Following an informed written consent, participants gave blood for HIV-1 testing and further interviewed regarding their risk behaviours. All HIV cases and randomly selected controls were tested for HSV-2 antibodies. The weighted HSV-2 seroprevalence estimate in the whole population was 33.2%. The HSV-2 seroprevalence was 87.5% and 29.5% among HIV-1 seropositive cases and seronegative controls respectively (Odds ratio (OR) 2.9; 95% Confidence interval: 1.9-4.3). After adjusting for sexual risk behaviors, the association between HSV-2 and HIV-1 infections remained strong (adjusted OR 14.1; CI: 5.0-28.3). Multiple sexual partners, transactional sex and unprotected casual sex were independently associated with HIV-1 infection. These results demonstrate that HSV-2 is highly prevalent in rural communities in Tanzania and strongly associated with HIV-1 infection. Sexual risk behaviours may play a major role in the transmission of both HSV-2 and HIV-1 infection. Due to lack of HSV-2 suppressive antiretroviral therapy in this and similar communities, prevention through promotion of behavioural change might be the most important strategy to mitigate HSV-2 and HIV-1 transmission.

  18. Etiology of acute conjunctivitis due to coxsackievirus A24 variant, human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Chlamydia in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Yang, Yongsheng; Lin, Changying; Li, Weihong; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Lei; Li, Xitai; Chen, Lijuan; Wang, Quanyi

    2014-01-01

    Acute conjunctivitis is a common disease associated with high morbidity and economic burden. To clarify the etiological characteristics of acute conjunctivitis in Beijing, surveillance of acute conjunctivitis was conducted from July to October during 2007-2012 by collecting eye swabs from patients treated at surveillance hospitals affiliated with a surveillance program of 18 districts Center for Disease Prevention and Control in Beijing. Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v), enterovirus 70 (EV70), human adenovirus (HAdV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chlamydia were identified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 region of CA24v was conducted. Comparisons of proportions and statistical significance were performed using the chi-square test. HAdV was found to be the most prevalent pathogen, followed by CA24v, chlamydia, and HSV. Significant differences in the symptoms of ocular pain, photophobia, and epiphora were identified among the 4 agents. The prevalence of HAdV- and CA24v-mediated conjunctivitis peaked in July or August and September or October, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of the VP1 regions among the isolated CA24v strains shared 92.8%-100% homology. In conclusion, HAdV followed by CA24v, chlamydia, and HSV were the most common causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Beijing. Comprehensive, continuous surveillance and advanced laboratory techniques are needed for further studies.

  19. High Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in French Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Andréoletti, Laurent; Piednoir, Emmanuel; Legoff, Jérôme; Brodard, Véronique; Beguinot, Isabelle; Strady, Christophe; Rouger, Christine; Piketty, Christophe; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Kazatchkine, Michel Daniel; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Using commercially available herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific serological diagnostic tests, HSV type 2 (HSV-2) antibody prevalence was assessed in two parallel prospective studies including 534 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected outpatients living in two areas of northern France. In the first cohort of 434 subjects, 223 (51%) individuals demonstrated a positive HSV-2 serological status while 66 (66%) of 100 subjects in the second cohort were seropositive for HSV-2 (51 versus 66%; P = 0.08). Among the 223 HSV-2-seropositive subjects identified in the first study cohort, only 22 (10%) had suffered from recurrent anogenital lesions during the past 12 months while 154 (69%) had no clinical history of herpesvirus infection. Our findings demonstrate high proportions of subclinical and undiagnosed HSV-2 infection in HIV-1-infected individuals and suggest that HSV type-specific serological testing in the French HIV-1-infected subpopulation could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections. PMID:16081982

  20. High seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in French human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected outpatients.

    PubMed

    Andréoletti, Laurent; Piednoir, Emmanuel; Legoff, Jérôme; Brodard, Véronique; Beguinot, Isabelle; Strady, Christophe; Rouger, Christine; Piketty, Christophe; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Kazatchkine, Michel Daniel; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2005-08-01

    Using commercially available herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-specific serological diagnostic tests, HSV type 2 (HSV-2) antibody prevalence was assessed in two parallel prospective studies including 534 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected outpatients living in two areas of northern France. In the first cohort of 434 subjects, 223 (51%) individuals demonstrated a positive HSV-2 serological status while 66 (66%) of 100 subjects in the second cohort were seropositive for HSV-2 (51 versus 66%; P = 0.08). Among the 223 HSV-2-seropositive subjects identified in the first study cohort, only 22 (10%) had suffered from recurrent anogenital lesions during the past 12 months while 154 (69%) had no clinical history of herpesvirus infection. Our findings demonstrate high proportions of subclinical and undiagnosed HSV-2 infection in HIV-1-infected individuals and suggest that HSV type-specific serological testing in the French HIV-1-infected subpopulation could be an efficient strategy to diagnose clinically asymptomatic HSV-2 infections.

  1. Characterization of Neuronal Populations in the Human Trigeminal Ganglion and Their Association with Latent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anja K. E.; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Theil, Diethilde; Hüfner, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on staining with antibodies against the GDNF family ligand receptor Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the antibody RT97 against 200kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripherin. The frequencies of marker-positive neurons and their average neuronal sizes were assessed, with TrkA-positive (61.82%) neurons being the most abundant, and Ret-positive (26.93%) the least prevalent. Neurons positive with the antibody RT97 (1253 µm2) were the largest, and those stained against peripherin (884 µm2) were the smallest. Dual immunofluorescence revealed at least a 4.5% overlap for every tested marker combination, with overlap for the combinations TrkA/Ret, TrkA/RT97 and Ret/nNOS lower, and the overlap between Ret/CGRP being higher than would be expected by chance. With respect to latent HSV-1 infection, latency associated transcripts (LAT) were detected using in situ hybridization (ISH) in neurons expressing each of the marker proteins. In contrast to the mouse model, co-localization with neuronal markers Ret or CGRP mirrored the magnitude of these neuron populations, whereas for the other four neuronal markers fewer marker-positive cells were also LAT-ISH+. Ret and CGRP are both known to label neurons related to pain signaling. PMID:24367603

  2. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for ...

  3. Case-Control Study of Herpes Simplex Eye Disease: Bronx Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Eye Studies.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Ethan K; Fargione, Robert A; Atiya, Marianna; Diaz, Jose D; Powell, Jonathan A; Gritz, David C

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), diabetes mellitus, and atopic disease are associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) eye disease and to examine the characteristics of patients with HIV infection and HSV eye disease. Retrospective case-control study. A hospital-based control group was matched to outpatient visits from June 1, 2010, through May 31, 2014, at Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, NY). Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of HSV eye disease during the study period and residency in the Bronx. Associations evaluated included age, sex, HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, and atopic disease. HSV eye disease was confirmed in 70 patients, who were compared with 280 controls. Patients with ocular HSV had a greater prevalence of HIV/AIDS compared with controls (8.6% and 2.9%, respectively). Using multivariate analysis to control for age and sex, atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR) 3.08, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-11.20] and diabetes with chronic complications (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 0.91-5.61) approached significance, whereas HIV/AIDS (OR 3.37, 95% CI, 1.09-10.40), an age less than 45 years (OR 2.89, 95% CI, 1.54-5.41), and male sex (OR 1.85, 95% CI, 1.07-3.18) were significant. In patients with HIV infection and HSV eye disease, 3 of 6 (50%) had confirmed AIDS at the time of ocular HSV diagnosis. Patients with HIV infection have more than a 3-fold increased risk of developing ocular HSV.

  4. [Epidemiological evaluations of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus infections in drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, E; Filippini, P; Guarino, M; Borrelli, G; Aprea, L; Malafronte, G; Felaco, F M; Piccinino, F; Giusti, G

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-eight drug addicts from the "BAN Center" in Torre Annunziata (Naples) and 88 normal subjects pair-matched for age and sex were tested for IgG to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 and cytomegalovirus (CMV). A high prevalence of subjects with antibodies to HSV-1 and CMV (80.7% and 65.9%) were recorded in the control group testifying to the high level of these infections in Campania. Prevalences were higher in drug addicts, and drug abuse was identified as a risk factor for the acquisition of CMV infection (odds ratio = 2.3). Moreover, drug addiction is also a risk factor for HSV-2 and HIV infection as demonstrated by the observation that drug abusers were anti-HSV-2 (9.1 vs. 1.1%, odds ratio = 6.16) or anti-HIV (11.4 vs. 0%, odds ratio = 23.6) positive more frequently than normal controls. Thus, drug addiction is a risk factor for the acquisition of HIV, HSV-2 and CMV infections. This is probably due to similar habits, frequent among drug addicts from our geographic area and uncommon in the normal population, such as tattooing, needle-sharing needlestick and unsafe sex. Some of these habits, such as unsafe sex and tattooing, seem to be, per se, risk factors for the acquisition of both HIV and CMV infections. The data also suggest that HIV infection was probably introduced in Campania more recently than in northern and central Italy where the prevalence of anti-HIV positive cases among drug addicts is definitely higher.

  5. In vitro effect of oral antiseptics on human immunodeficiency virus-1 and herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Baqui, A A; Kelley, J I; Jabra-Rizk, M A; Depaola, L G; Falkler, W A; Meiller, T F

    2001-07-01

    The antiviral effectiveness of widely used commercial mouthrinses has not been well studied. A project was undertaken to evaluate and compare the in vitro antiviral effectiveness of essential oil-containing mouthrinses (LA & TLA) and chlorhexidine mouthrinses (PX & CHX) on 2 different enveloped viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) McIntyre strain. HIV-1(89.6) (1x10(5)/ml) and HSV-1 (1x10(6)/ml) in RPMI-1640 medium were treated with two commercially available forms of LA & TLA (tartar control LA), and 2 formulations of chlorhexidine [(PX), 0.12% chlorhexidine & (CHX), 0.2% chlorhexidine] for 30 sec. The antiviral effect was estimated by inhibition of the syncytia formation or the cytopathic effect (CPE) for HIV-1 on MT-2 cells and by inhibition of the plaque formation for HSV-1 on Vero cell monolayers. Undiluted LA, TLA, PX and CHX completely inhibited both HIV-189.6 and HSV-1 McIntyre strain. PX and CHX inhibited HIV-1 up to 1:4 dilution, whereas, LA and TLA inhibited HSV-1 up to 1:2 dilution. The antiviral effects of LA and TLA were found to be similar and also the antiviral effect of PX and CHX were also found to be comparable. The methods used in this investigation allow easy and reproducible evaluations of antiviral efficacy. The anti-HIV-1 and anti-HSV-1 effects of LA, TLA, PX and CHX as evidenced in our in vitro study suggest that we should investigate potential in vivo effects during the use of essential oil-containing or chlorhexidine containing products when used by patients as mouthrinses. If the clinical studies confirm the in vitro data, pre-procedural use by clinicians may be beneficial in reducing viral contamination of bio-aerosols during the delivery of dental care.

  6. Efficacy of Herpes Simplex Virus Vector Encoding the Human Preproenkephalin Gene for Treatment of Facial Pain in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fei; Wang, Chunmei; Yoder, William E.; Westlund, Karin N.; Carlson, Charles R.; Miller, Craig S.; Danaher, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To determine whether herpes simplex virus–based vectors can efficiently transduce mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and attenuate preexisting nerve injury–induced whisker pad mechanical hypersensitivity in a trigeminal inflammatory compression (TIC) neuropathic pain model. Methods Tissue transduction efficiencies of replication-conditional and replication-defective vectors to mouse whisker pads after topical administration and subcutaneous injection were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Tissue tropism and transgene expression were assessed using qPCR and reverse-transcriptase qPCR following topical application of the vectors. Whisker pad mechanical sensitivities of TIC-injured mice were determined using graduated von Frey fibers before and after application of human preproenkephalin expressing replication-conditional vector (KHPE). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests. Results Transduction of target TGs was 8- to 50-fold greater after topical application than subcutaneous injection and ≥ 100-fold greater for replication-conditional than replication-defective vectors. Mean KHPE loads remained constant in TGs (4.5–9.8 × 104 copies/TG) over 3 weeks but were below quantifiable levels (10 copies/tissue) within 2 weeks of application in other nontarget cephalic tissues examined. Transgene expression in TGs was maximal during 2 weeks after topical application (100–200 cDNA copies/mL) and was below quantifiable levels (1 cDNA copy/mL) in all nontarget tissues. Topical KHPE administration reduced TIC-related mechanical hypersensitivity on whisker pads 4-fold (P < .05) for at least 1 week. Conclusion Topically administered KHPE produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the TIC mouse model of chronic facial neuropathic pain. This is the first report in which a gene therapeutic approach reduced trigeminal pain–related behaviors in an established pain state in mice. PMID:26817032

  7. β-Amyloid peptides display protective activity against the human Alzheimer's disease-associated herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Bourgade, Karine; Garneau, Hugo; Giroux, Geneviève; Le Page, Aurélie Y; Bocti, Christian; Dupuis, Gilles; Frost, Eric H; Fülöp, Tamàs

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid plaques, the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), contain fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and found to co-localize within amyloid plaques. Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 display anti-bacterial, anti-yeast and anti-viral activities. Here, fibroblast, epithelial and neuronal cell lines were exposed to Aβ 1-40 or Aβ 1-42 and challenged with HSV-1. Quantitative analysis revealed that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 inhibited HSV-1 replication when added 2 h prior to or concomitantly with virus challenge, but not when added 2 or 6 h after virus addition. In contrast, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 did not prevent replication of the non-enveloped human adenovirus. In comparison, antimicrobial peptide LL-37 prevented HSV-1 infection independently of its sequence of addition. Our findings showed also that Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 acted directly on HSV-1 in a cell-free system and prevented viral entry into cells. The sequence homology between Aβ and a proximal transmembrane region of HSV-1 glycoprotein B suggested that Aβ interference with HSV-1 replication could involve its insertion into the HSV-1 envelope. Our data suggest that Aβ peptides represent a novel class of antimicrobial peptides that protect against neurotropic enveloped virus infections such as HSV-1. Overproduction of Aβ peptide to protect against latent herpes viruses and eventually against other infections, may contribute to amyloid plaque formation, and partially explain why brain infections play a pathogenic role in the progression of the sporadic form of AD.

  8. Molecular Umbrellas: a Novel Class of Candidate Topical Microbicides To Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jing, Bingwen; Shende, Vikas; Guzman, Esmeralda; Heald, Taylor; Keller, Marla J.; Regen, Steven L.; Shattock, Robin J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular umbrella compounds may function as novel topical microbicides to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. In a preliminary structure-activity investigation, one umbrella compound, designated Spm8CHAS, was identified which inhibited both HIV and HSV infections with no cellular toxicity. The objectives of the current studies were to define its spectrum of antiviral activity, characterize its mechanism of action, and explore the possibility of combining Spm8CHAS with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Spm8CHAS inhibited infections by laboratory and clinical R5 and X4 clade B and clade C HIV strains in cell culture. Ectocervical tissue explants exposed to HIV-1BaL in the presence of Spm8CHAS were completely protected (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 13.6 μg/ml), and transfer of virus to target T cells via migratory cells was abolished (IC50, 3.8 μg/ml). Spm8CHAS inhibited HSV-2 infection of epithelial cells 10,000-fold if present throughout the infection. Notably, adding Spm8CHAS to cultures following HSV entry significantly reduced viral infection, indicating that the drug also acts postentry. Subsequent studies indicated that Spm8CHAS blocks cell-to-cell spread of HSV. Confocal microscopy using a fluorescently labeled analog of Spm8CHAS demonstrated that this conjugate crosses the plasma cell membrane and is transported to the nucleus. Combinations of Spm8CHAS with UC-781 or 9-[R-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl] adenine monohydrate in vitro exhibited additive anti-HIV activity with preserved anti-HSV activity. The abilities of Spm8CHAS to inhibit primary isolates of HIV, block HSV infection postentry, and cross cell membranes support the development of a combination microbicide containing Spm8CHAS with an HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitor to prevent both HIV and HSV infections by multiple mechanisms. PMID:17494078

  9. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Both plasmacytoid dendritic cells and monocytes stimulate natural killer cells early during human herpes simplex virus type 1 infections.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Karin; Thomann, Sabrina; Vogel, Benjamin; Schuster, Philipp; Schmidt, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the herpes virus family, is characterized by a short replication cycle, high cytopathogenicity and distinct neurotropism. Primary infection and reactivation may cause severe diseases in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. This study investigated the role of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in the activation of natural killer (NK) cells for the control of herpesviral infections. Within peripheral blood mononuclear cells, UV-inactivated HSV-1 and CpG-A induced CD69 up-regulation on NK cells, whereas infectious HSV-1 was particularly active in inducing NK cell effector functions interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion and degranulation. The pDC-derived IFN-α significantly contributed to NK cell activation, as evident from neutralization and cell depletion experiments. In addition, monocyte-derived tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced after exposure to infectious HSV-1 was found to stimulate IFN-γ secretion. A minority of monocytes was shown to be non-productively infected in experiments using fluorescently labelled viruses and quantitative PCR analyses. HSV-1-exposed monocytes up-regulated classical HLA-ABC and non-classical HLA-E molecules at the cell surface in an IFN-α-dependent manner, whereas stress molecules MICA/B were not induced. Notably, depletion of monocytes reduced NK cell effector functions induced by infectious HSV-1 (P < 0.05). Altogether, our data suggest a model in which HSV-1-stimulated pDC and monocytes activate NK cells via secretion of IFN-α and TNF-α. In addition, infection of monocytes induces NK cell effector functions via TNF-α-dependent and TNF-α-independent mechanisms. Hence, pDC and monocytes, which are among the first cells infiltrating herpetic lesions, appear to have important bystander functions for NK cells to control these viral infections.

  11. Computer-aided active-site-directed modeling of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and human thymidine kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, Susanne; Gutbrod, Oliver; Krickl, Sabine; Fetzer, Jürgen; Keil, Günther M.

    1991-10-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK), which is induced by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1), plays a key role in the antiviral activity of guanine derivatives such as aciclovir (ACV). In contrast, ACV shows only low affinity to the corresponding host cell enzyme. In order to define the differences in substrate binding of the two enzymes on molecular level, models for the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the active sites of HSV1-TK and human TK were developed. The reconstruction of the active sites started from primary and secondary structure analysis of various kinases. The results were validated to homologous enzymes with known 3-D structures. The models predict that both enzymes consist of a central core β-sheet structure, connected by loops and α-helices very similar to the overall structure of other nucleotide binding enzymes. The phosphate binding is made up of a highly conserved glycine-rich loop at the N-terminus of the proteins and a conserved region at the C-terminus. The thymidine recognition site was found about 100 amino acids downstream from the phosphate binding loop. The differing substrate specificity of human and HSV1-TK can be explained by amino-acid substitutions in the homologous regions. To achieve a better understanding of the structure of the active site and how the thymidine kinase proteins interact with their substrates, the corresponding complexes of thymidine and dihydroxypropoxyguanine (DHPG) with HSV1 and human TK were built. For the docking of the guanine derivative, the X-ray structure of Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), co-crystallized with guanosine diphosphate, was taken as reference. Fitting of thymidine into the active sites was done with respect to similar interactions found in thymidylate kinase. To complement the analysis of the 3-D structures of the two kinases and the substrate enzyme interactions, site-directed mutagenesis of the thymidine recognition site of HSV1-TK has been undertaken, changing Asp162 in the thymidine recognition site

  12. [Viral infection of herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, or adenovirus are not related to sinonasal adenocarcinomas].

    PubMed

    Pérez Escuredo, Jhudit; Llorente, José Luis; Melón, Santiago; de Oña, María; García Martínez, Jorge; Alvarez Marcos, César; Hermsen, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Several types of virus have been implicated in the development of head and neck tumors. However, until now sinonasal adenocarcinomas (ACN) have not been studied. The aim of this study is to screen a series of ACN for the presence of a number of viruses known to play a role in cancer. Viral DNA sequences of herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus were analysed by PCR in 37 primary ACN. Three tumors (8.1%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus and 1 case (2.7%) for cytomegalovirus. Viral infections do not seem to play a role in the etiology of ACN.

  13. Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

    2014-03-01

    Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings.

  14. Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 photoinactivated in the presence of methylene blue transform human and mouse cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Michútová, M; Mrázová, V; Kúdelová, M; Smolinská, M; Šupoliková, M; Vrbová, M; Golais, F

    2017-01-01

    Three strains of herpes simplex virus, K17syn- and HSZPsyn+ of type 1 (HSV-1) and USsyn- of type 2 (HSV-2), were photoinactivated in the presence of methylene blue and used to infect 3 cell lines, normal human lung tissue cells (MRC-5), mouse epithelial cells (NIH3T3), and human lung carcinoma cells (A549). The virus titer and phenotype of cells were evaluated to compare the characteristics of normal and carcinoma cells infected with non-syncytial (non-syn) and syncytial (syn) strains of herpes simplex viruses. We found that the cells of both normal cell lines infected with photoinactivated K17syn- and USsyn- but not HSZPsyn+ acquired transformed phenotype accompanied by the presence of virus. Surprisingly, the infection with photoinactivated viruses K17syn- and USsyn- but not HSZPsyn+ resulted in the suppression of the transformed phenotype of A549 cells. Using nested PCR, herpesviral DNA was identified in newly transformed cells and cells that lost the transformed phenotype. The effect of putative herpesvirus-related growth factors (HRGF) produced by cells infected with photoinactivated viruses was quantified and compared. Since methylene blue is currently used in phototherapy of herpetic lesions, these results raise the question of whether such therapy is risky to human health.

  15. Assessment of brain metabolite correlates of adeno-associated virus-mediated over-expression of human alpha-synuclein in cortical neurons by in vivo (1) H-MR spectroscopy at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Cuellar-Baena, Sandra; Landeck, Natalie; Sonnay, Sarah; Buck, Kerstin; Mlynarik, Vladimir; In 't Zandt, René; Kirik, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used proton-localized spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) for the acquisition of the neurochemical profile longitudinally in a novel rat model of human wild-type alpha-synuclein (α-syn) over-expression. Our goal was to find out if the increased α-syn load in this model could be linked to changes in metabolites in the frontal cortex. Animals injected with AAV vectors encoding for human α-syn formed the experimental group, whereas green fluorescent protein expressing animals were used as the vector-treated control group and a third group of uninjected animals were used as naïve controls. Data were acquired at 2, 4, and 8 month time points. Nineteen metabolites were quantified in the MR spectra using LCModel software. On the basis of 92 spectra, we evaluated any potential gender effect and found that lactate (Lac) levels were lower in males compared to females, while the opposite was observed for ascorbate (Asc). Next, we assessed the effect of age and found increased levels of GABA, Tau, and GPC+PCho. Finally, we analyzed the effect of treatment and found that Lac levels (p = 0.005) were specifically lower in the α-syn group compared to the green fluorescent protein and control groups. In addition, Asc levels (p = 0.05) were increased in the vector-injected groups, whereas glucose levels remained unchanged. This study indicates that the metabolic switch between glucose-lactate could be detectable in vivo and might be modulated by Asc. No concomitant changes were found in markers of neuronal integrity (e.g., N-acetylaspartate) consistent with the fact that α-syn over-expression in cortical neurons did not result in neurodegeneration in this model. We acquired the neurochemical profile longitudinally in a rat model of human wild-type alpha-synuclein (α-syn) over-expression in cortical neurons. We found that Lactate levels were reduced in the α-syn group compared to the control groups and Ascorbate levels were increased in the vector-injected groups

  16. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus type 2, and human herpes virus 8 in remote villages of southwestern Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, B; Danaya, R T; Sarmati, L; Owen, I L; Boros, S; Pozio, E; Andreoni, M; Rezza, G

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted viruses, two serosurveys (the first in 1999 among 56 adults and the second in 2001 among 351 adults) were conducted in remote villages of the southwestern part of Papua New Guinea. Only one individual was positive for antibodies to HIV. In 2001, the seroprevalence of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) was 32.2%, and the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 27.4%. Both prevalence rates increased with age, and were lower in the villages near the Bensbach River. The seropositivity of HSV-2 was independently correlated with HHV-8 infection. Our data show that the inhabitants of the southwestern region of Papua New Guinea currently experience an extremely low circulation of HIV. However, the high prevalence of infectious agents that can be sexually transmitted, such as HSV-2 and to a lesser extent HHV-8, indicates the presence of behavioral patterns that may facilitate the spread of HIV in this area of currently low endemicity.

  17. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated high-efficiency, transient expression of the murine cationic amino acid transporter (ecotropic retroviral receptor) permits stable transduction of human HeLa cells by ecotropic retroviral vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bertran, J; Miller, J L; Yang, Y; Fenimore-Justman, A; Rueda, F; Vanin, E F; Nienhuis, A W

    1996-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus has a broad host range, is nonpathogenic, and integrates into a preferred location on chromosome 19, features that have fostered development of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) as gene transfer vectors for therapeutic applications. We have used an rAAV to transfer and express the murine cationic amino acid transporter which functions as the ecotropic retroviral receptor, thereby rendering human cells conditionally susceptible to infection by an ecotropic retroviral vector. The proportion of human HeLa cells expressing the receptor at 60 h varied as a function of the multiplicity of infection (MOI) with the rAAV. Cells expressing the ecotropic receptor were efficiently transduced with an ecotropic retroviral vector encoding a nucleus-localized form of beta-galactosidase. Cells coexpressing the ecotropic receptor and nucleus-localized beta-galactosidase were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and cell lines were recovered by cloning at limiting dilution. After growth in culture, all clones contained the retroviral vector genome, but fewer than 10% (3 of 47) contained the rAAV genome and continued to express the ecotropic receptor. The ecotropic receptor coding sequences in the rAAV genome were under the control of a tetracycline-modulated promoter. In the presence of tetracycline, receptor expression was low and the proportion of cells transduced by the ecotropic retroviral vector was decreased. Modulation of receptor expression was achieved with both an episomal and an integrated form of the rAAV genome. These data establish that functional gene expression from an rAAV genome can occur transiently without genome integration. PMID:8794313

  18. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  19. Selective Expression of CCR10 and CXCR3 by Circulating Human Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific CD8 T Cells.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Michael T; Peng, Tao; Cheng, Anqi; De Rosa, Stephen C; Wald, Anna; Laing, Kerry J; Jing, Lichen; Dong, Lichun; Magaret, Amalia S; Koelle, David M

    2017-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is restricted to epithelial cells and neurons and is controlled by CD8 T cells. These cells both traffic to epithelial sites of recurrent lytic infection and to ganglia and persist at the dermal-epidermal junction for up to 12 weeks after lesion resolution. We previously showed that cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA), a functional E-selectin ligand (ESL), is selectively expressed on circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T cells. CLA/ESL mediates adhesion of T cells to inflamed vascular endothelium. Later stages in T-cell homing involve chemokines (Ch) and lymphocyte chemokine receptors (ChR) for vascular wall arrest and diapedesis. Several candidate ChR have been implicated in skin homing. We measured cell surface ChR on HSV-specific human peripheral blood CD8 T cells and extended our studies to HSV-1. We observed preferential cell surface expression of CCR10 and CXCR3 by HSV-specific CD8 T cells compared to CD8 T cells specific for control viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), and compared to bulk memory CD8 T cells. CXCR3 ligand mRNA levels were selectively increased in skin biopsy specimens from persons with recurrent HSV-2, while the mRNA levels of the CCR10 ligand CCL27 were equivalent in lesion and control skin. Our data are consistent with a model in which CCL27 drives baseline recruitment of HSV-specific CD8 T cells expressing CCR10, while interferon-responsive CXCR3 ligands recruit additional cells in response to virus-driven inflammation.IMPORTANCE HSV-2 causes very localized recurrent infections in the skin and genital mucosa. Virus-specific CD8 T cells home to the site of recurrent infection and participate in viral clearance. The exit of T cells from the blood involves the use of chemokine receptors on the T-cell surface and chemokines that are present in infected tissue. In this study, circulating HSV-2-specific CD8 T cells were identified using specific fluorescent tetramer reagents, and

  20. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  1. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Rebeca Pérez; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Puel, Anne; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Picard, Capucine; Herman, Melina; Cardon, Annabelle; Durandy, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Bravo, Jerónimo; Warnatz, Klaus; Chaix, Yves; Cascarrigny, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Karin, Michael; Tardieu, Marc; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) functions downstream of multiple receptors that induce interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN–β and IFN-λ production, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is deficient in some patients with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis (HSE). Mice lacking TRAF3 die in the neonatal period, preventing direct investigation of the role of TRAF3 in immune responses and host defenses in vivo. Here we reported the autosomal dominant, human TRAF3 deficiency in a young adult with a history of HSE in childhood. The TRAF3 mutant allele was a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function, dominant-negative phenotype, and was associated with impaired, but not abolished TRAF3-dependent responses upon stimulation of both TNF receptors and receptors that induce IFN production. TRAF3 deficiency was associated with a clinical phenotype limited to HSE resulting from the impairment of TLR3-dependent induction of IFN. Thus, TLR3-mediated immunity against primary infection by HSV-1 in the central nervous system is critically dependent on TRAF3. Highlight sentence Autosomal dominant TRAF3 deficiency is a genetic etiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. Highlight sentence R118W TRAF3 allele is loss-of-function, loss-of-expression, and dominant-negative. Highlight sentence Human TRAF3 deficiency impairs the TLR3-dependent induction of anti-viral interferons. PMID:20832341

  2. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Dadabhai, Sufia S; Bunnell, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Bennett, Eddas; Baya, Isaack; Akinyi, Nelly; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Kaiser, Reinhard

    2011-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90% completed an interview and 80% consented to testing. In all, 35% were infected with HSV-2, of which 42% were women and 26% were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7% to 34% in women and 3% to 14% in men. Among couples, 30% were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21% were discordant, and 49% were concordant-negative. In all, 81% of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16% among those with HSV-2 and 2% among those without HSV-2. Women with circumcised partners had an HSV-2 prevalence of 39% compared to 77% of women with uncircumcised partners. One-third of Kenyans were HSV-2 infected. HIV-1 infection, age, female sex, and lack of male circumcision were population-level predictors for HSV-2 infection. Targeted prevention interventions are needed, including an effective vaccine.

  3. The preparation, efficacy and safety of 'antigenoid' vaccine NFU1 (S-L+) MRC toward prevention of herpes simplex virus infections in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Buchan, A; Hartley, C E; Turner, S P; Williams, D R

    1980-01-01

    Vaccine NFU1 (S-L+) MRC was prepared by high multiplicity infection of serum-deprived human embryonic lung (MRC 5) cells with type 1 Herpes simplex virus. The preparative process removed inoculum virus particles and virus DNA while virus particle and DNA synthesis was inhibited by the presence of lithium chloride in the cell culture medium. The vaccine stimulated neutralising antibody in vaccinated mice and provided long-term protection against intra-vaginal challenge with type 2 herpes virus. The safety of the vaccine was confirmed by inoculation into newborn mice and cell lines of human, mammalian, and rodent origin. There was no evidence of cell transformation in vitro or of oncogenicity or teratogenicity in rodent species. It is intended to investigate the efficiency of this vaccine in human subjects.

  4. Evidence for an involvement of thymidine kinase in the excision repair of ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Intine, R.V.; Rainbow, A.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A wild-type strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1:KOS) encoding a functional thymidine kinase (tk+) and a tk- mutant strain (HSV-1:PTK3B) were used to study the role of the viral tk in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV-1 in human cells. UV survival of HSV-1:PTK3B was substantially reduced compared with that of HSV-1:KOS when infecting normal human cells. In contrast, the UV survival of HSV-1:PTK3B was similar to that of HSV-1:KOS when infecting excision repair-deficient cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient from complementation group A. These results suggest that the repair of UV-irradiated HSV-1 in human cells depends, in part at least, on expression of the viral tk and that the repair process influenced by tk activity is excision repair or a process dependent on excision repair.

  5. Role of Interleukin 32 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reactivation and Its Link to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Herpes Simplex Virus Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Pedro M M; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Keller, Marla J; Vudattu, Nalini; Espinoza, Lilia; Altrich, Michelle; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Kevan C; Herold, Betsy C

    2017-02-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; herpes) exacerbates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) by unclear mechanisms. These studies tested the impact of HSV-2 on systemic T-cells and HIV reservoirs. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy who were HSV-2 seropositive or seronegative and HIV-uninfected controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell-associated HIV DNA and RNA were quantified in the absence or presence of activating stimuli, recombinant interleukin 32γ (IL-32γ), and a RUNX1 inhibitor. RNA was assessed by nanostring. CD4, but not CD8, T-cell phenotypes differed in HIV+/HSV-2+ versus HIV+/HSV-2- (overall P = .002) with increased frequency of CCR5+, CXCR4+, PD-1+, and CD69+ and decreased frequency of CCR10+ and CCR6+ T-cells. The changes were associated with higher HIV DNA. Paradoxically, IL-32, a proinflammatory cytokine, was lower in subpopulations of CD4+ T-cells in HSV-2+ versus HSV-2- women. Recombinant IL-32γ blocked HIV reactivation in CD4+ T-cells and was associated with an increase in RUNX1 expression; the blockade was overcome by a RUNX1 inhibitor. Herpes is associated with phenotypic changes in CD4+ T-cells, including a decrease in IL-32, which may contribute to increased HIV reservoirs. Blocking IL-32 may facilitate HIV reactivation to improve shock and kill strategies.

  6. MORC3, a Component of PML Nuclear Bodies, Has a Role in Restricting Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Anne; Everett, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously reported that MORC3, a protein associated with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs), is a target of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0-mediated degradation (E. Sloan, et al., PLoS Pathog 11:e1005059, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005059). Since it is well known that certain other components of the PML NB complex play an important role during an intrinsic immune response to HSV-1 and are also degraded or inactivated by ICP0, here we further investigate the role of MORC3 during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate that MORC3 has antiviral activity during HSV-1 infection and that this antiviral role is counteracted by ICP0. In addition, MORC3's antiviral role extends to wild-type (wt) human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, as its plaque-forming efficiency increased in MORC3-depleted cells. We found that MORC3 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes after their entry into the nucleus of an infected cell, and in wt infections this is followed by its association with ICP0 foci prior to its degradation. The RING finger domain of ICP0 was required for degradation of MORC3, and we confirmed that no other HSV-1 protein is required for the loss of MORC3. We also found that MORC3 is required for fully efficient recruitment of PML, Sp100, hDaxx, and γH2AX to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes entering the host cell nucleus. This study further unravels the intricate ways in which HSV-1 has evolved to counteract the host immune response and reveals a novel function for MORC3 during the host intrinsic immune response. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses have devised ways to manipulate the host intrinsic immune response to promote their own survival and persistence within the human population. One way in which this is achieved is through degradation or functional inactivation of PML NB proteins, which are recruited to viral genomes in order to repress viral transcription. Because MORC3 associates with PML NBs in uninfected cells and

  7. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (soft corals) are capable of inhibiting the growth of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Wang, Guey-Horng; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lee, Mei-Feng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Cheng, Da-Long; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2008-01-01

    Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extracts on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25) cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G(0)/G(1) and S-G(2)/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G(1) fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  8. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals) are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Wang, Guey-Horng; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lee, Mei-Feng; Wang, Shih-Hao; Cheng, Da-Long; Chou, Tzung-Han

    2008-01-01

    Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extracts on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25) cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals. PMID:19172197

  9. Detection of type-specific antibody to herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in human sera by complement-fixation tests.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Hartley, C H; Whitney, J E

    1976-01-01

    Type-specific antigens for herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 were prepared by rigorous absorption of cell extracts with heterotypic immune sera. Type-specificity was demonstrated by immunodiffusion and complement-fixation tests against immune sera prepared in rabbits. Specific type 1 complement-fixing reactivity was detected in eleven of fifteen sera from Roman Catholic nuns and in two convalescent sera from patients with recurrent herpes labialis; these sera had been previously shown to contain neutralising and complement-fixing antibody to herpes simplex virus. Three of the non-reacting sera contained low or absent levels of type-common complement-fixing reactivity and other contained no type-specific neutralising antibody. With the exception of three "acute" sera, specific type 2 complement-fixing reactivity was detected in every convalescent or interim serum obtained from patients with a virologically-proven history of type 2 herpes virus infection. It is suggested that complement-fixation testing using these absorbed type-specific antigens preparations may provide a convenient and rapid method for the identification of type-specific antibody in human sera.

  10. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Jonscher, Karen R.; Dooper, Maaike M.W.B.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Moen, Anders; Daschner, Alvaro; Egaas, Eliann; Christians, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described. PMID:27110489

  11. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infants with human parechovirus or human herpes virus-6 detected in cerebrospinal fluid tested for enterovirus or herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Messacar, Kevin; Breazeale, Garrett; Wei, Qi; Robinson, Christine C; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2015-05-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are acquired commonly in infancy and associated with central nervous system infection. The prevalence of HPeV and HHV-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants tested for enterovirus (EV) and herpes-simplex virus (HSV) is unknown. All stored CSF samples from EV or HSV testing in infants less than 6 months of age at Children's Hospital Colorado between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were tested for HPeV, HHV-6, EV, and HSV by PCR. Clinical characteristics and epidemiological data were collected using retrospective electronic chart review. Of 239 infants tested, 29 cases of EV (12.1%), 7 cases of HPeV (2.9%), 5 cases of HHV-6 (2.1%), and 5 cases of HSV (2.1%) were identified with no bacterial co-infections. HPeV cases occurred between July and October in infants with median age of 24 days. Infants with HPeV had a median maximum temperature of 39 °C, median fever duration of 3 days and median peripheral white blood cell count of 5.2 × 10(3)/μL. HHV-6 cases occurred in infants with median age of 61 days without seasonality. Five percent of infants less than 6 months of age undergoing testing for EV or HSV have HPeV or HHV-6 in the CSF. Targeting testing of HPeV towards febrile infants less than 2 months of age with leukopenia in the late summer to early fall, and HHV-6 towards older infants may increase diagnostic yield. The clinical and fiscal impact of testing infants for HPeV and HHV-6 needs to be determined.

  12. Immune inhibition of virus release from human and nonhuman cells by antibody to viral and host cell determinants.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Davies, J; Desperbasques, M; Billstrom, M; Geerligs, H J; Welling, G W; Welling-Wester, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1991-01-01

    Immune inhibition of release of the DNA viruses, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus by anti-viral and anti-host cell sera occurred while two RNA viruses, influenza and encephalomyocarditis, were inhibited only by anti-viral sera (not anti-host cell sera). Simian virus 40 and surprisingly two herpes viruses, bovine mamillitis and equine abortion, were not inhibited by either anti-viral or anti-host sera. Using the herpes simplex virus model, inhibition of virus release was detected in different cells of human and nonhuman origin with cross-inhibition between cell lines of different origin; thus, this form of immunotherapy may not require antibody to be tissue or organ specific. Evidence of inhibition of virus release from neoplastic and leukemic cell lines suggests possible application of this approach to control of virus-mediated leukoproliferative pathology (e.g. Burkitt's lymphoma or adult T cell leukemia).

  13. Prevalence and association of human papillomavirus 16, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus-1 and cytomegalovirus infection with human esophageal carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Hong; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Hong, Chao-Qun; Chen, Jiong-Yu; Shen, Zhong-Ying; Zhu, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Recent research shows esophageal carcinoma (EC) as the ninth most common malignancy in the world. The association of viral infection and EC has been reported in the last 30 years. However, geographic variation in infection rates and the key mechanisms of the viral action have yet to be resolved. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and association of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the etiology of EC in the area of Shantou, Guangdong, China. Nested PCR was used to detect viral DNA in the mucosa of 70 cases of EC and in paracancerous tissues, as well as 100 cases of normal esophagus mucosa. Data were analyzed by χ2 test, Fisher's exact test and bivariate correlation analysis. The infection rates of HPV-16, HSV-1 and EBV were 40.0, 30.0 and 30.0%, respectively, in EC mucosa, and were significantly higher than those in normal mucosa. However, no CMV DNA was detected in either EC or normal mucosa. HPV-16 or EBV infection was mainly detected in EC patients 48-58 years old, and the infection rate was positively associated with pathological grade of EC (P<0.05). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consuption were high risk factors for HPV-16 infection for male patients [odds ratio (OR), 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-24.6; OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.8]. Rates of infection with a mixture of these 3 viruses were all more than 10.0% in cancerous mucosa and closely related to the pathological grade of EC (P = 0.001). Infection with HPV-16, HSV-1 or EBV may be an important etiological factor in EC.

  14. Simplex and Polygon Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2015-06-01

    It is shown that higher Bruhat orders admit a decomposition into a higher Tamari order, the corresponding dual Tamari order, and a ''mixed order''. We describe simplex equations (including the Yang-Baxter equation) as realizations of higher Bruhat orders. Correspondingly, a family of ''polygon equations'' realizes higher Tamari orders. They generalize the well-known pentagon equation. The structure of simplex and polygon equations is visualized in terms of deformations of maximal chains in posets forming 1-skeletons of polyhedra. The decomposition of higher Bruhat orders induces a reduction of the N-simplex equation to the (N+1)-gon equation, its dual, and a compatibility equation.

  15. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HPV in men study.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Papenfuss, Mary R; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-06-01

    Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence.

  16. Ocular Distribution, Spectrum of Activity, and In Vivo Viral Neutralization of a Fully Humanized Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus IgG Fab Fragment following Topical Application

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo, Marianne; Larsen, Inna V.; Abadie, Claire; Deloche, Catherine; Kowalczuk, Laura; Touchard, Elodie; Dubielzig, Richard; Brandt, Curtis R.; Combette, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex ocular infection is a major cause of corneal blindness. Local antiviral treatments exist but are associated with corneal toxicity, and resistance has become an issue. We evaluated the biodistribution and efficacy of a humanized anti-herpes simplex virus (anti-HSV) IgG FAb fragment (AC-8; 53 kDa) following repeated topical administration. AC-8 was found in the corneal epithelium, anterior stroma, subepithelial stromal cells, and retinal glial cells, with preferential entry through the ocular limbus. AC-8 was active against 13 different strains of HSV-1, with 50% and 90% mean effective concentrations (MEC50 and MEC90, respectively) ranging from 0.03 to 0.13 μg/ml, indicating broad-spectrum activity. The in vivo efficacy of AC-8 was evaluated in a mouse model of herpes-induced ocular disease. Treatment with low-dose AC-8 (1 mg/ml) slightly reduced the ocular disease scores. A greater reduction of the disease scores was observed in the 10-mg/ml AC-8-treated group, but not as much as with trifluridine (TFT). AC-8 treatment reduced viral titers but less than trifluridine. AC-8 did not display any toxicity to the cornea or other structures in the eye. In summary, topical instillation of an anti-HSV FAb can be used on both intact and ulcerated corneas. It is well tolerated and does not alter reepithelialization. Further studies to improve the antiviral effect are needed for AC-8 to be considered for therapeutic use. PMID:22203590

  17. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti

  18. Potent efficacy signals from systemically administered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV1716) in hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Braidwood, Lynne; Learmonth, Kirsty; Graham, Alex; Conner, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV1716), lacking the neurovirulence factor ICP34.5, has highly selective replication competence for cancer cells and has been used in clinical studies of glioma, melanoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, pediatric non-central nervous system solid tumors, and malignant pleural mesothelioma. To date, 88 patients have received HSV1716 and the virus is well tolerated, with selective replication in tumor cells and no spread to surrounding normal tissue. We assessed the potential value of HSV1716 in preclinical studies with two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HuH7 and HepG2-luc. HSV1716 displayed excellent replication kinetics in vitro in HepG2-luc cells, a cell line engineered to express luciferase, and virus-mediated cell killing correlated with loss of light emissions from the cells. In vivo, the HepG2-luc cells readily formed light-emitting xenografts that were easily visualized by an in vivo imaging system and efficiently eliminated by HSV1716 oncolysis after intratumoral injection. HSV1716 also demonstrated strong efficacy signals in subcutaneous HuH7 xenografts in nude mice after intravenous administration of virus. In the HuH7 model, the intravenously injected virus replicated prolifically immediately after efficient tumor localization, resulting in highly significant reductions in tumor growth and enhanced survival. Our preclinical results demonstrate excellent tumor uptake of HSV1716, with prolific replication and potent oncolysis. These observations warrant a clinical study of HSV1716 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Host-Targeted Antiviral that Abrogates Herpes Simplex Virus Replication through Modulation of Arginine-Associated Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Maria Dulfary; Ochoa, Augusto C.; Foster, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Since their inception five decades ago, most antivirals have been engineered to disrupt a single viral protein or process that is essential for viral replication. This approach has limited the overall therapeutic effectiveness and applicability of current antivirals due to restricted viral specificity, a propensity for development of drug resistance, and an inability to control deleterious host-mediated inflammation. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses are reliant on host metabolism and macromolecular synthesis pathways. Of these biosynthetic processes, many viruses, including Herpes simplex viruses (HSV), are absolutely dependent on the bioavailability of arginine, a non-essential amino acid that is critical for many physiological and pathophysiological processes associated with either facilitating viral replication or progression of disease. To assess if targeting host arginine-associated metabolic pathways would inhibit HSV replication, a pegylated recombinant human Arginase I (peg-ArgI) was generated and its in vitro anti-herpetic activity was evaluated. Cells continuously treated with peg-ArgI for over 48 hours exhibited no signs of cytotoxicity or loss of cell viability. The antiviral activity of peg-ArgI displayed a classical dose-response curve with IC50’s in the sub-nanomolar range. peg-ArgI potently inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 viral replication, infectious virus production, cell-to-cell spread/transmission and virus-mediated cytopathic effects. Not unexpectedly given its host-targeted mechanism of action, peg-ArgI showed similar effectiveness at controlling replication of single and multidrug resistant HSV-1 mutants. These findings illustrate that targeting host arginine-associated metabolic pathways is an effective means of controlling viral replicative processes. Further exploration into the breadth of viruses inhibited by peg-ArgI, as well as the ability of peg-ArgI to suppress arginine-associated virus-mediated pathophysiological disease

  20. An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, A.I.; Keyomarsi, K.; Bryan, J.; Pardee, A.B. )

    1990-11-01

    The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; ts mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses {beta}-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system.

  1. Sequential Changes in Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus After Recurrent Herpetic Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shillitoe, E. J.; Wilton, J. M. A.; Lehner, T.

    1977-01-01

    Lymphocyte responses to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were studied in 23 patients with recurrent herpes labialis and in 19 control subjects. Lymphocytes of seropositive, but not seronegative, controls responded to HSV by thymidine incorporation, and the supernatant fluids inhibited the migration of guinea pig macrophages. Lymphocytes from patients with a recurrent herpetic lesion responded to HSV by significantly greater thymidine incorporation than seropositive controls, but supernatants did not show an increased macrophage migration inhibition response. During the 28 days after the onset of a lesion, the thymidine incorporation to HSV fell to the level of the seropositive controls, and supernatants then induced an increased inhibition of macrophage migration. Lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans, purified protein derivative, or phytohemagglutinin did not fluctuate according to the presence of a lesion and did not differ from those of the controls. Lymphocyte responses to HSV were unaffected by culture in the presence of serum from seronegative or seropositive controls, or from patients with or without a herpetic lesion. It is suggested that in patients with recurrent herpes labialis a periodic defect of the migration inhibition response might have allowed the recurrent infection to develop, and that the increased thymidine incorporation stimulated by HSV in vitro is a result of antigenic stimulation from the lesion. PMID:198372

  2. [Immune evasion by herpes simplex viruses].

    PubMed

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Suazo, Paula A; Garrido, Ignacio; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses and humans have co-existed for tens of thousands of years. This long relationship has translated into the evolution and selection of viral determinants to evade the host immune response and reciprocally the evolution and selection of host immune components for limiting virus infection and damage. Currently there are no vaccines available to avoid infection with these viruses or therapies to cure them. Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic and reside latently in neurons at the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, occasionally reactivating. Most viral recurrences are subclinical and thus, unnoticed. Here, we discuss the initial steps of infection by herpes simplex viruses and the molecular mechanisms they have developed to evade innate and adaptive immunity. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to evade host immunity should help us envision novel vaccine strategies and therapies that limit infection and dissemination.

  3. Failure to detect human herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus viral genomes in giant cell arteritis biopsy specimens by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cankovic, Milena; Zarbo, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    A study provided evidence of human herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in giant cell arteritis (GCA) biopsy specimens. This prompted us to study our own GCA biopsy specimens using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HSV1, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus DNAs. Our study failed to confirm an association between HSV1 and GCA, revealing no viral genome in 35 biopsy specimens of histologically positive temporal arteries.

  4. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Schlehofer, J R; Ehrbar, M; zur Hausen, H

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens ("initiators") as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  5. Lambda-Interferons Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Replication in Human Cervical Epithelial Cells by Activating the JAK/STAT Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Lu, Xuan; Zhu, Yufan; Cheng, Pengfei; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jingfeng; Yang, Sijun; Zhou, Li

    2017-07-24

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with a variety of diseases that are health problems worldwide. Our early study showed that lambda-interferons (IFN-λs), induced by the activation of the Toll-like receptor 3 and retinoic acid-inducible protein I signaling pathways, contribute to inhibition of HSV-2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells. However, anti-HSV-2 mechanisms and specific differences in signaling transduction by different IFN-λs in human cervical epithelial cells remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated potent inhibition of HSV-2 replication by IFN-λs without cytotoxicity. Investigation of the underlying mechanism(s) showed that IFN-λs induced expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and enhanced the expression of several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Among the IFN-λs, IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of ISG and PRR expression. In addition, IFN-λs up-regulated a number of genes that encode components of the Janus kinase signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway by a JAK inhibitor abolished IFN-λ-mediated anti-HSV-2 activity and induction of ISGs and PRRs, whereas the induction of ISGs and PRRs by IFN-λs was not compromised by HSV-2 infection. These findings provide further experimental evidence that IFN-λs have therapeutic potential for HSV-2 infections.

  6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T-cell responses in humans immunized with an HSF type 2 glycoprotein subunit vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.M.; Moran, P.A.; Brewer, L.; Ashley, R.; Corey, L.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether immunization of humans with a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein-subunit vaccine would result in the priming of both HSV-specific proliferating cells and cytotoxic T cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from all eight vaccinees studied responded by proliferating after stimulation with HSV-2, HSV-1, and glycoprotein gB-1. The PBL of five of these eight vaccinees proliferated following stimulation with gD-2, whereas stimulation with Gd-1 resulted in relatively low or no proliferative responses. T-cell clones were generated from HSV-2-stimulated PBL of three vaccinees who demonstrated strong proliferative responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of 12 clones studied in lymphoproliferative assays, 9 were found to be cross-reactive for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of the approximately 90 T-cell clones isolated, 14 demonstrated HSV-specific cytotoxic activity. Radioimmunoprecipitation-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses confirmed that the vaccinees had antibodies only to HSV glycoproteins, not to proteins which are absent in the subunit vaccine, indicating that these vaccinees had not become infected with HSV. Immunization of humans with an HSV-2 glycoprotein-subunit vaccine thus results in the priming of T cells that proliferate in response to stimulation with HSV and its glycoproteins and T cells that have cytotoxic activity against HSV-infected cells. Such HSV-specific memory T cells were detected as late as 2 years following the last boost with the subunit vaccine.

  7. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  8. Accumulation of a soluble form of human nectin-2 is required for exerting the resistance against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Y; Ozaki, K; Iwamori, N; Takakuwa, H; Ono, E

    2016-03-01

    Cell entry of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires the interaction of viral glycoprotein D (gD) with the receptor nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). In addition, it is known that nectin-2 is also functional as a receptor for HSV-2, although the binding to the gD is weak. To examine an antiviral potential of a soluble form of human nectin-2 (hNectin-2Ig), transfected Vero cells expressing the entire ectodomain of nectin-2 fused to the Fc portion of human IgG were established. Specific binding of hNectin-2Ig to HSV-2 gD was confirmed by ELISA. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that accumulation of hNectin-2Ig in transfected cells increased significantly in a cell culture time dependent manner. Viral growth of several HSV-2 strains was significantly inhibited in the transfected cells that were cultured for 72 hr compared with control Vero cells, but not in cells that were cultured for 24 hr. These results indicate that accumulation of a soluble form of nectin-2 is required for exerting the resistance against HSV-2 infection.

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine

  11. Herpes simplex virus 2 infects human endothelial ECV304 cells and induces cell apoptosis synergistically with ox-LDL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Tang, Qizhu; Xu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Virus infection has been shown to accelerate atherosclerosis. Serological studies indicate a link between the Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection and atherosclerosis, which is initiated and progression of which is promoted by such factors as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced endothelial dysfunction. In order to recognize the direct role of HSV-2 in endothelial dysfunction, the present study investigated the infection of HSV-2 in endothelial ECV304 cells and the induction of cell apoptosis in the presence of ox-LDL. We firstly examined the HSV-2 infection by immunohistochemical assay for viral gB protein, quantitative PCR for viral ICP4 mRNA, or via virus growth determination. Then we investigated the regulation of HSV-2 infection on the cell viability and apoptosis, in the absence or presence of ox-LDL. In addition, we analyzed the apoptosis-associated molecules in the HSV-2-infected ECV304 cells. The results demonstrated that HSV-2 infected endothelial ECV304 cells and replicated efficiently, and the virus infection significantly reduced the cell viability and significantly induced cell apoptosis; particularly, cell viability reduction and cell apoptosis induction were aggravated by the ox-LDL presence. Moreover, the western blot assay confirmed the apoptosis induction; there was a significantly high level of released cytochrome c, activated caspase 3 and lyzed Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) by the activated caspase 3 in the HSV-2-infected ECV304 cells, particularly the cells subject to ox-LDL. Thus, we confirmed that HSV-2 infected endothelial ECV304 cells, induced cell apoptosis, which was aggravated by ox-LDL.

  12. Cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: effects of hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mostad, S B; Kreiss, J K; Ryncarz, A J; Mandaliya, K; Chohan, B; Ndinya-Achola, J; Bwayo, J J; Corey, L

    2000-01-01

    Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) results in frequent transmission of infection to sexual partners and neonates. In a cross-sectional study, cervical shedding of HSV DNA was detected in 43 (17%) cervical swab samples from 273 women seropositive for HSV-1, HSV-2, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Cervical shedding of HSV was significantly associated with oral contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-12.2), use of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7), and pregnancy (aOR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.0-31.7). In the subgroup of women who were not pregnant and not using hormonal contraception (n=178), serum vitamin A was highly predictive of cervical HSV shedding: concentrations indicating severe deficiency, moderate deficiency, low-normal, and high-normal status were associated with 29%, 18%, 8%, and 2% prevalences of cervical HSV shedding, respectively (linear trend, P=.0002). Several factors appear to influence HSV reactivation in HIV-1 seropositive women.

  13. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. PMID:25848282

  14. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Luna Del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Mañanes-González, Sara; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Cervilla, Jorge A; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention.

  15. Analysis of Individual Human Trigeminal Ganglia for Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Varicella-Zoster Virus Nucleic Acids Using Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Randall, Jessica; Smith, John; Gilden, Donald H.; Dabrowski, Christine; van der Keyl, Harjeet; Tal-Singer, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establish latent infections in the peripheral nervous system following primary infection. During latency both virus genomes exhibit limited transcription, with the HSV-1 LATs and at least four VZV transcripts consistently detected in latently infected human ganglia. In this study we used real-time PCR quantitation to determine the viral DNA copy number in individual trigeminal ganglia (TG) from 17 subjects. The number of HSV-1 genomes was not significantly different between the left and right TG from the same individual and varied per subject from 42.9 to 677.9 copies per 100 ng of DNA. The number of VZV genomes was also not significantly different between left and right TG from the same individual and varied per subject from 37.0 to 3,560.5 copies per 100 ng of DNA. HSV-1 LAT transcripts were consistently detected in ganglia containing latent HSV-1 and varied in relative expression by >500-fold. Of the three VZV transcripts analyzed, only transcripts mapping to gene 63 were consistently detected in latently infected ganglia and varied in relative expression by >2,000-fold. Thus, it appears that, similar to LAT transcription in HSV-1 latently infected ganglia, VZV gene 63 transcription is a hallmark of VZV latency. PMID:11090142

  16. Tissue-Specific Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus Inhibits the Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Athymic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Lu, Ronghua; Chang, Judy C.; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1997-12-01

    About 70% of hepatocellular carcinomas are known to express α -fetoprotein, which is normally expressed in fetal but not in adult livers. To induce herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase expression in these cancer cells, we constructed an adeno-associated viral vector containing the HSV-TK gene under the control of the α -fetoprotein enhancer and albumin promoter. We previously demonstrated in vitro that although this vector can transduce a variety of human cells, only transduced AFP and albumin-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were sensitive to killing by ganciclovir (GCV). In the present study, we explored the effect of this vector on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo. Subcutaneous tumors generated in nude mice by implanting hepatocellular carcinoma cells previously transduced with this vector shrank dramatically after treatment with GCV. Bystander effect was also observed on the tumors generated by mixing transduced and untransduced cells. To test whether the tumor cells can be transduced by the virus in vivo, we injected the recombinant adeno-associated virus into tumors generated by untransduced hepatocarcinoma cell line. Tumor growth were retarded after treatment with GCV. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo transduction of tumor cell with rAAV.

  17. The site of integration of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene in human cells transformed by an HSV-1 DNA fragment.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Hazen, M; Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Trkula, D; Dubbs, D R

    1981-12-01

    To analyze the site of integration of the herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) thymidine kinase (TK) gene in biochemically transformed human cells, TK-HeLa-(BU25) cells were transformed to the TK+ phenotype by a cloned, 2 kbp Pvull fragment of HSV-I DNA. The transformed cells [HeLa(BU25)/TF pAGO PP3] were fused with mouse LM(TK-) cells, and human-mouse somatic cell hybrid clones (LH PP3 clones 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) were isolated in HATG-ouabain selective medium. The HeLa(BU25)/TF pAGO PP3 cells and the LH PP3 hybrid clones expressed HSV-I specific TK activity and a herpesvirus-associated nuclear antigen, and contained herpesvirus nucleotide sequences. Molecular hybridization experiments were carried out to map the HSV-I and flanking cellular nucleotide sequences in the biochemically transformed cells. These experiments demonstrated that the HSV-I nucleotide sequences were integrated at a single site, and that the same cellular nucleotide sequences flanked the viral DNA in transformed HeLa(BU25)/TF pAGO PP3 and LH PP3 clone 5 cells. TK- revertant subclones isolated by growing the LH PP3 clone 5 cells in BrdUrd (and diphtheria toxin) failed to form colonies in HATG medium, but retained HSV-I nucleotide sequences. Isozyme analyses on 21 gene-enzyme systems representing 21 human chromosomes revealed that all of the LH PP3 clonal lines expressed human hexosaminidase B, which has been assigned to chromosome 5, and all were sensitive to diphtheria toxin, which is also a marker for chromosome 5. Chromosome analyses showed that chromosome 5 was the nly human chromosome present in mitoses of LH PP3 clone 5 cells and that human chromosome 5 was present in most of the mitoses of LH PP3 clone 1, 2, 3, and 6 cells. The latter clones also contained 1 or 2 additional human chromosomes in some of the cells. As expected from the molecular hybridization analyses, TK- revertants of LH PP3 clone 5 cells retained portions of chromosome 5 and expressed human hexosaminidase B. The results

  18. Short communication: a repeated simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase/herpes simplex virus type 2 cochallenge macaque model for the evaluation of microbicides.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Frank, Ines; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. We previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/HSV-2 in Depo-Provera (DP)-treated macaques. However, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. Repeated limiting dose SHIV challenge models are now used routinely to test prevention strategies, yet, at present, there are no reports of a repeated limiting dose cochallenge model in which to evaluate products targeting HIV and HSV-2. Herein, we show that 20 weekly cochallenges with 2-50 TCID50 simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) and 10(7) pfu HSV-2 results in infection with both viruses (4/6 SHIV-RT, 6/6 HSV-2). The frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding were significantly greater in the repeated exposure model compared to the single high-dose model (p<0.0001). We used this new model to test the Council's on-demand microbicide gel, MZC, which is active against SHIV-RT in DP-treated macaques and HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice. While MZC reduced SHIV and HSV-2 infections in our repeated limiting dose model when cochallenging 8 h after each gel application, a barrier effect of carrageenan (CG) that was not seen in DP-treated animals precluded evaluation of the significance of the antiviral activity of MZC. Both MZC and CG significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding compared to no gel treatment. This validates the use of this repeated limiting dose cochallenge model for testing products targeting HIV and HSV-2.

  19. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Encoded MicroRNAs in Human Trigeminal Ganglia and Their Relation to Local T-Cell Infiltrates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathrin; Junker, Andreas; Dornmair, Klaus; Meinl, Edgar; Sinicina, Inga; Brandt, Thomas; Theil, Diethilde; Derfuss, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus which establishes lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia (TG). Currently, two nonexclusive control mechanisms of HSV-1 latency are discussed: antiviral CD8+ T cells and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by the latency associated transcript (LAT). We investigate here to what extent these mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of HSV-1 latency. We show that only a small proportion of LAT+ neurons is surrounded by T cells in human TG. This indicates that viral latency in human TG might be controlled by other mechanisms such as viral miRNAs. Therefore, we assessed TG sections for the presence of HSV-1 miRNA, DNA, and mRNA by combining LAT in situ hybridization, T-cell immunohistochemistry, and single cell analysis of laser-microdissected sensory neurons. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that LAT+ neurons with or without surrounding T cells were always positive for HSV-1 miRNAs and DNA. Furthermore, ICP0 mRNA could rarely be detected only in LAT+ neurons, as analyzed by single-cell RT-PCR. In contrast, in LAT− neurons that were surrounded by T cells, neither miRNAs nor the DNA of HSV-1, HSV-2, or varicella-zoster virus could be detected. These data indicate that the majority of LAT+ neurons is not directly controlled by T cells. However, miRNA expression in every latently infected neuron would provide an additional checkpoint before viral replication is initiated. PMID:21795359

  20. MultiSimplex and experimental design as chemometric tools to optimize a SPE-HPLC-UV method for the determination of eprosartan in human plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Ferreirós, N; Iriarte, G; Alonso, R M; Jiménez, R M

    2006-05-15

    A chemometric approach was applied for the optimization of the extraction and separation of the antihypertensive drug eprosartan from human plasma samples. MultiSimplex program was used to optimize the HPLC-UV method due to the number of experimental and response variables to be studied. The measured responses were the corrected area, the separation of eprosartan chromatographic peak from plasma interferences peaks and the retention time of the analyte. The use of an Atlantis dC18, 100mmx3.9mm i.d. chromatographic column with a 0.026% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the organic phase and 0.031% TFA in the aqueous phase, an initial composition of 80% aqueous phase in the mobile phase, a stepness of acetonitrile of 3% during the gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 1.25mL/min and a column temperature of 35+/-0.2 degrees C allowed the separation of eprosartan and irbesartan used as internal standard from plasma endogenous compounds. In the solid phase extraction procedure, experimental design was used in order to achieve a maximum recovery percentage. Firstly, the significant variables were chosen by way of fractional factorial design; then, a central composite design was run to obtain the more adequate values of the significant variables. Thus, the extraction procedure for spiked human plasma samples was carried out using C8 cartridges, phosphate buffer pH 2 as conditioning agent, a drying step of 10min, a washing step with methanol-phosphate buffer (20:80, v/v) and methanol as eluent liquid. The SPE-HPLC-UV developed method allowed the separation and quantitation of eprosartan from human plasma samples with an adequate resolution and a total analysis time of 1h.

  1. Members of 3-O-Sulfotransferases (3-OST) Family: A Valuable Tool from Zebrafish to Humans for Understanding Herpes Simplex Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, John; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-01-01

    The journey of many viruses to infect cells begins when the virus first binds to cell surface heparan sulfate (HS). The initial step of cell attachment or binding during herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) entry is mediated by envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and C (gC). The binding is followed by fusion between virus envelope and cell membrane during which HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) interacts with a modified form of HS know as 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS). The rare modification of 3-O-sulfation on HS chain is governed by enzymes known as 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST). Currently, there are seven isoforms of human 3-OSTs that have been identified, and with the exception of 3-OST-1, all other 3-OST isoforms allow HSV-1 entry and spread. Recently, the product of the zebrafish (ZF)-encoded 3-OST-3 was also recognized as a gD receptor, which mediates HSV-1 entry and cell-cell fusion similar to human 3-OST-3. Interestingly, the ZF system expresses multiple isoforms of 3-OST which could be very useful for studying the involvement of HS and 3-OS HS in virus tropism and virus-induced inflammation. In addition, therapeutic targeting of 3-OST generated HS is likely to bring about novel interventions against HSV-1. In this review we have taken a closer look at the potential of both human and ZF encoded 3-OSTs as valuable tools in HSV entry and inflammation studies. PMID:23358893

  2. Virus-mediated FCC iron nanoparticle induced synthesis of uranium dioxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tao; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jing

    2008-03-19

    A reducing system involving M13 virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticles was employed to achieve uranium reduction and synthesize uranium dioxide nanocrystals. Here we show that metastable face-centered cubic (FCC) Fe nanoparticles were fabricated around the surface of the M13 virus during the specific adsorption of the virus towards Fe ions under a reduced environment. The FCC phase of these Fe nanoparticles was confirmed by careful TEM characterization. Moreover, this virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticle system successfully reduced contaminable U(VI) into UO(2) crystals with diameters of 2-5 nm by a green and convenient route.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein D Targets a Specific Dendritic Cell Subset and Improves the Performance of Vaccines to Human Papillomavirus-Associated Tumors.

    PubMed

    Porchia, Bruna F M M; Moreno, Ana Carolina R; Ramos, Rodrigo N; Diniz, Mariana O; de Andrade, Laís Helena T M; Rosa, Daniela S; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Boscardin, Silvia B; Ferreira, Luís Carlos S

    2017-09-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7). Two subcutaneous doses of gDE7, admixed with poly (I:C), conferred complete and long-lasting therapeutic antitumor protection on mice previously challenged with tumor cells expressing the HPV-16 oncoproteins. The vaccine induced multifunctional E7-specific CD8(+) T cells with cytotoxic activity and effector memory phenotype (CD44(+) CD62L(low)). In addition, gDE7 admixed with poly (I:C) vaccination controlled the expansion of tumor-induced regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. More importantly, gDE7 activated mouse CD11c(+) CD8α(+) and human BDCA3(+) dendritic cells (DC), specialized in antigen cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells, under in vitro conditions. These results indicated that the activation of a specific DC population, mediated by gD, improved the antigen-specific immune responses and the therapeutic performance induced by antitumor vaccines. These results open perspectives for the clinical testing of gDE7-based vaccines under the concept of active immunization as a tool for the therapeutic control of cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1922-33. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Relationships among cell survival, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity, and reactivation of methylated adenovirus 5 and herpes simplex virus type 1 in human melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, K.; Parsons, P.G.; Cerny, T.; Margison, G.P. )

    1989-09-01

    O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase) activity and host cell reactivation (HCR) of 5-(3-methyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC)-methylated viruses were compared in human melanoma cell lines that were sensitive or resistant to killing by the antitumor DNA-methylating agent MTIC. Enhanced HCR of adenovirus 5 (defined as the Mer+ phenotype) generally showed a semiquantitative correlation with the natural or induced resistance of the host cells to the toxic effects of MTIC and to the level of ATase activity. However, one MTIC-resistant cell line was found (MM170) which had a low level of ATase and intermediate HCR of adenovirus. The HCR of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was enhanced in the Mer+ cells that had natural resistance to MTIC compared with Mer- cells. On the other hand, HCR of HSV-1 in Mer+ cells with induced resistance to MTIC was similar to that in Mer- cells. Neither adenovirus 5 nor HSV-1 infection induced ATase activity in Mer- cells. This indicates that resistance to the toxic effects of methylating agents is not invariably associated with high levels of ATase activity in human melanoma cells. Furthermore, while induction of the Mer+ phenotype from Mer- cells was usually accompanied by the recovery of ATase activity, induced Mer+ cells had less proficient repair than natural Mer+ cells, as judged quantitatively by slightly lower cellular resistance and qualitatively by deficient HCR response for HSV-1. These results suggest that the Mer- and induced Mer+ cells lack an ATase-independent DNA repair mechanism. No differences in MTIC-induced DNA repair synthesis or strand breaks were found between the Mer-, natural Mer+, and induced Mer+ phenotypes. However, UV-induced DNA repair synthesis was higher in the natural Mer+ than in the Mer- or induced Mer+ cells, both of which had increased cellular sensitivity to the antimetabolites methotrexate and hydroxyurea.

  5. Decline in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Among Non-Injecting Heroin and Cocaine Users in New York City, 2005 to 2014: Prospects for Avoiding a Resurgence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; McKnight, Courtney; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David C; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2017-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs. Three thousand one hundred fifty-seven NIDU subjects were recruited between 2005 and 2014 among persons entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel substance use treatment programs. Structured interviews, HIV, and HSV-2 testing were administered. Change over time was assessed by comparing 2005 to 2010 with 2011 to 2014 periods. Herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence was estimated among persons who participated in multiple years. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.1) from 2005 to 2014. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence declined from 60% to 56% (P = 0.01). The percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection increased from 37% to 43%, (P < 0.001); the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection declined from 13% to 6% (P < 0.001). Estimated HSV-2 incidence was 1 to 2/100 person-years at risk. There were parallel declines in HIV and HSV-2 among NIDUs in New York City from 2005 to 2014. The increase in the percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection, the decrease in the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection, and the low to moderate HSV-2 incidence suggest some population-level protection against resurgence of HIV. Prevention efforts should be strengthened to end the combined HIV/HSV-2 epidemic among NIDUs in New York City.

  6. [Using the preparation "human immunoglobulin against herpes simplex virus type 1 for intramuscular injections" in the complex therapy of nervous system diseases].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, A O; Diachenko, N S; Nesterova, N V; Kurishchuk, K V; Berestova, T H; Zahorodnia, S D; Riads'ka, L S; Muravs'ka, L V; Andrieieva, O H; Baranova, H V

    2004-01-01

    The technology of obtaining of specific immunoglobulin for serotherapy of neuroinfection caused by virus herpes simplex 1 type was developed. The patients presented with the following diseases: arachnoencephalitis, encephalopolyradiculoneuritis, encephalomyelitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis, polyneuropathy, encephalomyelopolyradiculoneuritis, meningoencephalitis. The study showed good tolerance and safety of the medicine, no adverse effects registered during the study. The assessed median score of the efficacy was 2.8 from 3. The obtained results suggest using the liquid form preparation for intramuscular injection "Immunoglobulin for treatment of neuroinfection caused by virus herpes simplex type 1". The Close corporation "Biofarma" located in Kyiv produces this medicine.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: epidermolysis bullosa simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions epidermolysis bullosa simplex epidermolysis bullosa simplex Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Epidermolysis bullosa simplex is one of a group of genetic ...

  8. UL69 of human cytomegalovirus, an open reading frame with homology to ICP27 of herpes simplex virus, encodes a transactivator of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, M; Rice, S A; Stamminger, T

    1994-01-01

    The UL69 open reading frame of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is homologous to the immediate-early protein ICP27 of herpes simplex virus, an essential viral regulatory protein involved in the transition from early to late gene expression. Genes with homology to ICP27 have been detected in all subclasses of herpesviruses so far. While the respective proteins in alpha- and gammaherpesviruses have been defined as trans-regulatory molecules, nothing is known about these genes in betaherpesviruses. This study was therefore undertaken in order to investigate expression from the UL69 gene locus of HCMV. Northern (RNA) blot experiments revealed a complex pattern of transcripts that changed during the time course of the HCMV replicative cycle: two transcripts of 2.7 and 3.5 kb that were regulated differentially could be detected as early as 7 h after infection. However, these transcripts could not be detected in the presence of cycloheximide. Additional, larger transcripts were present exclusively at late times after infection. To analyze protein expression from the UL69 gene region, the UL69 open reading frame was expressed as a histidine-tagged protein in Escherichia coli. A specific antiserum was generated and used to detect the UL69 protein in HCMV-infected cells which revealed its localization within the intranuclear inclusions that are characteristic for HCMV infection. In cotransfection experiments, an HCMV true late promoter could not be activated by UL69, whereas an early promoter and several heterologous promoters were stimulated about 10-fold. Complementation studies showed that the UL69 protein cannot substitute for ICP27 in the context of the HSV infection, suggesting functional differences between these two proteins. In summary, these experiments define a novel regulatory protein encoded by HCMV that is expressed as an early-late gene and appears to exert a broad stimulatory effect on gene expression. Images PMID:8189530

  9. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Ibrahim, Salah O; Sapkota, Dipak; Jalouli, Miranda M; Vasstrand, Endre N; Hirsch, Jan M; Larsson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    Using PCR/DNA sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in brush biopsies obtained from 150 users of Sudanese snuff (toombak) and 25 non-users of toombak in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 31 patients with oral dysplasias (25 toombak users and 6 non-users), and from 217 patients with oral cancers (145 toombak users and 72 non-users). In the brush tissue samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 60 (40%), HSV in 44 (29%) and EBV in 97 (65%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the 25 samples from non-users were 17 (68%) positive for HPV, 6 (24%) positive for HSV and 21 (84%) for EBV. The formalin-fixed samples with oral dysplasias were all negative for HPV. In the 145 oral cancer samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 39 (27%), HSV in 15 (10%) and EBV in 53 (37%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the samples from non-users were 15 (21%) positive for HPV, 5 (7%) for HSV and 16 (22%) for EBV. These findings illustrate that prevalence of HSV, HPV and EBV infections are common and may influence oral health and cancer development. It is not obvious that cancer risk is increased in infected toombak users. These observations warrant further studies involving toombak-associated oral lesions, to uncover the possible mechanisms of these viral infections in the development of oral cancer, and the influence of toombak on these viruses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. PCR detection of Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus from the anal mucosa in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Löwhagen, G B; Bergbrant, I M; Bergström, T; Ryd, W; Voog, E

    1999-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) in the anal and oral mucosa of homosexual men with and without HIV infection and to correlate these findings to CD4+ count and anal cytology. Anal and oral cell samples from 20 HIV-infected and 14 non-infected homosexual men attending the STD clinic at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Goteborg were examined for EBV, HSV and HPV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Proctoscopy was performed in all patients and swabs for cytology were taken. EBV was demonstrated in 32% (6/19) of anal cell samples from the HIV-positive group but in none from 13 HIV-negative men. Asymptomatic shedding of HSV type 2 from the anus was detected in 3 of 19 HIV-positive men, all with low CD4+ counts and abnormal cytology. No patient in the HIV-negative group shed HSV from the anus. HPV was demonstrated in 16 of 17 anal cell samples in the HIV-infected group and in 7 of 13 HIV-negative men. More than one HPV type was detected in 7 HIV-infected men. Five (29%) of 17 HIV-positive patients exhibited abnormal cytology whereas none did so in the HIV-negative group. Those with abnormal cytology all had CD4+ counts below 0.35 and were infected with multiple HPV types including HPV 16/18. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an enhanced expression of HPV as well as EBV from the anus in HTV-infected homosexual men. In this small number of patients EBV was not related to low CD4+ count or to abnormal cytology.

  11. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (2006-2010), syphilis (2006-2010), and vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus subtypes (2000-2010) among US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Masel, Jennifer; Deiss, Robert G; Wang, Xun; Sanchez, Jose L; Ganesan, Anuradha; Macalino, Grace E; Gaydos, Joel C; Kortepeter, Mark G; Agan, Brian K

    2015-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have historically been burdensome in military populations. We describe the seroprevalence and seroincidence of vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus (VP-HPV) subtypes in a sample of 200 servicemen, along with the seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) and syphilis in a sample of 200 men and 200 women. Sera from 200 men, along with associated demographic data, were obtained and tested for HPV serotypes at service entry and 10 years later. Similarly, 200 active-duty men and 200 active-duty women were tested for HSV-1/2 at entry to service and 4 years later. The baseline prevalence of VP-HPV subtypes was 14.5%, and cumulative seroincidence of new infection was 34% over a 10-year period (n = 68). Of these, 63% (n = 43) represented HPV-6, HPV-11, or both; 18% of new infections were either HPV-16 or HPV-18, and 19% (n = 13) were a mixture of all 4 strains. At entry to military service, 33.5% of men were seropositive for HSV-1 and 1.5% were positive for HSV-2; seroincidence was 3.4 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among women, 39% were seropositive for HSV-1 and 4.0% for HSV-2; seroincidence was 5.5 and 3.3 per 100 person-years, respectively. There were 2 prevalent and 3 incident cases of syphilis. Sexually transmitted infections in military populations are highly prevalent, incident, and epidemiologically distinct. Our data show the rates of HPV and HSV-1/2 acquisition that are higher than those seen in the general public, again highlighting the need for continued preventive efforts. Consideration of universal HPV vaccination among men is warranted.

  12. Association of interferon lambda-1 with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2, Epstein-Barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Muzammil; Jayanthi, D; Faizuddin, Mohamed; Noor Ahamadi, H M

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal tissues facilitate the homing of herpes viruses that elicit the immune-inflammatory response releasing the interferons (IFN). IFN lambda-1 (λ1) can suppress the replication of viruses, and induces the antiviral mechanism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between IFN-λ1 and periodontal herpes viruses in the immunoregulation of chronic periodontal disease. The cross-sectional study design included 30 chronic periodontitis patients with a mean age of 42.30 ± 8.63 years. Gingival crevicular fluid collected was assessed for IFN-λ1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and four herpes viruses were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique. IFN-λ1 levels were compared between virus-positive and -negative patients for individual and total viruses. Fifty per cent (n = 15) of patients were positive for the four herpes viruses together; 50% (n = 15), 30% (n = 9), 26.7% (n = 8), and 40% (n = 12) were positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV-2, and human cytomegalovirus, respectively. The mean concentrations of IFN-λ1 in virus-positive patients (14.38 ± 13.95) were lower than those of virus-negative patients (228.26 ± 215.35). INF-λ1 levels in individual virus groups were also lower in virus-positive patients compared to virus-negative patients, with P < 0.001. These results suggest that IFN-λ1 could have antiviral and therapeutic value against the viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men, therefore we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV related pathogenesis. Methods Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine and blood from 3,971 men recruited in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with four HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, non-oncogenic only, and multiple infections). Results A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (aOR 2.19, 95%CI: 1.13–4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR 3.10, 95%CI: 1.53–6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR 3.43, 95%CI: 1.69-6.95) prevalence. HSV-2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), non-oncogenic HPV only (aOR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behaviour, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting ≥2 recent sexual partners, while HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0-5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. PMID:23680908

  14. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Women Coinfected with HSV and HIV

    PubMed Central

    Legoff, Jérôme; Bouhlal, Hicham; Grésenguet, Gérard; Weiss, Helen; Khonde, Nzambi; Hocini, Hakim; Désiré, Nathalie; Si-Mohamed, Ali; de Dieu Longo, Jean; Chemin, Cécile; Frost, Eric; Pépin, Jacques; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Mayaud, Philippe; Bélec, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy and usefulness of laboratory-developed real-time PCR procedures using a Light Cycler instrument (Roche Diagnostics) for detecting and quantifying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA as well as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)/HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal secretions from women coinfected with HIV and HSV were evaluated. For HIV-1, the use of the NEC152 and NEC131 primer set and the NEC-LTR probe in the long terminal repeat gene allowed us to detect accurately the majority of HIV-1 subtypes of group M circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, including subtypes A, B, C, D, and G as well as circulating recombinant forms 02 and 11. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HIV in cervicovaginal lavage samples was 5 copies per assay for both RNA and DNA; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of CT values were 1.30% and 0.69% (HIV-1 RNA) and 1.84% and 0.67% (HIV-1 DNA), respectively. Real-time PCR for HSV using primers and probe targeting the HSV DNA polymerase gene allowed both detection and quantification of HSV DNA and also differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 genotypes. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HSV was 5 copies per assay; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of CT values were 0.96% and 1.49%, respectively. Both manual and automated silica-based procedures were appropriate for combined extraction of HIV and HSV genomes from female genital secretions. Taken together, these findings indicate that real-time PCR may be used as a unique nucleic acid amplification procedure to detect and quantify HIV and HSV genomes in cervicovaginal secretions and thus to assess at reduced costs the genital shedding of both viruses in women included in intervention studies. PMID:16455895

  15. Real-time PCR quantification of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women coinfected with HSV and HIV.

    PubMed

    Legoff, Jérôme; Bouhlal, Hicham; Grésenguet, Gérard; Weiss, Helen; Khonde, Nzambi; Hocini, Hakim; Désiré, Nathalie; Si-Mohamed, Ali; de Dieu Longo, Jean; Chemin, Cécile; Frost, Eric; Pépin, Jacques; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Mayaud, Philippe; Bélec, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    The accuracy and usefulness of laboratory-developed real-time PCR procedures using a Light Cycler instrument (Roche Diagnostics) for detecting and quantifying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA as well as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)/HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal secretions from women coinfected with HIV and HSV were evaluated. For HIV-1, the use of the NEC152 and NEC131 primer set and the NEC-LTR probe in the long terminal repeat gene allowed us to detect accurately the majority of HIV-1 subtypes of group M circulating in sub-Saharan Africa, including subtypes A, B, C, D, and G as well as circulating recombinant forms 02 and 11. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HIV in cervicovaginal lavage samples was 5 copies per assay for both RNA and DNA; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of C(T) values were 1.30% and 0.69% (HIV-1 RNA) and 1.84% and 0.67% (HIV-1 DNA), respectively. Real-time PCR for HSV using primers and probe targeting the HSV DNA polymerase gene allowed both detection and quantification of HSV DNA and also differentiation between HSV-1 and HSV-2 genotypes. The detection threshold of real-time PCR for HSV was 5 copies per assay; the intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of C(T) values were 0.96% and 1.49%, respectively. Both manual and automated silica-based procedures were appropriate for combined extraction of HIV and HSV genomes from female genital secretions. Taken together, these findings indicate that real-time PCR may be used as a unique nucleic acid amplification procedure to detect and quantify HIV and HSV genomes in cervicovaginal secretions and thus to assess at reduced costs the genital shedding of both viruses in women included in intervention studies.

  16. Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lama, Javier R; Lucchetti, Aldo; Suarez, Luis; Laguna-Torres, Victor A; Guanira, Juan V; Pun, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Celum, Connie L; Carr, Jean K; Sanchez, Jorge; Bautista, Christian T; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-11-15

    We evaluated associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. A surveillance survey of 3280 MSM was conducted; sexual behavior was assessed with a structured computer-assisted self-interview, and serum antibody testing was performed for HIV, HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum. HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis seroprevalences of 13.9%, 46.3%, and 13.4% were detected, respectively. HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in HIV-infected subjects (80.5%) than it was in HIV-uninfected subjects (40.8%) (P < .01), and HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.66) was found to be strongly associated with HIV infection. In addition, homosexual self-definition (AOR, 3.12), exchange of sex for money (AOR, 1.61), unprotected sex (no condom) (AOR, 2.81), history of sex work (AOR, 1.89), oral receptive sex (AOR, 1.43), and cocaine use before/during sex (AOR, 2.53) within the preceding 6 months, as well as such sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI syndromes as proctitis (AOR, 2.80), genital ulcer disease (GUD) (AOR, 2.06), prior syphilis (AOR, 2.64), genital warts (AOR, 1.70), and self-reported STIs within the preceding 6 months (AOR, 1.61), were also found to be significant predictors of HIV infection. We found a strong association between HSV-2 seropositivity and HIV infection. Intervention measures against GUD due to HSV-2 infection and syphilis, such as routine testing, early detection, HSV-2 suppressive treatment, and condom distribution, need to be enhanced as part of STI prevention strategies at a national level to effectively reduce HIV infection among MSM in Peru.

  17. Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV.

    PubMed

    Raj, Rama; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV. All consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. HRQOL was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, which evaluates QOL under physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Data concerning demographic and socioeconomic status were collected. There were 65 (27.3%), 60 (25.2%) and 53 (22.3%) patients with HIV, HSV-2 and HPV, respectively, and 25 (10.5%) patients with mixed infections. The WHOQOL-BREF scores of patients in different STI groups were significantly lower than those of controls. The total HRQOL scores (mean±SD) were 280.1±83.56 (among controls), 196.9±72.41 (genital HPV), 141.0±50.50 (HSV-2), 101.0±75.25 (HIV) and 103.4±47.23(mixed infection groups). Mean HRQOL scores were lowest in the physical and psychological domains. HRQOL scores were least in HIV and mixed infections groups, while patients with genital HPV infection had significantly better HRQOL scores compared to other patient groups. Higher education and socioeconomic status had a positive influence on HRQOL. Viral STIs were associated with a significant reduction in HRQOL scores. Among patient groups, the greatest impact on HRQOL was seen in those with HIV and mixed infections and the least impact seen in those with genital HPV infection. Comprehensive care including counselling services need to be implemented in STI clinics.

  18. Seroprevalence and Co-Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Among Pregnant Women in Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Amuda, Oluwatomi Olufunke; Nzurumike, Charles; Suleiman, Muhammed Mustapha; Ikhevha Ogah, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. Objectives To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional, prospective study, which was carried out among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the federal medical centre in Lokoja, Nigeria. sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-HSV status were determined by the use of a structured questionnaire and immunoassay kits, respectively. All data were analyzed using Stata statistical software (version 12), and the level of significance was determined to be P < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results Of the 250 pregnant women screened for HIV and HSV, 154 (61.6%) were in the 2nd trimester of gestation, and all of the co-infected respondents were in their 2nd trimester. Only six (2.4%) of the respondents tested positive for HIV, with all six (100%) showing positivity for HSV so the co-infection rate was six (2.4%). Co-infection was found to occur between the ages of 15 and 35 years, while higher age groups did not show any co-infection. Parity, level of education, and history of painful genital ulcers had no significant association with co-infection. Conclusions Advocacy and publicity to raise awareness of the potential public health impact of HSV and HIV co-infection in Nigeria, where anti-HSV testing is not generally performed in all populations, is therefore recommended. PMID:28180012

  19. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  20. Behaviour of IgG antibody avidity for the antigen and of IgA antibody in active cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus and human herpes virus 6 infections. Adaptation of a commercial test.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J; Rodríguez, M; Maroto, M C; Piédrola, G; Peirón, J

    1997-07-01

    The clinical value of specific IgA and IgG antibody avidity to herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus 6 for the detection of active disease and primary infection, respectively, was evaluated. The IgG avidity test, with a break point of 55%, for the detection of primary infection, and of the IgA test for the detection of disease, were associated with a sensitivity of 97% and 64%, respectively; specificity of 100% and 82%; a positive predictive value of 100% and 76%; and a negative predictive value of 96% and 72%, respectively.

  1. The Use of Human Cornea Organotypic Cultures to Study Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Drevets, Peter; Chucair-Elliott, Ana; Shrestha, Priyadarsini; Jinkins, Jeremy; Karamichos, Dimitrios; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the utility of human organotypic cornea cultures as a model to study HSV-1-induced inflammation and neovascularization. Methods Human organotypic cornea cultures were established after retrieving the cornea with intact limbus from donated whole globes. One cornea culture was infected with HSV-1 (104 plaque forming units) while the other cornea from the same donor was mock-infected. Supernatants were collected at times post culture with and without infection to determine viral titer (by plaque assay) and pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration by suspension array analysis. In some experiments, the cultured corneas were collected and evaluated for HSV-1 antigen by immunohistochemical means. Another set of experiments measured susceptibility of human 3-dimensional cornea fibroblast constructs in the presence and absence of TGF-β1 to HSV-1 infection in terms of viral replication and the inflammatory response to infection as a comparison to the organotypic cornea cultures. Results Organotypic cornea cultures and 3-dimensional fibroblast constructs were susceptible to HSV-1 with varying degrees. Fibroblast constructs were more susceptible to infection in terms of infectious virus recovered in a shorter period of time. There were changes in the levels of select pro-angiogenic or pro-inflammatory cytokines that were dictated as much by the cultures producing them as whether they were infected with HSV-1 or treated with TGF-β1. Conclusion The organotypic cornea and 3-dimensional fibroblast cultures are likely useful in the identification and short-term study of novel anti-viral compounds and virus replication but are limited in the study of the local immune response to infection. PMID:26047535

  2. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Posavad, Christine M.; Zhao, Lin; Dong, Lichun; Jin, Lei; Stevens, Claire E.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Johnston, Christine; Wald, Anna; Zhu, Jia; Corey, Lawrence; Koelle, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantitate HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T cell responses to HSV-2. Compared to their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7−/CD45RA−) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2 reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared to blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2 reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection. PMID:28051084

  3. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-09-01

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.

  4. [Ocular hypertension in herpes simplex keratouveitis].

    PubMed

    Burcea, M; Avram, Corina-Ioana; Stamate, Alina-Cristina; Malciolu, R; Oprea, S; Zemba, M

    2014-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus is one of the most common pathogens in humans, who are seropositive for the virus in 90% of the cases at the adult age. It determines reccurent infections in more than a third of the population and these infections depend on the immune response of the host. Ocular infections of newborns are due to the herpes simplex virus type 2, meanwhile type 1 is found predominantly at adults; almost all ocular structures can be affected. HSV-1 in the most frequent etiologic agent in infectious anterior uveitis (with the varicelo-zosterian virus) and it is responsible for 6-10% of all cases of anterior uveitis. More than half of the keratouveitides due to HSV will develop intraocular hypertension and open-angle secondary glaucoma, during reccurences and most of them will resolve after proper control of inflammation.

  5. APP Processing Induced by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Yields Several APP Fragments in Human and Rat Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Civitelli, Livia; Argnani, Rafaela; Piacentini, Roberto; Ripoli, Cristian; Manservigi, Roberto; Grassi, Claudio; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong latent infections of the trigeminal ganglion by the neurotropic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are characterized by periodic reactivation. During these episodes, newly produced virions may also reach the central nervous system (CNS), causing productive but generally asymptomatic infections. Epidemiological and experimental findings suggest that HSV-1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is related to an overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) and other neurotoxic peptides, which occurs during amyloidogenic endoproteolytic processing of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). The aim of our study was to identify the effects of productive HSV-1 infection on APP processing in neuronal cells. We found that infection of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat cortical neurons is followed by multiple cleavages of APP, which result in the intra- and/or extra-cellular accumulation of various neurotoxic species. These include: i) APP fragments (APP-Fs) of 35 and 45 kDa (APP-F35 and APP-F45) that comprise portions of Aβ; ii) N-terminal APP-Fs that are secreted; iii) intracellular C-terminal APP-Fs; and iv) Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Western blot analysis of infected-cell lysates treated with formic acid suggests that APP-F35 may be an Aβ oligomer. The multiple cleavages of APP that occur in infected cells are produced in part by known components of the amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, i.e., host-cell β-secretase, γ-secretase, and caspase-3-like enzymes. These findings demonstrate that HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells can generate multiple APP fragments with well-documented neurotoxic potentials. It is tempting to speculate that intra- and extracellular accumulation of these species in the CNS resulting from repeated HSV-1 reactivation could, in the presence of other risk factors, play a co-factorial role in the development of AD. PMID:21085580

  6. Different efficacy of in vivo herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transduction and ganciclovir treatment on the inhibition of tumor growth of murine and human melanoma cells and rat glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Berenstein, M; Adris, S; Ledda, F; Wolfmann, C; Medina, J; Bravo, A; Mordoh, J; Chernajovsky, Y; Podhajcer, O L

    1999-01-01

    Initial studies have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy for cancer treatment of in vivo transfer of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment. However, recent studies have questioned the validity of this approach. Using retroviral vector-producing cells (VPC) as a source for in vivo gene transfer, we evaluated the efficacy of in vivo transduction of malignant cells using three different tumor cell models: B16 murine and IIB-MEL-LES human melanomas and a C6 rat glioblastoma. In vitro studies showed a bystander effect only in C6 cells. In vivo studies showed an inhibition of tumor growth in the two melanoma models when tumor cells were coinjected with VPC-producing retroviral vectors carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene, followed by GCV treatment; however, 100% of mice developed tumors in both models. Under similar experimental conditions, 70% (7 of 10) of syngeneic rats completely rejected stereotactically transferred C6 tumor cells; most of them (5 of 10) showed a prolonged survival. Treating established C6 tumors with VPC-producing retroviral vectors carrying the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and GCV led to the cure of 33% (4 of 12) of the animals. Rats that rejected tumor growth developed an antitumor immune memory, leading to a rejection of a stereotactic contralateral challenge with parental cells. The immune infiltrate, which showed the presence of T lymphocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear cells at the site of the first injection and mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages at the site of tumor challenge, strengthened the importance of the immune system in achieving complete tumor rejection.

  7. Simplex turbopump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Matt; Cowan, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Turbomachinery used in liquid rocket engines typically are composed of complex geometries made from high strength-to-weight super alloys and have long design and fabrication cycle times (3 to 5 years). A simple, low-cost turbopump is being designed in-house to demonstrate the ability to reduce the overall cost to $500K and compress life cycle time to 18 months. The simplex turbopump was designed to provide a discharge pressure of 1500 psia of liquid oxygen at 90 lbm/s. The turbine will be powered by gaseous oxygen. This eliminates the need for an inter-propellant seal typically required to separate the fuel-rich turbine gases from the liquid oxygen pump components. Materials used in the turbine flow paths will utilize existing characterized metals at 800 deg R that are compatible with a warm oxygen environment. This turbopump design would be suitable for integration with a 40 K pound thrust hybrid motor that provides warm oxygen from a tapped-off location to power the turbine. The preliminary and detailed analysis was completed in a year by a multiple discipline, concurrent engineering team. Manpower, schedule, and cost data were tracked during the process for a comparison to the initial goal. The Simplex hardware is the procurement cycle with the expectation of the first test to occur approximately 1.5 months behind the original schedule goal.

  8. Relative Contributions of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0 and vhs to Loss of Cellular IFI16 Vary in Different Human Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Orzalli, Megan H.; Broekema, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of several host cell proteins. Most studies have found that ICP0 promotes the loss of IFI16 in infected cells, but one study reported that ICP0 was not necessary or sufficient for loss of IFI16 in a tumor-derived cell line. Therefore, in this study, we examined the requirement for ICP0 in promoting the loss of IFI16 in several normal and tumor-derived cell lines. HSV-1 infection resulted in an observable decrease of IFI16 protein levels in normal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), normal oral keratinocytes (NOKs), and HeLa cells but not in U2OS cells. During infection with an ICP0-null virus, we observed a reduced loss of IFI16 in HFFs and NOKs but not in HeLa cells. Ectopic expression of ICP0 from a transfected plasmid was sufficient to promote the loss of IFI16 in HFFs and NOKs. In the absence of ICP0, we observed a delayed reduction of IFI16 protein that correlated with a reduction in the steady-state levels of IFI16 mRNA. In addition, we show that the ICP0-independent loss of IFI16 in HeLa cells is dependent in part on the activity of the viral virion host shutoff (vhs) tegument protein. Together, these results demonstrate that HSV-1 promotes the loss of IFI16 through at least two mechanisms: (i) by ICP0-dependent degradation of IFI16 and (ii) by vhs-dependent turnover of IFI16 mRNA. In addition, this study highlights a potential intrinsic difference between normal and tumor-derived cells for the activities of IFI16 and HSV-1 ICP0. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a lifetime persistent infection in humans. The relative success of HSV-1 as a pathogen is, in part, dependent on the expression of viral proteins that counteract host intrinsic defense mechanisms and that modulate immune responses during viral infection. In this study, we examined the relative roles of two viral gene products for the ability to promote loss of the

  9. Genome Sequence of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Strain SC16

    PubMed Central

    Rastrojo, Alberto; López-Muñoz, Alberto Domingo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), also known as Human herpesvirus 1, is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen that causes a variety of diseases, including lethal encephalitis. Here, we report the genome sequence of the HSV-1 strain SC16. PMID:28126930

  10. Viruses and host evolution: virus-mediated self identity.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis

    2012-01-01

    human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity.

  11. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  12. Stability of glycoprotein gene sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 from primary to recurrent human infection, and diversity of the sequences among patients attending an STD clinic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory ganglia. Reactivation and production of new viral particles can cause asymptomatic viral shedding or new lesions. Establishment of latency, maintenance and reactivation involve silencing of genes, continuous suppression of gene activities and finally gene activation and synthesis of viral DNA. The purpose of the present work was to study the genetic stability of the virus during these events. Methods HSV-2 was collected from 5 patients with true primary and recurrent infections, and the genes encoding glycoproteins B,G,E and I were sequenced. Results No nucleotide substitution was observed in any patient, indicating genetic stability. However, since the total number of nucleotides in these genes is only a small part of the total genome, we cannot rule out variation in other regions. Conclusions Although infections of cell cultures and animal models are useful for studies of herpes simplex virus, it is important to know how the virus behaves in the natural host. We observed that several glycoprotein gene sequences are stable from primary to recurrent infection. However, the virus isolates from the different patients were genetically different. PMID:24502528

  13. Stability of glycoprotein gene sequences of herpes simplex virus type 2 from primary to recurrent human infection, and diversity of the sequences among patients attending an STD clinic.

    PubMed

    Haarr, Lars; Nilsen, Arvid; Knappskog, Per M; Langeland, Nina

    2014-02-06

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is sexually transmitted, leading to blisters and ulcers in the genito-anal region. After primary infection the virus is present in a latent state in neurons in sensory ganglia. Reactivation and production of new viral particles can cause asymptomatic viral shedding or new lesions. Establishment of latency, maintenance and reactivation involve silencing of genes, continuous suppression of gene activities and finally gene activation and synthesis of viral DNA. The purpose of the present work was to study the genetic stability of the virus during these events. HSV-2 was collected from 5 patients with true primary and recurrent infections, and the genes encoding glycoproteins B,G,E and I were sequenced. No nucleotide substitution was observed in any patient, indicating genetic stability. However, since the total number of nucleotides in these genes is only a small part of the total genome, we cannot rule out variation in other regions. Although infections of cell cultures and animal models are useful for studies of herpes simplex virus, it is important to know how the virus behaves in the natural host. We observed that several glycoprotein gene sequences are stable from primary to recurrent infection. However, the virus isolates from the different patients were genetically different.

  14. Δγ₁134.5 herpes simplex viruses encoding human cytomegalovirus IRS1 or TRS1 induce interferon regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation and an interferon-stimulated gene response.

    PubMed

    Cassady, Kevin A; Saunders, Ute; Shimamura, Masako

    2012-01-01

    The chimeric herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are Δγ₁34.5 vectors encoding the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IRS1 or TRS1 genes. They are capable of late viral protein synthesis and are superior to Δγ₁34.5 HSVs in oncolytic activity. The interferon (IFN) response limits efficient HSV gene expression and replication. HCMV TRS1 and IRS1 restore one γ₁34.5 gene function: evasion of IFN-inducible protein kinase R, allowing late viral protein synthesis. Here we show that, unlike wild-type HSV, the chimeric HSV do not restore another γ₁34.5 function, the suppression of early IFN signaling mediated by IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3).

  15. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  16. Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herpes Simplex URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herpes Simplex - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and mucous membranes to a severe form of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Neonatal...

  2. Healing of recurrent herpes simplex corneal epithelial lesions treated with topical acyclovir A non-contact photomicrographic in vivo study in the human cornea.

    PubMed

    Tabery, H M

    2001-06-01

    To examine morphological changes occurring in recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis after the application of topical acyclovir ointment 3%. 7 patients examined with the slit lamp and photographed by non-contact in vivo photomicrography. Within one day of treatment the lesions lost their typical herpetic features, and after about 2-3 days the morphology seemed to reflect only the sequelae: unhealthy epithelium and abnormal cells located at the level of the basement membrane. Two patients showed epitheliopathy compatible with the side-effects of the treatment. The rapid loss of typical HSV features after drug application reflects a successful arrest of the virus replication, freeing the epithelial healing forces. At what point of time infectious virus is eradicated and the treatment can be safely stopped cannot be determined clinically. Healing in the sense of restitution ad integrum is a slow process showing individual variations. Abnormal intra-/subepithelial cells are last to disappear.

  3. Naturally occurring antibodies against nerve growth factor in human and rabbit sera: comparison between control and herpes simplex virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Dicou, E; Nerrière, V; Labropoulou, V

    1991-11-01

    Antibodies against nerve growth factor (NGF) in sera were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), by their isolation after passage of sera through NGF immunoadsorbent columns and by their specificity to bind and immunoprecipitate mouse NGF as well as to stain by immunohistochemical methods cellular sites of NGF synthesis. Increased levels of anti-NGF antibodies were found in sera of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected patients but not in HSV-inoculated rabbits. As HSV latency is known to be promoted by NGF in vitro, these results may suggest that anti-NGF antibodies modulate the cytokine function of NGF and thus might play a role in HSV infection. The biological function of circulating antibodies against NGF, in general, is now open to future investigation.

  4. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  5. Anisakis simplex allergy: a murine model of anaphylaxis induced by parasitic proteins displays a mixed Th1/Th2 pattern

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, M L; Conejero, L; Higaki, Y; Martín, E; Pérez, C; Infante, S; Rubio, M; Zubeldia, J M

    2005-01-01

    The study of the singular hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex (A.s) proteins, may help us to undestand many of the unknown immune interactions between helmiths infections and allergy. We have developed a murine model of allergy to A. simplex, that mimics human A. simplex allergy to study the specific aspects of anaphylaxis induced by parasites. Male C3H/HeJ mice were intraperitoneally sensitized to A. simplex. Mice were then intravenous or orally challenged with A. simplex. Antigen-specific immunoglobulins, polyclonal IgE, anaphylactic symptoms, plasma histamine levels and cytokine profiles were determined. Comparative IgE immunoblot analyses were also performed. Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were detected in sensitized mice since week 3. Polyclonal IgE raised and peaked with different kinetics. Intravenous A. simplex challenge produced anaphylaxis in mice, accompanied by plasma histamine release. Oral A. simplex challenge in similarly sensitized mice did not caused symptoms nor histamine release. Numerous A. simplex allergens were recognized by sensitized mouse sera, some of them similar to human serum. The A. simplex stimulated splenocytes released IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. We describe a new animal model of anaphylaxis. It exhibits characteristics of type I hypersensitivity reactions to Anisakis simplex similar to those observed in allergic humans. Different responses to i.v. or oral A. simplex challenges emerged, which did not reflect a window tolerization period. The cytokine profile developed (mixed Th1/Th2 pattern) differed from the observed in classical models of anaphylaxis or allergy to food antigens. This model may permit to investigate the peculiar allergic reactions to parasitic proteins. PMID:16297154

  6. Tegument-Specific, Virus-Reactive CD4 T Cells Localize to the Cornea in Herpes Simplex Virus Interstitial Keratitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, David M.; Reymond, Sigrid N.; Chen, Hongbo; Kwok, William W.; McClurkan, Christopher; Gyaltsong, Tashi; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Rotkis, Walter; Talley, Audrey R.; Harrison, Devin A.

    2000-01-01

    Herpes stromal keratitis (HSK) is a prevalent and frequently vision-threatening disease associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. In mice, HSK progression occurs after viral clearance and requires T cells and neutrophils. One model implicates Th1-like CD4 T cells with cross-reactivity between the HSV-1 protein UL6 and a corneal autoantigen. HSK can be prevented by establishing specific immunological tolerance. However, HSK can also occur in T-cell receptor-transgenic X SCID mice lacking HSV-specific T cells. To study the pathogenesis of HSK in the natural host species, we measured local HSV-specific T-cell responses in HSK corneas removed at transplant surgery (n = 5) or control corneas (n = 2). HSV-1 DNA was detected by PCR in two specimens. HSV-specific CD4 T cells were enriched in three of the five HSK specimens and were not detectable in the control specimens. Reactivity with peptide epitopes within the tegument proteins UL21 and UL49 was documented. Responses to HSV-1 UL6 were not detected. Diverse HLA DR and DP alleles restricted these local responses. Most clones secreted gamma interferon, but not interleukin-5, in response to antigen. HSV-specific CD8 cells were also recovered. Some clones had cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activity. The diverse specificities and HLA-restricting alleles of local virus-specific T cells in HSK are consistent with their contribution to HSK by a proinflammatory effect. PMID:11069987

  7. Development of a high-throughput β-Gal-based neutralization assay for quantitation of herpes simplex virus-neutralizing antibodies in human samples.

    PubMed

    Baccari, Amy; Cooney, Michael; Blevins, Tamara P; Morrison, Lynda A; Larson, Shane; Skoberne, Mojca; Belshe, Robert B; Flechtner, Jessica B; Long, Deborah

    2016-07-19

    Measurement of neutralizing antibodies against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. The established plaque-reduction neutralization assay is time consuming, labor intensive, and difficult to validate and transfer. Here, we describe the characterization of a HSV-neutralization assay based on the expression of a reporter gene, β-galactosidase (β-Gal). Using previously constructed HSV-β-Gal recombinant viruses, HSV-2/Gal and HSV-1/tk12, we developed a colorimetric β-Gal-based neutralization assay that is sensitive and highly reproducible, and performed in less than 48h. HSV-1 and HSV-2 neutralizing titers measured by the β-Gal-based neutralization assay were equivalent to those obtained by a plaque reduction neutralization assay. Intra- and inter-assay precision studies demonstrated that the β-Gal-based assay was repeatable and yielded low and acceptable variation. In addition, comparison of HSV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers measured in two independent laboratories by two unique β-Gal-based assays showed a highly significant correlation (r=0.9499, p<0.0001) between the two assays. The new assay will serve as an important tool both for preclinical and clinical trials of new HSV vaccines.

  8. A serosurvey of Haemophilus ducreyi, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 and their association with human immunodeficiency virus among female sex workers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dada, A J; Ajayi, A O; Diamondstone, L; Quinn, T C; Blattner, W A; Biggar, R J

    1998-05-01

    Cross-sectional standard serologic assays were used to determine the prevalence of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies among 796 female commercial sex workers from Lagos, Nigeria, and their association with HIV antibody status. The seroprevalence rates were 86% for anti-H. ducreyi IgG and 69% for anti-H. ducreyi IgA, 4% for rapid plasma reagin and Treponema palladium hemagglutination assay confirmed syphilis, 59% for HSV-2, 12% for HIV-1, and 2% for HIV-2. Lower-class sex workers were significantly more likely than upper-class sex workers to be H. ducreyi-positive and to have current or past syphilis infection. The presence of syphilis increased significantly with older age. Non-Nigerian sex workers had significantly higher reactivity to chancroid and borderline reactivity to syphilis. A history of sex with non-Nigerian Africans was significantly associated with chancroid reactivity and borderline significant with syphilis serostatus. H. ducreyi seropositivity was significantly more likely in female sex workers with HSV-2 and syphilis. Chancroid and HSV-2 antibodies were also more common in HIV-infected sex workers. The high prevalence of H. ducreyi antibodies detected in this study underscores the importance of an effective program to control genital ulcerative disease as part of the strategy to prevent the spread of HIV in Nigeria.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound Gamma-Butyrolactone Released upon Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 Acute Infection Modulated Membrane Potential and Repressed Viral Infection in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waguespack, Yan; Figliozzi, Robert W.; Kharel, Madan K.; Zhang, Qiaojuan; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type -1 (HSV-1) infections can cause serious complications such as keratitis and encephalitis. The goal of this study was to identify any changes in the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells that could potentially be used as an indicator of a response to stress. An additional objective was to study if any VOCs released from acute epithelial infection may influence subsequent neuronal infection to facilitate latency. To investigate these hypotheses, Vero cells were infected with HSV-1 and the emission of VOCs was analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (2D GC/MS). It was observed that the concentrations of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) in particular changed significantly after a 24-hour infection. Since HSV-1 may establish latency in neurons after the acute infection, GBL was tested to determine if it exerts neuronal regulation of infection. The results indicated that GBL altered the resting membrane potential of differentiated LNCaP cells and promoted a non-permissive state of HSV-1 infection by repressing viral replication. These observations may provide useful clues towards understanding the complex signaling pathways that occur during the HSV-1 primary infection and establishment of viral latency. PMID:27537375

  10. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  11. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  13. Human Antiviral Protein IFIX Suppresses Viral Gene Expression during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Infection and Is Counteracted by Virus-induced Proteasomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Crow, Marni S; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral

  14. Natural remedies for Herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Gaby, Alan R

    2006-06-01

    Herpes simplex is a common viral infection of the skin or mucous membranes. The lesions caused by this infection are often painful, burning, or pruritic, and tend to recur in most patients. Short-term treatment with acyclovir can accelerate the healing of an acute outbreak, and continuous acyclovir therapy is often prescribed for people with frequent recurrences. While this drug can reduce the recurrence rate by 60-90 percent, it can also cause a wide array of side effects, including renal failure, hepatitis, and anaphylaxis. Safe and effective alternatives are therefore needed. There is evidence that certain dietary modifications and natural substances may be useful for treating active Herpes simplex lesions or preventing recurrences. Treatments discussed include lysine, vitamin C, zinc, vitamin E, adenosine monophosphate, and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

  15. Laser-Capture Microdissection: Refining Estimates of the Quantity and Distribution of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Varicella-Zoster Virus DNA in Human Trigeminal Ganglia at the Single-Cell Level

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kening; Lau, Tsz Y.; Morales, Melissa; Mont, Erik K.; Straus, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    There remains uncertainty and some controversy about the percentages and types of cells in human sensory nerve ganglia that harbor latent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA. We developed and validated laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR (LCM/PCR) assays for the presence and copy numbers of HSV-1 gG and VZV gene 62 sequences in single cells recovered from sections of human trigeminal ganglia (TG) obtained at autopsy. Among 970 individual sensory neurons from five subjects, 2.0 to 10.5% were positive for HSV-1 DNA, with a median of 11.3 copies/positive cell, compared with 0.2 to 1.5% of neurons found to be positive by in situ hybridization (ISH) for HSV-1 latency-associated transcripts (LAT), the classical surrogate marker for HSV latency. This indicates a more pervasive latent HSV-1 infection of human TG neurons than originally thought. Combined ISH/LCM/PCR assays revealed that the majority of the latently infected neurons do not accumulate LAT to detectable levels. We detected VZV DNA in 1.0 to 6.9% of individual neurons from 10 subjects. Of the total 1,722 neurons tested, 4.1% were VZV DNA positive, with a median of 6.9 viral genomes/positive cell. After removal by LCM of all visible neurons on a slide, all surrounding nonneuronal cells were harvested and assayed: 21 copies of HSV-1 DNA were detected in ∼5,200 nonneuronal cells, while nine VZV genomes were detected in ∼14,200 nonneuronal cells. These data indicate that both HSV-1 and VZV DNAs persist in human TG primarily, if not exclusively, in a moderate percentage of neuronal cells. PMID:16254342

  16. Partial metamorphosis in Anomia simplex.

    PubMed

    LOOSANOFF, V L

    1961-06-30

    Many larvae of the common bivalve, Anomia simplex, when grown under laboratory conditions, exhibited a partial metamorphosis. They attained a considerably larger size than that at which larvae normally set. The partial metamorphosis was also characterized by the disappearance of velum, but the retention of a functional foot. Moreover, these organisms were not able to attach to the substratum, and their shells showed a distinct demarcation line between larval and adult portions

  17. Therapeutic Options for Herpes Simplex Infections.

    PubMed

    Au, Eugene; Sacks, Stephen L.

    2003-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are responsible for a number of disease states in infected individuals. Capable of establishing latent infection, herpes simplex can reactivate, causing pain, discomfort, and psychosocial consequences. Because no cure is available, treatment modalities for herpes simplex infection are required, from both personal and public health standpoints. To date, therapy has centered around the use of antiviral drugs to control infection and suppress recurrences. To expand the scope of available treatments, efforts have focused on the development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus and new agents such as immune response modifiers. Recent data suggest that these new agents are promising in their therapeutic potential.

  18. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  19. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, hepatitis A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and poliovirus type 2 by hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C; Antonoplos, P

    1998-04-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the capability of a hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process to inactivate several types of viruses. Six test agents were used: HIV type 1, human hepatitis A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, vaccinia, herpes simplex virus type 1, and poliovirus type 2. The test viruses were suspended in cell culture medium and dried on the bottom of sterile glass petri dishes. The inoculated dishes were processed in the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma system for half the normal sterilization cycle time. Four inoculated carriers for each virus were used in two separate half cycles. Infectivity of the test viruses and cytotoxicity to the indicator cell lines were assayed. The hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process produced inactivation of the six viral test agents under these experimental conditions. The reduction in viral titers ranged from 2.5 log10 to 5.5 log10, a 99.68% to 99.999% decrease. These results clearly demonstrate the virucidal effectiveness of the hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization process against both lipid and nonlipid viruses.

  20. Do there exist synergistic antitumor effects by coexpression of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase with cytokine genes on human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wan, Ming-Xi; Yuan, Jia-Ying; Pan, Bo-Rong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the synergistic antitumor effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) together with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression on gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. METHODS: Recombinant vectors pL(TT)SN and pL(TI)SN, which express TK-IRES-TNF-α and TK-IRES-IL-2 genes separately, as well as the control plasmids pL(TK)SN and pLXSN were employed to transfect PA317 cells respectively to generate the viruses that can stably express the objective genes through G418 selection. The gastric cancer cells were then transfected by the retroviral serum from the package cells and maintained in culture to determine the cell growth and apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of HSV-TK together with TNF-α or IL-2 gene expression on the transfected cancer cells were evaluated by the cell viability and bystander effects in the presence of GCV supplemented in the cultural medium. RESULTS: Expression of recombinant proteins including TNF-α and IL-2 by stable transfectants was confirmed by Western blotting. The percentage of cell apoptosis in the SGC/0, SGC/TK-TNF-α, SGC/TK-IL-2 and SGC/TK clone was 2.3%, 12.3%, 11.1% and 10.9% respectively at 24 h post-transfection. Cell growth status among all the experimental groups as judged by cell absorbance (A) at 570nm did not exhibit any significant difference (P > 0.05); although it was noted to be slightly lower in the SGC/TT group. Cell survival rate in SGC/TI, SGC/TT and SGC/TK group was significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner of GCV compared with that of the SGC/0 group (P < 0.05-0.01). Among all studied cells, the SGC/TT was shown most sensitive to GCV with a half lethal dose of 0.5 mg·L-1. In contrast, the survival rate of SGC/0 cells was not affected by the presence of GCV with the doses less than 10 mg·L-1. The half lethal dose of GCV for SGC/0 cells was more than 100 mg·L-1. Marked bystander effect induced by SGC/TI, SGC/TT and SGC/TK cells was confirmed by the

  1. Hidroacanthoma simplex: dermoscopy and cryosurgery treatment.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Sittart, José Alexandre; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2017-01-01

    Hidroacanthoma simplex is a rare intraepidermal neoplasia that arises from the acrosyringial portion of the eccrine duct. Malignant transformation of hidroacanthoma simplex is reported in the literature and the treatment is performed with wide excision or Mohs micrographic surgery. We report the first case successfully treated with cryosurgery with a long-term follow up.

  2. Hidroacanthoma simplex: dermoscopy and cryosurgery treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Karina Colossi; Kakizaki, Priscila; Chartuni, Juliana Cabral Nunes; Sittart, José Alexandre; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2017-01-01

    Hidroacanthoma simplex is a rare intraepidermal neoplasia that arises from the acrosyringial portion of the eccrine duct. Malignant transformation of hidroacanthoma simplex is reported in the literature and the treatment is performed with wide excision or Mohs micrographic surgery. We report the first case successfully treated with cryosurgery with a long-term follow up. PMID:28538891

  3. Stochastic Processes and the Guttman Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Guy J.

    1971-01-01

    The problem of whether a precise connection exists between the stochastic processes considered in mathematical learning theory and the Guttman simplex is investigated. The approach used is to derive a set of conditions which a probabilistic model must satisfy in order to generate inter-trial correlations with the perfect simplex property.…

  4. Low Prevalence of Varicella Zoster Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in Saliva from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunmei C.; Yepes, Luis C.; Danaher, Robert J.; Berger, Joseph R.; Mootoor, Yunanan; Kryscio, Richard J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Human herpesviruses (HHVs), e.g. herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus, appear in saliva at greater frequency in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than healthy individuals. However, it is not known if varicella zoster virus (VZV) and HSV-2 appear simultaneously during HIV infection at greater frequency in saliva during this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and amounts of VZV and HSV-2 in the saliva of HIV-infected, orally asymptomatic patients. Study Design Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the prevalence, quantity, risk, and correlates of salivary VZV and HSV-2 from 59 HIV-seropositive individuals and 53 healthy controls in a case-control, cross-sectional study. Seventy-eight percent of the HIV-seropositive patients (46/59) were taking HAART. Results VZV DNA was detected in the saliva of 5.1% (3/59) of the HIV-positive group and in only one healthy control 1.9% (1/53; P = 0.62). The amount of VZV DNA in the expressors was low, generally less than 1,100 copies/mL with no observed difference between the HIV-positive group and the controls (P= 1.0). HSV-2 DNA was not detected in either group. In the HIV-infected group, VZV shedding occurred in those on HAART, but was not associated with oral lesions, specific CD4+ or CD8+ T-cell levels, or demographic factors. Conclusions VZV was detected at low prevalence in the saliva of HIV-infected persons whereas HSV-2 was not detected in the saliva of this cohort. HAART does not appear to diminish the risk for asymptomatic VZV shedding. PMID:20123407

  5. Hereditary orotic aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum probed by herpes simplex virus: /sup 125/I-iododeoxycytidine incorporation as an assay for viral growth. [Human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Hafner, J.; Boorstein, R.; Pardee, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    /sup 125/I-Iododeoxycytidine (/sup 125/IdC) incorporation into acid-insoluble material was a sensitive, rapid, and quantitative assay for the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human fibroblasts. Cellular utilization of the isotope was 10 to 25% of the incorporation by infected cells and could be 80% inhibited by tetrahydrouridine (THU). Viral utilization was inhibited by acycloguanosine, thioguanine (TG), and cytosine arabinoside. Isotope was incorporated equally well by growing or quiescent infected cells. HSV-1 was used to probe the metabolic capabilities of three mutant human fibroblast strains. /sup 125/IdC incorporation quantitatively measured the ability of the virus to grow in these cells. Viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to TG in normal fibroblasts but showed a 8- to 10-fold greater resistance to TG in fibroblasts derived from patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LN). Similarly, the growth of ultraviolet irradiated HSV-1 in normal fibroblasts was 5-fold greater than in fibroblasts derived from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In fibroblasts derived from patients with hereditary orotic aciduria, viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to adenosine (AD) at concentrations which were slightly stimulatory in normal fibroblasts. This was a 2-fold difference in AD sensitivity, which the radioassay reliably and quantitatively documented. HSV-1 infected cells could be individually identified by their incorporated /sup 125/IdC; such cells had blackened nuclei in autoradiograms prepared 12 hr after infection. Normal cells infected in the presence of TG had many fewer labeled nuclei than LN cells similarly infected in the presence of the drug. (JMT)

  6. H11/HspB8 and Its Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Homologue ICP10PK Share Functions That Regulate Cell Life/Death Decisions and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure; Laing, Jennifer M.; Lee, Ki Seok

    2012-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsp) also known as HspB are a large family of widely expressed proteins that contain a 90 residues domain known as α-crystallin. Here, we focus on the family member H11/HspB8 and its herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) homologue ICP10PK, and discuss the possible impact of this relationship on human disease. H11/HspB8 and ICP10PK are atypical protein kinases. They share multi-functional activity that encompasses signaling, unfolded protein response (UPR) and the regulation of life cycle potential. In melanocytes H11/HspB8 causes growth arrest. It is silenced in a high proportion of melanoma prostate cancer, Ewing's sarcoma and hematologic malignancies through aberrant DNA methylation. Its restored expression induces cell death and inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models, identifying H11/HspB8 as a tumor suppressor. This function involves the activation of multiple and distinct death pathways, all of which initiate with H11/HspB8-mediated phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Both ICP10PK and H11/HspB8 were implicated in inflammatory processes that involve dendritic cells activation through Toll-like receptor-dependent pathways and may contribute to the onset of autoimmunity. The potential evolutionary relationship of H11/HspB8 to ICP10PK, its impact on human disorders and the development of therapeutic strategies are discussed. PMID:23056924

  7. Expression and Characterization of α-Methylacyl CoA Racemase from Anisakis simplex Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jin; Kim, Sun Mi; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Lee, Yong Seok; Cha, Hee Jae

    2012-01-01

    Larval excretory-secretory products of Anisakis simplex are known to cause allergic reactions in humans. A cDNA library of A. simplex 3rd-stage larvae (L3) was immunoscreened with polyclonal rabbit serum raised against A. simplex L3 excretory-secretory products to identify an antigen that elicits the immune response. One cDNA clone, designated as α-methylacyl CoA racemase (Amacr) contained a 1,412 bp cDNA transcript with a single open reading frame that encoded 418 amino acids. A. simplex Amacr showed a high degree of homology compared to Amacr orthologs from other species. Amacr mRNA was highly and constitutively expressed regardless of temperature (10-40℃) and time (24-48 hr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Amacr was expressed mainly in the ventriculus of A. simplex larvae. The Amacr protein produced in large quantities from the ventriculus is probably responsible for many functions in the development and growth of A. simplex larvae. PMID:22711931

  8. Evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Ibañez, Francisco J; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  9. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  10. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  11. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cherpes, Thomas L; Matthews, Dean B; Maryak, Samantha A

    2012-12-01

    Neonatal herpes, seen roughly in 1 of 3000 live births in the United States, is the most serious manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the perinatal period. Although acyclovir therapy decreases infant mortality associated with perinatal HSV transmission, development of permanent neurological disabilities is not uncommon. Mother-to-neonate HSV transmission is most efficient when maternal genital tract HSV infection is acquired proximate to the time of delivery, signifying that neonatal herpes prevention strategies need to focus on decreasing the incidence of maternal infection during pregnancy and more precisely identifying infants most likely to benefit from prophylactic antiviral therapy.

  12. Improvements of the Hermite-Hadamard inequality for the simplex.

    PubMed

    Pavić, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the simplex whose vertices are barycenters of the given simplex facets plays an essential role. The article provides an extension of the Hermite-Hadamard inequality from the simplex barycenter to any point of the inscribed simplex except its vertices. A two-sided refinement of the generalized inequality is obtained in completion of this work.

  13. A combination microbicide gel protects macaques against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase infection, but only partially reduces herpes simplex virus-2 infection after a single high-dose cochallenge.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8 h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8 h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04 vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides.

  14. A Combination Microbicide Gel Protects Macaques Against Vaginal Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Reverse Transcriptase Infection, But Only Partially Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection After a Single High-Dose Cochallenge

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Fernández-Romero, Jose A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8 h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8 h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04 vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides. PMID:24117013

  15. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  16. Seroprevalence and Seroincidence of Herpes Simplex Virus (2006–2010), Syphilis (2006–2010) and Vaccine-Preventable Human Papilloma Virus Subtypes (2000–2010) Among United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Masel, J.; Deiss, R.G.; Wang, X.; Sanchez, J.L.; Ganesan, A.; Macalino, G.E.; Gaydos, J.C.; Kortepeter, M.G.; Agan, B.K

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have historically been burdensome in military populations. We describe the seroprevalence and seroincidence of vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus (VP-HPV) subtypes in a sample of 200 servicemen along with the seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) and syphilis in a sample of 200 males and 200 females. Methods Sera from 200 males along with associated demographic data were obtained and tested for HPV serotypes at service entry and ten years later. Similarly, 200 active-duty males and 200 active-duty females were tested for HSV-1/2 at entry to service and four years later. Results The baseline prevalence of VP-HPV subtypes was 14.5%, and cumulative seroincidence of new infection was 34% over a 10-year period (n=68). Of these, 63% (n=43) represented HPV-6, HPV-11 or both; 18% of new infections were either HPV-16 or HPV-18, and 19% (n=13) were a mixture of all four strains. At entry to military service, 33.5% of males were seropositive for HSV-1 and 1.5% positive for HSV-2; seroincidence was 3.4 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among females, 39% were seropositive for HSV-1 and 4.0% for HSV-2; seroincidence was 5.5 and 3.3. per 100 person-years, respectively. There were two prevalent and three incident cases of syphilis. Conclusions STIs in military populations are highly prevalent, incident, and epidemiologically distinct. Our data show rates of HPV and HSV-1/2 acquisition that are higher than those seen in the general public, again highlighting the need for continued preventive efforts. Consideration of universal HPV vaccination among males is warranted. PMID:25868137

  17. Recidivous acute urticaria caused by Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Montoro, A; Perteguer, M J; Chivato, T; Laguna, R; Cuéllar, C

    1997-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish or other seafood. Twenty-five patients were studied. The skin prick test with larval Anisakis simplex extract was performed; total and specific IgE against A. simplex was measured with the CAP System; specific antibodies to A. simplex were determined by ELISA; and immunorecognition patterns of the sera were studied by Western blot. Nineteen patients showed specific IgE to A. simplex, but specific IgE to Ascaris was demonstrated in only two patients. No patients reacted to Toxocara canis or Echinoccocus granulosus antigens with the same test. The skin prick test was positive in 16 patients, in two of them persisting for 48 h. Five patients showed neither skin reaction nor specific IgE to A. simplex. Sera showed specific immunoglobulin levels against A. simplex larval crude extract, by both ELISA and Western blot. Likewise, specific immunoglobulin levels against excretory-secretory antigen were also measured by ELISA. Only one patient showed sensitization to fish. A. simplex was found to be the main cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish and are not sensitized to it.

  18. Peptide inhibitors against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Tarallo, Rossella; Russo, Luigi; Galdiero, Emilia; Cantisani, Marco; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2013-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a significant human pathogen causing mucocutaneous lesions primarily in the oral or genital mucosa. Although acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogs provide successful treatment, HSV remains highly prevalent worldwide and is a major cofactor for the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. Encephalitis, meningitis, and blinding keratitis are among the most severe diseases caused by HSV. ACV resistance poses an important problem for immunocompromised patients and highlights the need for new safe and effective agents; therefore, the development of novel strategies to eradicate HSV is a global public health priority. Despite the continued global epidemic of HSV and extensive research, there have been few major breakthroughs in the treatment or prevention of the virus since the introduction of ACV in the 1980s. A therapeutic strategy at the moment not fully addressed is the use of small peptide molecules. These can be either modeled on viral proteins or derived from antimicrobial peptides. Any peptide that interrupts protein-protein or viral protein-host cell membrane interactions is potentially a novel antiviral drug and may be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanisms of viral entry. This review summarizes current knowledge and strategies in the development of synthetic and natural peptides to inhibit HSV infectivity.

  19. Anisakis simplex: from obscure infectious worm to inducer of immune hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Audicana, M Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2008-04-01

    Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites ("gastroallergic anisakiasis"), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive.

  20. Herpes simplex type-1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A

    2003-06-01

    Oral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus represents one of the more common conditions the dental practitioner will be called upon to manage. Unique in its ability to establish latency and undergo subsequent recurrence, it is an ubiquitous infectious agent for which a cure does not exist. For the immunocompetent patient, herpes virus simplex infection typically represents nothing more than a nuisance. However, for the immunocompromised patient, this infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recently introduced antiviral drug regimens may reduce the morbidity and potential mortality of the herpes simplex virus, especially in immunocompromised patients. The value of antiviral therapy in the management of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection in the immunocompetent patient remains an area of contentious debate.

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus: Partner for Life

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, Joseph M.; Embil, Juan A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors provide a careful review of the characteristics of the herpes simplex virus and its various manifestations. They offer suggestions for its diagnosis and treatment, in various forms, and outline an approach to physician counselling of infected persons.

  2. Production and characterization of a bicistronic Moloney-based retroviral vector expressing human interleukin 2 and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase for gene therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Pizzato, M; Franchin, E; Calvi, P; Boschetto, R; Colombo, M; Ferrini, S; Palù, G

    1998-07-01

    Gene-based therapeutic strategies for cancer mainly include augmentation of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic approaches. In this study we report the design and functional assay of a novel bicistronic Moloney-based retroviral vector expressing human interleukin-2 (IL-2) and herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) through a cap-dependent translation and an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-regulated translation, respectively. This construct has the potential for allowing combination of cytokine and suicide gene therapy, especially in areas such as the brain, composed of post-mitotic cells refractory to transduction by type C retroviral vectors. Accordingly, human glioma cells were used as targets for gene transfer after selecting a packaging cell clone that produced a reasonable titer of recombinant virus and expressed high levels of IL-2 and tk transcripts. Although transduction efficiency was reduced in glioma cells as compared with murine NIH 3T3 cells, transgene expression was effectively achieved. Transduced glioma cells were sensitive to ganciclovir and secreted around 1000 U/ml IL-2 in the culture supernatants. Simultaneous production of IL-2 and tk in vivo by genetically treated tumor cells would hopefully potentiate the effect of gangiclovir-induced metabolic suicide, possibly by boosting the immune response associated with tumor debulking or by amplifying the bystander response.

  3. The management of herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Brentjens, Mathijs H; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2002-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus persists in a latent form for the life of its host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently no cure is available. Antiviral therapy is the main treatment modality, used either orally, intravenously, or topically to prohibit further replication of the virus and thereby minimize cellular destruction. However, immunologic advances in the treatment and prevention of herpes simplex infections are promising and continue to be studied.

  4. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A.; Furness, Julie N.; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8+ T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14286–294), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14504–512), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14544–552), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RAlow CD44high CCR7low CD62Llow CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8+ TEM-cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic and

  5. The AGMA1 poly(amidoamine) inhibits the infectivity of herpes simplex virus in cell lines, in human cervicovaginal histocultures, and in vaginally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Quaranta, Paola; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Pistello, Mauro; Cagno, Valeria; Cavalli, Roberta; Volante, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Rusnati, Marco; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo; Lembo, David

    2016-04-01

    The development of topical microbicides is a valid approach to protect the genital mucosa from sexually transmitted infections that cannot be contained with effective vaccination, like HSV and HIV infections. A suitable target of microbicides is the interaction between viral proteins and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). AGMA1 is a prevailingly cationic agmatine-containing polyamidoamine polymer previously shown to inhibit HSPGs dependent viruses, including HSV-1, HSV-2, and HPV-16. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of AGMA1 against HSV infection and assess its antiviral efficacy and biocompatibility in preclinical models. The results show AGMA1 to be a non-toxic inhibitor of HSV infectivity in cell cultures and human cervicovaginal histocultures. Moreover, it significantly reduced the burden of infection of HSV-2 genital infection in mice. The investigation of the mechanism of action revealed that AGMA1 reduces cells susceptibility to virus infection by binding to cell surface HSPGs thereby preventing HSV attachment. This study indicates that AGMA1 is a promising candidate for the development of a topical microbicide to prevent sexually transmitted HSV infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutralizing human recombinant antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins B from a phage-displayed scFv antibody library.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Vahid; Nejatollahi, Foroogh; Esmaeili, Seyed Alireza; Momtazi, Amir Abbas; Motamedifar, Mohamad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-01-15

    The HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein B (gB) plays a critical role in virus entry into host cells. Neutralizing antibodies can therefore potentially prevent virus entry into target cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection. Our present study focused on the selection of neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies of a phage-displayed nonimmune human scFv antibody library against gB of HSV-1. To enrich specific scFvs, two phage antibodies were isolated against amino acid residues 31-43 derived from the N-terminal part of gB using panning technique. Two scFvs, scFv-gB1 and scFv-gB2, with frequencies of 45% and 20% were obtained from scFv clones after performing PCR and MvaI fingerprinting. In phage ELISA analysis, both gB1 and gB2 scFvs demonstrated high reactivity with the gB peptide. In the neutralization assay, scFv-gB1 and scFv-gB2 represented neutralizing effects of 55% and 59%, respectively. Upon further enhancement of the neutralizing effects of these antibodies, they can be considered as new potential alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of HSV-1 infections.

  7. A new class of dual-targeted antivirals: monophosphorylated acyclovir prodrug derivatives suppress both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Derudas, Marco; Saba, Elisa; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Brichacek, Beda; Scrimieri, Francesca; Schinazi, Raymond; Schols, Dominique; McGuigan, Christopher; Balzarini, Jan; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV-1 and HSV-2 are responsible for two intersecting epidemics in which the disease caused by one virus facilitates transmission and pathogenesis by the other. Therefore, suppression of one virus infection will affect the other. Acyclovir (ACV), a common antiherpetic drug, was shown to directly suppress both viruses in co-infected tissues. However, both antiviral activities of ACV are dependent on phosphorylation by the nucleoside kinase activity of co-infecting herpesviruses. Methods We developed monophosphorylated ACV with the phosphate group masked by lipophilic groups to allow efficient cellular uptake (ACV ProTides) and investigated their antiviral potential. Results ACV ProTides suppressed both viruses with EC50 values in the sub-micromolar range in ex vivo lymphoid and cervicovaginal human tissues and between 3–12 μM in CD4+ T cells. ACV ProTides retained activity against ACV-resistant HSV-2. Conclusions ACV ProTides represent a new class of antivirals that suppress both viruses by directly and independently blocking the key replicative enzymes of HIV-1 and HSV-2. Further optimization of such compounds may lead to double-targeted antivirals able to prevent viral transmission and to treat the two synergistic diseases caused by HIV-1 and HSV-2. The ACV ProTides represent the first example of acyclic nucleosides being active against HIV. PMID:20085496

  8. Development and application of a rapid detection system for human papillomavirus and Herpes simplex virus-2 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Fang; Zhao, Chang-Zhen; Lu, Ke-Xin

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an important factor that causes cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), while HSV-2 plays an important role when HR-HPV triggers the cancer. Thus, a quick and convenient assay in the detection of HPV and HSV-2in the screening of HPV and HSV-2 infection is required. Two respective HPV and HSV-2 detection methods were established based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. Specific outer primers, inner primers, and loop primers were designed according to the conserved domains of HPV and HSV-2 genomes, respectively, while degenerate primers were used for HPV assay. After optimizing the reaction conditions, the results were observed by LAMP Tubidimeter real-time LA-320. Standard plasmids HPV-L-P and HSV-2-L-P were cloned and used in sensitivity tests of HPV LAMP and HSV-2 LAMP, respectively. Fifty samples of actinic keratosis (AK), 20 samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 50 samples of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 20 samples of seborrheic keratosis (SK) were detected by HPV assay. Seventy three clinical samples of vaginitis, chronic cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cervical cancer level positive were detected with HPV and HSV-2 assays. The reaction conditions of two assays were the same with a reaction temperature of 63 °C and a reaction time of 45 min. The sensitivity of HPV LAMP assay was 10 copies/μL, while that of the HSV-2 LAMP assay was 100 copies/μL. No cross-reactivity was observed. The HPV positive rates of AK, SCC, BCC and SK samples were 80% (40/50), 75% (15/20), 44% (22/50) and 21% (15/72), respectively. As an economic and quick diagnostic tool, LAMP assay is conducive to the extensive screening of HPV and HSV-2 and has huge potential to be promoted in resource-limited hospitals.

  9. Rapid and simultaneous detection of 6 types of human herpes virus (herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus 6A/B, and human herpes virus 7) by multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshio; Kogawa, Kazuhiro; Sasa, Hidenori; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Furuya, Kenichi; Sato, Kenji

    2009-10-01

    A multiplex PCR assay was developed that enabled the simultaneous detection of DNA from 6 types of human herpes virus, HSV-1/2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6A/B, and HHV-7, using appropriate primer sets and conventional PCR techniques and instruments, with PCR products for each type of virus designed to be easily distinguishable by size. Electropherograms obtained from conventional agarose gels showed that, for each type, the observed number of base pairs corresponded to the intended product and that bands were easily distinguishable from each other. A minimum of 20 copies of viral DNA in a reaction was sufficient to confirm the existence of each of the 6 types of human herpes virus. Comparison of the data obtained from this method and the data obtained from conventional TaqMan PCR using clinical specimens from various sources showed consistent results. The multiplex PCR method reported here for the detection and differentiation of human herpes viruses did not require special equipment or techniques such as hybridization analysis and sequencing analysis and, therefore, enabled us to easily and rapidly detect and identify the 6 types of human herpes virus using conventional methods.

  10. Prodrugs of herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yanachkova, Milka; Xu, Wei-Chu; Dvoskin, Sofya; Dix, Edward J; Yanachkov, Ivan B; Focher, Federico; Savi, Lida; Sanchez, M Dulfary; Foster, Timothy P; Wright, George E

    2015-04-01

    Because guanine-based herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase inhibitors are not orally available, we synthesized various 6-deoxy prodrugs of these compounds and evaluated them with regard to solubility in water, oral bioavailability, and efficacy to prevent herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation from latency in a mouse model. Organic synthesis was used to prepare compounds, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to analyze hydrolytic conversion, Mass Spectrometry (MS) to measure oral bioavailability, and mouse latent infection and induced reactivation to evaluate the efficacy of a specific prodrug. Aqueous solubilities of prodrugs were improved, oxidation of prodrugs by animal cytosols occurred in vitro, and oral absorption of the optimal prodrug sacrovir™ (6-deoxy-mCF3PG) in the presence of the aqueous adjuvant Soluplus® and conversion to active compound N(2)-[3-(trifluoromethyl)pheny])guanine (mCF3PG) were accomplished in mice. Treatment of herpes simplex virus-1 latent mice with sacrovir™ in 1% Soluplus in drinking water significantly suppressed herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation and viral genomic replication. Ad libitum oral delivery of sacrovir™ was effective in suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in ocularly infected latent mice as measured by the numbers of mice shedding infectious virus at the ocular surface, numbers of trigeminal ganglia positive for infectious virus, number of corneas that had detectable infectious virus, and herpes simplex virus-1 genome copy numbers in trigeminal ganglia following reactivation. These results demonstrate the statistically significant effect of the prodrug on suppressing herpes simplex virus-1 reactivation in vivo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Esperón, F; Fernández, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2008-08-19

    A bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the Canary Islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. No molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. The sequenced herpesviral PCR product was compared with GenBank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with Human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or HSV-1). This is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded dolphin.

  12. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity.

  13. The Type I Interferon Response and Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Daniel; Wilcox, Douglas R; Longnecker, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen. HSV-1 infection is associated with a variety of diseases ranging from benign orolabial lesions to more serious and even life-threatening conditions such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is a rare occurrence among healthy adult individuals, but newborns are a particularly susceptible population. Type I IFN signaling has been identified as a crucial component of the innate immune response to the control of HSV-1 infection. In this study, we review the contribution of the type I IFN response to controlling HSV-1 infection, and differences in the early host response between adults and newborns that may contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection and central nervous system disease in newborns.

  14. The nematode Anisakis simplex in American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in two Oregon rivers.

    PubMed

    Shields, B A; Bird, P; Liss, W J; Groves, K L; Olson, R; Rossignol, P A

    2002-10-01

    This paper represents the first report of the nematode Anisakis simplex in the American shad (Alosa sapidissima) in its introduced range in the American Pacific Northwest. All the adult shad sampled from spawning populations in the Willamette (n = 9) and Umpqua (n = 12) rivers were infected with A. simplex with intensities ranging from 6 to 89 worms per fish. This preliminary investigation contrasts sharply with previous studies in the native range of American shad and confirms that this fish may be an important intermediate host for A. simplex in the Pacific Northwest. It is suggested that this new parasite-host relationship has led to an ecological expansion into rivers and Anisakis may present an emerging health risk for wildlife and some human consumers.

  15. Differentiated (simplex) vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Taube, Janis M; Badger, Joanna; Kong, Christina S; Dadras, Soheil S

    2011-05-01

    Differentiated (simplex) vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is an uncommon variant of VIN characterized by highly differentiated morphology, making it a potential diagnostic pitfall. It may arise in the background of lichen sclerosus, and unlike most VIN, is not causally associated with human papilloma virus infection. It occurs in an older demographic and is thought to be the precursor of aggressive, invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. For this reason, the timely and accurate diagnosis of this unusual lesion is crucial. The clinical and histologic features of a case of a 70-year-old woman with newly diagnosed differentiated (simplex) VIN arising in a background of long-standing lichen sclerosus is reported, and the historic aspects, current terminology, and diagnostic criteria of differentiated (simplex) VIN are reviewed.

  16. Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

  17. Animal models of herpes simplex virus immunity and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kollias, Christina M; Huneke, Richard B; Wigdahl, Brian; Jennings, Stephen R

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous human pathogens represented by two distinct serotypes: herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1); and HSV type 2 (HSV-2). In the general population, adult seropositivity rates approach 90% for HSV-1 and 20-25% for HSV-2. These viruses cause significant morbidity, primarily as mucosal membrane lesions in the form of facial cold sores and genital ulcers, with much less common but more severe manifestations causing death from encephalitis. HSV infections in humans are difficult to study in many cases because many primary infections are asymptomatic. Moreover, the neurotropic properties of HSV make it much more difficult to study the immune mechanisms controlling reactivation of latent infection within the corresponding sensory ganglia and crossover into the central nervous system of infected humans. This is because samples from the nervous system can only be routinely obtained at the time of autopsy. Thus, animal models have been developed whose use has led to a better understanding of multiple aspects of HSV biology, molecular biology, pathogenesis, disease, and immunity. The course of HSV infection in a spectrum of animal models depends on important experimental parameters including animal species, age, and genotype; route of infection; and viral serotype, strain, and dose. This review summarizes the animal models most commonly used to study HSV pathogenesis and its establishment, maintenance, and reactivation from latency. It focuses particularly on the immune response to HSV during acute primary infection and the initial invasion of the ganglion with comparisons to the events governing maintenance of viral latency.

  18. Zebrafish: modeling for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S; Dale, Rodney M; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2014-02-01

    For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure-function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits.

  19. Zebrafish: Modeling for Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar Evadney; Jones, Kevin S.; Dale, Rodney M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Abstract For many years, zebrafish have been the prototypical model for studies in developmental biology. In recent years, zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model system to study infectious diseases, including viral infections. Experiments conducted with herpes simplex virus type-1 in adult zebrafish or in embryo models are encouraging as they establish proof of concept with viral-host tropism and possible screening of antiviral compounds. In addition, the presence of human homologs of viral entry receptors in zebrafish such as 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate, nectins, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 14-like receptor bring strong rationale for virologists to test their in vivo significance in viral entry in a zebrafish model and compare the structure–function basis of virus zebrafish receptor interaction for viral entry. On the other end, a zebrafish model is already being used for studying inflammation and angiogenesis, with or without genetic manipulations, and therefore can be exploited to study viral infection-associated pathologies. The major advantage with zebrafish is low cost, easy breeding and maintenance, rapid lifecycle, and a transparent nature, which allows visualizing dissemination of fluorescently labeled virus infection in real time either at a localized region or the whole body. Further, the availability of multiple transgenic lines that express fluorescently tagged immune cells for in vivo imaging of virus infected animals is extremely attractive. In addition, a fully developed immune system and potential for receptor-specific knockouts further advocate the use of zebrafish as a new tool to study viral infections. In this review, we focus on expanding the potential of zebrafish model system in understanding human infectious diseases and future benefits. PMID:24266790

  20. Addition of a single E2 binding site to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 long control region enhances killing of HPV positive cells via HPV E2 protein-regulated herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-mediated suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachna; Palefsky, Joel M

    2010-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is associated with the development of anogenital cancers and their precursor lesions, intraepithelial neoplasia. Treatment strategies against HPV-induced intraepithelial neoplasia are not HPV specific and mostly consist of physical removal or ablation of lesions. We had previously designed an HPV-specific approach to kill HPV-infected cells by the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene driven by HPV E2 binding to E2-binding sites (E2BS) in the native HPV16 long control region. E2-induced TK expression renders the cells sensitive to the prodrug ganciclovir. To optimize this therapeutic approach, we modified the native long control region by adding variable numbers of E2BS adjacent to E2BS4, resulting in greatly increased cell death in HPV-positive cell lines with variable levels of E2 protein expression and no reduction in HPV specificity. Our results showed maximum increase in TK expression and cell killing when one additional E2BS was added adjacent to E2BS. As HPV-infected patients also exhibit variable E2 expression across lesions and within a lesion, this approach may potentiate the clinical utility of the herpes simplex virus type 1 TK/ganciclovir therapeutic approach.

  1. Bioactive natural products with anti-herpes simplex virus properties.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Masarčíková, Radka; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we highlight and summarise the most promising extracts, fractions and pure compounds as potential anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) agents derived from microorganisms, marine organisms, fungi, animals and plants. The role of natural products in the development of anti-HSV drugs will be discussed. Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are common human pathogens that remain a serious threat to human health. In recent years, a great interest has been devoted to the search for integrated management of HSV infections. Acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues have been licensed for the therapy that target viral DNA polymerase. Although these drugs are currently effective against HSV infections, the intensive use of these drugs has led to the problem of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new sources to develop new antiherpetic agents has gained major priority to overcome the problem. Natural products as potential, new anti-HSV drugs provide several advantages such as reduced side effects, less resistance, low toxicity and various mechanisms of action. This paper aims to provide an overview of natural products that possess antiviral activity against HSV. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  3. The development of antibody-based immunotherapy for methamphetamine abuse: immunization, and virus-mediated gene transfer approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant that has been seriously abused worldwide, and currently there are no approved medications for the treatment of its abuse. Conventional treatments for drug addiction mainly seek to use small molecule agonists or antagonists to target the drug receptors in the brain, but unfortunately it is difficult to find a similar small molecule for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Alternatively, anti-methamphetamine antibodies can sequester the drug in the bloodstream and reduce the amount of drug available to the central nervous system, acting as peripheral pharmacokinetic antagonists. This review describes the development of antibody-based immunotherapies, classified into active and passive immunizations, for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Furthermore, an alternative therapeutic approach, using a recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer technique to achieve in vivo expression of characterized anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibodies, is proposed in this article.

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA is located within Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, M A; Mee, A P; Itzhaki, R F

    2009-01-01

    The brains of Alzheimer's disease sufferers are characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. However, the cause(s) of these features and those of the disease are unknown, in sporadic cases. We previously showed that herpes simplex virus type 1 is a strong risk factor for Alzheimer's disease when in the brains of possessors of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-epsilon4), and that beta-amyloid, the main component of plaques, accumulates in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cell cultures and mouse brain. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship of the virus to plaques by determining their proximity in human brain sections. We used in situ polymerase chain reaction to detect herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA, and immunohistochemistry or thioflavin S staining to detect amyloid plaques. We discovered a striking localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA within plaques: in Alzheimer's disease brains, 90% of the plaques contained the viral DNA and 72% of the DNA was associated with plaques; in aged normal brains, which contain amyloid plaques at a lower frequency, 80% of plaques contained herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA but only 24% of the viral DNA was plaque-associated (p < 0.001). We suggest that this is because in aged normal individuals, there is a lesser production and/or greater removal of beta-amyloid (Abeta), so that less of the viral DNA is seen to be associated with Abeta in the brain. Our present data, together with our finding of Abeta accumulation in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected cells and mouse brain, suggest that this virus is a major cause of amyloid plaques and hence probably a significant aetiological factor in Alzheimer's disease. They point to the usage of antiviral agents to treat the disease and possibly of vaccination to prevent it.

  5. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-05-01

    Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA on serum.

  6. Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Schirm, J; Mulkens, P S

    1997-11-01

    Bell's palsy, which is defined as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis of sudden onset, accounts for > 50% of all cases of facial paralysis. Different theories on the etiology of Bell's palsy have been proposed and investigated. Various clinical studies have suggested an etiological link between Bell's palsy and herpes simplex virus (HSV). In addition, animal experiments have shown the ability of HSV to induce facial paralysis. In our opinion, the possible link between Bell's palsy and HSV can only be explored properly by studying the human facial nerve, and especially the geniculate ganglion itself. Different groups have tried to detect hypothetically reactivated and hypothetically latent HSV in the facial nerves of Bell's palsy patients and control patients, respectively. The isolation of infectious HSV from facial nerve tissue by conventional cell culture methods appeared to be very difficult, also when Bell's palsy patients were tested. Instead, modern molecular methods, such as in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could easily detect HSV DNA in geniculate ganglia. The detection of HSV-specific latency-associated transcripts in the ganglia of control patients provided further evidence for the hypothetically latent state of HSV in the geniculate ganglia in these patients. Recent PCR experiments performed by a Japanese group strongly suggest that the area adjacent to the geniculate ganglia does not usually contain any HSV at all, except in patients with Bell's palsy. This well-controlled study provides conclusive evidence that reactivation of HSV genomes from the geniculate ganglia is the most important cause of Bell's palsy. Consequently, it has been suggested that "Bell's palsy" be renamed as "herpetic facial paralysis".

  7. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals.

  8. Induction of interferon-λ contributes to TLR3 and RIG-I activation-mediated inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jin-Biao; Zhuang, Ke; Gao, Jian-Feng; Liu, Shi; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS Is it possible to immunologically activate human cervical epithelial cells to produce antiviral factors that inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication? STUDY FINDING Our results indicate that human cervical epithelial cells possess a functional TLR3/RIG-I signaling system, the activation of which can mount an Interferon-λ (IFN-λ)-mediated anti-HSV-2 response. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is limited information about the role of cervical epithelial cells in genital innate immunity against HSV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS We examined the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible I (RIG-I) in End1/E6E7 cells by real-time PCR. The IFN-λ induced by TLR3 and RIG-I activation of End1/E6E7 cells was also examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. HSV-2 infection of End1/E6E7 cells was evaluated by the real-time PCR detection of HSV-2 gD expression. The antibody to IL-10Rβ was used to determine whether IFN-λ contributes to TLR3/RIG-I mediated HSV-2 inhibition. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56), 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase I (OAS-1) and myxovirus resistance A (MxA) were determined by the real-time PCR and western blot. End1/E6E7 cells were transfected with shRNA to knockdown the IRF3, IRF7 or RIG-I expression. Student's t-test and post Newman–Keuls test were used to analyze stabilized differences in the immunological parameters above between TLR3/RIG-I-activated cells and control cells. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Human cervical epithelial cells expressed functional TLR3 and RIG-I, which could be activated by poly I:C and 5′ppp double-strand RNAs (5′ppp dsRNA), resulting in the induction of endogenous interferon lambda (IFN-λ). The induced IFN-λ contributed to TLR3/RIG-I-mediated inhibition of HSV-2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells, as an antibody to IL-10Rβ, an IFN-λ receptor subunit, could

  9. Anorexia nervosa with herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    George, G. C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa appear to show an increased immunity to certain infections, as well as immunological deficiencies. This is the report of a patient with anorexia nervosa who developed herpes simplex encephalitis, a condition associated with lowered immunological defence mechanisms. PMID:7301681

  10. The simplex method for nonlinear mass determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L.

    1988-03-01

    The Gauss-Newton method, and calculating a mass that minimizes the variation of residuals are standard techniques for determining planetary masses, but both may fail under certain circums tances. The Gauss-Newton method, in particular, may diverge, and when it converges may converge to a local, rather than global, minimum of the nonlinear regression problem. The simplex method of nonlinear optimization needs no initial estimate for the solution and can be made to converge to a global minimum. It may also be used with non-least squares criteria, such as the L1 criterion, for greater robustness. But the simplex method achieves these advantages at a high computational price. To test the method as a tool for dynamical astronomy, over 12,000 observations of Neptune were used to calculate Pluto's mass. From an initial estimate of 1/1, 812,000 the Gauss-Newton method diverged. The simplex method converged to a more satisfactory 1/22,000,000 with a range of 1/47,000,000 to 1/14,000,000 as indicated by the mean error. Because the simplex method is considerably slower than competing methods, it should be reserved for refractory problems that do not yield facil solutions when tackled by other methods.

  11. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  12. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  13. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  14. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A; Furness, Julie N; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T; Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8(+) T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8(+) T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14286-294), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14504-512), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14544-552), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RA(low) CD44(high) CCR7(low) CD62L(low) CD8(+) effector memory T cells (TEM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8(+) TEM-cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8(+) TEM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the

  15. Anisakis simplex recombinant allergens increase diagnosis specificity preserving high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Caballero, María Luisa; Umpierrez, Ana; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Moneo, Ignacio; de Burgos, Carmen; Asturias, Juan A; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    So far, the frequency of Anisakis simplex-specific IgE antibodies has been determined by skin prick tests (SPTs) and the ImmunoCAP system. These commercial methods have good sensitivity, but their specificity is poor because they use complete parasite extracts. Our aim was to determine the frequency of sensitization to A. simplex using recombinant Ani s 1, Ani s 3, Ani s 5, Ani s 9 and Ani s 10 and to evaluate these allergens for diagnosis, comparing their performance with the commercial methods. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional validation study performed in an allergy outpatient hospital clinic. Patients without fish-related allergy (tolerant patients, n = 99), and A. simplex-allergic patients (n = 35) were studied by SPTs, ImmunoCAP assays and detection of specific IgE to A. simplex recombinant allergens by dot blotting. SPTs and ImmunoCAP assays were positive in 18 and 17% of tolerant patients, respectively. All A. simplex-allergic patients had positive SPTs and ImmunoCAP assays. Specific IgE against at least one of the A. simplex recombinant allergens tested was detected in 15% of sera from tolerant patients and in 100% of sera from A. simplex-allergic patients. Detection of at least one A. simplex recombinant allergen by dot blotting and ImmunoCAP assay using complete extract showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% with both methods. However, the specificity of dot blotting with A. simplex recombinant allergens was higher compared with ImmunoCAP (84.85 vs. 82.83%). There are 15% of tolerant patients with specific IgE against important A. simplex allergens. The recombinant allergens studied here increase the specificity of A. simplex diagnosis while keeping the highest sensitivity. A. simplex recombinant allergens should be included with A. simplex allergy diagnostic tests to improve their specificity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Anisakis simplex: from Obscure Infectious Worm to Inducer of Immune Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Audicana, M. Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites (“gastroallergic anisakiasis”), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive. PMID:18400801

  17. Hypertrophic herpes simplex simulating anal neoplasia in AIDS patients: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Sidney R; Calore, Edenilson E; Manzione, Carmen R; Horta, Sergio C; Ferreira, Aurea F; Almeida, Lis V

    2005-12-01

    Five patients (4 males; mean age, 46.4 years) with painful verrucous perianal lesions caused by herpes simplex virus are described. All patients had had AIDS for a long time and were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. CD4+ counts ranged from 73 to 370/mm3. All lesions were submitted to resection under subdural anesthesia. Histologic examinations revealed epithelial hyperplasia and dense inflammatory process, composed mainly of lymphocytes and plasma cells, extended just to the hypodermis. Immunohistochemistry was positive for herpes simplex virus Type 2 in four patients and for herpes simplex virus Type 1 in one patient, and did not detect human papillomavirus antigens. Three patients had recurrences after 3, 10, and 12 months. Resection was performed on two patients; one had a new recurrence after three months. Oral acyclovir eliminated the lesion in the third patient. The analysis of our patients suggests that herpes simplex virus, Types 1 and 2, may cause verrucous lesions simulating neoplasia in patients with AIDS using antiretroviral therapy.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Major Allergen, Ani s 14, from Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kakemoto, Seiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Anisakis simplex is a representative parasite infecting marine animals. When third stage larvae of A. simplex infecting fish and squids are ingested by humans, individuals previously sensitized by this parasite may experience IgE-mediated allergic reactions. So far, as many as 13 kinds of proteins (Ani s 1-13) have been identified as A. simplex allergens but several more unknown allergens are suggested to exist. In this study, therefore, chemiluminescent immunoscreening of an expression cDNA library constructed from the third stage larvae was conducted to identify a new allergen. As a result, an IgE-positive clone coding for a 23.5 kDa protein (named Ani s 14) composed of 217 amino acid residues was isolated. The regions 4-147 and 34-123 of Ani s 14 share 31% identity with the region 796-940 of Ani s 7 and 32% identity with the region 2-91 of Ani s 12, respectively. Recombinant Ani s 14 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and shown to be IgE reactive to 14 (54%) of 26 sera from Anisakis-allergic patients. In conclusion, Ani s 14 is a new major allergen of A. simplex that is specific to Anisakis-allergic patients.

  19. Antiviral Activity of Crude Hydroethanolic Extract from Schinus terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna Pereira; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Denise Brentan; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia, its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro and in vivo as well as its genotoxicity in bone marrow in mammals and established the chemical composition of the crude hydroethanolic extract based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS. The crude hydroethanolic extract inhibited all of the tested Herpes simplex virus type 1 strains in vitro and was effective in the attachment and penetration stages, and showed virucidal activity, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The micronucleus test showed that the crude hydroethanolic extract had no genotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. The crude hydroethanolic extract afforded protection against lesions that were caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo. Liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS identified 25 substances, which are condensed tannins mainly produced by a B-type linkage and prodelphinidin and procyanidin units. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part II: potential clinical application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Gregory K; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Gillespie, George Yancey; Markert, James M; Waters, Alicia M; Chen, Chun-Yu; Denton, Nicholas L; Haworth, Kellie B; Hutzen, Brian; Leddon, Jennifer L; Streby, Keri A; Wang, Pin-Yi; Cripe, Timothy P

    Oncolytic engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) possess many biologic and functional attributes that support their use in clinical trials in children with solid tumors. Tumor cells, in an effort to escape regulatory mechanisms that would impair their growth and progression, have removed many mechanisms that would have protected them from virus infection and eventual virus-mediated destruction. Viruses engineered to exploit this weakness, like mutant HSV, can be safely employed as tumor cell killers, since normal cells retain these antiviral strategies. Many preclinical studies and early phase trials in adults demonstrated that oncolytic HSV can be safely used and are highly effective in killing tumor cells that comprise pediatric malignancies, without generating the toxic side effects of nondiscriminatory chemotherapy or radiation therapy. A variety of engineered viruses have been developed and tested in numerous preclinical models of pediatric cancers and initial trials in patients are underway. In Part II of this review series, we examine the preclinical evidence to support the further advancement of oncolytic HSV in the pediatric population. We discuss clinical advances made to date in this emerging era of oncolytic virotherapy.

  1. Downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ho-Joong; Kim, Ho-Kun; Oh, Il-Whan; Choi, Kyoung-Ho

    2014-03-01

    Nighttime vehicle detection is an essential problem to be solved in the development of highway surveillance systems that provide information about the vehicle speed, traffic volume, and traffic jams, and so on. In this paper, a novel downhill simplex approach for vehicle headlights detection is presented. In the proposed approach, a rough position of vehicle headlights is detected first. Then, a downhill simplex optimization approach is adopted to find the accurate location of vehicle headlights. For the optimization process, a novel cost function is designed and various headlights are evaluated for possible headlight positions on the detected vehicles, locating an optimal headlight position. Simulation results are provided to show the robustness of the proposed approach for headlights detection.

  2. Refinement of Catalyst hypotheses using simplex optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norinder, Ulf

    2000-08-01

    The program HypoOpt in combination with the MSI program citest has been used to optimise and expand 3D QSAR Catalyst hypotheses using simplex optimisation coupled with cross-validation. Three data sets related to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, squalene epoxidase inhibition and HIV protease inhibition were used to investigate the outcome of hypothesis optimisation. Simplex optimisation using leave-one-out cross-validation during the hypothesis refinement resulted in improved models with respect to predictivity of an external test set. Furthermore, the utilisation of the geometry of the active site for the HIV protease inhibitors, represented by Catalyst `excluded volume' features, resulted in an optimised hypothesis with improved predictivity compared with the corresponding hypothesis derived without receptor information.

  3. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2013-02-01

    Genital herpes infections are extremely common worldwide and ~22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus. Eighty percent of those affected with genital herpes are unaware of being infected. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is neonatal herpes disease. Fortunately, neonatal herpes simplex infections are uncommon but due to the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Most recently, the initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This review will summarize the epidemiology of maternal and neonatal herpes infections and discuss clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of infants with neonatal herpes disease.

  4. Pediatrics and herpes simplex virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Richard; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2005-01-01

    This review explores the development of prophylactic genital herpes vaccines and their potential impact on perinatal and oral-facial disease. Vaccine strategies have included the use of whole killed virus, viral subunits, attenuated live virus, viral vectors, and bare DNA. To date, the recombinant subunit vaccine, truncated HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL, has been the most efficacious. The vaccine is 73 to 74 percent effective in preventing genital disease in herpes simplex virus seronegative women but is not effective in men or seropositive women. Models predict a significant impact on genital herpes if it limits viral shedding. Reductions in perinatal and oral-facial disease are likely to occur as well. Once an efficacious herpes vaccine is available, its effectiveness will depend ultimately on vaccine acceptance by professional organizations, healthcare professionals, and parents. Further research is required to improve on and fully understand the implications of prophylactic herpes simplex vaccines.

  5. Herpes simplex virus infection during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa; Gardella, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes in pregnancy continues to cause significant maternal morbidity, with an increasing number of infections being due to oral-labial transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1. Near delivery, primary infections with HSV-1 or HSV-2 carry the highest risk of neonatal herpes infection, which is a rare but potentially devastating disease for otherwise healthy newborns. Prevention efforts have been limited by lack of an effective intervention for preventing primary infections and the unclear role of routine serologic testing.

  6. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  7. Bell's palsy associated with herpes simplex gingivostomatitis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Nasatzky, E; Katz, J

    1998-09-01

    Bell's palsy is a sudden, isolated, peripheral facial paralysis caused by various known and sometimes unknown factors. The case of an 18-year-old man who developed Bell's palsy after onset of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis is presented. Although Bell's palsy has already been associated with herpes simplex virus type 1, the described case is the first in the literature in which enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G to herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 1 culture were both positive. The recent literature regarding the possible relationship between herpes simplex virus type 1 and Bell's palsy is reviewed and discussed.

  8. Prevention and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Allen, Upton D; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-04-01

    Human herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in neonates can result in devastating outcomes, including mortality and significant morbidity. All infants are potentially at risk for neonatal HSV infection. This position statement reviews epidemiology, transmission and risk factors, with a focus on intrapartum infection. It considers diagnosis and prognosis according to infection category, along with testing modalities and limitations. Recommendations for managing newborns known to have been exposed intrapartum to HSV are based on expert opinion because a randomized trial to compare management options is not feasible. Guidance is provided for the empirical management of infants with suspected clinical sepsis, including those who do not respond to antibacterial therapy. The present statement replaces a 2006 position statement by the Canadian Paediatric Society.

  9. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  10. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  11. The influence of the milieu on the rate of neutralisation of herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Bolt, C E; Davies, J A; Randall, S; Skinner, G R

    1998-01-01

    The rate of neutralisation of herpes simplex virus 1 was increased by up to more than five hundred-fold when the virus suspension and antiserum were each diluted to one hundred-fold in water instead of phosphate buffered saline. This phenomenon, which was observed for two human positive sera and a rabbit purified polyclonal antibody, may represent an unrecognised homeostatic mechanism where neutralising antibody is 'dilution-fast' under physiological conditions of transudation or pathological conditions of inflammation.

  12. Attenuation of Dengue Virus Infection by Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated siRNA Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    Pharmingen) for 7 days prior to infection with DEN. Blocking dengue virus infection in vitro 1 × 105 Vero cells or DCs were seeded into six-well tissue...essential for dengue pathogenesis in the human host. In this study, we also utilized peripheral blood iDCs as a cell model to test our AAV system. Similar to...attenu- ate DEN infection. List of abbreviations AAV, adeno-associated virus; DCs, dendritic cells ; DEN, dengue virus; DHF/DSS, dengue hemorrhagic fever

  13. Translational Data from Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Whitford, Margaret H.; Arruda, Valder R.; Stedman, Hansell H.; Kay, Mark A.; High, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Preclinical testing of new therapeutic strategies in relevant animal models is an essential part of drug development. The choice of animal models of disease that are used in these studies is driven by the strength of the translational data for informing about safety, efficacy, and success or failure of human clinical trials. Hemophilia B is a monogenic, X-linked, inherited bleeding disorder that results from absent or dysfunctional coagulation factor IX (FIX). Regarding preclinical studies of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy for hemophilia B, dogs with severe hemophilia B (<1% FIX) provide well-characterized phenotypes and genotypes in which a species-specific transgene can be expressed in a mixed genetic background. Correction of the hemophilic coagulopathy by sustained expression of FIX, reduction of bleeding events, and a comprehensive assessment of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the expressed transgene and recombinant AAV vector are all feasible end points in these dogs. This review compares the preclinical studies of AAV vectors used to treat dogs with hemophilia B with the results obtained in subsequent human clinical trials using muscle- and liver-based approaches. PMID:25675273

  14. Deciphering the host-pathogen protein interface in chikungunya virus-mediated sickness.

    PubMed

    Rana, Jyoti; Sreejith, R; Gulati, Sahil; Bharti, Isha; Jain, Surangna; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Successful infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) depends largely on the ability of this virus to manipulate cellular processes in its favour through specific interactions with several host factors. The knowledge of virus-host interactions is of particular value for understanding the interface through which therapeutic strategies could be applied. In the current study, the authors have employed a computational method to study the protein interactions between CHIKV and both its human host and its mosquito vector. In this structure-based study, 2028 human and 86 mosquito proteins were predicted to interact with those of CHIKV through 3918 and 112 unique interactions, respectively. This approach could predict 40 % of the experimentally confirmed CHIKV-host interactions along with several novel interactions, suggesting the involvement of CHIKV in intracellular cell signaling, programmed cell death, and transcriptional and translational regulation. The data corresponded to those obtained in earlier studies for HIV and dengue viruses using the same methodology. This study provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental studies with a view to understanding CHIKV biology.

  15. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections.

  16. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies, Derived from Humans Vaccinated with the RV144 HIV Vaccine Containing the HVEM Binding Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Glycoprotein D, Neutralize HSV Infection, Mediate Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity, and Protect Mice from Ocular Challenge with HSV-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kening; Tomaras, Georgia D; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Goodman, Kyle N; Berman, Phillip W; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Haynes, Barton F; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-10-01

    The RV144 HIV vaccine trial included a recombinant HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) construct fused to a small portion of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) so that the first 40 amino acids of gp120 were replaced by the signal sequence and the first 27 amino acids of the mature form of gD. This region of gD contains most of the binding site for HVEM, an HSV receptor important for virus infection of epithelial cells and lymphocytes. RV144 induced antibodies to HIV that were partially protective against infection, as well as antibodies to HSV. We derived monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from peripheral blood B cells of recipients of the RV144 HIV vaccine and showed that these antibodies neutralized HSV-1 infection in cells expressing HVEM, but not the other major virus receptor, nectin-1. The MAbs mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and mice that received the MAbs and were then challenged by corneal inoculation with HSV-1 had reduced eye disease, shedding, and latent infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of MAbs derived from human recipients of a vaccine that specifically target the HVEM binding site of gD. In summary, we found that monoclonal antibodies derived from humans vaccinated with the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD (i) neutralized HSV-1 infection in a cell receptor-specific manner, (ii) mediated ADCC, and (iii) reduced ocular disease in virus-infected mice.IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores and neonatal herpes and is a leading cause of blindness. Despite many trials, no HSV vaccine has been approved. Nectin-1 and HVEM are the two major cellular receptors for HSV. These receptors are expressed at different levels in various tissues, and the role of each receptor in HSV pathogenesis is not well understood. We derived human monoclonal antibodies from persons who received the HIV RV144 vaccine that contained the HVEM binding domain of HSV-1 gD fused to HIV gp120. These antibodies were

  18. PET imaging of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) or mutant HSV1-sr39tk reporter gene expression in mice and humans using [18F]FHBG.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Shahriar S; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2006-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene (PRG) or its mutant HSV1-sr39tk are used to investigate intracellular molecular events in cultured cells and to image intracellular molecular events and cell trafficking in living subjects. The expression of these PRGs can be imaged using 18F- or 124I-radiolabeled acycloguanosine or pyrimidine analog PET reporter probes (PRPs). This protocol describes the procedures for imaging HSV1-tk or HSV1-sr39tk PRG expression in living subjects with the acycloguanosine analog 9-4-[18F]fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine ([18F]FHBG). [18F]FHBG is a high-affinity substrate for the HSV1-sr39TK enzyme with relatively low affinity for mammalian TK enzymes, resulting in improved detection sensitivity. Furthermore, [18F]FHBG is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an investigational new imaging agent and has been shown to detect HSV1-tk transgene expression in the liver tumors of patients. MicroPET imaging of each small animal can be completed in approximately 1.5 h, and each patient imaging session takes approximately 3 h.

  19. Long-term observation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in a child with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and a possible reactivation mechanism for thymidine kinase-negative HSV-1 in humans.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections in a child with congenital immunodeficiency syndrome were observed over a 10-year period. The child suffered from recurrent and severe HSV-1 mucocutaneous infections. He frequently suffered from acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACV(r)) HSV-1 infection in the later phase of his life, especially after the episode of ACV(r) HSV-1 infection. Virological analyses on the HSV-1 isolates recovered from this patient revealed that all the ACV(r) HSV-1 isolates were thymidine kinase (TK)-negative (TK(-)) due to a single cytosine (C) deletion within the 4-C residues (positions 1061 to 1064) in the TK gene, indicating that the recurrent TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 infections throughout the patient's life were due to the identical ACV(r) HSV-1 strain. Furthermore, it was found that the ACV-sensitive (ACV(s)) isolate recovered from the skin lesions that appeared between the episodes of ACV(r) infection at the ages of 8 and 9 contained ACV(r) HSV-1 with the same mutation in the TK gene. These results indicate that, although TK activity is required for reactivation of TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1 from latency and TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 is unable to reactivate from latency, the TK(-)/ACV(r) HSV-1 strain isolated herein reactivated in this patient, possibly by using the TK activity induced by the latently co-infected TK(+)/ACV(s) HSV-1.

  20. Instrumental Simplex Optimization: Experimental Illustrations for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to optimize instrument performance as taught in a fourth-year undergraduate instrumental analysis course. Gives rules for fixed and variable size simplex and discusses calculations. Also explains use of computer simulation of instruments as a tool in teaching the simplex technique. (JM)

  1. A case of late herpes simplex encephalitis relapse.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Andrea; Lauria, Giuseppe; Mantero, Vittorio; Salmaggi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Late relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis, defined as recurrence more than 3 months after the first initial encephalitic episode, is a rare condition. We describe the case of an adult patient who presented a relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis 8 years after the first episode occurred at the age of 57 years and review the literature of this topic.

  2. Simplex Algorithm for Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy: Simplex-DLTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchenane-Mehor, Halima; Benzohra, Mohamed; Idrissi-Benzohra, Malika; Olivie, François; Saÿdane, Abdelkader

    2004-11-01

    The Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm improved by Lagarias for low-dimension functions is introduced for the first time on transient capacitance signal analysis to decrease noise sensitivity and increase the resolution of deep-level transient spectroscopy method (DLTS). The application of the resolution figure of merit in predetermining the success of DLTS analyses’ ability to resolve defects has shown that the performances of the simplex-DLTS developed in this work are significantly better than those of matrix pencil-DLTS method (MP-DLTS) published in 1998. Comparing experimentally the two methods in analyzing the signals generated by the same 150 keV germanium preamorphized p+n samples, we found that the simplex-DLTS method detects six defects in which some show very close activation energy values, while the MP-DLTS method found only two defects. Hence, the superiority of the simplex-DLTS method is proved; it reveals deep levels in which the emission process is carried out in the same temperature range.

  3. Adeno-associated virus mediated gene delivery into coronary microvessels of chronically instrumented dogs.

    PubMed

    Post, Heiner; Kajstura, Jan; Lei, Biao; Sessa, William C; Byrne, Barry; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Recchia, Fabio A

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery into coronary microvessels in vivo in a large animal. Ten mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented and allowed to recover for 10 days. Dogs were reanesthetized, and the aorta was constricted by a hydraulic occluder, whereby left ventricular (LV) pressure increased by 30% and left circumflex coronary artery blood flow by 50%. Recombinant AAV (serotype 2, CMV enhancer/chicken beta-actin promoter) encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected as a bolus into the left atrium during aortic constriction at total titers of 1010 or 1012 infectious units. Dogs were followed for 2 (n = 4)or4wk(n = 6). Hemodynamics or body weight did not change. In LV tissue slices, a fluorescein-labeled antibody to GFP stained endothelial and smooth muscle cells but was absent in myocytes. To quantify transduction, slices were then stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin or von Willebrand factor. Approximately 4% of arterioles and 2% of microvessels stained positive for anti-GFP independent from viral titer or duration. By regression analyses, the percent of vessels transfected was proportional to the increase in LV systolic pressure during occlusion. AAV is a potential vector for gene transfer into the coronary microcirculation in large animals, including perhaps humans.

  4. Transmission disequilibrium of small CNVs in simplex autism.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Niklas; O'Roak, Brian J; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E

    2013-10-03

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands' CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic Immunization with a Mixture of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein D-Derived “Asymptomatic” Human CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes Decreases Spontaneous Ocular Shedding in Latently Infected HLA Transgenic Rabbits: Association with Low Frequency of Local PD-1+ TIM-3+ CD8+ Exhausted T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif A.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Chentoufi, Aziz A.; Geertsema, Roger; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Dasgupta, Gargi; Osorio, Nelson; Kalantari, Mina; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most blinding ocular herpetic disease is due to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) from latency rather than to primary acute infection. No herpes simplex vaccine is currently available for use in humans. In this study, we used the HLA-A*02:01 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model of ocular herpes to assess the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine based on HSV-1 gD epitopes that are recognized mainly by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HLA-A*02:01-positive, HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes (gD53–61, gD70–78, and gD278–286) were linked with a promiscuous CD4+ T-cell epitope (gD287–317) to create 3 separate pairs of CD4-CD8 peptides, which were then each covalently coupled to an Nε-palmitoyl-lysine moiety, a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) ligand. This resulted in the construction of 3 CD4-CD8 lipopeptide vaccines. Latently infected HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these 3 ASYMP lipopeptide vaccines, delivered as eye drops in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The ASYMP therapeutic vaccination (i) induced HSV-specific CD8+ T cells that prevent HSV-1 reactivation ex vivo from latently infected explanted trigeminal ganglia (TG), (ii) significantly reduced HSV-1 shedding detected in tears, (iii) boosted the number and function of HSV-1 gD epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLN), conjunctiva, and TG, and (iv) was associated with fewer exhausted HSV-1 gD-specific PD-1+ TIM-3+ CD8+ T cells. The results underscore the potential of an ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine strategy against recurrent ocular herpes. IMPORTANCE Seventy percent to 90% of adults harbor herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), which establishes lifelong latency in sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. This latent state sporadically switches to spontaneous reactivation, resulting in viral shedding in tears. Most

  6. Therapeutic immunization with a mixture of herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein D-derived “asymptomatic” human CD8+ T-cell epitopes decreases spontaneous ocular shedding in latently infected HLA transgenic rabbits: association with low frequency of local PD-1+ TIM-3+ CD8+ exhausted T cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif A; Srivastava, Ruchi; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Geertsema, Roger; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Dasgupta, Gargi; Osorio, Nelson; Kalantari, Mina; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-07-01

    Most blinding ocular herpetic disease is due to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) from latency rather than to primary acute infection. No herpes simplex vaccine is currently available for use in humans. In this study, we used the HLA-A*02:01 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model of ocular herpes to assess the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine based on HSV-1 gD epitopes that are recognized mainly by CD8(+) T cells from "naturally" protected HLA-A*02:01-positive, HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Three ASYMP CD8(+) T-cell epitopes (gD(53-61), gD(70-78), and gD(278-286)) were linked with a promiscuous CD4(+) T-cell epitope (gD(287-317)) to create 3 separate pairs of CD4-CD8 peptides, which were then each covalently coupled to an Nε-palmitoyl-lysine moiety, a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) ligand. This resulted in the construction of 3 CD4-CD8 lipopeptide vaccines. Latently infected HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these 3 ASYMP lipopeptide vaccines, delivered as eye drops in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The ASYMP therapeutic vaccination (i) induced HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that prevent HSV-1 reactivation ex vivo from latently infected explanted trigeminal ganglia (TG), (ii) significantly reduced HSV-1 shedding detected in tears, (iii) boosted the number and function of HSV-1 gD epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLN), conjunctiva, and TG, and (iv) was associated with fewer exhausted HSV-1 gD-specific PD-1(+) TIM-3+ CD8(+) T cells. The results underscore the potential of an ASYMP CD8(+) T-cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine strategy against recurrent ocular herpes. Seventy percent to 90% of adults harbor herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), which establishes lifelong latency in sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. This latent state sporadically switches to spontaneous reactivation, resulting in viral shedding in tears. Most blinding

  7. Role of CD137 signaling in dengue virus-mediated apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nagila, Amar; Netsawang, Janjuree; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Noisakran, Sansanee; Morchang, Atthapan; Yasamut, Umpa; Puttikhunt, Chunya; Kasinrerk, Watchara; and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} For the first time the role of CD137 in dengue virus (DENV) infection. {yields} Induction of DENV-mediated apoptosis by CD137 signaling. {yields} Sensitization to CD137-mediated apoptosis by dengue virus capsid protein (DENV C). {yields} Nuclear localization of DENV C is required for CD137-mediated apoptosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic dysfunction is a well recognized feature of dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury are still poorly understood. A complex interaction between DENV and the host immune response contributes to DENV-mediated tissue injury. DENV capsid protein (DENV C) physically interacts with the human death domain-associated protein Daxx. A double substitution mutation in DENV C (R85A/K86A) abrogates Daxx interaction, nuclear localization and apoptosis. Therefore we compared the expression of cell death genes between HepG2 cells expressing DENV C and DENV C (R85A/K86A) using a real-time PCR array. Expression of CD137, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, increased significantly in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C compared to HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In addition, CD137-mediated apoptotic activity in HepG2 cells expressing DENV C was significantly increased by anti-CD137 antibody compared to that of HepG2 cells expressing DENV C (R85A/K86A). In DENV-infected HepG2 cells, CD137 mRNA and CD137 positive cells significantly increased and CD137-mediated apoptotic activity was increased by anti-CD137 antibody. This work is the first to demonstrate the contribution of CD137 signaling to DENV-mediated apoptosis.

  8. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  9. Pathogenic Potential of Two Sibling Species, Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae): In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenic potentials of two sibling nematodes Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffii were compared by in vitro and in vivo studies. Live third-stage larvae of each species were subjected to agar blocks made using PBS or RPMI-1640, overlaid with different supernatants (artificial gastric juice, PBS, and RPMI-1640), and their penetration ability was compared. Their tolerance of artificial gastric juice was also tested. Further, they were introduced into rats by gastric intubation, and the in vivo locations of them were investigated. A. pegreffii showed higher penetration ability than A. simplex (s.s.) in most of the experimental conditions, except for the RPMI-1640 agar block overlaid with artificial gastric juice. In an acid tolerance test, the mean survival times were 6.1 days for A. simplex (s.s.) and 4.2 days for A. pegreffii. In an animal experiment, A. simplex (s.s.) stayed for a shorter time in the stomachs of rats than A. pegreffii. Some A. pegreffii and A. simplex (s.s.) were embedded in the gastric mucosa or freely existed in the abdominal cavity. All of these results suggest that A. pegreffii has the pathogenic potential to cause anisakidosis in humans when ingested, as does A. simplex (s.s.). PMID:25685821

  10. Enhanced Protection against Ebola Virus Mediated by an Improved Adenovirus-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kaylie N.; Croyle, Maria A.; Strong, James E.; Feldmann, Heinz; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Ebola virus is transmitted by direct contact with bodily fluids of infected individuals, eliciting death rates as high as 90% among infected humans. Currently, replication defective adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine is being studied in a phase I clinical trial. Another Ebola vaccine, based on an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus has shown efficacy in post-exposure treatment of nonhuman primates to Ebola infection. In this report, we modified the common recombinant adenovirus serotype 5-based Ebola vaccine expressing the wild-type ZEBOV glycoprotein sequence from a CMV promoter (Ad-CMVZGP). The immune response elicited by this improved expression cassette vector (Ad-CAGoptZGP) and its ability to afford protection against lethal ZEBOV challenge in mice was compared to the standard Ad-CMVZGP vector. Methodology/Principal Findings Ad-CMVZGP was previously shown to protect mice, guinea pigs and nonhuman primates from an otherwise lethal challenge of Zaire ebolavirus. The antigenic expression cassette of this vector was improved through codon optimization, inclusion of a consensus Kozak sequence and reconfiguration of a CAG promoter (Ad-CAGoptZGP). Expression of GP from Ad-CAGoptZGP was substantially higher than from Ad-CMVZGP. Ad-CAGoptZGP significantly improved T and B cell responses at doses 10 to 100-fold lower than that needed with Ad-CMVZGP. Additionally, Ad-CAGoptZGP afforded full protections in mice against lethal challenge at a dose 100 times lower than the dose required for Ad-CMVZGP. Finally, Ad-CAGoptZGP induced full protection to mice when given 30 minutes post-challenge. Conclusions/Significance We describe an improved adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine capable of affording post-exposure protection against lethal challenge in mice. The molecular modifications of the new improved vaccine also translated in the induction of significantly enhanced immune responses and complete protection at a dose 100 times lower than with the previous generation

  11. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  12. Oncolytic virotherapy using herpes simplex virus: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Nicolas As; Rizos, Helen; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy exploits the properties of human viruses to naturally cytolysis of cancer cells. The human pathogen herpes simplex virus (HSV) has proven particularly amenable for use in oncolytic virotherapy. The relative safety of HSV coupled with extensive knowledge on how HSV interacts with the host has provided a platform for manipulating HSV to enhance the targeting and killing of human cancer cells. This has culminated in the approval of talimogene laherparepvec for the treatment of melanoma. This review focuses on the development of HSV as an oncolytic virus and where the field is likely to head in the future.

  13. Defining nervous system susceptibility during acute and latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Chandra M; Carr, Daniel J J

    2017-07-15

    Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic human pathogens that infect and establish latency in peripheral sensory neurons of the host. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) readily infects the facial mucosa that can result in the establishment of a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). From latency, HSV-1 can reactivate and cause peripheral pathology following anterograde trafficking from sensory neurons. Under rare circumstances, HSV-1 can migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), a devastating disease of the CNS. It is unclear whether HSE is the result of viral reactivation within the TG, from direct primary infection of the olfactory mucosa, or from other infected CNS neurons. Areas of the brain that are susceptible to HSV-1 during acute infection are ill-defined. Furthermore, whether the CNS is a true reservoir of viral latency following clearance of virus during acute infection is unknown. In this context, this review will identify sites within the brain that are susceptible to acute infection and harbor latent virus. In addition, we will also address findings of HSV-1 lytic gene expression during latency and comment on the pathophysiological consequences HSV-1 infection may have on long-term neurologic performance in animal models and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenylphenalenones from the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel Anthony; Goble, David James; Silva, Claudio Andres; Urban, Sylvia

    2009-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the Australian plant Haemodorum simplex resulted in the isolation of three new phenylphenalenones, haemodorone (10), haemodorol (11), and haemodorose (12), together with the previously reported compounds 5, dilatrin (6), and xiphidone (8). The first complete 2D NMR characterization for all of the compounds isolated, including several chemical shift reassignments for dilatrin (6), is reported. In addition this is one of the few reports to discuss the isolation of new phenylphenalenones from an Australian medicinal plant. The crude extract of both the bulbaceous and aerial components of the plant exhibited varying degrees of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity, and only the bulbs displayed potent cytotoxic activity.

  15. Herpes simplex encephalitis: some interesting presentations.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Jose, M; Kumar, V

    2003-09-01

    Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of fatal viral encephalitis. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis and successful therapy to restrict morbidity and mortality. We report 4 patients of HSE, with interesting presentations, viz. brainstem involvement in an immunosuppressed patient, Kluver-Bucy Syndrome-a consequence of untreated HSE, HSE in the postpartum period mistaken as cortical venous thrombosis, and response to inadequate treatment. They demonstrate the wide spectrum of clinical features, pitfalls in diagnosis, and a variable response to therapy in HSE.

  16. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn.

  18. Anisakis simplex Larvae: Infection Status in Marine Fish and Cephalopods Purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae

    2011-01-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea. PMID:21461267

  19. Anisakis simplex larvae: infection status in marine fish and cephalopods purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Jung; Jo, Jin Ok; Cho, Min Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun; Cha, Hee Jae; Ock, Mee Sun

    2011-03-01

    The infection status of marine fish and cephalopods with Anisakis simplex third stage larva (L3) was studied over a period of 1 year. A total of 2,537 specimens, which consisted of 40 species of fish and 3 species of cephalopods, were purchased from the Cooperative Fish Market in Busan, Korea, from August 2006 to July 2007. They were examined for A. simplex L3 from the whole body cavity, viscera, and muscles. A. simplex L3 were confirmed by light microscopy. The overall infection rate reached 34.3%, and average 17.1 larvae were parasitized per infected fish. Fish that recorded the highest infection rate was Lophiomus setigerus (100%), followed by Liparis tessellates (90%), Pleurogrammus azonus (90%), and Scomber japonicus (88.7%). The intensity of infection was the highest in Gadus macrocephalus (117.7 larvae per fish), followed by S. japonicus (103.9 larvae) and L. setigerus (54.2 larvae). Although abundance of A. simplex L3 was not seasonal in most of the fish species, 10 of the 16 selected species showed the highest abundance in February and April. A positive correlation between the intensity of L3 infection and the fish length was obvious in S. japonicus and G. macrocephalus. It was likely that A. simplex L3 are more frequently infected during the spring season in some species of fish. Our study revealed that eating raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods could still be a source of human infection with A. simplex L3 in Korea.

  20. Use of acyclovir for suppression of human immunodeficiency virus infection is not associated with genotypic evidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 resistance to acyclovir: analysis of specimens from three phase III trials.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie; Lingappa, Jairam; Weiss, Helen A; Changalucha, John; Baisley, Kathy; Tanton, Clare; Hayes, Richard J; Marshak, Joshua O; Gladden, Rula Green; Koelle, David M

    2010-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease and is a cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We analyzed specimens from three separate phase III trials of acyclovir (ACV) for prevention of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission to determine if failure of ACV to interrupt HIV acquisition and transmission was associated with genotypic ACV resistance. Acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) or placebo was provided to HSV-2-infected persons at risk of HIV-1 infection in the Mwanza and HPTN 039 trials and to persons dually infected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 who had an HIV-negative partner in the Partners in Prevention study. We extracted HSV DNA from genital ulcer swabs or cervicovaginal lavage fluids from 68 samples obtained from 64 participants randomized to ACV and sequenced the HSV-2 UL23 gene encoding thymidine kinase. The UL23 sequences were compared with published and unpublished data. Variants were observed in 38/1,128 (3.4%) nucleotide positions in the UL23 open reading frame, with 58% of these encoding amino acid changes. No deletions, insertions, or mutations known to be associated with resistance were detected. Thirty-one of the variants (81.5%) are newly reported, 15 of which code for amino acid changes. Overall, UL23 is highly polymorphic compared to other loci in HSV-2, but no drug resistance mutations were detected that could explain the failure to reduce HIV incidence or to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these studies.

  1. Molecular and serologic diagnostic approaches; the prevalence of herpes simplex in idiopathic men infertile

    PubMed Central

    Amirjannati, Nasser; Yaghmaei, Farhad; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nasiri, Mahboubeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sehhat, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human pathogens that can cause infertility may also affect sperm count and quality. Viral infections can be considered as direct and/or indirect cause of male factor infertility. Objective: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence of herpes simplex virus in the semen of infertile men attending the Avicenna Infertility Clinic, and to compare it with the herpes virus serology results. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010. Infertile men participating without any clinical signs of infection with herpes simplex virus, and no obvious cause for their infertility were included. Semen and blood samples were used for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and serologic testing for these people. Two samples were collected: one ml semen sample to verify the existence of genital herpes simplex virus in infertile men, and blood samples of 217 individuals tested for antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16. Results: According to the PCR results of semen samples the prevalence of herpes simplex in semen was 12% and serologic test showed 3.2% prevalence within blood. Nine to 10% of IgM negative were PCR positive and only 2-3% of IgM positive were PCR positive. Between herpes serologic studies with positive controls and negative controls by using both tests, there was a significant positive relationship (r=0.718 and p<0.001). The relationship between semen PCR test results and serological survey of herpes patients with a negative control in both Pearson and Spearman tests was positive and significant (r=0.229 and p=0.001). Correlation between the PCR results of semen samples with two positive control subjects and a positive IgM test was statistically confirmed (r=0.235 and p<0.001). Conclusion: We recommend that if there is suspicion to herpes simplex as a microorganism that theoretically could impact semen parameters and cause infertility it is prudent to use PCR technique on semen sample rather than ELISA

  2. Inhibitors of nucleotidyltransferase superfamily enzymes suppress herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Tavis, John E; Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L; Wold, William S M; Morrison, Lynda A

    2014-12-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family.

  3. Herpes simplex encephalitis with thalamic, brainstem and cerebellar involvement.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meenal; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Udwadia Hegde, Anaita

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Differentiation from Japanese encephalitis may be difficult in these patients, especially in endemic areas, and may necessitate the use of relevant investigations in all patients.

  4. Behaviour disturbances during recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R; Bhalla, A; Gordon, A; Roberts, J

    1983-01-01

    Bizarre behaviour disturbances in four patients occurring during incomplete recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Some aspects of their behaviour were similar to that originally described by Klüver and Bucy in monkeys following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Previous reports of behavioural disturbances in man after herpes simplex encephalitis are reviewed and attention drawn to the aggressive and disruptive behaviour that is often seen. With the reduced mortality in herpes simplex encephalitis in recent years it is possible that behaviour disturbances such as those described here will be seen more frequently. Images PMID:6619889

  5. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  6. Expression of herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs in cell culture models of quiescent and latent infection.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Igor; Hackenberg, Michael; Kim, Ju Youn; Pesola, Jean M; Everett, Roger D; Preston, Chris M; Wilson, Angus C; Coen, Donald M

    2014-02-01

    To facilitate studies of herpes simplex virus 1 latency, cell culture models of quiescent or latent infection have been developed. Using deep sequencing, we analyzed the expression of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in two models employing human fibroblasts and one using rat neurons. In all cases, the expression patterns differed from that in productively infected cells, with the rat neuron pattern most closely resembling that found in latently infected human or mouse ganglia in vivo.

  7. Optimization using the gradient and simplex methods.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Víctor; Cerdà, Juan Luis; Idris, Abubakr M

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally optimization of analytical methods has been conducted using a univariate method, varying each parameter one-by-one holding fixed the remaining. This means in many cases to reach only local minima and not get the real optimum. Among the various options for multivariate optimization, this paper highlights the gradient method, which involves the ability to perform the partial derivatives of a mathematical model, as well as the simplex method that does not require that condition. The advantages and disadvantages of those two multivariate optimization methods are discussed, indicating when they can be applied and the different forms that have been introduced. Different cases are described on the applications of these methods in analytical chemistry.

  8. Selective language aphasia from herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ku, A; Lachmann, E A; Nagler, W

    1996-09-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old right-handed Chinese/English bilingual patient who developed herpes simplex encephalitis involving the left temporal lobe, with resultant aphasia. His native language was Mandarin, but he had received extensive training in English for 6 years after moving to the United States and was fluent in English. One week after admission, he could not speak, comprehend, repeat, name, read, or write in English, but he had relative preservation of most of these facilities in Mandarin. He could not write in Mandarin, and his syntax was simplified. Two months later, along with intensive bilingual speech therapy, his reading, writing, and naming in English had almost recovered.

  9. Naming deficit in herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E; Laiacona, M

    1996-04-01

    The preferential involvement of living categories in naming impairment is well recognised in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE). In this paper we describe naming, neuropsychological and neuroradiological findings with seven fresh HSE cases. Patients were given a picture naming task that included 60 items belonging to 6 different categories (three living, i.e. fruits, vegetables and animals and three non-living, i.e. furniture, vehicles and tools). In the statistical analysis several possible sources of bias as the frequency of the target word, the familiarity with the objects to name, the image complexity and other parameters were taken into account. Four out of seven patients were significantly more impaired with living things. We describe their general cognitive profile and discuss the anatomo-functional aspects of category dissociation. Language impairment, disproportionately severe for the naming of living exemplars, is frequently observed in HSE, is clinically relevant and should be specifically investigated.

  10. Herpes simplex infection of the larynx requiring laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Sims, John R; Massoll, Nicole A; Suen, James Y

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of the larynx is an exceedingly rare clinical entity, most frequently reported in the pediatric population or in immunocompromised adults. We present a 62-year-old woman presented with neck pain, hoarseness, crepitus over the larynx, and what appeared to be a necrotic mass of the right true vocal cord on laryngoscopy. Due to near-complete destruction of the cartilaginous framework of the larynx, a total laryngectomy was performed. The final pathology report showed squamous mucosal changes consistent with herpes simplex infection, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. Though herpes simplex laryngitis is uncommon, this case shows the potential for herpes simplex to cause extensive damage and compromise airway patency when left untreated.

  11. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc.").

  12. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis during treatment with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert H J; Singson, Stephanie V; Haroun, Faysal; Mehta, Hetal H; Parenti, David M

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. They are associated with an increased risk for infections. We report a case of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis in a patient receiving etanercept and review the literature on TNF-α and TNF-α inhibitors, and their importance in the pathophysiology of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  13. Novel agents and strategies to treat herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection, such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with everyday activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immunocompromised patient population. After primary or initial infection the virus persists for life in a latent form in neurons of the host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently, no cure is available. In the mid-1950s the first antiviral, idoxuridine, was developed for topical treatment of herpes disease and, in 1978, vidarabine was licensed for systemic use to treat HSV encephalitis. Acyclovir (Zovirax), a potent, specific and tolerable nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, was a milestone in the development of antiviral drugs in the late 1970s. In the mid-1990s, when acyclovir became a generic drug, valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), prodrugs of the gold standard and penciclovir (Denavir), Vectavir), a close analogue, were launched. Though numerous approaches and strategies were tested and considerable effort was expended in the search of the next generation of an antiherpetic therapy, it proved difficult to outperform acyclovir. Notable in this regard was the award of a Nobel Prize in 1988 for the elucidation of mechanistic principles which resulted in the development of new drugs such as acyclovir. Vaccines, interleukins, interferons, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or nonspecific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. Recently though, new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro

  14. Extracts and molecules from medicinal plants against herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Thompson, Kenneth D; Gambari, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are important pathogens for humans, especially in the case of highly susceptible adults. Moreover, HSV-2 has been reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great efforts. In this paper, we review anti-HSV substances from natural sources, including both extracts and pure compounds from herbal medicines, reported in studies from several laboratories. The role of traditional medicine for the development of anti-HSV compounds is also discussed. Interestingly, it was found that traditional medicines, like Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese (TCM), Chakma medicines, are good and potential sources for promising anti-HSV drugs. A second objective of this review is to discuss several anti-HSV compounds with respect to their structure-activity relationship (SAR). A large number of small molecules, like phenolics, polyphenols, terpenes (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-), flavonoids, sugar-containing compounds, were found to be promising anti-herpetic agents. Our major conclusion is that natural products from medicinal plant extracts are very important source of anti-HSV agents.

  15. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  16. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Tamara P; Mitchell, Michelle C; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A; Belshe, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  17. Necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Toriyama, Koji; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Observational case report. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances.

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 1-derived recombinant and amplicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Fraefel, Cornel; Marconi, Peggy; Epstein, Alberto L

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen whose lifestyle is based on a long-term dual interaction with the infected host, being able to establish both lytic and latent infections. The virus genome is a 153 kbp double-stranded DNA molecule encoding more than 80 genes. The interest of HSV-1 as gene transfer vector stems from its ability to infect many different cell types, both quiescent and proliferating cells, the very high packaging capacity of the virus capsid, the outstanding neurotropic adaptations that this virus has evolved, and the fact that it never integrates into the cellular chromosomes, thus avoiding the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Two types of vectors can be derived from HSV-1, recombinant vectors and amplicon vectors, and different methodologies have been developed to prepare large stocks of each type of vector. This chapter summarizes (1) the two approaches most commonly used to prepare recombinant vectors through homologous recombination, either in eukaryotic cells or in bacteria, and (2) the two methodologies currently used to generate helper-free amplicon vectors, either using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based approach or a Cre/loxP site-specific recombination strategy.

  19. Herpesviridae infections in newborns: varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Enright, Andrea M; Prober, Charles G

    2004-08-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are all members of the Herpesviridae family.Humans are the only source of infection for these double stranded DNA viruses. Infants may acquire these infections in utero, peripartum, or postnatally, resulting in a variety of clinical syndromes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe infection,with high mortality rates and significant long-term morbidity. This article presents the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment,and prevention strategies for VZV, HSV, and CMV infections in infants.

  20. Prospects and Perspectives for Development of a Vaccine Against Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Shane C.; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and -2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future. PMID:25077372

  1. Prospects and perspectives for development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future.

  2. TLR3 deficiency in herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hye Kyung; Seppänen, Mikko; Hautala, Timo; Ciancanelli, Michael J.; Itan, Yuval; Lafaille, Fabien G.; Dell, William; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Byun, Minji; Pauwels, Elodie; Rönnelid, Ylva; Cai, Xin; Boucherit, Soraya; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Paetau, Anders; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Tardieu, Marc; Abel, Laurent; Yildiran, Alisan; Vergison, Anne; Roivainen, Reina; Etzioni, Amos; Tienari, Pentti J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of children with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) displaying TLR3 deficiency, the extent of TLR3 allelic heterogeneity, and the specific clinical features of TLR3 deficiency. Methods: We determined the sequence of all exons of TLR3 in 110 of the 120 patients with HSE enrolled in our study who do not carry any of the previously described HSE-predisposing mutations of TLR3 pathway genes (TLR3, UNC93B1, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1). All the new mutant TLR3 alleles detected were characterized experimentally in-depth to establish the causal relationship between the genotype and phenotype. Results: In addition to the 3 previously reported TLR3-deficient patients from the same cohort, 6 other children or young adults with HSE carry 1 of 5 unique or extremely rare (minor allele frequency <0.001) missense TLR3 alleles. Two alleles (M374T, D592N) heterozygous in 3 patients are not deleterious in vitro. The other 3 are deleterious via different mechanisms: G743D+R811I and L360P heterozygous in 2 patients are loss-of-function due to low levels of expression and lack of cleavage, respectively, and R867Q homozygous in 1 patient is hypomorphic. The 3 patients' fibroblasts display impaired TLR3 responses and enhanced herpes simplex virus 1 susceptibility. Overall, TLR3 deficiency is therefore found in 6 (5%) of the 120 patients studied. There is high allelic heterogeneity, with 3 forms of autosomal dominant partial defect by negative dominance or haploinsufficiency, and 2 forms of autosomal recessive defect with complete or partial deficiency. Finally, 4 (66%) of the 6 TLR3-deficient patients had at least 1 late relapse of HSE, whereas relapse occurred in only 12 (10%) of the total cohort of 120 patients. Conclusions: Childhood-onset HSE is due to TLR3 deficiency in a traceable fraction of patients, in particular the ones with HSE recurrence. Mutations in TLR3 and TLR3 pathway genes should be searched and experimentally studied in children with

  3. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and... corrects the regulation classifying herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assays by removing the reference...

  4. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  5. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses.

  6. Spray characteristics of simplex swirl atomizers

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, N.K.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The effects of air and liquid properties, and atomizer dimensions, on the spray characteristics of simplex pressure-swirl atomizers are examined. Mean drop size and drop-size distribution are measured using an improved form of light-scattering technique. The test range includes wide variations in air pressure, atomizer flow number, liquid flow rate, liquid viscosity and injection pressure differential. The effects on mean drop size and drop-size distribution of variation in distance between the atomizer and the plane of measurement are also examined. The results show that increase in distance from the nozzle, beyond the minimum needed to complete the atomization process, produces both an increase in mean drop size and a broader distribution of drop sizes in the spray. In fact, it is generally observed that any change in air properties, liquid properties and atomizer geometry that lowers the mean drop size, also narrows the drop-size distribution in the spray. It is also shown that conventional power law expressions for describing the dependence of mean drop size on air and liquid properties are basically unsound and have only limited ranges of application.

  7. Efficient revised simplex method for SVM training.

    PubMed

    Sentelle, Christopher; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C; Georgiopoulos, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Existing active set methods reported in the literature for support vector machine (SVM) training must contend with singularities when solving for the search direction. When a singularity is encountered, an infinite descent direction can be carefully chosen that avoids cycling and allows the algorithm to converge. However, the algorithm implementation is likely to be more complex and less computationally efficient than would otherwise be required for an algorithm that does not have to contend with the singularities. We show that the revised simplex method introduced by Rusin provides a guarantee of nonsingularity when solving for the search direction. This method provides for a simpler and more computationally efficient implementation, as it avoids the need to test for rank degeneracies and also the need to modify factorizations or solution methods based upon those rank degeneracies. In our approach, we take advantage of the guarantee of nonsingularity by implementing an efficient method for solving the search direction and show that our algorithm is competitive with SVM-QP and also that it is a particularly effective when the fraction of nonbound support vectors is large. In addition, we show competitive performance of the proposed algorithm against two popular SVM training algorithms, SVMLight and LIBSVM. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  9. Striated muscle involvement in experimental oral infection by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, María Inés; Sanjuan, Norberto A

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most frequent causes of oral infection in humans, especially during early childhood. Several experimental models have been developed to study the pathogenesis of this virus but all of them employed adult animals. In this work, we developed an experimental model that uses mice younger than 4 days old, to more closely resemble human infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously with the prototype strain McIntyre of Herpes simplex-1, and the progression of infection was studied by immunoperoxidase. All animals died within 24-72 h post-infection, while viral antigens were found in the oral epithelium, nerves and brain. The most striking result was the finding of viral antigens in the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells belonging to striated muscles. Organotypic cultures of striated muscles were performed, and viral replication was observed in them by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and viral isolation. We conclude that the infection of striated muscles is present from the onset of oral infection and, eventually, could explain some clinical observations in humans.

  10. Prevention of type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in mice by prior immunization with a vaccine prepared from type 1 herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Dong, C Y; Liu, Z H; Skinner, G R; Hartley, C E

    1983-12-01

    Repeated intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with inactivated type 2 herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in approximately 50% of mice. Prior immunization with subunit vaccine Ac NFU1(S-) BHK reduced the frequency of cervical carcinoma to 19%. Inoculation of mice with a control preparation of uninfected cell extract never induced preinvasive or invasive cervical cancer. There was evidence of an antibody response in every vaccinated and/or innoculated animal. Mice developing cervical cancer had a significantly higher antibody titre to type 2 herpes virus than mice not developing cancer. These results are in general accord with sero-epidemiological studies of preinvasive and invasive cervical carcinoma in human subjects and suggests that this experimental model may be appropriate for further investigation of prevention of human cervical cancer by vaccination.

  11. Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0498 TITLE: Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the...August 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineered Herpes Simplex Viruses for the Treatment of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...for each blot. Glyco-protein D is produced at extraordinarily high levels by our herpes simplex virus, and thus, it is quite common in herpes simplex

  12. Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Todo, Tomoki

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered, conditionally replicating herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) are promising therapeutic agents for cancer. They can replicate in situ, spread, and exhibit oncolytic activity via a direct cytocidal effect. In addition, oncolytic HSV-1 can transfer and express foreign genes in host cells. The phase I clinical study with G207, a double-mutated HSV-1, in recurrent malignant glioma patients has shown that oncolytic HSV-1 can be safely administered into human brains. The therapeutic benefits of oncolytic HSV-1 depend on the extent of both intratumoral viral replication and induction of host antitumor immune responses. We develop new-generation oncolytic HSV-1 by enhancing these properties while retaining the safety features. G47delta was created from G207 by introducing another genetic mutation. Compared with G207, G47delta showed 1) better stimulation of human antitumor immune cells, 2) better growth properties leading to higher virus yields and increased cytopathic effect in vitro, 3) better antitumor efficacy in both immuno-competent and -incompetent animals, and 4) preserved safety in the brain of HSV-1-sensitive mice. Preparation is under way for a clinical trial using G47delta in progressive glioblastoma patients. G47delta is also suited as a backbone vector for expressing foreign molecules. Using bacterial artificial chromosome and two DNA recombinases, we have created an "armed" oncolytic HSV-1 generation system that allows insertion of transgene(s) into the genome of G47delta in a rapid and accurate manner. We found that expression of immunostimulatory molecules can significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of G47delta. Based on these advances, we anticipate that oncolytic virus therapy using oncolytic HSV-1 will soon be established as an important modality of cancer treatment.

  13. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets.

  14. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological Assay Device AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... the herpes simplex virus (HSV) serological assay device type, which is classified as class II (special... tests to identify antibodies to herpes simplex virus in serum, and the devices that consist of herpes...

  15. Prefixation of Simplex Pairs in Czech: An Analysis of Spatial Semantics, Distributive Verbs, and Procedural Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilchey, Christian Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines prefixation of simplex pairs. A simplex pair consists of an iterative imperfective and a semelfactive perfective verb. When prefixed, both of these verbs are perfective. The prefixed forms derived from semelfactives are labeled single act verbs, while the prefixed forms derived from iterative imperfective simplex verbs…

  16. Investigation of a sub-unit vaccine using an animal model of herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Harney, B A; Easty, D L; Skinner, G R

    1983-01-01

    A rabbit and a mouse model of herpes simplex eye disease have been used to evaluate a sub-unit herpes simplex vaccine. Various immunization schedules were investigated. The vaccine was found to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and to offer protection against corneal infection with liver herpes simplex virus.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-06-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ((14C)FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional (14C)FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application.

  18. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-02-26

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors' binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules.

  19. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus: The Interplay Between HSV, Host, and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dipen Vijay; Kulkarni, Smita Shrikant

    2015-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus proteins interact with host (human) proteins and create an environment conducive for its replication. Genital ulceration due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections is an important clinical manifestation reported to increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and replication in HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection. Dampening the innate and adaptive immune responses of the skin-resident dendritic cells, HSV-2 not only helps itself, but creates a "yellow brick road" for one of the most dreaded viruses HIV, which is transmitted mainly through the sexual route. Although, data from clinical trials show that HSV-2 suppression reduces HIV-1 viral load, there are hardly any reports presenting conclusive evidence on the impact of HSV-2 coinfection on HIV-1 disease progression. Be that as it may, understanding the interplay between these three characters (HSV, host, and HIV-1) is imperative. This review endeavors to collate studies on the influence of HSV-derived proteins on the host response and HIV-1 replication. Studying such complex interactions may help in designing and developing common strategies for the two viruses to keep these "partners in crime" at bay.

  1. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  2. Simplex-stochastic collocation method with improved scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Edeling, W.N.; Dwight, R.P.; Cinnella, P.

    2016-04-01

    The Simplex-Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method is a robust tool used to propagate uncertain input distributions through a computer code. However, it becomes prohibitively expensive for problems with dimensions higher than 5. The main purpose of this paper is to identify bottlenecks, and to improve upon this bad scalability. In order to do so, we propose an alternative interpolation stencil technique based upon the Set-Covering problem, and we integrate the SSC method in the High-Dimensional Model-Reduction framework. In addition, we address the issue of ill-conditioned sample matrices, and we present an analytical map to facilitate uniformly-distributed simplex sampling.

  3. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE. PMID:28090058

  4. Herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis: the elusive doppelganger in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Cases, Margaret; Leduc, Charles; Farmer, Patricia L; Richardson, Susan E; Zoutman, Dick E

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus has protean manifestations and is an important cause of morbidity in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of recurrent lymphadenopathy and rash in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The elusive clinical diagnosis eventually required core biopsy of a lymph node with immunohistochemistry and confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. This case illustrates the challenging clinical and laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis and the need to maintain a high index of suspicion for infection when treating an immunocompromised patient with unusual and/or persistent symptoms.

  5. Primary herpes simplex virus infection mimicking cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Andrew; White, Catherine; Higgins, Stephen Peter

    2015-06-02

    We report the case of an 18-year-old woman presenting with ulceration of the cervix caused by primary type 2 herpes simplex infection in the absence of skin lesions. The differential diagnosis included cervical cancer and we referred the patient for urgent colposcopy. However, laboratory tests proved the viral aetiology of the cervical ulceration and the cervix had healed completely 3 weeks later. The case highlights the need to consider herpes simplex infection in the differential diagnosis of ulceration of the cervix even when there are no cutaneous signs of herpes.

  6. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Complicated by Cerebral Hemorrhage during Acyclovir Therapy.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yukinori; Hara, Yuuta

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.

  7. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results.

  8. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and herpes simplex virus type 2 are possible risk factors for adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (prospective case-control study).

    PubMed

    Formánek, M; Jančatová, D; Komínek, P; Matoušek, P; Zeleník, K

    2017-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Although HPV prevalence is high, the incidence of papillomatosis is low. Thus, factors other than HPV infection probably contribute to RRP. This study investigated whether patients with papillomatosis are more often infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 and chlamydia trachomatis (ChT) and whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs in this group of patients more often. Prospective case-control study. Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital. The study included 20 patients with adult-onset RRP and 20 adult patients with vocal cord cyst and no pathology of laryngeal mucosa (control group). Immunohistochemical analysis of pepsin, HPV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and ChT was performed in biopsy specimens of laryngeal papillomas and of healthy laryngeal mucosa (control group) obtained from medial part of removed vocal cord cyst during microlaryngoscopy procedures. Pathologic LPR (pepsin in tissue) was diagnosed in 8/20 (40.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .003). Herpes simplex virus type 2 was present in 9/20 (45.0%) patients with papillomatosis and in 0/20 control patients (P = .001). Five specimens were positive for both pepsin and herpes simplex virus type 2. No samples were positive for ChT. There were no significant differences between groups for age, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Tobacco exposure was not more frequent in RRP group either (P = .01). Results show that LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 are significantly more often present in patients with RRP. LPR and herpes simplex virus type 2 might activate latent HPV infection and thereby be possible risk factors for RRP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Experimental comparison of pathogenic potential of two sibling species Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Romero, María; Valero, Adela; Navarro-Moll, María Concepción; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2013-08-01

    There are little data available on the pathology caused by the sibling species Anisakis simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. The differences shown in their ability to penetrate the muscle of fish may also be manifested in humans. The purpose of this study is to confirm possible differences in pathogenicity between A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii using an experimental model which simulates infection in humans. Female Wistar rats were infected with 190 Anisakis type I L3 larvae from the Iberian coastline. After the animal was sacrificed, these L3 larvae were then recovered and identified via PCR-RFLP of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. A logistic regression analysis was performed searching for association between experimental pathogenic potential and species. The distribution of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii between Atlantic and Mediterranean waters of the Iberian Peninsula showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) which were not observed in the hybrid genotypes (P > 0.3). 21.6% showed pathogenic potential, interpreted as the capacity of the larvae to cause lesions, stick to the gastrointestinal wall or penetrate it. The species variable showed association with the pathogenic role of the larva (P = 0.008). Taking A. simplex s.s. as our reference, the OR for A. pegreffii is 0.351 (P = 0.028). Despite this difference, A. pegreffii is also capable of causing anisakiasis, being responsible for 14.3% of the penetrations of the gastric mucosa found in rats, which justifies both species being considered aetiologic agents of this parasitic disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ANISERP: a new serpin from the parasite Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Elizabeth; Perteguer, Maria J; Hurtado, Carolina; Campioli, Pamela; Rodríguez, Esperanza; Saborido, Ana; Martínez-Sernández, Victoria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Ubeira, Florencio M; Gárate, Teresa

    2015-07-28

    Serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) finely regulate serine proteinase activity via a suicide substrate-like inhibitory mechanism. In parasitic nematodes, some serpins interact with host physiological processes; however, little is known about these essential molecules in Anisakis. This article reports the gene sequencing, cloning, expression and preliminary biochemical and bioinformatically-based structural characterization of a new Anisakis serpin (ANISERP). The full AniSerp gene was cloned by specific RACE-PCR after screening an Anisakis simplex (L3) cDNA library. For biochemical assays, the AniSerp gene was subcloned into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic vectors, and the recombinant proteins were purified. The inhibitory properties of the proteins were tested in classical biochemical assays using human serine peptidases and AMC substrates. Immunolocalization of ANISERP, theoretical structural analysis and bioinformatically-based structural modelling of the ANISERP protein were also conducted. The AniSerp gene was found to have 1194 nucleotides, coding for a protein of 397 amino acid residues plus a putative N-terminal signal peptide. It showed significant similarity to other nematode, arthropod and mammalian serpins. The recombinant ANISERP expressed in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems inhibited the human serine proteases thrombin, trypsin and cathepsin G in a concentration-dependent manner. No inhibitory activity against Factor Xa, Factor XIa, Factor XIIa, elastase, plasmin or chymotrypsin was observed. ANISERP also acted on the cysteine protease cathepsin L. ANISERP was mainly localized in the nematode pseudocoelomic fluid, somatic muscle cell bodies and intestinal cells. The findings of molecular dynamics studies suggest that ANISERP inhibits thrombin via a suicide substrate-like inhibitory mechanism, similar to the mechanism of action of mammalian coagulation inhibitors. In contrast to findings concerning human antithrombin III, heparin had no effect

  11. Modulation of human beta-defensin-1 (hBD-1) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), monocytes, and epithelial cells by influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Sendai virus and its possible role in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lisa K; Dai, Jihong; Yin, Zhiwei; Megjugorac, Nicholas; Uhlhorn, Victoria; Yim, Sunghan; Schwartz, Kyell D; Abrahams, Joshua M; Diamond, Gill; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    hBD comprise a family of antimicrobial peptides that plays a role in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. The expression of hBD-2 increases upon stimulation of numerous cell types with LPS and proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, hBD-1 remains constitutively expressed in most cells in spite of cytokine or LPS stimulation; however, its presence in human PDC suggests it plays a role in viral host defense. To examine this, we characterized the expression of hBD-1 in innate immune cells in response to viral challenge. PDC and monocytes increased production of hBD-1 peptide and mRNA as early as 2 h following infection of purified cells and PBMCs with PR8, HSV-1, and Sendai virus. However, treatment of primary NHBE cells with influenza resulted in a 50% decrease in hBD-1 mRNA levels, as measured by qRT-PCR at 3 h following infection. A similar inhibition occurred with HSV-1 challenge of human gingival epithelial cells. Studies with HSV-1 showed that replication occurred in epithelial cells but not in PDC. Together, these results suggest that hBD-1 may play a role in preventing viral replication in immune cells. To test this, we infected C57BL/6 WT mice and mBD-1((-/-)) mice with mouse-adapted HK18 (300 PFU/mouse). mBD-1((-/-)) mice lost weight earlier and died sooner than WT mice (P=0.0276), suggesting that BD-1 plays a role in early innate immune responses against influenza in vivo. However, lung virus titers were equal between the two mouse strains. Histopathology showed a greater inflammatory influx in the lungs of mBD-1((-/-)) mice at Day 3 postinfection compared with WT C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that BD-1 protects mice from influenza pathogenesis with a mechanism other than inhibition of viral replication.

  12. Modulation of human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), monocytes, and epithelial cells by influenza virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Sendai virus and its possible role in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Dai, Jihong; Yin, Zhiwei; Megjugorac, Nicholas; Uhlhorn, Victoria; Yim, Sunghan; Schwartz, Kyell D.; Abrahams, Joshua M.; Diamond, Gill; Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    hBD comprise a family of antimicrobial peptides that plays a role in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. The expression of hBD-2 increases upon stimulation of numerous cell types with LPS and proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, hBD-1 remains constitutively expressed in most cells in spite of cytokine or LPS stimulation; however, its presence in human PDC suggests it plays a role in viral host defense. To examine this, we characterized the expression of hBD-1 in innate immune cells in response to viral challenge. PDC and monocytes increased production of hBD-1 peptide and mRNA as early as 2 h following infection of purified cells and PBMCs with PR8, HSV-1, and Sendai virus. However, treatment of primary NHBE cells with influenza resulted in a 50% decrease in hBD-1 mRNA levels, as measured by qRT-PCR at 3 h following infection. A similar inhibition occurred with HSV-1 challenge of human gingival epithelial cells. Studies with HSV-1 showed that replication occurred in epithelial cells but not in PDC. Together, these results suggest that hBD-1 may play a role in preventing viral replication in immune cells. To test this, we infected C57BL/6 WT mice and mBD-1(−/−) mice with mouse-adapted HK18 (300 PFU/mouse). mBD-1(−/−) mice lost weight earlier and died sooner than WT mice (P=0.0276), suggesting that BD-1 plays a role in early innate immune responses against influenza in vivo. However, lung virus titers were equal between the two mouse strains. Histopathology showed a greater inflammatory influx in the lungs of mBD-1(−/−) mice at Day 3 postinfection compared with WT C57BL/6 mice. The results suggest that BD-1 protects mice from influenza pathogenesis with a mechanism other than inhibition of viral replication. PMID:21551252

  13. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  14. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David C; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria; Voellmy, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate, stringent regulation of

  15. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  16. On the mutation rate of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Drake, John W; Hwang, Charles B C

    2005-06-01

    All seven DNA-based microbes for which carefully established mutation rates and mutational spectra were previously available displayed a genomic mutation rate in the neighborhood of 0.003 per chromosome replication. The pathogenic mammalian DNA virus herpes simplex type 1 has an estimated genomic mutation rate compatible with that value.

  17. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  18. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  19. New Constituents from the Korean Sponge Plakortis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jung Soon; Hwang, Buyng Su; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Kwon, Dong-Yeul; Rho, Jung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    Six new cyclic peroxides (1–6) were isolated from the Korean sponge Plakortis simplex, along with two new alkylpyridinium alkaloids (7 and 8). The structures of these compounds were completely determined by a combination of NMR analysis and chemical reactions. Compounds 1–6 exhibited cytotoxic/antifungal activities against RAW264.7 cells and Candida albicans. PMID:24196396

  20. Herpes simplex virus-induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Kuchynka, Petr; Palecek, Tomas; Hrbackova, Hana; Vitkova, Ivana; Simek, Stanislav; Nemecek, Eduard; Aster, Viktor; Louch, William E; Aschermann, Michael; Linhart, Ales

    2010-10-01

    Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi) represents an acquired form of dilated cardiomyopathy. Viral infection is the most common cause of DCMi. In contrast with other cardiotropic viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a very rare finding in endomyocardial biopsies of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We report a case of HSV-induced cardiomyopathy successfully treated with acyclovir.

  1. A Streamlined Artificial Variable Free Version of Simplex Method

    PubMed Central

    Inayatullah, Syed; Touheed, Nasir; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a streamlined form of simplex method which provides some great benefits over traditional simplex method. For instance, it does not need any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could start with any feasible or infeasible basis of an LP. This method follows the same pivoting sequence as of simplex phase 1 without showing any explicit description of artificial variables which also makes it space efficient. Later in this paper, a dual version of the new method has also been presented which provides a way to easily implement the phase 1 of traditional dual simplex method. For a problem having an initial basis which is both primal and dual infeasible, our methods provide full freedom to the user, that whether to start with primal artificial free version or dual artificial free version without making any reformulation to the LP structure. Last but not the least, it provides a teaching aid for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement. PMID:25767883

  2. A streamlined artificial variable free version of simplex method.

    PubMed

    Inayatullah, Syed; Touheed, Nasir; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a streamlined form of simplex method which provides some great benefits over traditional simplex method. For instance, it does not need any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could start with any feasible or infeasible basis of an LP. This method follows the same pivoting sequence as of simplex phase 1 without showing any explicit description of artificial variables which also makes it space efficient. Later in this paper, a dual version of the new method has also been presented which provides a way to easily implement the phase 1 of traditional dual simplex method. For a problem having an initial basis which is both primal and dual infeasible, our methods provide full freedom to the user, that whether to start with primal artificial free version or dual artificial free version without making any reformulation to the LP structure. Last but not the least, it provides a teaching aid for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement.

  3. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  4. Method of orthogonal simplexes and its applications to convex programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, V. P.

    2008-04-01

    Numerical methods for solving a convex programming problem are considered whose guaranteed convergence rate depends only on the space dimension. On average, the ratio of the corresponding geometric progression is better than that in the basis model of ellipsoids or simplexes. Results of numerical experiments are presented.

  5. Stability of Three-Wave Simplex Estimates of Reliability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Saris, Willem E.; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Andreenkova, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates that sampling variance can be very large when a three-wave quasi simplex model is used to obtain reliability estimates. Also shows that, for the reliability parameter to be identified, the model assumes a Markov process. These problems are evaluated with both real and Monte Carlo data. (SLD)

  6. Herpes simplex virus oesophagitis in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Remmelts, H H F; van den Brink, J-W; Laan, R; Bac, D-J

    2011-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oesophagitis is well described in immunocompromised patients. In immunocompetent individuals HSV oesophagitis is rare. We present a case of HSV oesophagitis in a pregnant woman. A possible explanation for HSV oesophagitis during pregnancy is the decreased cellular immunity, leading to an increased frequency and severity of viral infections. Antiviral therapy is advocated in pregnancy.

  7. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  8. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  9. Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex.

  10. GPU acceleration of simplex volume algorithm for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haicheng; Zhang, Junping; Lin, Zhouhan; Chen, Hao; Huang, Bormin

    2012-10-01

    The simplex volume algorithm (SVA)1 is an endmember extraction algorithm based on the geometrical properties of a simplex in the feature space of hyperspectral image. By utilizing the relation between a simplex volume and its corresponding parallelohedron volume in the high-dimensional space, the algorithm extracts endmembers from the initial hyperspectral image directly without the need of dimension reduction. It thus avoids the drawback of the N-FINDER algorithm, which requires the dimension of the data to be reduced to one less than the number of the endmembers. In this paper, we take advantage of the large-scale parallelism of CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) to accelerate the computation of SVA on the NVidia GeForce 560 GPU. The time for computing a simplex volume increases with the number of endmembers. Experimental results show that the proposed GPU-based SVA achieves a significant 112.56x speedup for extracting 16 endmembers, as compared to its CPU-based single-threaded counterpart.

  11. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  12. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  13. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  14. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  15. Management of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection and exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are rare but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Advances in diagnostic modalities to identify these infants, as well as the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy, have revolutionised the management of affected infants. This review will summarise the epidemiology of neonatal HSV infections and discuss the management of infants with HSV exposure and infection.

  16. The mortality of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Medina, Eduardo; Cantey, Joseph B; Sánchez, Pablo J

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study characterized the clinical course of 13 neonates who died with herpes simplex virus infection from 2001 to 2011, representing a 26% case-fatality rate. Fatal disease developed at ≤ 48 hours of age in one-third of infants, was mostly disseminated disease, and occurred despite early administration of high-dose acyclovir therapy.

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michael J; Venkatesan, Arun

    2016-07-01

    Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the care of patients with herpes simplex-1 virus encephalitis, the most commonly identified cause of sporadic encephalitis worldwide. Clinicians should be able to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms of the infection and familiarize themselves with a rational diagnostic approach and therapeutic modalities, as early recognition and treatment are key to improving outcomes. Clinicians should also be vigilant for the development of acute complications, including cerebral edema and status epilepticus, as well as chronic complications, including the development of autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and other neuronal cell surface and synaptic epitopes. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and clinical and radiological features of herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis in adults, including a discussion of the most common complications and their treatment. While great progress has been made in the treatment of this life-threatening infection, a majority of patients will not return to their previous neurologic baseline, indicating the need for further research efforts aimed at improving the long-term sequelae.

  18. Agents and strategies in development for improved management of herpes simplex virus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2005-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with every-day activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immuno-compromised patient population. After infection the virus persists for life in neurons of the host in a latent form, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently no cure is available. So far, vaccines, ILs, IFNs, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or non-specific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. The recently discovered inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase are the most potent development candidates today. These antiviral agents act by a novel mechanism of action and display low resistance rates in vitro and superior efficacy in animal models. This review summarises the current therapeutic options, discusses the potential of preclinical or investigational drugs and provides an up-to-date interpretation of the challenge to establish novel treatments for herpes simplex disease.

  19. Rad51 and Rad52 are involved in homologous recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ∼17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells.

  20. Ani s 10, a new Anisakis simplex allergen: cloning and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Maria Luisa; Umpierrez, Ana; Moneo, Ignacio; Rodriguez-Perez, Rosa

    2011-06-01

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by accidental ingestion of larval nematodes belonging to the Anisakidae family. Anisakiasis is often associated with a strong allergic response. Diagnosis of A. simplex allergy is currently carried out by test based on the IgE reactivity to a complete extract of L3 Anisakis larvae although the specificity of these diagnostic tests is poor. Improving the specificity of the diagnostic test is possible using purified recombinant allergens. A new Anisakis allergen, named Ani s 10, was detected by immunoscreening an expression cDNA library constructed from L3 Anisakis simplex larvae. The new allergen was overproduced in Escherichia coli; it is a protein of 212 amino acids and it was localized as a 22 kDa protein band in an ethanol fractionated extract from the parasite. Ani s 10 has no homology with any other described protein, and its sequence is composed by seven almost identical repetitions of 29 amino acids each. A total of 30 of 77 Anisakis allergic patients (39%) were positive both to rAni s 10 and natural Ani s 10 by immunoblotting. The new allergen could be useful in a component-resolved diagnosis system for Anisakis allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Update On Emerging Antivirals For The Management Of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections: A Patenting Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D.; Vadlapatla, Ramya K.; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections. PMID:23331181

  2. Immunological Signaling During Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Cytomegalovirus Vaginal Shedding After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nason, Martha C; Patel, Eshan U; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Prodger, Jessica L; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Tobian, Aaron A R; Gianella, Sara; Kalibbala, Sarah; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Kaul, Rupert; Gray, Ronald H; Quinn, Thomas C; Serwadda, David; Reynolds, Steven J; Redd, Andrew D

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal proinflammatory cytokine expression during herpes virus reactivation was examined in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Vaginal swabs were screened for levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ. The relative risk (RR) of herpes simplex virus-2 or cytomegalovirus (CMV) shedding being associated with cytokine levels above the median were estimated. Herpes simplex virus-2 shedding was significantly associated with higher levels of IL-6 (RR = 1.4, P = .003) and TNF-α (RR = 1.3, P = .010), whereas CMV shedding was associated with higher IL-6 (RR = 1.3, P = .006) and IL-2 (RR = 1.4, P = .01). The association of viral shedding with higher IL-6 levels suggests that herpes virus reactivation may be playing a role in immune activation after ART initiation.

  3. Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ka-Wei; Norberg, Peter; Holmudden, Martin; Elias, Per; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    Replication of herpes simplex virus 1 is coupled to recombination, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly characterized. The role of Rad51 and Rad52 recombinases in viral recombination was examined in human fibroblast cells 1BR.3.N (wild type) and in GM16097 with replication defects caused by mutations in DNA ligase I. Intermolecular recombination between viruses, tsS and tsK, harboring genetic markers gave rise to ∼17% recombinants in both cell lines. Knock-down of Rad51 and Rad52 by siRNA reduced production of recombinants to 11% and 5%, respectively, in wild type cells and to 3% and 5%, respectively, in GM16097 cells. The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA. Mixed infections using clinical isolates with restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the US4 and US7 genes revealed recombination frequencies of 0.7%/kbp in wild type cells and 4%/kbp in GM16097 cells. Finally, tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells. PMID:25365323

  4. Update on emerging antivirals for the management of herpes simplex virus infections: a patenting perspective.

    PubMed

    Vadlapudi, Aswani D; Vadlapatla, Ramya K; Mitra, Ashim K

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can be treated efficiently by the application of antiviral drugs. The herpes family of viruses is responsible for causing a wide variety of diseases in humans. The standard therapy for the management of such infections includes acyclovir (ACV) and penciclovir (PCV) with their respective prodrugs valaciclovir and famciclovir. Though effective, long term prophylaxis with the current drugs leads to development of drug-resistant viral isolates, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, some drugs are associated with dose-limiting toxicities which limit their further utility. Therefore, there is a need to develop new antiherpetic compounds with different mechanisms of action which will be safe and effective against emerging drug resistant viral isolates. Significant advances have been made towards the design and development of novel antiviral therapeutics during the last decade. As evident by their excellent antiviral activities, pharmaceutical companies are moving forward with several new compounds into various phases of clinical trials. This review provides an overview of structure and life cycle of HSV, progress in the development of new therapies, update on the advances in emerging therapeutics under clinical development and related recent patents for the treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections.

  5. Development of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the quantitation of Anisakis simplex proteins in fish.

    PubMed

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Moen, Anders; Schniedewind, Björn; Haug Anonsen, Jan; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe

    2016-02-05

    The parasite Anisakis simplex is present in many marine fish species that are directly used as food or in processed products. The anisakid larvae infect mostly the gut and inner organs of fish but have also been shown to penetrate into the fillet. Thus, human health can be at risk, either by contracting anisakiasis through the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish, or by sensitisation to anisakid proteins in processed food. A number of different methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish and products thereof have been developed, including visual techniques and PCR for larvae tracing, and immunological assays for the determination of proteins. The recent identification of a number of anisakid proteins by mass spectrometry-based proteomics has laid the groundwork for the development of two quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for the detection of A. simplex in fish that are described in the present study. Both, the label-free semi-quantitative nLC-nESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS (MS1) and the heavy peptide-applying absolute-quantitative (AQUA) LC-TripleQ-MS/MS (MS2) use unique reporter peptides derived from anisakid hemoglobin and SXP/RAL-2 protein as analytes. Standard curves in buffer and in salmon matrix showed limits of detection at 1μg/mL and 10μg/mL for MS1 and 0.1μg/mL and 2μg/mL for MS2. Preliminary method validation included the assessment of sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and applicability to incurred and naturally-contaminated samples for both assays. By further optimization and full validation in accordance with current recommendations the LC-MS/MS methods could be standardized and used generally as confirmative techniques for the detection of A. simplex protein in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roizman, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

  7. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Us, Dürdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without

  8. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-07-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over three months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding HNLC waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton was 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over protozoan grazing during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transfered to larger members of the food web or exported.

  9. Enhanced viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton in a natural iron-fertilized bloom event above the Kerguelen Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malits, A.; Christaki, U.; Obernosterer, I.; Weinbauer, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Above the Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization sustains a large phytoplankton bloom over 3 months during austral summer. During the KEOPS1 project (KErguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study1) we sampled this phytoplankton bloom during its declining phase along with the surrounding high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to study the effect of natural iron fertilization on the role of viruses in the microbial food web. Bacterial and viral abundances were 1.7 and 2.1 times, respectively, higher within the bloom than in HNLC waters. Viral production and virus-mediated mortality of bacterioplankton were 4.1 and 4.9 times, respectively, higher in the bloom, while the fraction of infected cells (FIC) and the fraction of lysogenic cells (FLC) showed no significant differences between environments. The present study suggests viruses to be more important for bacterial mortality within the bloom and dominate over grazing of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNFs) during the late bloom phase. As a consequence, at least at a late bloom stage, viral lysis shunts part of the photosynthetically fixed carbon in iron-fertilized regions into the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool with potentially less particulate organic carbon transferred to larger members of the food web or exported.

  10. NFκB-mediated activation of the cellular FUT3, 5 and 6 gene cluster by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nordén, Rickard; Samuelsson, Ebba; Nyström, Kristina

    2017-09-04

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 has the ability to induce expression of a human gene cluster located on chromosome 19 upon infection. This gene cluster contains three fucosyltransferases (encoded by FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6) with the ability to add a fucose to an N-acetylglucosamine residue. Little is known regarding the transcriptional activation of these three genes in human cells. Intriguingly, herpes simplex virus type 1 activates all three genes simultaneously during infection, a situation not observed in uninfected tissue, pointing towards a virus specific mechanism for transcriptional activation. The aim of this study was to define the underlying mechanism for the herpes simplex virus type 1 activation of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcription. The transcriptional activation of the FUT gene cluster on chromosome 19 in fibroblasts was specific, not involving adjacent genes. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB signaling through panepoxydone treatment significantly decreased the induction of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcriptional activation, as did siRNA targeting of p65 in herpes simplex virus type 1 infected fibroblasts. NFκB and p65 signaling appears to play an important role in the regulation of FUT3, FUT5 and FUT6 transcriptional activation by herpes simplex virus type 1 although additional, unidentified, viral factors might account for part of the mechanism as direct interferon mediated stimulation of NFκB was not sufficient to induce the fucosyltransferase encoding gene cluster in uninfected cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. IL-12 Expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus promotes anti-tumor activity and immunologic control of metastatic ovarian cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric D; Meza-Perez, Selene; Bevis, Kerri S; Randall, Troy D; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Catherine; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2016-10-27

    Despite advances in surgical aggressiveness and conventional chemotherapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal cause of gynecologic cancer mortality; consequently there is a need for new therapeutic agents and innovative treatment paradigms for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Several studies have demonstrated that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic disease and immunotherapy represents a promising and novel approach that has not been completely evaluated in ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus "armed" with murine interleukin-12 and its ability to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. We evaluated the ability of interleukin-12-expressing and control oncolytic herpes simplex virus to kill murine and human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. We also administered interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus to the peritoneal cavity of mice that had developed spontaneous, metastatic ovarian cancer and determined overall survival and tumor burden at 95 days. We used flow cytometry to quantify the tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response in the omentum and peritoneal cavity. All ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated susceptibility to oncolytic herpes simplex virus in vitro. Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus demonstrated a more robust tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell immune response in the omentum (471.6 cells vs 33.1 cells; p = 0.02) and peritoneal cavity (962.3 cells vs 179.5 cells; p = 0.05). Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus were more likely to control ovarian cancer metastases (81.2 % vs 18.2 %; p = 0.008) and had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.02). Finally, five of 6 mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oHSV had no evidence of metastatic tumor when euthanized at 6 months, compared to two of 4 mice treated

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-PI3K Signaling Controls Cofilin Activity To Facilitate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry into Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Xiang, Yangfei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhong, Meigong; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jianglin; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons and can cause severe disseminated infection with neurological impairment and high mortality. This neurodegeneration is thought to be tightly associated with virus-induced cytoskeleton disruption. Currently, the regulation pattern of the actin cytoskeleton and the involved molecular mechanisms during HSV-1 entry into neurons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an initial inactivation followed by the subsequent activation of cofilin, a member of the actin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization. The disruption of F-actin dynamics or the modulation of cofilin activity by mutation, knockdown, or overexpression affects HSV-1 entry efficacy and virus-mediated cell ruffle formation. Binding of the HSV-1 envelope initiates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which leads to virus-induced early cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK) are recruited as downstream mediators of the HSV-1-induced cofilin inactivation pathway. Inhibitors specific for those kinases significantly reduce the virus infectivity without affecting virus binding to the target cells. Additionally, lipid rafts are clustered to promote EGFR-associated signaling cascade transduction. We propose that HSV-1 hijacks cofilin to initiate infection. These results could promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HSV-1-induced neurological diseases. PMID:24425731

  13. Corneal donor infection by herpes simplex virus: herpes simplex virus DNA in donor corneas.

    PubMed

    Cleator, G M; Klapper, P E; Dennett, C; Sullivan, A L; Bonshek, R E; Marcyniuk, B; Tullo, A B

    1994-07-01

    Three corneoscleral discs (from two donors) underwent subtotal endothelial loss during routine "long-term" organ culture storage. Laboratory studies of these corneas revealed evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The fellow cornea from one of the donors had been issued for transplant to a patient with keratoconus. Deterioration of the graft was noted 5 days after surgery; the disc was removed at 2 months and was shown to be infected with HSV. In an experiment designed to simulate initial "cleansing" of donor globes, 0.1% polyvinylpyrolidone-iodine protected cells from infection with HSV. It was concluded that the detection of HSV in these corneas could not be explained by external contamination of the ocular surface. Furthermore, culture of conjunctival and pharangeal swabs taken from 47 consecutive donors confirmed that HSV is rarely isolated at or around the time of death. Five pairs of donor corneas destined for use in transplantation were selected at random and investigated for the presence of HSV. HSV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in tissue from two of the corneal donors. Sequential stepwise sectioning suggested that HSV DNA when present was distributed in discrete foci within the cornea. These observations suggest that HSV infection may be a cause of severe endothelial loss during corneal organ culture and possibly provide an explanation for some "failures" of corneal grafting.

  14. A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0434 TITLE: A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER...oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) can significantly enhance the anti-tumor effect of the virus. Three specific aims have been proposed and they are: 1

  15. Acute and recurrent herpes simplex in several strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Harbour, D A; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A

    1981-07-01

    Acute and recurrent herpes simplex was studied after infection in the ear of two outbred and five inbred strains of mice. In all strains tested there was clinical evidence of infection, and a proportion of the mice became latently infected in the cervical ganglia. Six weeks after infection, when attempts were made to induce recurrent desease by stripping the ears of the mice with cellophange tape, a proportion of animals of each strain developed recurrent disease, characterized by erythema in the skin. At monthly intervals thereafter, the ears were stripped again and, on each occasion, a proportion of the animals developed recurrent disease, with the exception of Balb/c mice. The different reaction of Balb/c and other inbred strains might prove useful in studies on the mechanism of control of recurrent herpes simplex.

  16. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex: a paradigm for disorders of tissue fragility

    PubMed Central

    Coulombe, Pierre A.; Kerns, Michelle L.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) simplex is a rare genetic condition typified by superficial bullous lesions that result from frictional trauma to the skin. Most cases are due to dominantly acting mutations in either keratin 14 (K14) or K5, the type I and II intermediate filament (IF) proteins tasked with forming a pancytoplasmic network of 10-nm filaments in basal keratinocytes of the epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. Defects in K5/K14 filament network architecture cause basal keratinocytes to become fragile and account for their trauma-induced rupture. Here we review how laboratory investigations centered on keratin biology have deepened our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of EB simplex and revealed novel avenues for its therapy. PMID:19587453

  17. Methylenedioxy- and methoxyflavones from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Henrik T; Larsen, Michael D; Nielsen, Merete W; Adsersen, Anne; Olsen, Carl Erik; Strasberg, Dominique; Smitt, Ulla W; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2002-08-01

    Three new natural products, 3,8-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone, 3,6,8-trimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavone and 3,6,8,3',4'-pentamethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were isolated from Melicope coodeana syn. Euodia simplex (Rutaceae) along with 3,6,3'-trimethoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone and 3,3'-dimethoxy-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone. The structural assignments are based on (1)H and (13)C NMR data, including discussion of the chemical shifts of C-2 in 3,5-dihydroxy- and 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavones. The presence of highly methoxylated and methylenedioxyflavones is characteristic of the genus Melicope, and the present findings support the recent transfer of Euodia simplex to Melicope.

  18. Gerstmann's syndrome following an acute herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ilchevsky, S; Boev, I; Kazakova, T

    1998-01-01

    The authors present a rare clinical case of a woman who developed Gerstmann's syndrome following an acute Herpes simplex viral encephalitis. Clinical observation and laboratory evaluation were performed during the acute phase of the disease. After that the follow-up continued for one-year period. The localization of the pathologic process was determined by computerized tomography, conducted periodically. The characteristics of the clinical picture are interpreted in the context of the contemporary concepts of the topical diagnosis of Gerstmann's syndrome. The possibility of a sudden onset of acute Herpes simplex viral encephalitis without a preceding febrile-intoxication syndrome is worth noting. Conclusions are drawn stressing the need of an early etiologic treatment and the importance of the rehabilitation activities during the convalescence period.

  19. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Christian; Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-09-16

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient's first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified.

  20. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  1. Pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis: a retrospective multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Schleede, Lena; Bueter, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Sigl, Sara; Opladen, Thomas; Weigt-Usinger, Katharina; Stephan, Susanne; Smitka, Martin; Leiz, Steffen; Kaiser, Olaf; Kraus, Verena; van Baalen, Andreas; Skopnik, Heino; Hartmann, Hans; Rostasy, Kevin; Lücke, Thomas; Schara, Ulrike; Häusler, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge on pediatric herpes simplex virus encephalitis is limited. Here we summarize 6 neonates and 32 children diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (n = 37) or serological studies (n = 1), respectively. Diagnosis was difficult, as only 15 patients presented neurologic symptoms. Moreover, cerebrospinal fluid glucose, protein, and leukocytes were normal in 6 patients. Subsequently, all but 2 showed neurologic symptoms. Diffusion-weighted neuroimaging was the most sensitive early imaging method. Despite acyclovir treatment, 8 patients experienced early relapses, showing movement abnormalities, impaired vigilance, and seizures. Diffuse white matter changes, found in 3 of 5 relapse patients on neuroimaging, and a negative cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction suggested inflammatory processes. All relapse patients were again treated with acyclovir, and 3 responded to additional corticosteroid treatment. Whereas outcome after relapses was poor, overall outcome was good. No child died; 14 were asymptomatic at discharge, and neuroimaging remained normal in 7 of 30 patients studied.

  2. Improvement of Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Liver Transduction Efficacy by Regional Administration in Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Nerea; Salas, David; Paramo, Maria; Hommel, Mirja; Sier-Ferreira, Valerie; Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben; Prieto, Jesus; Bilbao, Jose I; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2017-06-01

    The liver is a central organ in metabolism and can be affected by numerous inherited metabolic disorders. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic approach for such diseases. AAVs have been demonstrated to be safe, and resulted in high and long-term expression in preclinical and clinical studies. However, there are still some concerns regarding the expression levels that can be achieved and the percentage of hepatocytes that can be transduced. Because of the cell-autonomous nature of most metabolic liver disorders, a high percentage of hepatocytes needs to be corrected in order to achieve a therapeutic effect. The goal of our work was to improve transduction efficacy of the liver by conveying the vector directly to hepatic tissue. Interventional radiology procedures were used to administer an AAV5 vector expressing a secreted form of human embryonic alkaline phosphatase (hSEAP) under the control of a liver-specific promoter to a clinically relevant animal model, Macaca fascicularis. Balloon occlusion of the regional hepatic venous flow was performed while injecting the vector either into the hepatic artery (HA) or, against flow, via the suprahepatic vein (SHV). In both cases the vector was injected into the right hepatic lobules, and the two routes were compared with conventional intravenous administration. Higher hSEAP levels were obtained when the vector was administered via SHV or HA than after intravenous injection. Furthermore, higher expression levels correlated with a higher number of vector genomes in the injected lobules. In conclusion, direct administration of AAV vectors via the hepatic blood flow with simultaneous balloon occlusion of the hepatic outflow increases liver transduction efficacy in comparison with systemic delivery and can be further improved in bigger animals or humans, where it would be technically feasible to inject the vector into the hepatic vasculature in the generality of lobules.

  3. A next step in adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy for neurological diseases: regulation and targeting

    PubMed Central

    Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Bockstael, Olivier; Tshibangu, Terence; Dewitte, Olivier; Levivier, Marc; Tenenbaum, Liliane

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors mediating long term transgene expression are excellent gene therapy tools for chronic neurological diseases. While rAAV2 was the first serotype tested in the clinics, more efficient vectors derived from the rh10 serotype are currently being evaluated and other serotypes are likely to be tested in the near future. In addition, aside from the currently used stereotaxy-guided intraparenchymal delivery, new techniques for global brain transduction (by intravenous or intra-cerebrospinal injections) are very promising. Various strategies for therapeutic gene delivery to the central nervous system have been explored in human clinical trials in the past decade. Canavan disease, a genetic disease caused by an enzymatic deficiency, was the first to be approved. Three gene transfer paradigms for Parkinson's disease have been explored: converting L-dopa into dopamine through AADC gene delivery in the putamen; synthesizing GABA through GAD gene delivery in the overactive subthalamic nucleus and providing neurotrophic support through neurturin gene delivery in the nigro-striatal pathway. These pioneer clinical trials demonstrated the safety and tolerability of rAAV delivery in the human brain at moderate doses. Therapeutic effects however, were modest, emphasizing the need for higher doses of the therapeutic transgene product which could be achieved using more efficient vectors or expression cassettes. This will require re-addressing pharmacological aspects, with attention to which cases require either localized and cell-type specific expression or efficient brain-wide transgene expression, and when it is necessary to modulate or terminate the administration of transgene product. The ongoing development of targeted and regulated rAAV vectors is described. PMID:23331189

  4. Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis resulting in Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ku, Bon D; Yoon, Sung Sang

    2011-01-01

    Relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) rarely occurs after acyclovir treatment. We treated a patient with relapsing HSE of the contralateral temporal lobe, resulting in Klüver-Bucy syndrome, after a full-dose acyclovir treatment. This case suggests that physicians should consider sudden behavioral and emotional changes after HSE treatment as a possible indication of relapsing HSE, as well as possible temporal lobe epilepsy, and the need to administer longer acyclovir treatment for select patients.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later.

  6. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  7. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  8. Effect of immunosuppression on recurrent herpes simplex in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, W A; Harbour, D A; Hill, T J

    1980-01-01

    Mice latently infected with herpes simplex virus were treated with immunosuppressive drugs either alone or combined with stimuli to the skin. Treatment with cyclophosphamide reduced spleen weights and severely depressed lymphocyte levels, but had no effect on healing after cellophane tape stripping (CTS) and did not affect the cutaneous hypersensitivity response after injection of inactivated herpes simplex virus. The drug, either used alone or combined with CTS, failed to increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but increased the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Prednisolone and azathioprine used together also reduced spleen weights and circulating lymphocyte levels. They slightly delayed healing after CTS, but had no effect on cutaneous hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus. The treatment, either used alone or combined with CTS, slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease but did not increase the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. Treatment with antithymocyte serum severely depressed the levels of circulating lymphocytes and delayed the regression of HeLa cell tumors in mice. Used alone, the treatment slightly increased the incidence of recurrent clinical disease, but it failed to increase the incidence of recurrences after CTS. It increased the duration of recurrent herpetic lesions, although in uninfected mice healing after CTS was not affected. Silica altered the clinical course of primary infection with herpes simplex virus and increased the incidence of latency in the ganglia. It also delayed healing after CTS in uninfected mice, so it was not tested when recurrent herpes after CTS was assessed clinically. Treatment with silica alone did not increase the incidence of recurrent clinical disease or the incidence of virus isolation after CTS. The results demonstrate that potent immunosuppressive drugs are much less effective than simple cutaneous manipulation in inducing recurrent lesions, and thus argue strongly

  9. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus keratitis after initiating bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Debra M; Schuman, Joel S

    2002-03-01

    To report a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation after starting bimatoprost treatment for glaucoma. Interventional case report. A 66-year-old woman had a herpes simplex keratouveitis reactivation that occurred within 1 month after starting bimatoprost. The herpes simplex had been inactive for more than 10 years. Bimatoprost and prednisolone acetate 0.12% were discontinued; oral acyclovir, ofloxacin, and betaxolol 0.25% were initiated. Two weeks later, prednisolone acetate 1% was added. The reactivation resolved, and 1 month later, the best corrected visual acuity improved to 20/40. Caution should be used in prescribing bimatoprost for patients with a history of herpes simplex virus keratitis.

  10. Unusual Clinical Presentation and Role of Decompressive Craniectomy in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Nuthan; Vyas, Sameer; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Aggarwal, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    Decompressive craniectomy in pediatric central nervous infections with refractory intracranial hypertension is less commonly practiced. We describe improved outcome of decompressive craniectomy in a 7-year-old boy with severe herpes simplex encephalitis and medically refractory intracranial hypertension, along with a brief review of the literature. Timely recognition of refractory intracranial hypertension and surgical decompression in children with herpes simplex encephalitis can be life-saving. Additionally, strokelike atypical presentations are being increasingly recognized in children with herpes simplex encephalitis and should not take one away from the underlying herpes simplex encephalitis.

  11. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  12. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  13. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  14. Simplex optimization of acoustic assay for plasminogen activators.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Mirnader; Hayward, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the optimization of a newly developed method for measuring the activity of plasminogen activators using a thickness-shear-mode acoustic sensor. A variable-size simplex algorithm was used for optimization. Preliminary tests were performed to design the first simplex. A desirability function was defined to translate each performance value to a membership value of 0 to 1. If there was more than one performance variable, their membership values were translated to an aggregated membership value using another function that considers their individual influence on sensor performance. Two rounds of optimization were carried out for streptokinase followed by a single optimization for tissue-type plasminogen activator. In the last optimization, ratios of control variables were used in order to reduce the number of parameters and to formulate easily adjustable assay conditions. The results showed the usefulness of the simplex method for optimizing this type of assay, and the importance of preliminary tests and prior knowledge in providing rapid convergence using fewer experiments. The optimized plasminogen activator assay can be considered a reference method for measurement of all members of this drug class.

  15. Simcluster: clustering enumeration gene expression data on the simplex space.

    PubMed

    Vêncio, Ricardo Z N; Varuzza, Leonardo; de B Pereira, Carlos A; Brentani, Helena; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2007-07-11

    Transcript enumeration methods such as SAGE, MPSS, and sequencing-by-synthesis EST "digital northern", are important high-throughput techniques for digital gene expression measurement. As other counting or voting processes, these measurements constitute compositional data exhibiting properties particular to the simplex space where the summation of the components is constrained. These properties are not present on regular Euclidean spaces, on which hybridization-based microarray data is often modeled. Therefore, pattern recognition methods commonly used for microarray data analysis may be non-informative for the data generated by transcript enumeration techniques since they ignore certain fundamental properties of this space. Here we present a software tool, Simcluster, designed to perform clustering analysis for data on the simplex space. We present Simcluster as a stand-alone command-line C package and as a user-friendly on-line tool. Both versions are available at: http://xerad.systemsbiology.net/simcluster. Simcluster is designed in accordance with a well-established mathematical framework for compositional data analysis, which provides principled procedures for dealing with the simplex space, and is thus applicable in a number of contexts, including enumeration-based gene expression data.

  16. Herpes simplex virus: isolation, cytopathological characterization and antiviral sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Carlos; Hattori, Lilian Yumi; Galhardi, Ligia Carla Faccin; Lopes, Nayara; Bomfim, Wesley Andrade; de Cândido, Ligyana Korki; de Azevedo, Elbens Marcos Minoreli; Gon, Airton dos Santos; Linhares, Rosa Elisa Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is an endemic disease and it is estimated that 6095% of the adult population are infected with symptoms that are usually self-limiting, though they can be serious, extensive and prolonged in immunocompromised individuals, highlighted by the emergence of drug-resistant strains. The study of the wild-type HSV strains based on the cytopathogenic features and its antiviral sensitivity are important in the establishment of an antivirogram for controlling the infection. OBJECTIVE This study sought to isolate and examine the cytopathological characteristics of circulating strains of the Herpes simplex virus, from clinical specimens and their sensitivity to commercially available antiherpesvirus drugs, acyclovir, phosphonophormic acid and trifluridine. METHODS Herpes simplex virus isolation, cytopathological features and antiviral sensitivity assays were performed in cell culture by tissue culture infectious dose or plaque forming unit assay. RESULTS From twenty-two clinical specimens, we isolated and adapted nine strains. Overall, the cytopathic effect was detected 24 h post-infection (p.i.) and the presence of syncytia was remarkable 48 h p.i., observed after cell staining. Out of eight isolates, four developed plaques of varying sizes. All the isolates were sensitive to acyclovir, phosphonophormic and trifluridine, with the percentage of virus inhibition (%VI) ranging from 49.7-100%. CONCLUSIONS The methodology for HSV isolation and characterization is a straightforward approach, but the drug sensitivity test, regarded as being of great practical importance, needs to be better understood. PMID:24937819

  17. Seronegative Herpes simplex Associated Esophagogastric Ulcer after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Matevossian, Edouard; Doll, Dietrich; Weirich, Gregor; Burian, Maria; Knebel, Carolin; Thorban, Stefan; Hüser, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex infection is characterized by acute or subacute infection, often followed by a chronic carrier state. Consecutive recurrences may flare up if immunocompromise occurs. Herpes simplex associated esophagitis or duodenal ulcer have been reported in immunocompromised patients due to neoplasm, HIV/AIDS or therapeutically induced immune deficiency. Here we report the case of an HSV-DNA seronegative patient who developed grade III dysphagia 13 days after allogeneic liver transplantation. Endoscopy revealed an esophageal-gastric ulcer, and biopsy histopathology showed a distinct fibroplastic and capillary ulcer pattern highly suspicious for viral infection. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed a distinct nuclear positive anti-HSV reaction. Antiviral therapy with acyclovir and high-dose PPI led to a complete revision of clinical symptoms within 48 h. Repeat control endoscopy after 7 days showed complete healing of the former ulcer site at the gastroesophageal junction. Although the incidence of post-transplantation Herpes simplex induced gastroesophageal disease is low, the viral HSV ulcer may be included into a differential diagnosis if dysphagia occurs after transplantation even if HSV-DNA PCR is negative. PMID:21490847

  18. Simcluster: clustering enumeration gene expression data on the simplex space

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Transcript enumeration methods such as SAGE, MPSS, and sequencing-by-synthesis EST "digital northern", are important high-throughput techniques for digital gene expression measurement. As other counting or voting processes, these measurements constitute compositional data exhibiting properties particular to the simplex space where the summation of the components is constrained. These properties are not present on regular Euclidean spaces, on which hybridization-based microarray data is often modeled. Therefore, pattern recognition methods commonly used for microarray data analysis may be non-informative for the data generated by transcript enumeration techniques since they ignore certain fundamental properties of this space. Results Here we present a software tool, Simcluster, designed to perform clustering analysis for data on the simplex space. We present Simcluster as a stand-alone command-line C package and as a user-friendly on-line tool. Both versions are available at: http://xerad.systemsbiology.net/simcluster. Conclusion Simcluster is designed in accordance with a well-established mathematical framework for compositional data analysis, which provides principled procedures for dealing with the simplex space, and is thus applicable in a number of contexts, including enumeration-based gene expression data. PMID:17625017

  19. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in solid organ transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, R A; Limaye, A P

    2013-02-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and the two herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are human α-herpesviruses that establish life-long latency in neural ganglia after initial primary infection. In the solid organ transplant (SOT) population, manifestations of VZV or HSV may be seen in up to 70% of recipients if no prophylaxis is used, some of them life and organ threatening. While there are effective vaccines to prevent VZV primary infection and reactivation in immunocompetent adults, these vaccines are contraindicated after SOT because they are live-virus vaccines. For HSV, prevention has focused primarily on antiviral strategies because the immunologic correlates of protection and control are different from VZV, making vaccine development more challenging. Current antiviral therapy remains effective for the majority of clinical VZV and HSV infections. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Understanding natural herpes simplex virus immunity to inform next-generation vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Kerrie J; Bertram, Kirstie; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Incremental advances in our knowledge of how natural immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV) develops have yielded insight as to why previous vaccine attempts have only been partially successful, however, our understanding of these pathways, particularly in humans, is still incomplete. Further elucidation of the innate immune events that are responsible for stimulating these effector responses is required to accurately inform vaccine design. An enhanced understanding of the mechanism of action of novel adjuvants will also facilitate the rational choice of adjuvant to optimise such responses. Here we review the reasons for the hitherto partial HSV vaccine success and align these with our current knowledge of how natural HSV immunity develops. In particular, we focus on the innate immune response and the role of dendritic cells in inducing protective T-cell responses and how these pathways might be recapitulated in a vaccine setting. PMID:27525067

  1. Herpes simplex virus NV1020 as a novel and promising therapy for hepatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Fong, Yuman

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with hepatic malignancy have a dismal prognosis with standard therapies. NV1020 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus that has potential to be a safe and effective therapeutic agent for this disease. Objective We set out to discuss the development of NV1020 as an oncolytic agent and explore the potential role of this particular virus in the setting of human hepatic cancer. Methods The scope of this review includes an overview of preclinical experience with NV1020, as well as an examination of current standard and developing therapies for liver cancer. The primary focus, however, is on the safety and potential clinical efficacy of NV1020 against hepatic malignancy. Results/conclusion We have found that NV1020 is a safe, novel therapeutic agent for treatment of refractory hepatic malignancy. PMID:18549346

  2. Electron microscope studies of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, G A; Schaffer, P A

    1976-01-01

    Nine temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 representing eight complementation groups were assigned to two classes as a consequence of the virion forms and virus-specific cellular alterations observed in thin sections of mutant-infected human embryonic lung cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. Mutants in class A, one DNA- and one DNA +, failed to synthesize detectable virus particles. Mutants in class B, 4DNA- and 3DNA+, produced moderate to large numbers of empty nucleocapsids. Dense-cored nucleocapsids were not observed in thin sections of cells infected with any of the nine mutants at this temperature. Virus-specific cellular alterations consisted primarily of margination of chromating and nulcear membrane thickening and duplication. Images PMID:178905

  3. Electron microscope studies of temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Cabral, G A; Schaffer, P A

    1976-05-01

    Nine temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2 representing eight complementation groups were assigned to two classes as a consequence of the virion forms and virus-specific cellular alterations observed in thin sections of mutant-infected human embryonic lung cells grown at the nonpermissive temperature. Mutants in class A, one DNA- and one DNA +, failed to synthesize detectable virus particles. Mutants in class B, 4DNA- and 3DNA+, produced moderate to large numbers of empty nucleocapsids. Dense-cored nucleocapsids were not observed in thin sections of cells infected with any of the nine mutants at this temperature. Virus-specific cellular alterations consisted primarily of margination of chromating and nulcear membrane thickening and duplication.

  4. Recognition of herpes simplex viruses: toll-like receptors and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yijie; He, Bin

    2014-03-20

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are human pathogens that establish lytic and latent infections. Reactivation from latency occurs intermittently, which represents a lifelong source of recurrent infection. In this complex process, HSV triggers and neutralizes innate immunity. Therefore, a dynamic equilibrium between HSV and the innate immune system determines the outcome of viral infection. Detection of HSV involves pathogen recognition receptors that include Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors, and cytosolic DNA sensors. Moreover, innate components or pathways exist to sense membrane fusion upon viral entry into host cells. Consequently, this surveillance network activates downstream transcription factors, leading to the induction of type I interferon and inflammatory cytokines. Not surprisingly, with the capacity to establish chronic infection HSV has evolved strategies that modulate or evade innate immunity. In this review, we describe recent advances pertinent to the interplay of HSV and the induction of innate immunity mediated by pathogen recognition receptors or pathways.

  5. Polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids derived from 5α-cholestanes as antiviral agents against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Carlos A; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Richmond, Victoria; Maier, Marta S; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    Twelve polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids synthesized from a 5α-cholestane skeleton with different substitutions in C-2, C-3 and C-6 were evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a virus plaque reduction assay. Four compounds elicited a selective inhibitory effect against HSV. The disodium salt of 2β,3α-dihydroxy-6E-hydroximine-5α-cholestane-2,3-disulfate, named compound 7, was the most effective inhibitor of HSV-1, HSV-2 and pseudorabies virus (PrV) strains, including acyclovir-resistant variants, in human and monkey cell lines. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that compound 7 did not affect the initial steps of virus entry but inhibited a subsequent event in the infection process of HSV.

  6. Restarting Lytic Gene Transcription at the Onset of Herpes Simplex Virus Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Anna R; Wilson, Angus C

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent reservoir in neurons of human peripheral nerves. In this quiescent state, the viral genome persists as a circular, histone-associated episome, and transcription of viral lytic cycle genes is largely suppressed through epigenetic processes. Periodically, latent virus undergoes reactivation whereby lytic genes are activated and viral replication occurs. In this Gem, we review recent evidence that mechanisms governing the initial transcription of lytic genes are distinct from those of de novo infection and directly link reactivation to neuronal stress response pathways. We also discuss evidence that lytic cycle gene expression can be uncoupled from the full reactivation program, arguing for a less sharply bimodal definition of latency.

  7. Structure of the transporter associated with antigen processing trapped by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael L; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Chen, Jue

    2016-12-09

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter essential to cellular immunity against viral infection. Some persistent viruses have evolved strategies to inhibit TAP so that they may go undetected by the immune system. The herpes simplex virus for example evades immune surveillance by blocking peptide transport with a small viral protein ICP47. In this study, we determined the structure of human TAP bound to ICP47 by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) to 4.0 Å. The structure shows that ICP47 traps TAP in an inactive conformation distinct from the normal transport cycle. The specificity and potency of ICP47 inhibition result from contacts between the tip of the helical hairpin and the apex of the transmembrane cavity. This work provides a clear molecular description of immune evasion by a persistent virus. It also establishes the molecular structure of TAP to facilitate mechanistic studies of the antigen presentation process.

  8. Occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Scala, E; Giani, M; Pirrotta, L; Guerra, E C; Cadoni, S; Girardelli, C R; De Pità, O; Puddu, P

    2001-01-01

    Anisakis simplex (AS), a fish and cephalopodes parasite, may cause allergic reactions in humans on eating and/or handling contaminated fish. We present a case of occupational hypersensitivity to AS in a woman employed in a frozen-fish factory. She showed both generalised urticarial rash and asthmatic symptoms after work place exposure. All these symptoms immediately disappeared after work place exposure was ceased. The presence of a positive skin prick test and high specific IgE values confirmed a hypersensitivity to anisakis. This is the first case reported of both occupational generalised urticaria and allergic airborne asthma due to AS in the same patient. We suggest that AS could be an important cause of occupational asthma and/or urticaria in the fish industry.

  9. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula; Valero, Marta Sofía; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  10. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2012-01-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases. PMID:21861620

  11. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  12. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevents type I diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Goudy, K; Campbell-Thompson, M; Wasserfall, C; Scott-Jorgensen, M; Wang, J; Tang, Q; Crawford, J M; Ellis, T M; Atkinson, M A; Flotte, T R

    2004-01-01

    Type I diabetes results from an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Although the exact immunologic processes underlying this disease are unclear, increasing evidence suggests that immunosuppressive, immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory agents can interrupt the progression of the disease. Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) that also displays a wide range of anti-inflammatory properties. To test the ability of AAT to modulate the development of type I diabetes, we performed a series of investigations involving recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery of human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Recombinant AAV-expressing hAAT (rAAV2-CB-AT) was administered intramuscularly to 4-week-old female NOD mice (1 x 10(10) i.u./mouse). A single injection of this vector reduced the intensity of insulitis, the levels of insulin autoantibodies, and the frequency of overt type I diabetes (30% (3/10) at 32 weeks of age versus 70% (7/10) in controls). Transgene expression at the injection sites was confirmed by immunostaining. Interestingly, antibodies against hAAT were present in a majority of the vector-injected mice and circulating hAAT was undetectable when assessed 10 weeks postinjection. This study suggests a potential therapeutic role for AAT in preventing type I diabetes as well as the ability of AAV gene therapy-based approaches to ameliorate disease effectively.

  13. Correction of multiple striated muscles in murine Pompe disease through adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Young, Sarah P; Li, Ping; Di, Chunhui; Brown, Talmage; Salva, Maja Z; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Yan, Zhen; Auten, Richard; Hauschka, Stephen D; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2008-08-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease; MIM 232300) stems from the deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase; EC 3.2.1.20), which primarily involves cardiac and skeletal muscles. An adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV2/8) vector containing the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) (CK1) reduced glycogen content by approximately 50% in the heart and quadriceps in GAA-knockout (GAA-KO) mice; furthermore, an AAV2/8 vector containing the hybrid alpha-myosin heavy chain enhancer-/MCK enhancer-promoter (MHCK7) cassette reduced glycogen content by >95% in heart and >75% in the diaphragm and quadriceps. Transduction with an AAV2/8 vector was higher in the quadriceps than in the gastrocnemius. An AAV2/9 vector containing the MHCK7 cassette corrected GAA deficiency in the distal hindlimb, and glycogen accumulations were substantially cleared by human GAA (hGAA) expression therein; however, the analogous AAV2/7 vector achieved much lower efficacy. Administration of the MHCK7-containing vectors significantly increased striated muscle function as assessed by increased Rotarod times at 18 weeks after injection, whereas the CK1-containing vector did not increase Rotarod performance. Importantly, type IIb myofibers in the extensor digitalis longus (EDL) were transduced, thereby correcting a myofiber type that is unresponsive to enzyme replacement therapy. In summary, AAV8 and AAV9-pseudotyped vectors containing the MHCK7 regulatory cassette achieved enhanced efficacy in Pompe disease mice.

  14. Vaccine potential of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant with an essential glycoprotein deleted.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, H E; McLean, C S; Harley, C; Efstathiou, S; Inglis, S; Minson, A C

    1994-01-01

    Several approaches to the production of vaccines to human herpesviruses have been proposed. Subunit vaccines, subunits delivered by live vectors, and rationally attenuated vaccines have all been shown to be efficacious in animal models but suffer from uncertainties as to the roles of individual genes involved in pathogenesis and the most relevant components of the immune response required for protection in humans and the target antigens involved. With these problems in mind, we examined the vaccine potential of a fully disabled herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant that is capable of only a single round of replication, since a virus of this type should induce the full spectrum of immune responses but has no pathogenic potential. A virus has been described which lacks essential glycoprotein H (gH) and can be propagated in a cell line which supplies gH in trans (A. Forrester, H. Farrell, G. Wilkinson, J. Kaye, N. Davis-Poynter, and T. Minson, J. Virol. 66:341-348, 1992). Infection of normal cells with this mutant is indistinguishable from a wild-type infection, except that the resulting progeny are gH negative and noninfectious: the virus is self-limiting. Infection of mice by the ear pinna route was similarly self-limiting in that input infectivity decreased rapidly at the inoculation site and no infectivity was detected in sensory ganglia. Animals given a wide range of doses of the gH-negative mutant produced both humoral and T-cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 and proved solidly resistant to challenge with a high dose of wild-type virus. The gH-negative mutant is presumably capable of establishing a latent infection, but since no infectious virus was detected in numerous attempts to reactivate the mutant, the risk of a pathogenic outcome is minimal. Images PMID:8289395

  15. Cloning of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome as a novel luciferase-tagged infectious bacterial artificial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Hua; Zheng, Chunfu

    2011-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen of skin and mucous membranes. In the present study, the genome of the HSV-1 F strain was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone without any deletions of the viral genes. Additionally, a firefly luciferase cassette was inserted to generate a novel luciferase-expressing HSV-1 BAC. Importantly, the resulting recombinant HSV-1 BAC Luc behaved indistinguishably from the wild-type virus in Vero cells, and the luciferase activity could be easily quantified in vitro. Thus, this novel HSV-1 BAC system would serve as a powerful tool for gene function profiling.

  16. Virus-mediated release of endosomal content in vitro: different behavior of adenovirus and rhinovirus serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Endosomal penetration by nonenveloped viruses might be accomplished by either local breakdown of the endosomal membrane (e.g., adenovirus) or formation of a membrane-spanning pore by capsid proteins. Uncoating of the nonenveloped virus human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2) has been shown to occur from late endosomes and to be entirely dependent on the acidic pH in this compartment (Prchla, E., E. Kuechler, D. Blaas, and R. Fuchs. 1994. J. Virol. 68: 3713-3723). To investigate further the mechanism of uncoating of HRV2, an in vitro assay was established to test viruses or virus-derived peptides for their capacity to release cointernalized biotin-dextran of different molecular mass (10 and 70 kD) from isolated endosomes. The suitability of the assay was demonstrated by use of a fusogenic peptide derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (GALA-INF3). Whereas adenovirus induced a low pH- dependent release of up to 46% of the internalized biotin-dextran and did not show any significant size selectivity (as expected for endosome disruption), HRV2 mediated release of 27% of the 10 kD dextran and only traces of the 70-kD dextran. Similarly, GALA-INF3-induced release of biotin-dextran was also size dependent. The potential role of the capsid protein VP1 in HRV2 uncoating in vivo was also substantiated in our in vitro system using an amphipathic, NH2-terminal peptide of VP1. Taken together, these data favor the model of a specific pore-forming mechanism for HRV2 uncoating which is in contrast to the membrane- disrupting mechanism of adenovirus. PMID:7559769

  17. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daily, Jennifer L; Nash, Kevin; Jinwal, Umesh; Golde, Todd; Rogers, Justin; Peters, Melinda M; Burdine, Rebecca D; Dickey, Chad; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2011-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS), a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286) and Thr(305/306), resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  18. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is dispensable for virus-mediated liver and skin tumor development in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; Xu, Jianliang; Chikuma, Shunsuke; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Moriya, Kyoji; Koike, Kazuhiko; Marcuzzi, Gian Paolo; Pfister, Herbert; Honjo, Tasuku; Kobayashi, Maki

    2014-07-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) not only promotes immune diversity by initiating somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in immunoglobulin genes but also provokes genomic instability by introducing translocations and mutations into non-immunoglobulin genes. To test whether AID is essential for virus-induced tumor development, we used two transgenic tumor models: mice expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) core proteins (HCV-Tg), driven by the hepatitis B virus promoter, and mice expressing human papillomavirus type 8 proteins (HPV8-Tg), driven by the Keratin 14 promoter. Both strains were analyzed in the absence and presence of AID by crossing each with AID (-/-) mice. There was no difference in the liver tumor frequency between the HCV-Tg/AID (+/+) and HCV-Tg/AID (-/-) mice at 20 months of age although the AID (+/+) mice showed more severe histological findings and increased cytokine expression. Furthermore, a low level of AID transcript was detected in the HCV-Tg/AID (+/+) liver tissue that was not derived from hepatocytes themselves but from intra-hepatic immune cells. Although AID may not be the direct cause of HCV-induced oncogenesis, AID expressed in B cells, not in hepatocytes, may prolong steatosis and cause increased lymphocyte infiltration into HCV core protein-induced liver lesions. Similarly, there was no difference in the time course of skin tumor development between the HPV8-Tg/AID (-/-) and HPV8-Tg/AID (+/+) groups. In conclusion, AID does not appear to be required for tumor development in the two virus-induced tumor mouse models tested although AID expressed in infiltrating B cells may promote inflammatory reactions in HCV core protein-induced liver pathogenesis.

  19. Comparison of washing and swabbing procedures for collecting genital fluids to assess cervicovaginal shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA.

    PubMed

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-06-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions.

  20. Role for the αV Integrin Subunit in Varicella-Zoster Virus-Mediated Fusion and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arvin, Ann M.; Oliver, Stefan L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella and herpes zoster. Membrane fusion is essential for VZV entry and the distinctive syncytium formation in VZV-infected skin and neuronal tissue. Herpesvirus fusion is mediated by a complex of glycoproteins gB and gH-gL, which are necessary and sufficient for VZV to induce membrane fusion. However, the cellular requirements of fusion are poorly understood. Integrins have been implicated to facilitate entry of several human herpesviruses, but their role in VZV entry has not yet been explored. To determine the involvement of integrins in VZV fusion, a quantitative cell-cell fusion assay was developed using a VZV-permissive melanoma cell line. The cells constitutively expressed a reporter protein and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knock down the expression of integrin subunits shown to be expressed in these cells by RNA sequencing. The αV integrin subunit was identified as mediating VZV gB/gH-gL fusion, as its knockdown by shRNAs reduced fusion levels to 60% of that of control cells. A comparable reduction in fusion levels was observed when an anti-αV antibody specific to its extracellular domain was tested in the fusion assay, confirming that the domain was important for VZV fusion. In addition, reduced spread was observed in αV knockdown cells infected with the VZV pOka strain relative to that of the control cells. This was demonstrated by reductions in plaque size, replication kinetics, and virion entry in the αV subunit knockdown cells. Thus, the αV integrin subunit is important for VZV gB/gH-gL fusion and infection. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes chickenpox and shingles. A common complication of shingles is the excruciating condition called postherpetic neuralgia, which has proven difficult to treat. While a vaccine is now available, it is not recommended for immunocompromised individuals and its efficacy decreases with the

  1. High prevalence of Anisakis simplex hypersensitivity and allergy in Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Sberna, Maria Eva; Sichili, Stefania; Intravaia, Rossella; Nicolosi, Giuliana; Porto, Morena; Liuzzo, Maria Teresa; Picardi, Giuseppe; Fichera, Silvia; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-02-01

    Anisakis simplex can elicit allergic reactions when ingested in raw or marinated fish. The prevalence of A simplex hypersensitivity and allergy in Sicily (Italy), an area where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is very common, has not been investigated thus far. To investigate the prevalence of A simplex sensitization and its clinical relevance in a large group of unselected patients. All consecutive patients referred to the authors' allergy clinic during a 22 month-period were included in the study, evaluated for sensitization to A simplex and other allergens depending on their clinical history, and investigated for allergic symptoms after the ingestion of raw or marinated fish. Of 3,419 patients screened, 527 (15.4%) were sensitized to A simplex and 29 of these (5.5% of sensitized patients) had a history of A simplex allergy. Approximately 30% of patients had mono-sensitization to A simplex. Co-sensitization to house dust mites or molds yielded an odds ratio of 1.98 or 3.18, respectively, for allergy to A simplex. A high prevalence of A simplex sensitization in a large proportion of patients with mono-sensitization was found, confirming that eating habits influence sensitization to this nematode. Allergic symptoms from A simplex ingestion in raw or marinated fish were quite frequent, with symptoms ranging from oral allergy syndrome to anaphylaxis. Patients sensitized to A simplex were more prone to have allergic symptoms when they had co-sensitization to house dust mites or molds, suggesting possible cross-reactive but clinically relevant allergens between these allergenic sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of the wild edible cruciferous: Diplotaxis simplex.

    PubMed

    Jdir, Hamida; Khemakham, Bassem; Najjaa, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Jridi, Mourad; Ben Arfa, Abdelkarim; Ben Ali, Yassine; Zouari, Nacim

    2016-10-01

    Context The present study deals with new biological properties of the wild edible Diplotaxis simplex (Viv.) Spreng (Brassicaceae). Objectives The current study evaluates the antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-cancer properties of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from D. simplex flowers. Materials and methods The anti-proliferative activity of the extracts (10-70 μg/mL) was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of the extracts (1.5-7.5 mg/mL) on phospholipase A2 activity as well as on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Extracts (200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (50 mg/kg) as positive control were injected intraperitoneally for albino mice prior to the induction of the oedema by carrageenan. Antioxidant activities were investigated using various complementary methods. Results Flower extracts contained a high level of polyphenolics (17.10-52.70 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (74.20-100.60 mg QE/g), which correlate with its appreciable antioxidant potential in β-carotene peroxidation (IC50 value: 12.50-27.10 μg/mL), DPPH(•) radical-scavenging (IC50 value: 0.20-0.40 mg/mL), Fe(3+ )reducing (EC50 value: 0.10-0.14 mg/mL) and Fe(2+ )chelating (IC50 value: 0.20-0.60 mg/mL) assays. These extracts were effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth (IC50 value: 62.0-63.25 μg/mL). Besides, the ethyl acetate extract inhibited phospholipase A2 activity (IC50 value: 2.97 mg/mL) and reduced the paw oedema in mice (from 0.38 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 cm), 4 h post-carrageenan challenge. Conclusion These data suggest that D. simplex may be useful as a candidate in the treatment of inflammation and the colon cancer.

  3. MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Wan, Shengfeng; Nie, Yanru; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Min; Wang, Chong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Huanchun; Cao, Shengbo

    2016-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory responsein vitroandin vivo The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines.In vivosilencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and neurological diseases

  4. MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Usama; Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Wan, Shengfeng; Nie, Yanru; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Min; Wang, Chong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines. In vivo silencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation. IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and

  5. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and viral loads of HIV-1 in blood and semen as risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Butler, David M; Smith, Davey M; Cachay, Edward R; Hightower, George K; Nugent, Charles Thomas; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J

    2008-08-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 blood plasma viral load is correlated with the sexual transmission of HIV, although transmission from men involves virus from semen instead of blood. We quantified HIV-1 RNA in the blood and semen of men who did or did not transmit HIV to their sex partners. We compared the relationships of HIV-1 transmission risk with blood plasma viral load, seminal plasma viral load, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus and other factors. A case-control study. Participants were men evaluated for primary HIV infection and their recent male sex partners. They were interviewed, and clinical specimens were collected. Epidemiologic and phylogenetic linkages were determined by history and molecular techniques. Couples were grouped on the basis of transmission after exposure. Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon tests were used for comparisons between groups. Multivariable logistic regressions were fit to identify independent predictors of transmission. HIV-transmitting partners (n = 15) had a higher median seminal plasma viral load (P < 0.015) and median blood plasma viral load (P < 0.001) than nontransmitting partners (n = 32). Herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus was associated with transmission only when the HIV-infected source partner was herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive and the HIV-exposed partner was not (odds ratio 16, P < 0.03). Adjusting for other factors, HIV transmission was significantly associated with blood plasma viral load (odds ratio 13.4, P < 0.02) but not seminal plasma viral load (odds ratio 0.69, P = not significant). Blood and seminal plasma viral load were both associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission, but blood plasma viral load was the stronger predictor in this cohort. Herpes simplex virus 2 coinfection was associated with the risk of transmission but not acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

  7. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  8. The artificial-free technique along the objective direction for the simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonperm, Aua-aree; Sinapiromsaran, Krung

    2014-03-01

    The simplex algorithm is a popular algorithm for solving linear programming problems. If the origin point satisfies all constraints then the simplex can be started. Otherwise, artificial variables will be introduced to start the simplex algorithm. If we can start the simplex algorithm without using artificial variables then the simplex iterate will require less time. In this paper, we present the artificial-free technique for the simplex algorithm by mapping the problem into the objective plane and splitting constraints into three groups. In the objective plane, one of variables which has a nonzero coefficient of the objective function is fixed in terms of another variable. Then it can split constraints into three groups: the positive coefficient group, the negative coefficient group and the zero coefficient group. Along the objective direction, some constraints from the positive coefficient group will form the optimal solution. If the positive coefficient group is nonempty, the algorithm starts with relaxing constraints from the negative coefficient group and the zero coefficient group. We guarantee the feasible region obtained from the positive coefficient group to be nonempty. The transformed problem is solved using the simplex algorithm. Additional constraints from the negative coefficient group and the zero coefficient group will be added to the solved problem and use the dual simplex method to determine the new optimal solution. An example shows the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  9. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  10. [Post-herpes simplex encephalitis chorea: Viral replication or immunological mechanism?].

    PubMed

    Benrhouma, H; Nasri, A; Kraoua, I; Klaa, H; Turki, I; Gouider-Khouja, N

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis is a severe neurological condition, whose outcome is improved if treated early with acyclovir. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea has rarely been reported. We report on two observations of children presenting with post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea, related to two different pathophysiological mechanisms. The first one is an 11-month-old girl developing relapsing herpes simplex encephalitis with chorea due to resumption of viral replication. The second one is a 2-year-old boy with relapsing post-herpes simplex encephalitis acute chorea caused by an immunoinflammatory mechanism. We discuss the different neurological presentations of herpetic relapses, notably those presenting with movement disorders, as well as their clinical, paraclinical, physiopathological, and therapeutic aspects. Post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea may involve two mechanisms: resumption of viral replication or an immunoinflammatory mechanism. Treatment of post-herpes simplex encephalitis with acute chorea depends on the underlying mechanism, while prevention is based on antiviral treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis with acyclovir at the dose of 20mg/kg/8h for 21 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant with multicystic encephalopathy: a distinct clinicopathologic entity?

    PubMed

    Schutz, Peter W; Fauth, Clarissa T; Al-Rawahi, Ghada N; Pugash, Denise; White, Valerie A; Stockler, Sylvia; Dunham, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis can manifest as a range of clinical presentations including classic adult, neonatal, and biphasic chronic-granulomatous herpes encephalitis. We report an infant with granulomatous herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis with a subacute course and multicystic encephalopathy. A 2-month-old girl presented with lethargy and hypothermia. Computed tomography scan of the head showed multicystic encephalopathy and calcifications. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis by polymerase chain reaction testing for herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, enterovirus, and cytomegalovirus was negative. Normal cerebrospinal fluid interferon-α levels argued against Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. The patient died 2 weeks after presentation. At autopsy, multicystic encephalopathy was confirmed with bilateral gliosis, granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, and calcifications. Bilateral healing necrotizing retinitis suggested a viral etiology, but retina and brain were free of viral inclusions and immunohistochemically negative for herpes simplex virus-2 and cytomegalovirus. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed herpes simplex virus-2 DNA in four cerebral paraffin blocks. Subsequent repeat testing of the initial cerebrospinal fluid sample using a different polymerase chain reaction assay was weakly positive for herpes simplex virus-2 DNA. Granulomatous herpes simplex virus encephalitis in infants can present with subacute course and result in multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization and minimal cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus DNA load. Infectious etiologies should be carefully investigated in the differential diagnosis of multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization, in particular if multinucleated giant cells are present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Psychopathic Disorder and Serum Antibody to Herpes Simplex Virus (Type 1)

    PubMed Central

    Cleobury, J. F.; Skinner, G. R. B.; Thouless, M. E.; Wildy, P.

    1971-01-01

    The sera of a small of patients has been examined for herpes simplex virus antibody. Three clinically-defined groups of patients were compared: (a) aggressive psychopaths, (b) psychiatric controls, and (c) general hospital patients. The first group had an unusually high average kinetic neutralization constant against type 1 herpes simplex virus. PMID:5543996

  13. Association between psychopathic disorder and serum antibody to herpes simplex virus (type 1).

    PubMed

    Cleobury, J F; Skinner, G R; Thouless, M E; Wildy, P

    1971-02-20

    The sera of a small of patients has been examined for herpes simplex virus antibody. Three clinically-defined groups of patients were compared: (a) aggressive psychopaths, (b) psychiatric controls, and (c) general hospital patients. The first group had an unusually high average kinetic neutralization constant against type 1 herpes simplex virus.

  14. Grover's disease secondarily infected with herpes simplex virus and Staphylococcus aureus: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Penelope Am; Stanford, Duncan G

    2013-11-01

    The case of a 73-year old man with herpes simplex and staphylococcus aureus infection complicating established Grover's disease is presented. This was treated successfully with valaciclovir. While reports of bacterial and herpetic infections complicating other acantholytic diseases, such as Darier's disease, have been published previously, only one publication to date shows herpes simplex infection in Grover's disease.

  15. Herpes simplex virus reactivation after subtotal hemispherectomy in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tracie; Bingaman, William; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Goldfarb, Johanna

    2010-12-01

    We report herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in a toddler after a subtotal hemispherectomy for seizures related to HSE 16 months earlier. Herpes simplex virus reactivation in the cerebrospinal fluid shortly after treatment of HSE has been described, but is extremely rare in other situations. HSE reactivation is a potential complication of epilepsy surgery after HSE in children.

  16. Misdirection of endosomal trafficking mediated by herpes simplex virus-encoded glycoprotein B.

    PubMed

    Niazy, Naima; Temme, Sebastian; Bocuk, Derya; Giesen, Carmen; König, Angelika; Temme, Nadine; Ziegfeld, Angelique; Gregers, Tone F; Bakke, Oddmund; Lang, Thorsten; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Koch, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-encoded glycoprotein B (gB) is the most abundant protein in the viral envelope and promotes fusion of the virus with the cellular membrane. In the present study, we found that gB impacts on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II pathway of antigen presentation by fostering homotypic fusion of early endosomes and trapping MHC-II molecules in these altered endosomes. By using an overexpression approach, we demonstrated that transient expression of gB induces giant vesicles of early endosomal origin, which contained Rab5, early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), and large amounts of MHC-II molecules [human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and HLA-DM], but no CD63. In HSV-1-infected and stably transfected cell lines that expressed lower amounts of gB, giant endosomes were not observed, but strongly increased amounts of HLA-DR and HLA-DM were found in EEA1(+) early endosomes. We used these giant vesicles as a model system and revealed that gB interacts with Rab5 and EEA1, and that gB-induced homotypic fusion of early endosomes to giant endosomes requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, the activity of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, and the cytosolic gB sequence (889)YTQVPN(894) We conclude that gB expression alters trafficking of molecules of the HLA-II processing pathway, which leads to increased retention of MHC-II molecules in early endosomal compartments, thereby intercepting antigen presentation.-Niazy, N., Temme, S., Bocuk, D., Giesen, C., König, A., Temme, N., Ziegfeld, A., Gregers, T. F., Bakke, O., Lang, T., Eis-Hübinger, A. M., Koch, N. Misdirection of endosomal trafficking mediated by herpes simplex virus-encoded glycoprotein B. © FASEB.

  17. Exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cognitive Impairments in Individuals With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Konasale M.; Watson, Annie M. M.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

  18. Thin-layer immunoassay for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jeansson, S; Elwing, H; Nilsson, L A

    1979-01-01

    Thin-layer immunoassay (TIA) is a simple serological technique suitable for analysis of large numbers of samples. In this study, TIA was evaluated for determination of antibodies to herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus antigen used in TIA was purified from material released from virus-infected cells. The results obtained by TIA were compared with those obtained by neutralization and complement fixation tests. TIA was found to be as sensitive as the neutralization test for demonstration of herpes simplex virus antibodies. No false-negative or -positive reactions were observed. In primary herpes simplex virus-1 infections, an antibody response was demonstrated by TIA, whereas antibodies could not be demonstrated in patients with primary herpes simplex virus-2 infections. Images PMID:222798

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Mimicking Bullous Disease in an Immunocompromised Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lecluse, Anne L.Y.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing extended or atypical herpes simplex virus infections, which can be easily misdiagnosed. We present the case of a 79-year-old, treatment-induced (oral corticosteroid), immunocompromised female with an extensive atypical herpes simplex virus infection. This patient presented with multiple erosions and vesicles on the trunk with a subacute onset. The clinical differential diagnosis was herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, pemphigus vulgaris or bullous pemphigoid. Due to the atypical clinical presentation and negative Tzanck test, suspicion of viral infection was low. High-dose steroid treatment was initiated. Subsequent histopathology, however, showed a herpes simplex virus infection. After discontinuing steroid treatment and initiating antiviral treatment, the patient recovered within a week. Emphasis must be placed on the importance of clinical awareness of extended and clinically atypical herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. A negative Tzanck test does not rule out the possibility of a herpes infection. PMID:21103195

  20. Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in afebrile children with seizures.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Indrajit; Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle E; Weinstock, Arie L

    2012-04-01

    Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is suspected in patients presenting with acute-onset seizures and lethargy. The potential neurologic sequelae from untreated herpes infection can prompt empirical acyclovir therapy, even in afebrile subjects. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in children presenting with afebrile seizures and to assess the need for empirical acyclovir therapy. Clinical and laboratory data of children with acute-onset afebrile seizures and children with central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection were compared. Polymerase chain reaction and viral cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid for herpes simplex virus infection were negative in all subjects with afebrile seizures; 32.7% of these subjects were empirically treated with acyclovir. In conclusion, central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is uncommon in children presenting with afebrile seizures, and acyclovir therapy is rarely necessary in subjects with normal neurologic examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

  1. Simplex GPS and InSAR Inversion Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Pierce, Marlon E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the Earth's surface can be routinely measured with precisions better than centimeters. Processes below the surface often drive these changes and as a result, investigators require models with inversion methods to characterize the sources. Simplex inverts any combination of GPS (global positioning system), UAVSAR (uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar), and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) data simultaneously for elastic response from fault and fluid motions. It can be used to solve for multiple faults and parameters, all of which can be specified or allowed to vary. The software can be used to study long-term tectonic motions and the faults responsible for those motions, or can be used to invert for co-seismic slip from earthquakes. Solutions involving estimation of fault motion and changes in fluid reservoirs such as magma or water are possible. Any arbitrary number of faults or parameters can be considered. Simplex specifically solves for any of location, geometry, fault slip, and expansion/contraction of a single or multiple faults. It inverts GPS and InSAR data for elastic dislocations in a half-space. Slip parameters include strike slip, dip slip, and tensile dislocations. It includes a map interface for both setting up the models and viewing the results. Results, including faults, and observed, computed, and residual displacements, are output in text format, a map interface, and can be exported to KML. The software interfaces with the QuakeTables database allowing a user to select existing fault parameters or data. Simplex can be accessed through the QuakeSim portal graphical user interface or run from a UNIX command line.

  2. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative.

  3. The interaction between herpes simplex virus 1 genome and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) as a hallmark of the entry in latency.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-11-04

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that establishes latency in the nucleus of infected neurons in the PNS and the CNS. At the transcriptional level latency is characterized by a quasi-complete silencing of the extrachromosomal viral genome that otherwise expresses more than 80 genes during the lytic cycle. In neurons, latency is anticipated to be the default transcriptional program; however, limited information exists on the molecular mechanisms that force the virus to enter the latent state. Our recent study demonstrates that the interaction of the viral genomes with the nuclear architecture and specifically the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is a major determinant for the entry of HSV-1 into latency (Maroui MA, Callé A et al. (2016). Latency entry of herpes simplex virus 1 is determined by the interaction of its genome with the nuclear environment. PLoS Pathogens 12(9): e1005834.).

  4. The interaction between herpes simplex virus 1 genome and promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) as a hallmark of the entry in latency

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen that establishes latency in the nucleus of infected neurons in the PNS and the CNS. At the transcriptional level latency is characterized by a quasi-complete silencing of the extrachromosomal viral genome that otherwise expresses more than 80 genes during the lytic cycle. In neurons, latency is anticipated to be the default transcriptional program; however, limited information exists on the molecular mechanisms that force the virus to enter the latent state. Our recent study demonstrates that the interaction of the viral genomes with the nuclear architecture and specifically the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is a major determinant for the entry of HSV-1 into latency (Maroui MA, Callé A et al. (2016). Latency entry of herpes simplex virus 1 is determined by the interaction of its genome with the nuclear environment. PLoS Pathogens 12(9): e1005834.). PMID:28357326

  5. Reduced tumorigenicity of rodent tumour cells and tumour explants following infection with wild type and mutant herpes simplex virus, bovine mammillitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, G. R.; Cowan, M.; Davies, J.; Brookes, K.; Billstrom, M.; Buchan, A.

    1988-01-01

    The tumorigenicity of neoplastic hamster and mouse cell lines and tumour explants was reduced by infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), a thymidine-kinaseless mutant of herpes simplex virus, namely 'MDK', encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC) and bovine mammillitis virus (BMV). There was an approximate relationship between duration of virus infection in vitro and reduction in incidence and/or rate of tumour development. The rate of tumour development was also reduced by 'site inoculation' of virus (HSV-1) at various time intervals following inoculation of tumorigenic BHK 21 cells indicating that virus was capable of reducing the rate of tumour development in a situation where the neoplastic cells were already transplanted into the susceptible host species. It is suggested that the therapeutic role of wild type, mutant or recombinant viruses merits further exploration towards prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:2846027

  6. Reduced tumorigenicity of rodent tumour cells and tumour explants following infection with wild type and mutant herpes simplex virus, bovine mammillitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed

    Skinner, G R; Cowan, M; Davies, J; Brookes, K; Billstrom, M; Buchan, A

    1988-08-01

    The tumorigenicity of neoplastic hamster and mouse cell lines and tumour explants was reduced by infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), a thymidine-kinaseless mutant of herpes simplex virus, namely 'MDK', encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC) and bovine mammillitis virus (BMV). There was an approximate relationship between duration of virus infection in vitro and reduction in incidence and/or rate of tumour development. The rate of tumour development was also reduced by 'site inoculation' of virus (HSV-1) at various time intervals following inoculation of tumorigenic BHK 21 cells indicating that virus was capable of reducing the rate of tumour development in a situation where the neoplastic cells were already transplanted into the susceptible host species. It is suggested that the therapeutic role of wild type, mutant or recombinant viruses merits further exploration towards prevention and treatment of human cancer.

  7. Delayed control of herpes simplex virus infection and impaired CD4(+) T-cell migration to the skin in mouse models of DOCK8 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Inge E A; Randall, Katrina L; Hollett, Natasha A; Di Law, Hsei; Miosge, Lisa A; Sontani, Yovina; Goodnow, Christopher C; Tscharke, David C

    2015-07-01

    DOCK8 deficiency in humans and mice leads to multiple defects in immune cell numbers and function. Patients with this immunodeficiency have a high morbidity and mortality, and are distinguished by chronic cutaneous viral infections, including those caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). The underlying mechanism of the specific susceptibility to these chronic cutaneous viral infections is currently unknown, largely because the effect of DOCK8 deficiency has not been studied in suitable models. A better understanding of these mechanisms is required to underpin the development of more specific therapies. Here we show that DOCK8-deficient mice have poor control of primary cutaneous herpes simplex lesions and this is associated with increased virus loads. Furthermore, DOCK8-deficient mice showed a lack of CD4(+) T-cell infiltration into HSV-infected skin.

  8. Anisakis simplex s.l. parasitization in mackerel (Scomber japonicus) caught in the North of Morocco--prevalence and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Abattouy, Naima; Valero, Adela; Benajiba, Mohamed Hassan; Lozano, Josefa; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is very widespread in Morocco, where its production is an important economic pillar. We investigated the prevalence of infection by Anisakis spp. in mackerel caught in Moroccan waters, analyzing infection risk factors. The prevalence was generally higher in fish from the Atlantic (67.9%) than from the Mediterranean (57.0%), but they did not differ in the mean abundance, intensity, or prevalence of muscle parasitization. A. pegreffii was the predominant species (82.6% of larvae) followed by the hybrid A. simplex s.s./A. pegreffii (16.3%). Only one L3 of A. simplex s.s. was found in a specimen of S. japonicus from the Atlantic. Mackerel infection was associated with total fish weight, gonad weight, catch area, and catch season. However, muscle infection was associated solely with total weight and parasite loads. The consumption of lower-weight mackerel may be a good prophylactic measure against human anisakiasis.

  9. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Özlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Çelik, Çetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  10. Herpes simplex infection in a juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kik, Maria J L; Bos, Jan H; Groen, Jan; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2005-03-01

    A juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) died after 8 days of diarrhea and vomiting. Necropsy showed petechial hemorrhages in the skin, the myocardium, and the peritoneal membranes. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous, and the liver and spleen were enlarged. Histologic changes consisted of interstitial pneumonia, hepatitis, and splenic hyperplasia. Numerous eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were visible in pulmonary epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and splenic endothelial cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed herpesvirus in hepatocyte nuclei. Polymerase chain reaction of liver tissue demonstrated the presence of a herpes simplex virus-1.

  11. Celiac Crisis Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Christopher M.; Tsay, Julie L.; Jin, Ming; El-Dika, Samer S.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications. Additionally, early recognition of celiac crisis is imperative as the metabolic derangements may be life-threatening, and therapy with gluten restriction and nutritional repletion is effective. PMID:27921058

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  13. The inactivation of herpes simplex virus by some Solanaceae glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Thorne, H V; Clarke, G F; Skuce, R

    1985-12-01

    The infectivity of herpes simplex virus Type I in tissue culture was inhibited by prior incubation with aqueous suspensions of glycoalkaloids in order of activity alpha-chaconine greater than alpha-tomatine greater than alpha-solasonine but not by the corresponding aglycones, solanidine, tomatidine and solasodine. However, inhibition was not only dependent on the presence of a sugar moiety since the glycone alpha-solanine was inactive under the conditions used. The glycones, but not the aglycones, showed cytopathic effects on cellular membranes of Vero cells and erythrocytes; therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of virus results from insertion of the glycones into the viral envelope.

  14. Luxury perfusion phenomenon in acute herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Uesugi, M; Igeta, Y; Kondo, S; Sun, X; Hirai, S

    1995-02-01

    In a patient with acute herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis, positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated increased cerebral blood flow in the affected temporal lobe accompanied by reduction in the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, i.e., luxury perfusion. Follow-up PET studies showed reduction in cerebral perfusion until it was more closely coupled with oxygen metabolism after the resolution of the acute inflammation. These findings support previous single photon emission computed tomographic data and provide a pathophysiological background for the occurrence of hyperperfusion in HSV encephalitis. This is an interesting example of the luxury perfusion phenomenon occurring in a disease other than cerebral ischemia.

  15. Early Events in Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: a Radioautographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Hummeler, Klaus; Tomassini, Natale; Zajac, Barbara

    1969-01-01

    The early events in herpes simplex virus infection were studied by means of radio-autography. The virus was rapidly taken up by the host cells and uncoated. Viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) reached the nuclear sites of replication in 15 to 30 min after infection. The viral DNA occasionally associated with chromosomes or condensed chromatin but was more frequently found to be randomly distributed. Viral progeny appeared 3 hr after infection. These particles did not show any particular spatial relationship to the parental DNA. The morphological latent period lasted 2.5 hr. Images PMID:4309102

  16. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection.

  17. Herpes simplex virus oncolytic therapy for pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-07-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population.

  18. Epithelial Barriers in Murine Skin during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection: The Role of Tight Junction Formation.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Elena; Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rübsam, Matthias; Staeheli, Peter; Iden, Sandra; Niessen, Carien M; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 has to overcome skin or mucosa barriers to infect its human host. The impact of the various barrier functions on successful viral invasion is not known. On ex vivo infection of murine skin, we observed efficient invasion only via the basal epidermal layer when the dermis was removed. Here, we investigated how wounding and intercellular junction formation control successful viral entry. After wounding of skin samples or removal of the stratum corneum, infected cells were rarely detected. On the basis of infection studies in epidermis from IFN-stimulated mice, we assume that mechanical wounding does not lead to an antiviral state that impedes infection. When we infected human skin equivalents, we observed entry only into unstratified keratinocytes or after wounding of fully stratified cultures. Reduced infection of keratinocytes after calcium-induced stratification confirmed the impact of junction formation. To assess the effect of functional tight junctions, stratified cultures of polarity regulator partitioning-defective-3- or E-cadherin-deficient keratinocytes were infected. As the number of infected cells strongly increased with enhanced paracellular permeability, we conclude that the formation of functional tight junctions interferes with viral entry indicating that next to the stratum corneum tight junctions are a major physical barrier for herpes simplex virus 1 invasion into tissue. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular characterization and comparison of four Anisakis allergens between Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii from Japan.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Zenke, Kosuke; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-07-01

    It remains unclear whether allergens are the same among the sibling species of Anisakis simplex sensu lato. This study was carried out to compare the amino acid sequences of three major (Ani s 1, 2 and 12) and one minor (Ani s 9) Anisakis allergens between A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis pegreffii. We found 2 (out of 163), 1 (out of 869), and 29 (out of 266) amino acid variable sites for Ani s 1, 2, and 12, respectively. However, as both intra- and inter-species variations were present at the same amino acid positions, no amino acid variations clearly distinguished the two sibling species. IgE-binding epitopes (Ani s 1) and a binding motif of human leukocyte antigen (Ani s 2 and 9) demonstrated by previous studies were conserved. The similarities of the amino acid sequences of the allergens indicate possible similar allergy-associated health risks in humans infected with or accidentally ingesting either Anisakis species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Knockdown of DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type I DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Muylaert, Isabella; Elias, Per

    2007-04-13

    Herpes simplex virus has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with directly repeated terminal sequences needed for cleavage and packaging of replicated DNA. In infected cells, linear genomes rapidly become endless. It is currently a matter of discussion whether the endless genomes are circles supporting rolling circle replication or arise by recombination of linear genomes forming concatemers. Here, we have examined the role of mammalian DNA ligases in the herpes simplex virus, type I (HSV-1) life cycle by employing RNA interference (RNAi) in human 1BR.3.N fibroblasts. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of DNA ligase IV and its co-factor XRCC4 causes a hundred-fold reduction of virus yield, a small plaque phenotype, and reduced DNA synthesis. The effect is specific because RNAi against DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III fail to reduce HSV-1 replication. Furthermore, RNAi against DNA ligase IV and XRCC4 does not affect replication of adenovirus. In addition, high multiplicity infections of HSV-1 in human DNA ligase IV-deficient cells reveal a pronounced delay of production of infectious virus. Finally, we demonstrate that formation of endless genomes is inhibited by RNAi-mediated depletion of DNA ligase IV and XRCC4. Our results suggests that DNA ligase IV/XRCC4 serves an important role in the replication cycle of herpes viruses and is likely to be required for the formation of the endless genomes early during productive infection.

  1. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  2. Alzheimer's disease: a pathogenetic autoimmune disorder caused by herpes simplex in a gene-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Carter, C J

    2010-12-29

    Herpes simplex is implicated in Alzheimer's disease and viral infection produces Alzheimer's disease like pathology in mice. The virus expresses proteins containing short contiguous amino acid stretches (5-9aa "vatches" = viralmatches) homologous to APOE4, clusterin, PICALM, and complement receptor 1, and to over 100 other gene products relevant to Alzheimer's disease, which are also homologous to proteins expressed by other pathogens implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Such homology, reiterated at the DNA level, suggests that gene association studies have been tracking infection, as well as identifying key genes, demonstrating a role for pathogens as causative agents. Vatches may interfere with the function of their human counterparts, acting as dummy ligands, decoy receptors, or via interactome interference. They are often immunogenic, and antibodies generated in response to infection may target their human counterparts, producing protein knockdown, or generating autoimmune responses that may kill the neurones in which the human homologue resides, a scenario supported by immune activation in Alzheimer's disease. These data may classify Alzheimer's disease as an autoimmune disorder created by pathogen mimicry of key Alzheimer's disease-related proteins. It may well be prevented by vaccination and regular pathogen detection and elimination, and perhaps stemmed by immunosuppression or antibody adsorption-related therapies.

  3. Herpes simplex keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Azher, Tayaba N; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Tajfirouz, Deena; Huang, Andrew Jw; Stuart, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is responsible for numerous ocular diseases, the most common of which is herpetic stromal keratitis. This is a recurrent infection of the cornea that typically begins with a subclinical infection of the cornea that establishes a latent infection of sensory ganglia, most often the trigeminal ganglia. Recurring infections occur when the virus is reactivated from latency and travels back to the cornea, where it restimulates an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can lead to decreased corneal sensation, scarring, and blindness. The diagnosis of these lesions as the result of a recurrent herpes simplex virus infection can at times be problematic. Currently, herpetic stromal keratitis is diagnosed by its clinical presentation on the slit-lamp examination, but the literature does not always support the accuracy of these clinical findings. Other diagnostic tests such as polymerase chain reaction assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody, and viral cultures have provided more definitive diagnosis, but also have some limitations. That said, accurate diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment, in order to prevent serious consequences. Current treatment reduces the severity of lesions and controls further viral spread, but does not provide a cure.

  4. Optimization Evaluation of Geometric Error Based on Correctional Simplex Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, P.; Zhang, L. N.; Zheng, H. D.; Chen, M. Y.

    2006-10-01

    This paper researches the theory of geometric error evaluation and its application. On the basis of the geometric model of error evaluation, the features of the geometric error enclosure evaluation are analyzed, and the paper has founded the linear programming model of minimum zone association, maximum inscribed association and minimum circumscribed association. By taking the minimum conditions criterion and the theory on minimizing the extremal difference function as rules of geometric error evaluation, a correctional simplex method for direct solution of the programming model is proposed, and also the process is given. Furthermore, the method is verified by giving an example of the cylindricity error evaluation and comparing the experiment results with the ones obtained from other common methods. In addition, this designed method is also used to other geometric error evaluation in practice. The theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that, the proposed correctional simplex method does provide well accuracy on geometric error evaluation. The outstanding advantages conclude not only high efficiency and stability but also good universality and practicality.

  5. Herpes simplex keratitis: challenges in diagnosis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Azher, Tayaba N; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Tajfirouz, Deena; Huang, Andrew JW; Stuart, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is responsible for numerous ocular diseases, the most common of which is herpetic stromal keratitis. This is a recurrent infection of the cornea that typically begins with a subclinical infection of the cornea that establishes a latent infection of sensory ganglia, most often the trigeminal ganglia. Recurring infections occur when the virus is reactivated from latency and travels back to the cornea, where it restimulates an inflammatory response. This inflammatory response can lead to decreased corneal sensation, scarring, and blindness. The diagnosis of these lesions as the result of a recurrent herpes simplex virus infection can at times be problematic. Currently, herpetic stromal keratitis is diagnosed by its clinical presentation on the slit-lamp examination, but the literature does not always support the accuracy of these clinical findings. Other diagnostic tests such as polymerase chain reaction assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescent antibody, and viral cultures have provided more definitive diagnosis, but also have some limitations. That said, accurate diagnosis is necessary for proper treatment, in order to prevent serious consequences. Current treatment reduces the severity of lesions and controls further viral spread, but does not provide a cure. PMID:28176902

  6. The role of cytokines in experimental herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Arrunategui-Correa, V; Baltatzis, S; Foster, C S

    1999-10-01

    Experimental corneal infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) resulted in 11-21 days in herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) in C.A1-20 but not C.B-17 strain of BALB/c Igh-1-disparate mice. Formation of mRNAs of various pro-inflammatory cytokines was analyzed in corneas and draining lymph nodes (LNs) of HSK-susceptible C.A1-20 and HSK-resistant C.B-17 mice following HSV-1 corneal inoculation by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. Transcripts for interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were expressed in LNs of susceptible but not resistant mice. The level of IL-6 expression in the cornea correlated with the severity of keratitis in susceptible mice, being evident at days 4 and 14 after virus inoculation and thus showing a biphasic response. Resistant mice did not develop HSK and did not express IL-6. The IL-1beta and IL-4 gene transcription began early (day 7) in the corneas of resistant mice and then ceased, while in the corneas of susceptible mice, it began later (day 11). Taken together, these results indicate that IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-7 participate in the local inflammatory response in HSK.

  7. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  8. Empiric acyclovir for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vanderpluym, Christina; Tawfik, Gerda; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Kellner, James; Robinson, Joan L

    2012-08-01

    Because neonatal herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infection is difficult to diagnose, there has been a move towards using more empiric acyclovir (ACV). The purpose of this study was to review the use of ACV to optimize future management of NHSV. Charts were reviewed for infants started on intravenous ACV up to day 43 of life--January 2001 through February 2007--at five hospitals in Edmonton and Calgary. ACV was started for possible (N = 115) or proven (N = 3) herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Six of the infants with possible HSV infection later had proven HSV infection. Seizures (34%), hemodynamic instability (29%) and skin lesions (24%) were the most common indications for ACV. Among the 118 infants, 106 (90%) had cerebrospinal fluid obtained and 82 (69%) had at least one surface swab for HSV but 4 (3%) had no specimens submitted for HSV detection. ACV was continued for 3.9 ± 3.5 days in the infants with no proven HSV disease. Possible nephrotoxicity from ACV was recorded in 3 of these 109 infants and in none of the infants with proven HSV disease. Clinicians in Alberta primarily consider the diagnosis of NHSV infection when confronted with a neonate with seizures, hemodynamic instability or suspicious skin lesions, but need to consider the diagnosis more often if all cases are to be treated at first presentation. They often perform incomplete investigations to rule out NHSV infection. Adverse events from ACV appear to be uncommon when the drug is used for suspected NHSV disease.

  9. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  10. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  11. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  12. Limb hypoplasia resulting from intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carola, D; Skibo, M; Cannon, S; Cam, K M; Hyde, P; Aghai, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Intrauterine infection with herpes simplex virus, although very rare, has devastating effects on multiple organ systems in the fetus and can lead to in utero fetal demise. Neonates born following intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection commonly manifest with cutaneous lesions, ocular damage and/or brain abnormalities. We describe the case of a dichorionic, diamniotic twin gestation complicated by intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection. This infection led to the fetal demise of twin A and a very uncommon presentation of limb hypoplasia in twin B.

  13. Comparative activity of penciclovir and acyclovir in mice infected intraperitoneally with herpes simplex virus type 1 SC16.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, D; Boyd, M R

    1993-01-01

    Penciclovir [PCV; 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl)guanine; BRL 39123] is a potent and selective inhibitor of herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus in human cell culture. We have compared the activities of PCV and acyclovir (ACV) in DBA/2 mice infected intraperitoneally with herpes simplex virus type 1 SC16 by measuring the amount of virus in peritoneal washings. In untreated mice after an eclipse phase, virus titers are maximum at 48 h after infection and decline thereafter. PCV and ACV reduced virus replication to a similar extent when given ad libitum in drinking water, even though ACV had better oral bioavailability and greater potency in murine cells. Thus, PCV was more active than had been predicted. In dose-response experiments, PCV given as a single subcutaneous dose 24 h after infection was active at a 10-fold-lower dose than ACV (P < 0.01). A single subcutaneous dose of PCV at 5 h after infection prevented virus replication for 3 days and was more effective than three doses of ACV given 1, 5, and 20 h after infection (P < 0.05). The superior activity of PCV following discrete dosing is not due to pharmacokinetic differences but is probably a reflection of the known stability of the intracellular triphosphate. In this model, the maintenance of high concentrations in blood is less important for PCV than for ACV and may lead to less-frequent doses in clinical use. Images PMID:8388195

  14. The challenges and opportunities for the development of a T-cell epitope-based herpes simplex vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-11-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infections have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a billion individuals worldwide. HSV-1 infections are predominant than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries, their development has been difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One "common denominator" among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or a whole viral protein, which contain both "pathogenic symptomatic" and "protective asymptomatic" antigens and epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate developing "asymptomatic" epitope-based sub-unit vaccine strategies that selectively incorporate "protective asymptomatic" epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized by effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (TEM cells) from "naturally" protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models of ocular and genital herpes. We review the role of animal models in herpes vaccine development and discuss their current status, challenges, and prospects.

  15. Anisakis simplex complex: ecological significance of recombinant genotypes in an allopatric area of the Adriatic Sea inferred by genome-derived simple sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Trumbić, Željka; Radonić, Ivana; Vrbatović, Anamarija; Hrabar, Jerko; Bušelić, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    The genus Anisakis includes nine species which, due to close morphological resemblance even in the adult stage, have previously caused many issues in their correct identification. Recently observed interspecific hybridisation in sympatric areas of two closely related species, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, has raised concerns whether a F1 hybrid generation is capable of overriding the breeding barrier, potentially giving rise to more resistant/pathogenic strains infecting humans. To assess the ecological significance of anisakid genotypes in the Adriatic Sea, an allopatric area for the two above-mentioned species, we analysed data from PCR-RFLP genotyping of the ITS region and the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2) mtDNA locus to discern the parental genotype and maternal haplotype of the individuals. Furthermore, using in silico genome-wide screening of the A. simplex database for polymorphic simple sequence repeats or microsatellites in non-coding regions, we randomly selected potentially informative loci that were tested and optimised for multiplex PCR. The first panel of microsatellites developed for Anisakis was shown to be highly polymorphic, sensitive and amplified in both A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. It was used to inspect genetic differentiation of individuals showing mito-nuclear mosaicism which is characteristic for both species. The observed low level of intergroup heterozygosity suggests that existing mosaicism is likely a retention of an ancestral polymorphism rather than a recent recombination event. This is also supported by allopatry of pure A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii in the geographical area under study.

  16. Herpes simplex virus type-selective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with Helix pomatia lectin-purified antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Svennerholm, B; Olofsson, S; Jeansson, S; Vahlne, A; Lycke, E

    1984-01-01

    Helix pomatia lectin-purified antigens with specific reactivity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies in human sera were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The type specificity of the antigens was assessed by double immunodiffusion precipitation in gel against rabbit HSV-1 and HSV-2 hyperimmune sera, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with human reference sera containing antibodies to either type of HSV. Fifty-two sera from patients with documented infection with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 were assayed for HSV type-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. The reactivity of the sera against lectin-purified antigens correlated completely with the results of virus typing. We conclude that HSV type-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies can easily be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the use of Helix pomatia lectin-purified HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens. Images PMID:6321548

  17. Haemoglobin, a new major allergen of Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Juan; Daschner, Alvaro; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L; Frutos, Consolación De; Valls, Ana; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-allergic anisakiasis and Anisakis sensitisation associated chronic urticaria are diseases which differ in their IgE and IgG4 responses against both crude extract and specific allergens. Anisakis and Ascaris are closely related nematodes that usually cause problems with specificity in immunodiagnostics. In this study we measured IgE and IgG4 antibodies against Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s. l.) and Ascaris suum haemoglobins in sera of 21 gastro-allergic anisakiasis and 23 chronic urticaria patients. We used a capture ELISA with the anti-Anisakis haemoglobin monoclonal antibody 4E8g, which also recognises Ascaris haemoglobin. In addition, we determined specific IgE and IgG4 to both nematodes by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. Anti-A. simplex s. l. haemoglobin IgE and IgG4 levels were higher in gastro-allergic anisakiasis than in chronic urticaria patients (P=0.002 and 0.026, respectively). Surprisingly, no patient had detectable IgE levels against A. suum haemoglobin. Finally, we carried out an in silico study of the B-cell epitopes of both haemoglobin molecules. Five epitopes were predicted in Anisakis pegreffii and four in A. suum haemoglobin. The epitope propensity values of Anisakis haemoglobin in the equivalent IgE binding region of the allergenic haemoglobin Chi t 1 from Chironomus thummi, were higher those of the Ascaris haemoglobin. In conclusion, we describe A. simplex haemoglobin as a new major allergen (Ani s 13), being recognised by a large number (64.3%) of sensitised patients and up to 80.9% in patients with gastro-allergic anisakiasis. The presence of a specific epitope and the different values of epitope propensity between Anisakis and Ascaris haemoglobin could explain the lack of cross-reactivity between the two molecules. The absence of IgE reactivity to Ascaris haemoglobin in Anisakis patients makes Anisakis haemoglobin (Ani s 13) a potential candidate for developing more specific diagnosis tools. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for

  18. Binding site and subclass specificity of the herpes simplex virus type 1-induced Fc receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Wiger, D; Michaelsen, T E

    1985-01-01

    Immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity was detected by indirect immunofluorescence employing fluorochrome conjugated F(ab')2 antibody fragments on acetone-fixed cell cultures infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Using this method the Fc receptor-like activity seemed to be restricted to the IgG class of human immunoglobulins. While IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 myeloma proteins bind to this putative Fc gamma receptor at a concentration of 0.002 mg/ml, IgG3 myeloma proteins were without activity at 0.1 mg/ml. The binding activity was associated with the Fc fragments of IgG, while the pFc' fragments of IgG appeared to be unable to bind in this assay system. The reactivity and specificity of the HSV-1 Fc receptor was independent of both the type of tissue culture cells used and the strain of HSV-1 inducing the Fc receptor-like activity. The HSV-1-induced Fc receptor has a similar specificity for human immunoglobulin class and subclasses as staphylococcal Protein A. However, these two Fc receptors exhibit at least one striking difference. The IgG3 G3m(st) protein which binds to Protein A does not bind to HSV-1-induced Fc receptor. A possible reaction site for the HSV-1 Fc receptor on IgG could be at or near Asp 276. Images Figure 1 PMID:2982735

  19. Transient fasting enhances replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Esaki, Shinichi; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Short-term nutritional restriction (fasting) has been shown to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy by sensitizing cancer cells and protecting normal cells in a variety of cancer models, including glioblastoma (GBM). Cancer cells, unlike normal cells, respond to fasting by promoting oncogenic signaling and protein synthesis. We hypothesized that fasting would increase the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) in GBM. Patient-derived GBM cell lines were fasted by growth in glucose and fetal calf serum restricted culture medium. "Transient fasting", 24-hour fasting followed by 24-hour recovery in complete medium, increased late virus gene expression and G47Δ yields about 2-fold in GBM cells, but not in human astrocytes, and enhanced G47Δ killing of GBM cells. Mechanistically, "transient fasting" suppressed phosphorylation of the subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in GBM cells, but not in astrocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK also increased G47Δ yield. In vivo, transient fasting (48-hour food restriction and 24-hour recovery) doubled luciferase activity after intratumoral G47Δ-US11fluc injection into orthotopic GBM xenografts. Thus, "transient fasting" increases G47Δ replication and oncolytic activity in human GBM cells. These results suggest that "transient fasting" may be effectively combined to enhance oncolytic HSV therapy of GBM.

  20. Detection and typing of herpes simplex viruses by using recombinant immunoglobulin fragments produced in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, P; Rossolini, G M; Cresti, S; Santangelo, R; Burton, D R; Williamson, R A; Sanna, P P; Fadda, G

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial clones producing human recombinant monoclonal antibody Fab fragments (rFabs) reactive to herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens were selected from a human combinatorial antibody library constructed in a phage-display vector by a panning procedure against an HSV lysate. Thirty-four of the HSV-specific rFabs were able to specifically recognize HSV-infected cells in indirect immunofluorescence (IF) assays; of these, 25 recognized cells infected by either HSV type 1 (HSV-1) or HSV-2, while 9 recognized only HSV-1-infected cells. One HSV type-common rFab (rFab H37) and one HSV-1-specific rFab (rFab H85) were further evaluated as reagents for viral detection and typing by IF staining in 134 HSV-positive (72 HSV-1 and 62 HSV-2) viral cultures from clinical specimens. The results obtained with these two rFabs were fully consistent with those obtained with a commercial preparation of fluorescein-labeled anti-HSV type-specific murine monoclonal antibodies. The detection sensitivity with the type-common rFab in indirect IF assays was higher overall than that provided by the type-specific murine monoclonal antibodies. Preparations of rFabs suitable for IF staining can be easily and inexpensively obtained in a clinical microbiology laboratory from Escherichia coli cultures. Similar HSV-specific rFabs, therefore, could be advantageous for in vitro diagnostic purposes. PMID:9163470